You are on page 1of 22

AMENDMENT OF

EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

CHAPTER II
SCOPING
2.1. Project Description
2.1.1. The Status of EIA Document
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study of Wamena-Habema-Kenyam
road construction project was prepared in order to meet environmental feasibility
which regulated by Indonesian Government standard. The study was prepared
following to the completion of projectfeasibility study and engineering design.
According to Public Work Ministry Decree no. 567/KPTS/M/2010, the road project is
classified to Strategic National Road. The road project extends for 147 km length
and traverse Lorentz National Park. Considering the field condition, the road length
covered in this (EIA) study extended to 156 km length (from Km 54.00 to Km
210.00).
In decree no. S.258/Menhut-IV/2012, the Indonesian Forestry Ministry issued
permission for the construction of Wamena-Hebema-Kenyam road, but since the
project

traverse

Lorentz

National

Park,

the

planning

design

should

be

complemented with EIA document in order to minimize the environmental impact


especially within the vulnerable area.
The approval of Wamena-Hebema-Kenyam road project also provided by Papua
Local Government who issued decree no. 050/5426/SET in 6 December 2012 about
Recommendation of

Wamena-Hebema-KenyamRoad Construction Project which

traverse Lorentz National Park.


2.1.2. The Suitability of Project Planning with Spatial Planning
Nduga is an expansion regency from Jayawijaya that was established by Local
Regulation no. 23/2013 about Spatial Zoning Planning of Papua Province.

II-1

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Spatial utilization of a region was set up according to its purpose those are
protected purpose, cultivation purpose. Basically both purposes are in accord, since
the establishment of protected region is intended to preserve cultivation region in
order to provide basic needs for human, directly and indirectly.

II-2

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Fig. 2.1. Map Location of Wamena-Hebema-Kenyam Road Construction Project (final version)

II-3

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

2.1.3. Description of Project Activities


Pre Construction
1. Public Dissemination
2. Survey & Measurement

Construction
1. Worker mobilization and basecamp operational
2. Mobilization of equipment and material
3. Land preparation :
- Land clearing.
- Land stripping.
4. Earthwork (Excavation, Embankment, Compaction)
5. Structural work of road and bridge

Post Construction
Road service
Road maintenance
Fig. 2.2. Project stages of Wamena-Hebema-Kenyam road project prepared by Balai
Besar Pelaksanaan Jalan Nasional X Papua
The following paragraph describe project potential impacts, particularly the
environmental impacts :
1) Pre Construction Stages
1. Public Dissemination
The activity is intended to disseminate project plan and affected land along the
156 km road project within Lorentz National Park. Forestry Ministry Decree no.
S.258/Menhut-IV/2012 about Permission of Wamena-Habema-Yaguru-Kenyam
road project which traverse Lorentz National Park, in point C stated the project
shall be completed with EIA study.

II-4

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Project Dissemination Activities


Project disseminationactivities are :
-

Coordination meeting with related agency


Information dissemination related to project activities
Measurement within project location
Evaluation of land surveying data
Discussion of evaluation outcome
Public dissemination

2. Land Surveying and Measurement


The initial stage of land surveying was selecting the road route by considering
number of aspects such as:

engineering aspects : road length, road shoulder, bridge, box culvert,

topography, subgrade soil condition


affected utility and supported subgrade
environmental aspects : land acquisition, vulnerable area-Lorentz National

Park, air pollution, noise


financial feasibility and project cost.

The assessed route in Fig 2.1. is the most viability route that considering number of
aspects, including environmental aspects in order to minimize negative impact.
2) Construction Stage
The engineering design specified route length for 156 km and width of right of
way (ROW) for 11 m. The 11m right of way consist of 6m width of roadway, 1m
width of ditch on each road side and 1,5m width of road shoulder on each side.
Fig. 2.3 and table 2.1.show design specification.

