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This article is about the city in Tamil Nadu, India. For its namesake district, see Coimbatore



Clockwise from top: Avinashi Road, Perur

Pateeswarar Temple, Victoria Town Hall, Ukkadam
Periyakulam Lake, PSG College of Technology,
Tidel Park

Nickname(s): Manchester of South India

Location of Coimbatore in India


1116N 765821ECoordinates:
1116N 765821E
Tamil Nadu
Kongu Nadu

Population (2011)
Time zone
STD Code

Ganapathy P Rajkumar
Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan, IAS
246.75 km2 (95.27 sq mi)
642.12 km2 (247.92 sq mi)
411.2 m (1,349.1 ft)
IST (UTC+5:30)

Vehicle registration

TN 37 (South), TN 38 (North),
TN 66 (Central), TN 99 (West)

Area Note 1: The pre expansion area of city limits was 105.6 The 2010 expansion order added 12 local bodies and
increased the total area to 265.36 However in 2011, three of
the local bodies were dropped from the expansion and two more
added instead. Those removed were Vellalore (16.64,
Chinniampalayam (9.27 and Perur ( Those added
were Vellakinar (9.20) and Chennavedampatti (4.5). So the actual
area post expansion is 246.75 sq. km.[3][4][5][6]
Population Note 1: The census 2011 data is available only for pre
expansion city limits.[7] For the expanded city limits only 2001
census data is available. Pre expansion the population was 930882.
After the 2010 expansion GO, the population became 1262122.[4]
But after the small changes mentioned in the previous note were
made, the 2001 population figure was 1250446.[3][8] However the
2011 census data for the urban agglomeration is available and has
been provided.[7]

Coimbatore also known as Kovai, [koj] is a city in India. It is the second largest city and
urban agglomeration in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, after Chennai[9] and the sixteenth largest
urban agglomeration of India. It is one of the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major
textile, industrial, commercial, educational, information technology, healthcare and
manufacturing hub of Tamil Nadu.[10] It was the capital city of the historical Kongu Nadu and is
often referred to as the Manchester of South India.[11][12] The city is located on the banks of the
Noyyal River surrounded by the Western Ghats and is administered by the Coimbatore
Municipal Corporation. Coimbatore is the 4th largest metropolis in South India and the
administrative capital of Coimbatore district. Coimbatore has been ranked 4th among Indian
cities in investment climate by CII[13] and ranked 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by


1 Name

2 History

3 Geography

4 Climate

5 Demographics

6 Administration

7 Urban structure

8 Suburban areas

9 Politics

10 Economy

11 Culture

12 Languages

13 Cuisine

14 Transport
o 14.1 Air
o 14.2 Rail

14.2.1 Monorail

o 14.3 Road

15 Education

16 Media and communication

17 Healthcare

18 Sports

19 Recreation

20 Environmental issues

21 International relations
o 21.1 Twin towns Sister cities

22 See also

23 References

24 External links

One theory for the city's name states that Coimbatore is a derivation of Kovaiputhur (lit. new
town of covai), chieftain Kovan or Koyan, who ruled the region around the city. Kovaiputhor
evolved into Koyambatoor, which was anglicised as Coimbatore. Another suggested etymology
involves the Dravidian root ru 'river' (DED 4233).[15] Yet another theory states that the name
could have been derived from Koniamman, the goddess whose temple is situated in the city.[citation
Henry Whitehead in his Village Gods of South India (1921) states that the goddess
worshipped by Koyan came to be called as Koyamma which evolved into Kovaiamma and later

Main article: History of Coimbatore

The Sugarcane Breeding Institute at Coimbatore, 1928

The region around Coimbatore was ruled by Sangam Cheras and it served as the eastern entrance
to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu.[17] The
Kossar tribe mentioned in the second century CE Tamil epic Silappathikaram and other poems in
Sangam literature is associated with the Coimbatore region (Kongu Nadu).[18] Large numbers of
Roman coins and other artifacts have been unearthed around Coimbatore, indicating the region's
ties with Roman traders. The Coimbatore region is in the middle of the "Roman trail" that
extended from Muziris to Arikamedu.[19][20] The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in
the 10th century CE. A Chola highway called "Rajakesari Peruvazhi" ran through the region.[21][22]
Much of Tamil Nadu came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century. The
Vijayanagara reign brought new settlers from Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In the 1550s, the
military governors (Madurai Nayaks) of the Vijaynagara Empire took control of the region. After
the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an
independent kingdom, with other Vijayanagar offshoots forming new kingdoms in Vellore,
Tanjore, Gingee, Chandragiri and Mysore. The Nayaks introduced the Palayakkarar system
under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.[23]
In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of
Mysore,following a series of wars with the Madurai Nayak Dynasty.When part of Kingdom of
Mysore the region was under the administration of Hyder Ali and later Tipu Sultan of Mysore.

