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Chitradurga

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Chitradurga district.
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Chitradurga

city

Chitradurga
Location in Karnataka, India

Coordinates:
Country
State
Region
District
Government
Member of

14.23N 76.4ECoordinates:
76.4E
India
Karnataka
Bayaluseeme
Chitradurga
B.N.Chandrappa[1]

14.23N

Parliament
Area
Total
Elevation
Population (2001)
Total
Density
Languages
Official
Time zone
PIN
Telephone code
Vehicle registration

21.57 km2 (8.33 sq mi)


732 m (2,402 ft)
122,594
5,683.54/km2 (14,720.3/sq mi)
Kannada
IST (UTC+5:30)
577 50x
08194
KA-16

Chitradurga is a city and the headquarters of Chitradurga district which is located on the valley
of the Vedavati river in the southern part of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about
200 km from the state capital Bengaluru.

Contents

1 Etymology

2 History
o 2.1 Legend of Onake Obavva

3 Geography

4 Demographics

5 Administration

6 Renewable Energy

7 Historical Places
o 7.1 Chitradurga Fort
o 7.2 Chandravalli caves

8 Gallery

9 References

Etymology
Chitradurga gets its name from Chitrakaldurga (or Picturesque castle), an umbrella-shaped
lofty hill found here. Chitradurga was also known by the names Chitradurg, Chitrakaladurga,
Chittaldurg. Chittaldrug was the Official name used during the British rulr.[2]

History
Chitradurga features bold rock hills and picturesque valleys, huge towering boulders in numerous
shapes. It is known as the "stone fortress" (Kallina Kote). According to the epic Mahabharatha, a
man-eating Rakshasa named Hidimba and his sister Hidimbi lived on the hill. Hidimba was a
source of terror to everyone around while Hidimbi was a peace loving rakshasa . When the
Pandavas came with their mother Kunti in the course of their exile, Bhima had a duel with
Hidimba in which Hidimba was killed. Thereafter Bhima married Hidimbi and they had a son
named Ghatotkacha who had magical powers. Legend has it the boulders were part of the arsenal
used during that duel. In fact, the boulders on which major part of the city rests belong to the
oldest rock formation in the country.
Timmana Nayaka, a chieftain under the Vijayanagar Empire, rose to the rank of governor of
Chitradurga as a reward from the Vijayanagara ruler, for his excellence in military services,. This
was the beginning of the rule of the Nayakas of Chitradurga. His son Obana Nayaka is known by
the name Madakari Nayaka (1588 CE). Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa (1602)
succeeded him and consolidated the kingdom to rule peacefully. As he had no heirs to succeed
him, his adopted son, the apparent heir was enthroned but was killed in few months by the
Dalavayis.
Chikkanna Nayaka (1676), the brother of Madakari Nayaka II sat on the throne, and his brother
succeeded him with the title Madakari Nayaka III in 1686. The unwillingness of Dalawayis to
accept Madakari Nayaka III's rule gave an opportunity to one of their distant relatives,
Bharamappa Nayaka to ascend the throne in 1689. He is known as the greatest of the Nayaka
rulers. The subjects of Chitradurga did not experience a good reign of the successive rulers as
they ruled on the throne for very brief periods. The Hiri Madakari Nayaka IV (1721), Kasturi
Rangappa Nayaka II (1748), Madakari Nayaka V (1758) ruled this area but there is not much to
mention of their rule.[3]