Pavement
Ditch
Shoulder

II-5

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

1 m 1,5 m

6,0 m

1,5 m 1 m

Fig. 2.3 Cross section Wamena-Habema-Kenyam road project


Source :Jayawijaya Road Engineering Planning, 2012
The activity during construction stage are : worker mobilization and base camp
operation, equipment and material mobilization, land preparation comprise of
land clearing and ground leveling , earth work comprise of cut and fill, sub grade
compaction, structural work comprise of construction of road and bridge.
Table 2.1 Design specification of Wamena-Habema-Kenyam road project
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Uraian
Rencana
Route length
156km
Speed design
80 km / jam
No. of Roadway
1 x 2 lajur
Roadway Width
6,00m
Shoulder Width
1,5 m
Ditch width
1m
Median width
Transverse roadway slope
2%
Transverse shoulder slope
4%
Maximum super elevation
5%
ROW width
11 m
Pavement
Aspal
Source :Jayawijaya Road Engineering Planning, 2012
(ROW Plan Drawing Design), PT. Wesitan 2011

Activities description during construction stage as follow :


1. Worker Mobilization and Base camp Operational
a. Worker Mobilization
The involved workers in this project are110 people which estimated
according to number of workers for the similar project.

II-6

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Contractor

will

undertake

worker

recruitment

and

mobilization.

The

recruitment process that consider job requirement will carry out in open
mechanism procedure and provide priority to local worker in the intention of
preventing social problems. Table 2.2 shows job qualification and number of
workers according to similar project.

No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11
.
12.
13
.
14.
15
.
16.
17
18
19

Jenis Tenaga Kerja

Jumlah
(orang

General superintendent
Site engineer
Team Leader
Bridge engineer
Assistant of Bridge engineer
Road engineer
Assistant of Road engineer
Geodetic engineer
Assistant of Geodetic engineer
Engineering staff
Draftman

1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1

Estimator/quantitiy engineer
Project administrator and laboratorium
technician
Administration and finance
Logistic

1
2

Equipment and maintanence staff


Security
Heavy equipment operator and driver
Worker

1
4
6
75
110

Jumlah tenaga kerja

2
1

Source : Consultant Estimation, 2012


b. Base camp Operational
Prior to construction activities, the contractor will prepare base camp in the
vicinity of project location. Base camp is assembledfrom non permanent
material and shall demolish after project completion.
2. Mobilization of Equipment and Material

II-7

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Prior to mobilize material, contractor shall undertake coordination

with

transportation agency (Dinas Perhubungan) in order to minimize traffic


disruption.
Road construction material are aggregate A and B, sand, cement, earth fill,
crushed stone, concrete steel and other materials indesign specification. Material
supply will be provided by local supplier and distributor such as quarry for
aggregate A and B.
The required equipment in this project are : Excavator, cutting machine,
compresor, pick up, dump truck, water/full tank truck generator set, wheel
loader, compactor, stoom walls, motor grader, concrte pump dan concrete
vibrator.
3. Land Preparation
Activities include in land preparation are :
-

Land clearing
Land stripping

Project area, particularly area for right of way, shall be cleared from root
plants.
During land clearing, plant and stripped top soil temporarily deposit along
road side before transport to final disposal area. The disposal area, which
considering volume of waste, will determine later.
4. Earth Work (Excavation, Embankment and Compaction)
The earth work has intention to form design level. Slope and elevation in
drawing design shall be referencedduringthis work.
Activities include in excavation work areresidual disposal. Activities include
inembankment arematerial supply, material transport, materialoverlay, and
soil compaction.
5. Structural Work (Road and Bridge)

II-8

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Structural works consist of bridge foundation, roadway and shoulder


pavement.
a. Bridge Foundation
Bridges erects on crossing location between route plan and river. Bridges
within this project have spanmore than 10m.
b. Bridge Structure
Bridge structure is divided into upper structure and lower structure.
-

LOWER STRUCTURE
Aspects including in selecting lower structureare route type (road, river,
railway),

land

acquisition,

erectability,

width

of

upper

structure,

construction cost and aesthetics. Lower structure closely related to


foundation but not similar so that it will be discussed further in this
section.
Lower structure is designed to support upper structure. Lower structures
height depends on horizontal and vertical alignment in order to meet free
board on design standard. Pier and abutment placement shall comply with
standard configuration in order to protect road or surrounding structure.
The lower structure of Wamena-Habema-Kenyam bridge was designed by
cantilever methodwhich adjusted by embankment height behind the
bridge. The pier was designed by wall type which considering several
aspects ie limited median widththerefore maximum pier diameter is 1
meter, simplicity of erection work, low cost and aesthetics performance.
According to Geometric Design Standard for Urban Road from Binamarga
(1992), the minimum free boardabove road pavement is 5,1 m. The
minimum freeboardabove flood water level for 50 year return period 1 m,
refer to Indonesian National Standard (SNI) no. 1724 year 1989.
Bridge structure, which design specification described above, will connect
route- main stream crossing while small stream crossing will connect by
box culvert.