After defeating Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed
Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in
the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.[24] In
1865, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in
1866 it was accorded municipality status.[25] Sir Robert Stanes became the first Chairman of the
Coimbatore City Council.[26] Industrialization of the region begin in 1888 and continued into the
20th century. The region was hard hit during the Great Famine of 187678 resulting in nearly
200,000 famine related fatalities. On 8 February 1900 an earthquake struck Coimbatore
damaging many buildings. The first three decades of the 20th century, saw nearly 20,000 plaguerelated deaths and an acute water shortage.[27][28] The city experienced a textile boom in the 1920s
and 1930s due to the decline of the Cotton industry in Mumbai.[29] The region played a
significant role in the Indian independence movement.[30] Post independence, Coimbatore has
seen rapid growth due to industrialisation. In 1981, Coimbatore was constituted as a corporation.

Main article: Geography of Coimbatore

Western Ghats along the Coimbatore-Palghat National Highway

Coimbatore is situated in the west of Tamil Nadu, bordering Palakkad district of the state of
Kerala. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range to the West and the North, with
reserve forests and the (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) on the northern side.[32] The Noyyal River
runs through Coimbatore and forms the southern boundary of the corporation.[33][34] The city sits
amidst Noyyal's basin area and has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater.[35]
The eight major tanks / wetland areas of Coimbatore are Singanallur, Valankulam, Ukkadam
Periyakulam, Selvampathy, Narasampathi, Krishnampathi, Selvachinthamani, and
Kumaraswami.[36] Sanganur pallam, Kovilmedu pallam, Vilankurichi-Singanallur Pallam,
Karperayan Koil pallam, Railway feeder roadside drain, Tiruchy-Singanallur Check drain and
Ganapathy pallam are some of the streams that drain the city.[33][37]
The eastern side of the Coimbatore district, which includes the city, is predominantly dry. The
western and northern parts of the district border the Western Ghats the Nilgiri biosphere, the
Anaimalai range and the Munnar range. A western pass to Kerala, popularly referred to as the
Palghat Gap is the western boundary. Because of its close proximity to the Western Ghats, the
district is rich in fauna. The Coimbatore urban wetlands harbours around 116 species of birds. Of
these, 66 are resident, 17 are migratory and 33 are local migrants.[38] Spot-billed Pelican, Painted

Stork, Open Billed Stork, Ibis, Spot-billed Duck, Teal, Black Winged Stilt are some of the
migratory birds that visit Coimbatore wetlands regularly.[32]
Apart from the species common to the plains, wild elephants, wild boars leopards, tigers, bison,
various species of deer, Nilgiri Tahr, sloth bear and black-headed Oriole can also be found.[39]
The Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary 88 km (55 mi) in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1,400
meters covers an area of 958 square kilometres (370 sq mi). More than 20% of the district is
classified as forest, lying in the west and north. The forests here are abundant in commercially
significant trees such as teak, sandalwood, rosewood and bamboo. The Nilgiris slope of the
Mettupalayam range is rich in sandalwood trees and bamboo. They vary from rich tropical
evergreen forests of the Punachi range to jungles of shrubs in southern ranges. Apart from the
high altitude regions of Western Ghats, most of the forest area has come under Lantana invasion.
The locals refer to this as Siriki Chedi.

Coimbatore has a pleasant, salubrious climate due to its proximity to thickly forested mountain
ranges and the cool breeze blowing through the Palghat gap which makes the consistently hot
temperatures pleasant.[33] Under the Kppen climate classification, the city has a tropical wet and
dry climate, with the wet season being from October to December due to the northeast monsoon.
Coimbatore is located at an elevation of about 411 meters.[32] The mean maximum and minimum
temperatures varies between 35 C (95 F) and 18 C (64 F).[40] highest temperature ever
recorded is 41 C (106 F) and lowest is 8 C (46 F).[41]
Due to the presence of the mountain pass, more elevated parts of the district benefit from the
south-west monsoon in the months from June to August. After a warm, humid September, the
main monsoon starts from October lasting till early November. These monsoons are brought
about by the retreating monsoon. The average annual rainfall is around 700 mm (27.6 in) with
the North East and the South West monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the
total rainfall.[40] This rainfall is not enough to sustain the needs of the city for the entire year and
the shortage is made up through water supply schemes like Siruvani, Pilloor and Athikadavu.[42]

The soil is predominantly black, which is suitable for cotton cultivation, but some red loamy soil
is also found. Coimbatore falls under the Class III/IV Seismic Zone, having experienced a 6.0
Richter scale earthquake in 1900.[44]
[hide]Climate data for Coimbatore (19712000)

Month Jan

Feb Mar Apr May Jun


Aug Sep

Oct Nov Dec


Record 35.6 37.6 39.7 40.3 40.4 38.6 35.6 35.7 36.2 36.1 34.4 35.0
high C (96.1) (99.7) (103.5 (104.5 (104.7 (101.5 (96.1) (96.3) (97.2) (97) (93.9) (95)




30.5 33.3 35.9 36.7 35.2 32.2 31.6 31.6 32.5 31.6 30.1 29.3
high C
(86.9) (91.9) (96.6) (98.1) (95.4) (90) (88.9) (88.9) (90.5) (88.9) (86.2) (84.7) (90.5)

18.2 19.5 21.3 23.4 23.5 22.4 21.8 21.8 22.0 21.8 20.7 19.0
low C
(64.8) (67.1) (70.3) (74.1) (74.3) (72.3) (71.2) (71.2) (71.6) (71.2) (69.3) (66.2) (70.3)

