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10-06-2014

Chapter title

FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE

By Bert van Gent

Dredging and Marine Contractors


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Dredging?

Dredging and Marine Contractors


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Double production!

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Equipment
Breakdown of the dredging process
Overview of dredgers
Cutter suction dredger
Trailing suction hopper dredger
Backhoe dredger
Grab dredger
Other equipment
Environmental dredgers

Dredging and Marine Contractors


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Breakdown of the Dredging Process


1. Loosening the material (and/or dislodging)
2. Picking up the loosened material
3. Transport
through the primary dredger
further transport

4. Disposal of the material


under water
on shore

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Means to realise the partial processes


Hydraulic (erosion, discharge pipe, etc.)
Mechanical (cutter, conveyor belt, etc.)
Remark
The different sub-processes may require different types of
dredging equipment

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Overview of dredgers

1. Hydraulic/mechanical dredgers (CSD)


2. Hydraulic dredgers (TSHD)
3. Mechanical dredgers (Backhoe, Grab)
4. Environmental dredgers

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Hydraulic/Mechanical Dredgers
Cutter Suction Dredger (CSD)

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Cutter Suction Dredgers


Cutter power

Small < 600 kW

Large, 1500-3000 kW

Mid-size, 600-1500 kW

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Cutter Suction Dredgers


Cutter power

Heavy Duty, 3000-5500 kW

Mega, 5500-7500 kW

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Cutter Suction Dredgers

Main characteristics

Most important parts of the dredger

Working principle

Production limiting factors

Some characteristic figures

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Cutter Suction Dredgers


Main characteristics

Nearly all kinds of soils (sand, clay, rock)

Stationary dredger:
vulnerable to shipping
sensitive to wave conditions

Some are self-propelled for mobilisation

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Cutter Suction Dredgers - Parts

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Cutter Suction Dredgers


Most important parts, machinery
Cutter head and cutter drive
Dredge pump(s)
(Side-) Winches and sheaves for the side
wires for swinging

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Cutter Suction Dredgers


Working principle
Cutter disintegrates or dislodges the material
mechanically by rotating cutter head
Material sucked up and transported through pipeline
by use of centrifugal dredge pumps
Pontoon movement by:
- swinging around working spud
- progress by successive steps (stepping)
and spuds (spudding)

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CSD WORK METHOD (1)

Swing
to SB

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CSD WORK METHOD (2)


Stop at SB,
Push
dredger
forward

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CSD WORK METHOD (3)

Start swing
to PS

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CSD WORK METHOD (4)

Continue
swing
to PS

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CSD WORK METHOD (5)

Stop at PS,
Push dredger
forward

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CSD WORK METHOD (6)

Start
swing to
SB

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CSD WORK METHOD (7)

Stop in
Centre Line

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CSD WORK METHOD (8)

Aux. spud
down

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CSD WORK METHOD (9)

Main spud
up

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CSD WORK METHOD (10)

Main spud

forward

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CSD WORK METHOD (11)

Main spud
down

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CSD WORK METHOD (12)

Aux. spud
up

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CSD WORK METHOD (13)

Start
swing
to SB

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CSD WORK METHOD (14)

Continue
swing
to SB

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Cutter Suction Dredger


Process topics
Over-cutting versus under-cutting
Spill
Cutter heads
Anchors

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Cutter Suction Dredger

undercutting

overcutting

spillage
(cutting deeper than design level)
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Cutter Suction Dredger


Cutter head
Back ring - arms - hub
Blades - teeth: chisels / pick points

Cutter with chisels

Various shapes

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Contractors
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Marine
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Cutter Suction Dredger

Sand/clay cutter head


Rock cutter head
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Cutter Suction Dredger


Anchors
Depending on soil type

Flipper Delta

Stevshark

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Cutter Suction Dredger


Anchors
Anchor islands

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Cutter Suction Dredger


Production limiting factors
Soil characteristics
Available power on cutter
Side winches (max. power and velocity)
Thickness and width of the layer to be dredged
Dredging depth (ladder angle, spuds, cavitation)
Pumping distance
(pump- and pump drive characteristics)
Shipping
Waves and currents
Dirt and debris

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Cutter Suction Dredger


Characteristic Figures
cutter suction dredger

small

mid-size

large

dimensions
(L*W*Dr)