II-9

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

UPPER STRUCTURE
There

are

type

of

upper

structure

in

the

Wamena-Habema-

Kenyamdesign, those are Prestressed Concrete (PC) U Grider and PC I


Grider. Each type has different erection method, which in common
usingareerection grider (spanby lifting), support truss, foamtraveller,
crane, cable yard.
Several aspects ; such as cost, erectability, environmental impact and
time schedule ; areconsidered in selecting the upper structure erection
method.
c. Road And Bridge Construction
The road designed with flexible pavement with 11 m ROW width as described
on section 2.1.3. point B. The structure of flexible pavementcomprise of sub
grade, sub base, base coarse, surface course, bituminous prime coat,
bituminous tack coat.
-

Sub Grade is undisturbed ground level or compacted leveling ground level


which performed as base layer in order to support upper structure. Road
strength and endurance depend on sub base support indicated by CBR

number. In the design, embankment soil shall have CBR for 10%.
Sub base is a layer with coarse material grade A. In this project, sub base
CBR number is defined for 70% with considering material availability on

site.
Base coarse is a layer using crushed stone grade A material with CBR

number for 100%.


Surface coarse is anasphalt layer
Bituminuous prime coat, works include to this layer are base coarse
clearing and asphalt spraying. The amount of spraying asphalt is 0,9 2,5

kg/m2 or to be defined later by Supervision Consultant


Bituminous tack coat : work include in this layer is asphalt spraying on
prime coat layer for 0,4-0,8 kg/m2 or to be defined later by Supervision

consultant or detailed in general specification.


Slope protection in vulnerable area and peat area along the route
withappropriate and eco-friendly structure

II-10

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Installment of box culvert on peat area in order to provide flow path for

seepage water to Lake Habema


C. Post Construction Stage (Operational Stage)
Activities during post construction stage are road service/ road operational
and road maintenance. Initial road service operational indicated by traffic
while Activities include in maintanence comprise of :
-

Maintenance of pavement and drainage


Maintenance of bridge and road supporting structure
Handling of landslide and soil erosion handling
Demolition of base camp and other supporting

building

during

construction period
2.2.
Description of Initial Condition
A. Physical and Chemical Components
1. Micro Climate
Wamena Climate and Geophysics Agency reported average temperature in
Jayawijaya regency in 2011 is 19,82C with minimum temperature 13C and
maximum temperature 28,5C (BPS Papua Province, 2012) as shown in table
2.4 below. Compare to a year before, the temperature in 2011 was increasing
because of global warming.
Table 2.4. Average Temperature and Relative Humidity per Month

II-11

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

In 2011, the relative humidity in Jayawijaya Regencyy is reported 76,92% and


the air pressure ranging from 832 mb to 835 mb.
Yearly rainfall intensity in Jayawijya are varies. Table 2.3. shows monthly
rainfall intensity in 2011 with maximum intensity is 263,2 mm in March and
minimum intensity is 122,3 mm in August.
Table 2.3. Average Monthly Rainfall and Number of Rainy Day in Jayawijaya
Regency in 2011
(Statistic Bureau of Papua Province,2012)

Jayawijaya has high rainfall intensity because of its mountainous topography.


Seasons periodare difficult to distinguish in certainty. Maximum rainfall
intensity 391,1 mm occurred in 2003 and minimum intensity 249,4 mm

II-12

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

occurred in 2011. Yearly rainfall data from Y2003-2011 as shown in fig. 2.4
below.

Fig. 2.4. Yearly Rainfall Data from Wamena Climate and Geophysics Agency
(Statistic Bureau of Papua Province,2012)
Nduga Regency. Climate and Geophysics Agency Region VJayapura,
Wamena Distrct reported in 2011 average temperature in Nduga Regency
during Y2008 is 20C to 33C with average humidity 82%-83%. The average
of monthly rainfall in 2008 is 233,1 mm with maximum intensity 525,6 mm
occurred in March and minimum intensity 217 mm occurred in December.
Average wind velocity in Nduga Regency was reported 2 - 4,5 knot/hour. The
topographical condition is resulting uncertain season period. Ndugasclimate
is classified as tropics and sub tropics affected by geographical location and
undulating topographical condition. The topography condition is varies, from
lowland at 200 500 ASL (above sea level) located in Kenyam Regency and
Gearek Regencyto highland at 500 3000 ASL located in Mapenduma
Regency, Mbua Regency, Yigi Regency, Mugi Regency, Geselma Regency and
Wosak

Regency.