11.7 12.8 15.6 17.8
low C
(53.1) (55) (60.1) (64)

16.1 18.3 16.7 17.2

(61) (64.9) (62.1) (63)






13.0 15.1
71.2 27.4 35.5 35.5 74.3 123.1 122.2
46.0 606.0
(0.213 (0.512 (0.594
(2.803 (1.079 (1.398 (1.398 (2.925 (4.846 (4.811
(1.811) (23.858)













Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[45][46]

[show]Historical population



Marudamalai Murugan Temple

According to 2011 census, Coimbatore had a population of 1,050,721 with a sex-ratio of 997
females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[49] A total of 102,069
were under the age of six, constituting 52,275 males and 49,794 females.The average literacy of
the city was 82.43%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[49] There were a total of
425,115 workers, comprising 1,539 cultivators, 2,908 main agricultural labourers, 11,789 in
house hold industries, 385,802 other workers, 23,077 marginal workers, 531 marginal
cultivators, 500 marginal agricultural labourers, 1,169 marginal workers in household industries
and 20,877 other marginal workers.[50]
As per the 2001 census,[51] Coimbatore had a population of 1,565,797 within Municipal
Corporation limits.[3][4][8] The population of the urban agglomeration as per 2011 census is
2,136,916.[1] In the urban agglomeration, males constitute 50.08% of the population and females
49.92%. Coimbatore has an average literacy rate of 89.23%, higher than the national average of
74.04%. Male literacy is 93.17% and female literacy is 85.3% with 8.9% of the population under
6 years of age. The Sex ratio was 964 females per 1000 males.[52] In 2005, the crime rate in the
city was 265.9 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.2% of all crimes reported in major cities in
India. It ranked 21st among 35 major cities in India in the incidence of crimes.[53] In 2011, the
population density in the city was 10,052 per km (26,035 per mi).[7]
The native language spoken in the Coimbatore city is Tamil. The city's population is
predominantly Hindu, along with a small group of Muslim[54] population. Christians, Sikhs and
Jains are also present in small numbers.[8][55][56] Coimbatore also has a large number of
Kannadigas / Telugus,[57] Malayalis,[58][59][60] mainly from Palakkad and North Indians,[61] mainly
Gujaratis,[62] who are engaged in trade and commerce. During the 1970s the city witnessed a
population explosion as a result of migration fuelled by increased economic growth and job
opportunities.[48][63] Around 8% of the city's population lives in slums.[64]


Logo of Coimbatore Corporation

Main articles: Administration of Coimbatore and Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation

Corporation officials

Ganapathy P. Rajkumar

Deputy Mayor

S. Leelavathiunni[65]


Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan, IAS


Coimbatore is a Municipal corporation as well as the headquarters of the Coimbatore District.

The city is divided into five administrative zones East, West, North, South and Central, each
further subdivided into 20 wards.[67] Each ward is represented by a councilor who is elected by
direct election. Councillors from each zone also elect a Zonal Ward Committee chairman and
most importantly the Deputy Mayor through their numbers . The Mayor of Coimbatore is elected
by the city's voters directly. The executive wing of the corporation is headed by a Corporation
Commissioner. The corporation runs and maintains basic services like water, sewage and roads.
The district itself is administered by the District Collector. The district court is the highest
court of appeal in Coimbatore. The Coimbatore City Police is headed by a Commissioner and
there are 18 Police stations in the city.[70]

Urban structure

Race Course Road, Coimbatore

Coimbatore is divided into five broad regions: North, West, Central, South and East. Some years
before Coimbatore Corporation limit is increased and taken some near rural parts into
Coimbatore metropolis. Coimbatore city now have 100 wards. Coimbatore East and its
surrounding region is primarily a textile and industrial hub. Central Coimbatore is the
commercial heart of the city. Coimbatore, is surrounded by the mountains on the west, and the
reserve forests on the northern side. The western and northern part of the district borders the
Western Ghats with the Nilgiri biosphere. A western pass to Kerala, popularly referred to as the
Palghat Gap provides its boundary with the metropolitan area limits.[71]

Suburban areas
A large part of the Coimbatore urban agglomeration falls outside the Municipal corporation
limits.[72] These suburbs are governed by local bodies called Village Panchayats and Town
Panchayats.[73] Besides the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation, the Coimbatore UA comprises
the town panchayats of Vellalur, Irugur, Sulur, Pallapalayam, Kannampalayam,Chinna

Thadagam Veerapandi, Periyanaickenpalayam, Narasimhanaickenpalayam, Idikarai, Vedapatti,

Perur, Madukkarai, Ettimadai, Thondamuthur, Uliyampalayam, Thirumalayampalayam,
Othakalmandapam, Chettipalayam, Alanthurai, Pooluvapatti, Thenkarai, Karumathampatti,
Sarcarsamakulam, Mopperipalayam and Gudalur and census towns of Ashokapuram,
Kurudampalayam, Malumichampatti, Selvapuram, Chettipalayam, Sulur, Chinniampalayam,
Somayampalayam, Muthugundun Pudur, Arasur, Kaniyur and Neelambur[2] These local bodies
are in turn split into wards each electing a councillor through direct election. The head of the
local body known as president[74] is elected by the councillors from among their number.[69]