65 * 10 * 2 m

70 * 16 * 4 m

120 * 20 * 5 m

total power

< 3,000 kW

< 9,000 kW

< 13,000 kW

cutter power

< 600 kW

< 1,500 kW

< 3,000 kW

max. swing speed

19 m / min

32 m / min

32 m / min

max. dredging depth

15-20 m

25 m

25 - 30 m

discharge diameter

0.35 - 0.70 m

0.65 - 0.85 m

0.75 - 0.85 m

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Cutter Suction Dredger


Characteristic Figures
cutter suction dredger

heavy duty

mega

dimensions
(L*W*Dr)

125 * 22 * 5 m

140 * 24 * 6.5 m

total power

< 23,000 kW

< 28,000 kW

cutter power

< 5,500 kW

< 7,000 kW

max. swing speed

32 m / min

32 m / min

max. dredging depth

25 - 35 m

30 - 35 m

discharge diameter

0.80 - 0.90 m

0.90 - 1.00 m

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Cutter Suction Dredger

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Hydraulic Dredgers
Suction dredgers

Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger (TSHD)

Plain suction dredger

Barge unloading dredger

Water Injection Dredger (WID)

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger

Small, 4000 m3

Mid-Size 8,800 m3

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Large 13,500 m3
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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger

Jumbo 18,000 22,000m3

Mega 37,000 m3
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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Main characteristics
Most important parts of the dredger
Process description
Production limiting factors
Some characteristic figures

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Main characteristics

Free sailing

Self-propelled

Self-loading when trailing

Self-unloading or -discharging

Seagoing or inland waterway vessel

All soils (also weak rock!)

Relatively insensitive for waves

Not vulnerable for shipping

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


wheel house

swell compensator

service
crane

propulsion
engine room

hopper

suction pipe

draghead
- 70m

pump room

bow-coupling for
pumping ashore or
rainbowing

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Most important parts
Dragheads
Dredge pump(s)
Hopper, loading and unloading system

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TSHD Process Description


Dredging cycle
Loading at the dredging- or sand borrow area
Sailing (loaded) to the unloading area
Unloading (dumping or pumping)
Sailing (empty) to the dredging area

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TSHD Process Description


Excavation (Erosion & Cutting)

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TSHD Process Description


Suction

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TSHD Process Description


Loading

Loading (overflow)

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TSHD Process Description


Loading: Basic Principle
Top view hopper

Longitudinal section

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TSHD Process Description


Full Load: Basic Principle
Top view hopper

Longitudinal section

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Text (full)

Hopper loading (mud)

Total Volume [m3]


Max. volume

Draught [m] (=tons)


Max.
draught

Mud [m3]

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Text (full)

Hopper loading (sand)

Total Volume [m3]


Max.`volume

Draught [m] (=tons)


Max.
draught
Sand [m3]
Overflow losses

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TSHD Process Description


Sailing loaded

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TSHD Process Description


Discharge

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TSHD Process Description


Hopper Self-discharge: rainbow

Rainbowing

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ng and Marine Contractors

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TSHD Process Description


Hopper Self-discharge: Pump ashore

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Text (full)

TSHD Process Description

Hopper Self-discharge: system

Water
Sand
Jets Jets

Jets

Discharge

Water inlet

Dredge pump

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Text (full)

TSHD Process Description

Hopper Self-discharge: system

Jets Jets

Jets

Discharge

Water inlet

Dredge pump

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Text (full)

TSHD Process Description

Hopper Self-discharge: system

Jets Jets

Jets

Discharge

Water inlet

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Dredge pump

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Text (full)

TSHD Process Description

Hopper Self-discharge: system

Jets

Jets

Discharge

Jets

Water inlet

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Dredge pump

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TSHD Process Description


Sailing empty

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TSHD Load Graph


(emptying by bottom door disposal)
DRAUGHT (m)

TOTAL LOAD (ton)

start overflow

sailing
loaded

emptying hopper

stop
loading

next
trip

VOLUME SAND (m3)

sailing
empty

TIME IN MINUTES
Cycle-time per trip
start
dredging
Dredging and Marine Contractors

TSHD Load Graph


(discharging to shore)
DRAUGHT (m)
start overflow

sailing
loaded
stop
loading

VOLUME SAND (m3)

unloading
hopper

next trip

sailing
empty

TIME IN MINUTES

start
dredging

Cycle-time per trip

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Process related topics
The hull
The hopper
Dragheads, suction pipes and belongings
Centrifugal pumps

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


The hull

Sailing characteristics
Resistance
Small keel clearance

Maximum carrying capacity versus draft, length and width


Strength

Stability

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


The hopper

Carrying capacity
Volume
Weight

Filling system

Overflow system

Bottom door disposal system

Self-discharge system

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Hopper: carrying capacity


Restriction by
volume (full hopper)

Restriction by weight
(max. draught)