Latest

average

II-13

temperature

data

is

not

available.

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Temperature data in Appendix was reported in 2008by Wamena Meteorogical


Station.
2. Hydrology
Hydrologic condition in Jayawijaya and Nduga Regency is affected by
numbers of catchment area, topography and geomorphology. The selected
route of Wamena-Habema-Kenyam is within 3 catchment areas, those are
downstream Baliem, central Baliem and Nordwest. Rivers within project
location flow from south to north direction.
Those rivers are classified as rapid velocity which highly reactive to erosion in
upstream and sedimentation in downstream. The river flow pattern is trellis
and sub dendritic which flows intermittently and permanently along the year.
Commonly the river flows to the direction of Baliem Valley. Table 2.4. shows
name of river in project study and its condition.
Table 2.4. Name of rivers within project study
No

Kabupate

n
Jayawijay

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

a
Nduga

Distrik

Nama Sungai

Lokasi

pada

trase

jalan

Mbuai
Yigi
Mugi
Paro

Kenyam

Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai
Sungai

Dal
Ekilapo
Yigi
Kroptak
Keanik
Yigidlera
Paro
Yigi
Loe
Min
Kenyam

88+950

105+550
107+350
116+50
150+200
154+150
157+200
158+900
173+300
199+550
206+950

B. Topography
Papua has undulating topography, from highland area with tropical rainforest,
meadow , valley to lowland area. Central of Papua is mountainous area with
mountain range along 650 km. Jayawiyaja is well known mountainous area, it
has 3 mountains with highest peak which its peak always covered with

II-14

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

eternal snow along the year. Those 3 peak are Jayawijaya Peak at 5.030 m
(15.090 ft) ASL , Trikora Peak at 5.160 m (15.480 ft) ASL and Yamin Peak at
5.100 (15.300 ft) ASL.
The capital city of Jayawijaya Regency is Wamena,geographically its located
on 13830-13940 east longitude and 345 - 420 south latitude.
Jayawijaya regencyis bordering with othersregency :
-

north side : Center Mamberamo, Yalimo and Tolikara Regency in north side
south side : Nduga and Yahukimo Regency
west side : Nduga and Lanny Jaya Regency
east side : Yahukimo and Yalimo Regency

Total area of Jayawijaya regency is 8,496 km2 which the area divided into 11
district : Wamena, Asolokobal, Walelagama, Hubikosi, Pelebaga, Asologaima,
Musatfak, Kurulu, Bolakme, Wollo and Yalengga. Kurulu is the widest
district(15.54% of total area) while Wollo is the narrowest district (7.42% of
total area). Bolakme is the farthest district from Wamena City (46 km) while
Asolokobal and Pelebaga is the nearest district (9 km).
The capital city of Nduga Regency is Kenyam, geographically it is located on
137.45 (Belagong) 139.5 (Wosimo) east longitude and 4 (Kemalembut)
4.5 (Kampung Tua) south latitude. Total area of the regency is 12,941 km2,
approximately 4.08% of Papua Province area. Nduga Regency is bordering
with other district and regencies :
-

north side : Kuyawage, Balingga, Pirime, Makki district (Lanny Jaya

Regency) and Agandugume sub regency (Puncak Regency)


south side : Sawaerma district (Asmat Regency)
east side : Pelebaga district (Yahukimo Regency) and Wamena district

(Jayawijaya Regency)
west side : Jila and Agimuga district (Mimika Regency)

Nduga is divided into 8 district, those are : Kenyam, Wosak, Gearek,


Mapenduma, Geselma, Mugi, Yigi, Mbua. Kenyam is the widest district
(26.21% of total area) and Mbua is the narrowest district (6.55% of total
area). Nduga has undulating topography, from lowland to mountainous area

II-15

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

with elevation range from 200-3000 m ASL. According to land slope, Nduga
area is divided into 3 groups :
-

0-15% slope with total area 1,386 km2


15-40% slope with total area 768.4 km2
>40% slope with total area 1,152.6 km2.

Due to topographic condition as described above, 37.65% Nduga regency is


potential for cultivation area such as agricultural, farm, plantation and fishery.
80% area of Nduga Regency is located in the Lorentz National Park. The park
has 3 purpose ie conservation area, conversion area and wildlife reservation.