Coimbatore elects ten members to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and one member to the
Indian Parliament. The five legislative assembly constituencies in the city are Coimbatore North,
Coimbatore South, Kaundampalayam, Singanallur and Sulur. All five are part of the Coimbatore
Parliamentary Constituency. Till 2009, there were only four assembly constituencies in
Coimbatore Coimbatore East, Coimbatore West, Singanallur, and Perur. Also about 20% of the
urban agglomeration came under the Nilgiris constituency which runs into the northern part of
the city and about 10% came under the Pollachi (Lok Sabha constituency). In the last Lok Sabha
election held in 2009, Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-M) candidate won in the
Coimbatore Lok Sabha constituency.[75] In the last legislative assembly election held in 2011, the
ADMK led front won in all five assembly constituencies.[76]

Main article: Economy of Coimbatore

Lakshmi Mills was one of the earliest textile mills in 1910 in Papanaickenpalayam, Coimbatore
With more than 25,000 small, medium and large industries, the city's primary industries are
engineering and textiles. Coimbatore is called the "Manchester of South India" due to its
extensive textile industry, fed by the surrounding cotton fields.[77][78] The district also houses the
country's largest amount of hosiery and poultry industries.[citation needed] The city has two special
economic zones (SEZ), the Coimbatore Hi-Tech Infrastructure (CHIL) SEZ at Saravanampatti
and the TIDEL Park near Peelamedu, and at least five more SEZs are in the pipeline.[79][80] As of
2005, when Tirupur was a part of Coimbatore district, Coimbatore was the highest revenue
earning district in Tamil Nadu.[81] In 2010, Coimbatore ranked 15th in the list of most
competitive (by business environment) Indian cities.[82]

An insignificant little town prone to droughts and earthquakes till the early years of the 20th
century, Coimbatore region experienced a textile boom in the 1920s and 1930s.[29] Though,
Robert Stanes had established Coimbatore's first textile mills as early as the late 19th century, it
was during this period that Coimbatore emerged as a prominent industrial centre.

Tidel Park, one of the largest IT parks in the state

CODISSIA Trade Centre, Coimbatore

Coimbatore has trade associations such as CODISSIA, COINDIA, SITRA and COJEWEL
representing industries in the city. Coimbatore also has a 160,000 square feet (15,000 m2) trade
fair ground, built in 1999. It was named COINTEC due to its hosting of INTEC (Small Industries
Exhibition). The Trade Fair complex, one of the country's largest, was built in six months, and is
owned by CODISSIA (Coimbatore District Small Industries Association).[83] It is also the
country's largest pillar-free hall, according to the Limca Book of Records.[84]
Coimbatore houses a large number of medium and large textile mills. It also has central textile
research institutes like the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) and Sardar Vallabhai
Patel International School of Textiles and Management. The South Indian Textiles Research
Association (SITRA) is also based in Coimbatore. The city also houses two of the Centers of
Excellences (COE) for technical textiles proposed by Government of India, namely Meditech, a
medical textile research centre based at SITRA, and InduTech based in PSG College of
Engineering and Technology.[85] The neighbouring city of Tirupur is home to some of Asias
largest garment manufacturing companies, exporting hosiery clothes worth more than 50,000
The city is the second largest software producer in Tamil Nadu, next only to Chennai. IT and
BPO industry in the city has grown greatly with the launch of TIDEL park and other planned IT
parks in and around the city. It is ranked at 17th among the global outsourcing cities.[14]
Companies like Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant Technology Solutions, IBM, Robert
Bosch GmbH, Ford, Cameron International Corporation, Dell, Wipro, HCL having a presence in
the city. Coimbatore is already the second largest hub in India for Cognizant Technology
Solutions as it employs around 5000 people in its Coimbatore centre and is planning to double its
capacity here.[86] Software exports stood at 710.66 Crores (7.1 billion) for the financial year
200910 up 90% from the previous year.[87] Apart from this, there are also lots of healthcare
BPOs (Medical Transcription, Coding and Billing) in and around Coimbatore serving the US
Healthcare industry.