MUD
5,000 m3
6,000 ton
SAND
3,500 m3
HOPPER

7,000 ton

HULL

HOPPER
HULL

Low density soils


e.g.: Mud - 1.2 ton/m3

High density soils

5,000 x 1.2 = 6,000 ton

e.g.: Sand - 2.0 ton/m3


3,500 x 2.0 = 7,000 ton

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Hopper: loading & dumping facilities

Overflow System

Bottom-doors

Conical bottom-valves
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Dragheads

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Sand Draghead

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Different dragheads

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Suction Pipe

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Workability Weather Delay

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Swell Compensator
Swell
Compensator
Draghead Winch

Oil

Pressure
Jar

Draghead

Seabottom
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Centrifugal Pumps
Hardware
Types & sizes
Basic parts

inboard pump

under water pump

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Centrifugal Pumps
Working principle
Energy Distribution
Propulsion
Pumps
Boardnet
Centrifugal pump

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Centrifugal Pumps
Density & velocity meter

Engine-room with 2 pumps in line

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Production limiting factors
Soil characteristics
Available propulsion power
Drag head size and weight
Keel clearance when loaded
Dredging depth
Pumping distance (pump- and pump drive characteristics)
Waves and currents
Dirt and debris
Production may vary a lot due to these factors

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Limiting factors

A drag head grid damaged by boulders

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and Marine
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Dredging
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Limiting factors

Dirt and debris

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Characteristic Figures

trailing suction
hopper dredger
dimensions
(L*W*Dr)
max. dredging
depth
hopper capacity

small

mid-size

large

55*10*4 m 90*18*7 m 130*23*9 m


10-35 m

25-55 m

25-75 m

<4,000 m3 <8,000 m3 <15,000 m3

sailing speed

8 knots

12 knots

14 knots

propulsion power

400 kW

3,500 kW

8,000 kW

diam. suction-pipe

0.35-0.9 m

0.80 m

0.90-1.00 m

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger


Characteristic Figures

trailing suction
hopper dredger

jumbo

mega

dimensions
(L*W*Dr)

180*32*13 m

225 x 38 x 12 15.5 m

max. dredging
depth

50-120 m

55 - 155 m

hopper capacity

<30,000 m3

30,000 - 46,000 m3

sailing speed

17 knots

16 - 18 knots

propulsion power
(while dredging)

18,000 kW

26,000 kW

diam. suction-pipe

1.20 m

1.2 - 1.4 m

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger

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Other Hydraulic Dredgers


Suction Dredgers
Plain Suction Dredger
Barge unloading dredger
Water Injection Dredger (WID)

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Plain suction dredger


Suction of free running material (sand)
Jet water for dislodging and fluidising material
Deep suction pit necessary
Stationary dredger, not swinging, only intermittently moving forward

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Barge Unloading Dredger


Unloading of barges by suction
Jets for dislodging and fluidising
Barge to be shifted alongside the dredger during suction

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Water Injection Dredger


Injection of water into bottom
Low pressure and high capacity
Fine sand and silt
Movement of material due to gravity forces (density current)

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Backhoe Dredger

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Backhoe Dredger

Mega backhoe Simson, 3460 kW


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Backhoe or Hydraulic Excavator

Main characteristics
Typical parts
Dredging cycle
Production limiting factors
Some characteristic figures

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Backhoe
Main characteristics
Normal backhoe/front-shovel on pontoon or
Specially built pontoon (with spuds) with backhoe on
rotating table

Dredged material is loaded into barges

Reasonable cutting force can be generated

Suitable for:
Non-rock type soils with stones
Blasted rock
Precision dredging

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Backhoe

Dredging blasted rock


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Backhoe - parts
Bucket
Spud
Stick

Boom

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Backhoe
Different types and sizes to be fitted:

Sticks
Buckets
Booms

Positioning with spuds

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Backhoe
Dredging cycle
Lowering bucket
Filling bucket by cutting and tilting
Hoisting bucket
Turning crane towards barge
Emptying bucket into barge
Turning back

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Working Method Backhoe


Nett dredging width
overlap
Centre line

Preferred working direction:


backwards

Reach

=> Higher production


=> Less spill

Barge

But
Forward dredging is also possible

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Production Limiting Factors


Work method
Excavation force at large depth
Slope dredging (bucket positioning)
Precision dredging along quay-walls

Soil and obstructions


Hard material (no rock)
Big boulders
Removal of debris or vegetation

Workability
Waves
Shipping

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Backhoe
Characteristic Figures