II-16

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Fig. 2.6. Topographic Map of Papua

II-17

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

C. Geology
Based on the Geological Map Wamena region, Irian Jaya (Sukanta U., et al,
1995 P3G Bandung), geological condition of study area was formed by rocks
from pre-Tertiary age (Ordovician) to Teriser End (Pliocene) age or 500 million
years to 1.5 million years rock aged.
The oldest rocksfromOrdovician age were formed by rocks classified in Tuaba
Formation which consists of siltstone and mudstone altered. The rock is very
sturdy with several quartz veins that fill the cracks. Angular folds are
common. The youngest rocks were formed by rock in Buru Formation. Rock
on Buru Formation was formed by sandstone and mudstone, gray, wellpadded and carbonaceous. This unit is cris cros withmikritlimestonelayer
whichmore solid to upward direction.
Between these two rocks formations there are other sedimentary rock
formations, according to age order from the old one to the new one: Tuaba
Formation - Dolomite Modio - Aiduna Formation TipumaFormation Kembelangan Group - Group of New Guinea Limestone Waripi Formation
Buru Formation. (Refer to geology map on the project location)
c.1. Structure and Tectonics
c.2. Mineral Resource

II-18

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Fig. 2.7. Geological map in project study

II-19

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

C.3. Route Plan and Potential Problems due to Geological Instability


One of geological condition that affects road instability is bed rock
compaction. Uncompact bed rock is potentially triggered subsidence or
landslide.
Geological map in fig. 2.7. shows that route plan is located on fault zone.
Fault zone is a crushed zone which formed by geological process that
resulting fault lane in the intersected rock. The road corridors which intersect
with fault zone are described below.
C.3.1. Corridor KM 70+00 Km 110
This corridor is located within fault zone which extending from Yigi to Mbua.
The evolving fault is reverse fault that intersect rock from Kambelangan
Formation. Kambelangan Formation is formed by mud stone and sand stone
where mudstone is easily to shrink and expand particulary when rain water is
infiltrated. This condition will trigger road structure instability.
C.3.2. Route Plan in Mugi and Corridor KM 130+00
Around Mugi, there are horizontal fault that strectching from northeast to
southwest. These faults intersect with bed rock from Aiduna Formation. Aiduna
Formation is formed by sand stone, mud stone and lime stone.
C.3.3. Corridor KM 165+00 Km 211+300
In this corridor, reverse fault isoften found which possible in forming crushed
zone along corridor KM 165+00 Km 211+300.
Those faults intersect with various bed rock such as Aiduna Formation,
Kambelangan Groups, Buru Formation and Batugamping Niugini Groups Waripi
Formation. The last group is the sturdiest rock formation compare to others
which commonly formed by mudstone and sand stone. The corridor which
intersect Burua and Aiduna Formation and Kambelangan Group need to be
aware.

II-20

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

Fig. 2.8. Map of Route Plan and Geological Condition

II-21

AMENDMENT OF
EIA FRAMEWORK STUDY

D. Potential Area
1. Conservation Area
Tabel 2.5. Conservation area in Papua
N
Kawasan
o.
Terrestrial Conservation
1
Terrestrial
Conservation
area
2
Terrestrial wildlife
reserve
3
Terrestrial National Park
4
Terrestrial Natural Park
Total Area of Terrestrial
Conservation
Marine Conservation
1
Marine conservation area
2
Marine wildlife reserve
3
Marine National Park
4
Marine Natural Park
Total Area of Marine
Conservation

Luas Kawasan
(Ha)
1.785.859
3.547.036
3.079.169
35.388
8.447.451

32.023
132.502
1.322.920
81.643
1.569.088

Area distribution of conservation zone in Papua is unequal since the zone was
determined by ecological consideration not administrative boundaries. Every
regencies

have

different

ecological

characteristic,

therefore

some

of

thembelongswide conservation area whilethe other is not. 18 of 29 regencies


in Papua belongs conservation zone with different size of area. Boven Digoel
and Mappi are those two regencies without conservation zone.
Forest area that established as conservation zone is 3,350,001.73 Ha. Those
conservation zone are located in 26 site with different size of area and
different groups of protected function. In Papua conservation zone is divided
into 4 type : conservation area, wildlife reserve, national park and natural
park.

II-22