Coimbatore has a large and a diversified manufacturing sector facilitated by the presence of
research institutes like Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, SITRA and large number of
engineering colleges producing about 50,000 engineers.[88]
Manufacturing of automotive components is also important to Coimbatore's economy. Maruti
Udyog and Tata Motors source up to 30% of their automotive components from Coimbatore.
Coimbatore has more than 700 wet grinder manufacturers with a monthly output As of March
2005 of 75,000 units[89] and is home to a common facility for the manufacturers of wet grinders.
Coimbatore motor and pump manufacturing industry supplies 40% of Indias requirements.[13]
The city boasts some prominent auto component companies such as Pricol and L.G.
Balakrishnan & Bros, which are listed on the stock exchanges. The city also has a number of tierI, II and III suppliers catering to the needs of the entire gamut of the automobile industry, ranging
from two-wheelers and four-wheelers to commercial vehicles and tractors.[91]
Coimbatore is one of the major gold jewellery manufacturing hubs in India, renowned for
making cast jewellery and machine made jewellery is also a major diamond cutting centre in
South India. .[92][93][94][95] The city is home to about 3000 jewellery manufacturing companies and
to over 40,000 goldsmiths,[96][97][98] who have an active association called Coimbatore Jewellery
Manufacturers' Association, and Coimbatore Gem and Jewellery Industries Private Limited
(Cojewel), which is a common facility with niche goldsmith machinery to be used by the
members of the association.Owing to the presence of a large number of jewellery manufacturers
and the strong engineering base, the city is home to a number of companies manufacturing
jewellery making machinery.
Coimbatore has some of the oldest flour mills in India. The large scale flour mills, which cater to
all the southern states, have a combined grinding capacity of more than 50,000 MT per month. In
the recent years, the city has seen growth in the hospitality industry with more upscale hotels
being set up.[99][100][101][102][103]
Coimbatore is the largest non-metro city for e-commerce in South India.[104]

Main article: Culture of Coimbatore
Coimbatore and its people have a reputation for entrepreneurship.[105][106] Though it is generally
considered a traditional city, Coimbatore is more diverse and cosmopolitan than other cities in
Tamil Nadu.[61][105] The city conducts its own music festival every year.[107] Art, dance and music
concerts are held annually during the months of September and December (Tamil calendar month
Margazhi).[108] The heavy industrialisation of the city has also resulted in the growth of trade
unions.[109] There are numerous temples in and around the city including the Perur Patteeswarar
Temple, Naga Sai Mandir, Konniamman temple, Thandu Mariamman temple, Vazhai Thottathu
Ayyan temple, ISKCON Temple, Eachanari Vinayagar Temple, Karamadai temple, Marudamalai
Murugan temple, Loga Nayaga Shani Eswaran shrine, Ashtamsa Varadha Anjaneyar Temple,
Panchamuga Anjaneya temple and Dhyanalinga Yogic Temple.[110] The Mariamman festivals, at
the citys numerous Amman temples, are major events in summer.[111] The mosques on

Oppanakara Street and Big Bazaar Street date back to the period of Hyder Ali.[112] Christian
missions date back to 1647 when permission was granted by the Nayak rulers to set up a small
church in Karumathampatti 12 km (7.5 mi). It was destroyed by Tipu Sultans army resulting in a
new church in 1804. In 1886, Coimbatore was constituted as a diocese after bifurcating with
Puducherry. Sikh Gurudwaras and Jain Temples are also present in Coimbatore.

Perur Pateeswarar Temple

Marudamalai Murugan Temple

Naga Sai Mandir

Ashtamsa Varadha Anjaneyar Temple

Eachanari Vinayagar Temple

Kongu Tamil is the dialect of Tamil language that is spoken majorly in the city. It is originally
known as "Kangee"`[113] or "Kongalam"[114] or "Kongappechu". The speciality of Kongu Tamil is
the use of the alveolar - Tra/Dra (as in the English word track) instead of retroflex T/D () of
standard Tamil. For example 'ennuDaya' (mine) of standard Tamil is pronounced enRa in the
Kongu dialect. Additionally the use of guttural nasal () that sounds "ng" as in the English word
Gang, is more prevalent in Kongu Tamil, leading to situations where the grammar of Kongu
Tamil would not fit into the grammar of standard Tamil (as laid down in authoritative treatises
like Tolkappiyam and Nannool). One of the examples is the use of to end a word like
"vaang", means 'come' expressed in a respectful tone, which in standard Tamil would be
"vaanga". English is increasingly spoken by the educated class and other languages spoken in the
city include Malayalam, Telugu and Urdu.

See also: Tamil cuisine

Coimbatore cuisine is predominantly south Indian with rice as its base. However, the population
of Coimbatore is multi-cultural due to the influx of migrant population from various regions of
the country. Most locals still retain their rural flavour, with many restaurants serving food over a
banana leaf. North Indian, Chinese and continental cuisines are also available. Mysore pak (a
sweet made from lentil flour and ghee), idly, dosa, Halwa (a sweet made of different ingredients
like milk, wheat, rice).The Annapoorna Gowrishankar Hotels is a gem of this region known for
its high quality vegetarian food and their Sambar ( The sambar for all its branches around
Coimbatore are prepared in a single large batch and then delivered to the branches, thus the taste
remains consistent). Biryani is also popular among the locals. Apart from this Coimbatore has a
very active street food culture, thanks to the migratory North Indian population that settled down
here a few generation ago, in fact a streetfood that is popular all over Tamil Nadu The Kaazhaan
has its origins here in Coimbatore, it is usually prepared by simmering deep fried
mushrooms( usually chopped mushroom) in a spicy broth, until it reaches a porridge like
consistency and served sprinkled with chopped oinions and coriander leaves.