Backhoe

Small

Medium

Large

Mega

Length

m1

30

45

50

65

Draught

m1

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.5

Dredging Depth

m1

10-15

15 - 20

20 - 30

20 - 30

Bucket size

1-3

2-8

5 - 20

15-40

Power Installed

kW

500

< 1,000

< 2,000

< 4200

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Backhoe

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Grab Dredger

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Grab Dredger

Main characteristics
Dredging characteristics
Typical parts
Dredging cycle
Production limiting factors
Some characteristic figures

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Grab Dredger
Main characteristics

Can also be used for construction works


(shore & bank protection)
Normal grab-crane on pontoon
OR
Specially built pontoon (with spuds) with fixed grabcrane on rotating table
Small grab dredgers for difficult accessible areas

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Grab Dredger
Dredging characteristics
Dredging up to large depths
Cannot create an even bottom
Dredged material is loaded into barges
Non-rock types of soil
Suitable for debris and vegetation

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Grab Dredger

Areas with difficult access

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Grab Dredger

Groyne Construction
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Grab Dredger
Typical parts
Different types and sizes to be fitted:
Grabs
Booms

Positioning with spuds or anchors

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Grab Dredger

Standard grab (sand, clay, mud)

Cactus/Polyp grab (stones)


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Grab Dredger
Dredging cycle
Lowering grab
Closing grab
Hoisting grab
Turning crane towards barge
Emptying grab into barge
Turning back

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Grab Dredger
Production limiting factors
Hard material
Big boulders, blasted rock
Removal of debris or vegetation
Dredging depth
Waves and currents
Shipping

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Grab Dredger
Characteristic Figures

Grab Dredger

Small

Mid-size

L x Dr.

30 x 1.5

45 x 1.7

50 x 2

Dredging Depth

m1

25

40

50

Grab size

m3

2.5 - 5

5 - 15

15 - 50

Dimensions

Large

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Other Mechanical Dredgers

Bucket ladder dredger (BLD)


Dipper dredger
Rock breaker
Plough or bottom leveller

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Bucket Ladder Dredger

Revolving chain of buckets


Swinging like a cutter suction dredger
No spuds, position fixed by wires
Buckets turning upside down to empty
Discharge into barges

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Bucket Ladder Dredger

Buckets are turning upside down to


discharge into barges

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Bucket Ladder Dredger in Action

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Rock Breaker

Hydraulic power to break rock

Assists dredger on small spots

Broken rock to be removed by excavator

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Plough or Bottom Leveller

Towed by tug
Assisting TSHD with removal of ridges and high spots
Removal of soft material from small harbours
Low production
Cheap

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Other Equipment
Water based
Barges
Work boats and launches
Anchor pontoons, floating line pontoons
Booster station

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Multicat for handling and transport

A-frame for anchor handling

Survey launch
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Floating pipeline pontoons

Use of floating pipeline

Rubber floating pipeline

Dredging
Dredging and
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Contractors
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Female

Ball Joints

Floating cover

Male

Rubber Floating Line

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Booster station

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Other Equipment
Land based
Pipelines and valves
Bulldozers, shovels, etc.

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Environmental Dredgers

Objective
Types
Typical Aspects

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Environmental Dredgers
Objective:
Optimise precision
Accurately dredging of thin layer
Minimise disposal capacity by high concentration (minimisation of
dilution)
Minimise turbulence and turbidity
Safety: bring dredged bottom material via closed system to barge or
disposal area

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Accuracy Aspects

Contaminated

Clean
H

Contaminated material is left behind, and falls in overdepth

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Accuracy Aspects

H (contaminated) removed

D increased, H not removed

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Environmental Dredgers
Typical aspects
Automation necessary

Maximising concentration
Controlling excavation level
Controlling layer thickness
Output level low due to:

High accuracy
Avoiding turbulence

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Environmental Dredgers
Types
Environmental disc cutter dredger
Disc cutter head with closed bottom plate and shields
Environmental auger dredger
Dual active rotating auger in enclosed area
Horizontally closing grab
Grab sealed off when closed
Hydraulic excavator fitted with closed visor bucket
Encapsulated Bucket Ladder Dredger

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Environmental Dredgers

Disk bottom (cutter) dredger


disk cutterhead with closed bottom plate and shields

Dredging
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Marine Contractors
Contractors
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Environmental Dredgers

Environmental Auger Dredger


Dredging
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Environmental Dredgers

Grab is horizontally closing


Sealde off after closing

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Standard Grab

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Horizontally Profiling Grab

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Environmental Dredgers

Hydraulic excavator fitted with closed visor bucket

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Environmental Dredgers

Bucket Ladder Dredger with encapsulated bucket line

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THE END

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