Legend of Onake Obavva

An opening in the rocks of Chitradurga fort that was used by Hyder Ali to send his soldiers. This
attempt was defeated by Obavva.
During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the town of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of
Hyder Ali. A chance sighting of a woman entering the Chitradurga fort through an opening in the
rocks led to a clever plan by Hyder Ali to send his soldiers through the hole. The guard on duty
near that hole had gone home for lunch. The wife of that guard, Obavva was passing by the hole
to collect water, when she noticed soldiers emerging out of this opening. Obavva was not
perturbed. She was carrying with her an Onake (a long wooden club meant for pounding paddy
grains). She killed Hyder Ali's soldiers one by one as they attempted to enter the fort through the
opening and quietly moved the dead. Over a short period of time hundreds of soldiers entered
and fell, without raising any suspicion. Obavva's husband, upon his return from his lunch was
shocked to see Obavva standing with a blood stained Onake and hundreds of dead bodies of the
enemy around her.Together both wife and husband beat up most of the soldiers.But as both of
them were about to finish off all the soldiers of Hyder Ali,Obavva dies. The opening in the rocks
still remains as a historical witness for the story, beside The Tanniru doni the well which Obavva
was making her way to, when she found the soldieres of Hyder Ali. Though her brave attempt
saved the fort on that occasion, Madakari Nayaka could not repel Hyder Ali's attack in 1779. In
the ensuing battle, the fort of Chitradurga was lost to Hyder Ali. Obavva, like Kittur Rani
Chennamma remains a legend, especially to the women of Karnataka.[4][5][6][7]

Geography
Chitradurga is located at 14.23N 76.4E.[8] It has an average elevation of 732 metres (2401 ft).

Demographics
As of 2001 India census,[9] Chitradurga had a population of 122,594. Males constitute 51% of the
population and females 49%. Chitradurga has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the
national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 80% and female literacy of 72%. 11% of the
population is under 6 years of age.

Administration
Chitradurga city is administered by the Chitradurga city municipal council.[10]

Renewable Energy
Chitradurga situated in a hilly region is also known to experience wind currents throughout the
year making it a suitable place to set up wind mills and wind farms. There are several WindPower based power plants located around Chitradurga and most of the hills are embellished with
wind mills which can be seen while entering the city. These wind farms have a total installed
capacity of 29.7 MW and comprise a total 18 Vestas 1.65MW wind turbines supplied by Vestas
Wind Technology India Pvt. Ltd.[11]

Historical Places
Chitradurga Fort
Chitradurga Fort was built between the 10th and 18th centuries by the kings various dynasties
during that period which are Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas, Hoysalas and Nayakas of Chitradurga.
After Nayakas lost it to Hyder Ali in the year 1779, the fort was given its finishing touches by
Hyder Ali along with his son Tipu Sultan. It comprises a series of seven enclosure walls in
Kannada. Eighteen ancient temples can be found inside the fort. This seemingly impregnable fort
has 19 gateways, 38 posterior entrances, a palace, a mosque, granaries, oil pits, four secret
entrances and water tanks.[12]

Chandravalli caves
Chandravalli caves is located amidst three hills namely Chitradurga, Cholagudda and
Kirubanakallu. These caves are a never-ending maze of steep steps that lead into passageways,
rooms and ante-rooms where kings from the Kadamaba, Satavahana and Hoysala dynasties
resided. And saints of the Ankali Math of Belgaum meditated in the temples. These caves are
well ventilated but there is no light as its pitch dark inside the secret rooms that's why the kings
used these rooms in case there was a threat of an intrusion.[13]

Gallery
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chitradurga.

Gaali mantapa

Madakari Nayaka statue


Nandi

Fort

Pond View

Inside View of Fort

Another view of Fort

Gopura


Temples inside the fort

Stone Pillars

Sampige Siddalingeshwara Temple

References
1.
"Chitradurga MP". NIC. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
"About Chitradurga". Chitradurga City Municipal Council. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka, Bangalore, 2001
"Tourism in Chitradurga". Chitradurga city municipal council. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
"Bharat: An Untold Story - Chitradurga". Tumbler.com. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
"Chitradurga Fort". Chitradurga District. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
"Synthetic track at Obavva stadium ready". Times of India.
Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Chitradurga
"Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns
(Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16.
Retrieved 2008-11-01.
"Home of Chitradurga City Municipla Council". Chitradurga City Municipal Council.
Retrieved 2014-02-19.
http://www.spartastrategy.com/blog/2011/07/top-5-locations-in-india-for-wind-energy/
"Bastion on the hill - Chitradurga Fort". The Hindu. March 7, 2013.
1.
Categories:

"Bastion on the hill - Chitradurga Fort". The Hindu. March 7, 2013.

Former capital cities in India

Cities and towns in Chitradurga district

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