Main article: Transport in Coimbatore

A view of Coimbatore International Airport

Coimbatore city railway station

Mettupalayam Road Bus Station, all north bound buses towards Nilgiris district start from here

A intra city bus operated by Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation

Coimbatore North flyover

Sungam bypass flyover above Ukkadam-Valankulam Lake

The city is served by the Coimbatore International Airport at Peelamedu 15 km (9.3 mi) from the
city and an air-force base at Sulur 23 km (14 mi). The Coimbatore International Airport caters to
domestic flights to major Indian cities like Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad,
Kolkata, Mumbai, Vijayawada etc., and international flights to Sharjah and Singapore. According
to statistics available with the AAI, 12,95,977 passengers were flown from and to Coimbatore in
2013-14, including 11,76,428 domestic and 1,19,549 international passengers.[115] Its runway is
9,760 feet (2,970 m) in length and is capable of handling wide-bodied and "fat-bellied" aircraft
used for international flights.[116] Sulur Air Force Station, located at Kangayampalayam near the
periphery of the city, is an air base of the Indian Air Force. Air Carnival, a proposed airline
promoted by the CMC group is expected to commence operations in April 2015 with the
Coimbatore International Airport as the hub.[117]

Train service in Coimbatore started in 1863, upon construction of the Podanur Madras line
connecting Kerala and the west coast with the rest of India.[33] Broad gauge trains connect

Coimbatore to all parts of India and Tamil Nadu. Meter gauge line existed between Podanur and
Dindigul got closed on May 2009 and is under gauge conversion. The Coimbatore Junction is
well connected to all the major Indian cities. The Coimbatore Junction comes under the
Jurisdiction of the Salem Division and contributes 43.5% of its divisional income. This is the
second largest income generating station in the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways after
Chennai Central. Coimbatore North Junction is another important railway junction in the city
apart from Coimbatore Junction and Podanur Junction. The other stations include Peelamedu,
Singanallur, Irugur, Perianaikanpalayam, Madukkarai, Somanur and Sulur Road. There is also a
byepass line between Irugur and Podanur which is used by some Kerala-bound trains which do
not enter Coimbatore city.
Main article: Coimbatore Monorail
Three monorail routes have been proposed. Two circular routes, in the northern and southern
parts of the city and a dual linear line connecting the Eastern and Western parts. The Northern
Route starts from Gandhipuram via Ganapathy, Sivanandha colony, Saibaba colony, RS Puram,
Townhall, City Railway Station and ends in Gandhipuram. The second circular Route starts from
Podanur via Trichy Road, Sungam, Redfields, Race Course, City Railway Station, Ukkadam and
ends at Podanur. A linear line was also proposed from Chinniampalayam, Coimbatore
International Airport, CODISSIA, PSG Tech, Lakshmi Mills, Gandhipuram, Coimbatore North
Junction, Cowley Brown Road and TNAU. Recently Vadavalli and Thondamuthur are the two
new areas that has been included in the linear line as part of the phase extension.[118][119]

There are six major arterial roads in the city: Avinashi Road, Trichy Road, Sathyamangalam
Road, Mettupalayam Road, Palakkad Road and Pollachi Road. There are three National
Highways passing through the city:

NH-47 Salem to Kanyakumari (via Palakkad, Kochi, Kollam, Trivandrum)

NH-67 Nagapattinam to Gundlupet (via Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli, Karur,


NH 209 Dindigul to Bangalore (via Palani, Pollachi, Sathyamangalam, Chamrajnagar,


Apart from state and National Highways, the city corporation maintains a 635.32 kilometres
(394.77 miles) long road network.[33] Coimbatore has several major bus stations. The town buses
(intra-city) operate from the town bus stand in Gandhipuram to other bus stations across the city.
Inter-city and intra-city buses that connect Coimbatore operate from different bus stands:
Bus station



Tirupur, Erode, Salem,

Sathyamangalam, Mettur
dam etc.


All town services touching



Madurai, Tirunelveli, Trichy,

Thanjavur, Kumbakonam


Palakkad, Palani, Pollachi,

Udumalpet etc.


Mettupalayam, Ooty,
Mysore etc.[120][121][122]


Express buses to Chennai,

Ernakulam, Bangalore,
Hyderabad, Tirupati,
Thiruvananthapuram etc.

Omni Bus Stand,

Private mofussil buses.[123]
The city has a very high vehicle-to-population ratio. Town buses started operations in 1921.
Town bus services serve most parts of the city, as well as other towns and villages in the district.
Buses also connect the district with all major towns in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka,aj
Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh. The number of inter-city routes operated by Coimbatore
division is 119 with a fleet of more than 500 buses.[124] A large number of intra-city private buses
operate within the city. The number of intra city buses in the city is around 800 in 228 different
routes.[125] The city is also served by auto rickshaws. The growth of call taxis is also on the rise
where more sophisticated taxi services are started emerging with more emphasise in luxury and
technology by using GPS tracking units in their taxi cabs. Some of the primary service providers
like Hello Taxi,[126] Taxi Taxi and many more are emerging in recent months. Daily Mofussil
buses on these National Highways are run by Government and as well as Private bus operators.
Major routes comprises Coimbatore to Sathyamangalam, Coimbatore to Palani,etc.

See also: List of educational institutions in Coimbatore

PSG College of Technology in Peelamedu, Coimbatore

Coimbatore is an educational hub of south India. As of 2010, the Coimbatore district is home to
7 universities, 78 engineering colleges, 3 medical colleges, 35 polytechnics Colleges and more
than 150 Arts and Science Colleges and a large number of schools.[127][128][129] The city has reputed
universities like Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (est. 1971), Bharathiar University (1982),
Anna University Coimbatore (2007) and Avinashilingam university (1987).[130] The city also
houses research institutes like Central Institute for Cotton Research, Sugarcane Breeding
Institute, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Indian Council of Forestry
Research and Education and Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies.[131] There are also plans to
establish a world class university in the region and to convert the Government Arts college into a
unitary type university.[132][133]
The first college opened in Coimbatore was the Government Arts College (187576).[134] The
forest college and research institute was opened in 1916. The first engineering college in the city
was started by G.D. Naidu as the Arthur Hope College of Technology in 1945. Later it became
the Government College of Technology, Coimbatore. PSG College of Technology was
established later in 1951. The Air Force Administrative College was established in 1949 to train
Indian Air Force personnel. Coimbatore Institute of Technology (CIT) was started in the 1950s.
Coimbatore Medical College was opened in 1966 and the Government law college started
functioning from 1978. The agricultural school established in 1868 was converted into a fullfledged agricultural university (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University) in 1971 and the Slim Ali
Centre for Ornithology and Natural History was opened in 1990. Several private engineering and
arts & science colleges were started during the education boom in the 1990s.
In 1867, the first group of students appeared for the SSLC Examinations from Coimbatore.
Presently there are three types of schools in Coimbatore 1) government run schools
(corporation schools) 2) schools funded by the government but run by private trusts (aided
schools) and 3) schools funded and administered by private trusts. They are classified as Tamil
Nadu Anglo Indian School Board, Tamil Nadu State Board, Matriculation and CBSE schools
according to the syllabus taught in them. The Coimbatore Education District (not the same as the
revenue district) is the unit of administration for education in the city. In 2010, the number of
students who wrote the SSLC (Standard 10) and Higher Secondary (Standard 12) examinations
was both around 30,000.[135][136] The literacy rate in the city is 80%.[33]

Media and communication

Main article: Media in Coimbatore

See also: List of Tamil-language television channels

Four major English newspapers The Hindu,The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle and The New
Indian Express bring out editions from the city. Business Line, a business newspaper also brings
out a Coimbatore edition. Tamil newspapers which have Coimbatore editions include Dina
Malar, Dina Thanthi, Dina Mani, Dinakaran (all morning newspapers) and Tamil Murasu and
Malai Malar (both evening newspapers). Two Malayalam newspapers Malayala Manorama
and Mathrubhumi also have considerable circulation in the city.
A Medium wave radio station is operated by All India Radio, with most programs in Tamil,
English and Hindi. Five FM radio stations operate from Coimbatore Rainbow FM from All
India Radio, Suryan FM[137] from Sun Network,[138] Radio Mirchi,[139] Radio City, and Hello FM.
All these private radio stations air exclusively Tamil based programs, including film
music. The range of these stations cover Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Erode and Nilgiri districts of
Tamil Nadu and Palakkad and Wayanad districts of Kerala. Television relay started in 1985 from
Delhi Doordarshan. In 1986, after inception of a repeater tower at Kodaikanal, telecast from
Madras Doordarshan commenced. The people of Coimbatore witnessed the 1980 Olympics and
1983 Cricket World Cup on a giant screen in VOC Park when the city-based UMS developed a
dish antenna for satellite signal reception. Currently television reception is through DTH or by
cable, while Doordarshan reception is still available using an external antenna. In 2005,
Doordarshan opened its studio in Coimbatore.[142]
Coimbatore has a well connected communications infrastructure. Till the 1990s the state owned
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was the only telecommunition service provider in the
city. In the 1990s, private telecom companies too started offering their services. Currently
besides BSNL, fixed line telephone services are offered by Reliance Communications and Bharti
Airtel. Dial up internet connections were first introduced (by HCL and BPL) in 1996 and
broadband internet (by BSNL) in 2005. As of 2010, BSNL, Reliance Communications, Bharti
Airtel, Tata Teleservices all offer broadband service through fixed lines and mobiles; MTS offers
mobile broadband alone.[143] Cellular telephony was first introduced in 1997.[144] Coimbatore is
the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu circle of cellular service providers. The telecom company
Aircel is headquartered in the city.[145] Mobile telephone services available in the city include
both CDMA and GSM connections.
Coimbatore is home to some of the oldest film studios in South India. Swamikannu Vincent, a
film exhibitor, set up the first movie studios in the city.[146] Rangaswamy Naidu established the
Central Studios in 1935 while S. M. Sriramulu Naidu set up the Pakshiraja Studios in 1945.[147]

The size of the Coimbatore health care industry has been estimated as 1500 Crore (150 million)
in 2010.[148] There are nearly 750 hospitals in and around Coimbatore with a capacity of 5000
beds.[149] The first health care centre in the city was started in 1909. In 1969, it was upgraded to
Coimbatore Medical College Hospital (CMCH). It is a government run hospital with a bed
strength of 1020 and provides free health care.[150] Including the CMCH, corporation maintains
16 dispensaries and 2 maternity homes.[33] The city also has many large multi-facility private

hospitals like the PSG Hospitals, Kovai Medical Center and Hospital (KMCH), KG Hospital,
Coimbatore Kidney Centre, G. Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital(GKNM), Sri
Ramakrishna Hospital, Sheela Hospital, Kongunadu Hospital, Gem Hospital, Ganga Hospital,
Aravind Eye Hospital, Sankara Netralaya,Sankara Eye Centre, Lotus Eye Hospital, Ashwin
hospital, Vikram ENT hospital, Sheela Hospital,Coimbatore Cancer Foundation, G. P. Hospital,
Diabetes Care and Research Centre. The city is also a major centre for medical tourism.[148][151][152]
The city remains the preferred healthcare destination for people from nearby districts and also
from the neighbouring state of Kerala.[153]


A typical raceday scene at Kari Motor Speedway

Motor sports plays a large part in the city, with Coimbatore often referred to as the "Motor sports
Capital of India" and the "Backyard of Indian Motorsports".[154] S.Karivardhan, spearheaded
motor racing, making Coimbatore the country's motor racing hub when he designed and built
entry level race cars. Kari Motor Speedway is a Formula 3 Category circuit where formula cars
manufacturers and FIA member motorsport associations conduct championship races and rallies.
Tyre manufacturer MRF assembles Formula Ford cars in Coimbatore in association with
former F3 Champion J.Anand and racing company Super Speeds designs Formula cars.[156]
Rallying is another major event with all teams based in Coimbatore and rallies conducted in
closed roads around Coimbatore. Narain Karthikeyan, India's first Formula One driver hails from
the city. Other motorsport drivers from Coimbatore include J. Anand and V. R. Naren Kumar.[157]
Nehru Stadium, built originally for football also hosts athletic meets. The stadium has been
renovated with Korean grass for the field and a synthetic track around it for athletics.[158] Apart
from the stadium, the city also has several sports clubs including Coimbatore Golf Club, home to
a major 18-hole golf course [159] and Coimbatore Cosmopolitan Club, which is more than 100
years old,[160] was founded for Indian members only, in response to the English Coimbatore Club
which did not admit Indians until the 1950s. Coimbatore Flying Club is located in the
Coimbatore airport premises.[161] The city hosts its own annual marathon called Coimbatore
Marathon as an event to raise cancer awareness.[162] Retired tennis player Nirupama Vaidyanathan
hails from Coimbatore.[163]

Main article: Entertainment in Coimbatore

VOC Park

Cross-cut road in Gandhipuram, one of the largest shopping hubs in Coimbatore

Coimbatore also houses a number of museums and art galleries like G.D. Naidu Museum &
Industrial Exhibition, H A Gass Forest Museum, Government Museum, Kadhi Gandhi Gallery
and Kasthuri Srinivasan Art Gallery and Textile Museum.[164][165][166][167] A science park and a
planetarium is being built near Codissia trade fair complex and will be inaugurated by May 2012.

There are several amusement parks in and around the city namely, Black Thunder water theme
park near Mettupalayam, Kovai Kondattam amusement park at Perur and Maharaja Theme Park
at Nillambur. [169] Since the 1980s, the city has had a few small shopping complexes.[170] Lately,
malls have come up including Brookefields Mall and Fun Republic Mall.[171] The city also has a
number of parks including VOC park, the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University park, Race Course
children's park, Bharathi park in Saibaba Colony and many more parks. Coimbatore Zoo houses
a number of animals and birds and is located near VOC park.[172] Singanallur lake is a popular
tourist place and bird watcher destination.[173] Though there are a lot of entertainment centres
mushrooming in the city, visiting the cinema still remains the city's most popular recreational

Environmental issues
Air pollution, lack of proper waste management infrastructure and degradation of water bodies
are the major environmental issues in Coimbatore. Steel foundries were established in 1950s and
1960s when there were no residential areas nearby, but growth of the city led to creation of
residential areas around them.[citation needed] In 1990s the State Government and pollution control
board took major steps to re-locate the steel foundries out of the city.[citation needed] The textile mills
are all equipped with air treatment towers.[citation needed] Coimbatore has no proper underground
drainage or sewage system. There is a sewage treatment plant at Ukkadam in operation with the
capacity to process 70 mld of sewage water of which 20 mld is the current treating level.[175][176]
Garbage is collected by the Corporation[177] and sometimes by systems developed by the local
residents. Sewage is pumped into the water tanks and the Noyyal through streams. This along
with garbage dumping and encroachments has led to degradation of the water bodies and
depletion in the groundwater table.[178][179][180] During the 80s, the corporation planned on closing
the tanks due to encroachment by filling them with waste.[citation needed] But as a result of outcries
from civic associations, the plan was dropped.[citation needed] Currently the tanks are being renovated
by the city's environmental groups with their own fund-raising and the corporation.[181][182]
Siruthuli,[183] an environmental organisation founded by the city's industrial houses, undertakes

de-silting of tanks and cleaning of the Noyyal river.[184] The corporation is also taking efforts to
clear encroachment of the tanks.[185][186]

International relations
Twin towns Sister cities
Coimbatore has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world.
United States



State / Region


See also

Birds of Coimbatore

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