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Cut your energy bills

with cogeneration

A basic guide on the principles and profitability

of small-scale cogeneration

Basic guide: small-scale cogeneration
Ta b l e o f c o n t e n ts

Note from the editors………………….......….3

A wide range of possibilities……………....…4

The technical principles………………………6

Fundamental economic considerations...…..8

Basic phases of a cogeneration project…...11

A brief project checklist….......................….12

Make your first assessment with


About COGENchallenge.............................16

Note from the editors

Cogeneration is the most efficient way of Using resources in a more efficient

energy conversion. Its wider use has various manner
positive impacts on the economy, the
environment, the responsible use of Everybody is aware of the fact that fossil fuel
resources and on security of energy supply. resources will deplete sometime. In order to
Cogeneration, also known as CHP find energy solutions of the future,
(combined heat and power), produces 10% Governments put much effort in stimulating
of all electricity and around the same share renewable fuels like biomass and biogas. In
of heat in the 25 EU countries. There is a addition, improving the efficiency of fuel use
strong political will to increase the share of will reduce the rate of fuel depletion.
cogeneration in the coming years, because Cogeneration is the most efficient method to
this well-proven technology offers a range of convert fuels into useful electricity and heat.
benefits for society. Therefore, it should be always be the first
choice for energy provision.

Stimulating the economy

Energy consumers can cut drastically their Ensuring reliability of energy supply
bills by installing cogeneration plants. They Cogeneration contributes in many ways to
can reduce the quantity of electricity bought more reliability. By generating the electricity
from the local supplier and sell excess themselves, the users of cogeneration are
electricity at an attractive price. Finally, more more independent than consumers who
cogeneration means more independent entirely depend on commercial electricity
energy producers and helps to liberalise suppliers. When electricity is produced very
European energy markets. near to the end-consumer, the entire
electricity network for the whole region is
more stable and needs less upgrading. Also,
Saving the environment bigger energy savings make all of us less
Cogeneration shows higher energy efficiency dependent on imported fuel resources.
than conventional plants (separate
production of heat and electricity). This leads Cogeneration is not only a possibility for big
to primary energy savings and lower industry and district heating. Small
emissions of carbon dioxide, the main enterprises, public authorities, even the
greenhouse gas. The development of owners of family houses can use this
cogeneration will contribute to meet the principle and realise these benefits. This
targets of the Kyoto Protocol and to combat brochure is aimed at inspiring the reader to
climate change. The cleanest energy is reflect on the question whether the
always the energy that is saved. installation of a small-scale cogeneration unit
would help to cut the energy bills and to
contribute to a greener future.

The COGENchallenge team

A wide range of possibilities

Whether you are a local authority, a small Cogenerated heat is used for domestic hot
business, a service company, a home owner, water, space heating, laundry facilities,
or in charge of the maintenance of hospitals dryers or swimming pool water heating.
or social housing you will always need Steam production is also possible in some
heating and electricity. To cover these needs cases. Finally, it is also possible to use the
you generally use a boiler for your heat heat in a heat-driven chiller to produce
needs and you buy electricity from the cooling to replace electric-driven air-
network. Another option is to cover partially conditioning.
these heating and electricity needs through a
small-scale cogeneration unit.

Small-scale cogeneration is an attractive

and practical proposition for a wide range
of applications:

the building sector: the agricultural sector:

houses and apartment buildings, Horticulture and greenhouses,

hospitals, drying crops or wood,
police stations and prisons, animal shelters,
schools and universities, use of agro-wastes such as biogas.
community heating schemes,
office buildings such as Government
buildings or banks. the industrial sector:

food processing,
services: textile production,
brewing, distilling and malting,
hotels, timber processing,
swimming pools and leisure centres, motor industry,
stores and supermarkets, and also industrial zones or parks.
shopping centres,
laundries, energy from waste using the biogas
car washes. production of:

sewage treatment works,

landfill sites.

A wide range of possibilities
A spa & fun resort in Ljubljana (Slovenia) A school in Frankfurt (Germany)

The Laguna Ljubljana resort is a camping

and hotel centre with an open swimming pool In Frankfurt, a large number of schools cover
complex and sport centre. The installed a part of their heating need with small-scale
small-scale cogeneration unit with a capacity cogeneration units. Two 50 kWe small-scale
of 230 kWe (gas engine) supplies most of cogeneration units (gas engines) were
the electricity and a high share of the total installed in the Carl Schurz school in 1993.
heat demand of the resort during the whole They produce 80 % of the annual heat
year. Compared to separate heat and power demand of the school, the gym and the
production, the installation saves around 110 swimming pool and save around 50 tonnes
tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions annually. of carbon dioxide per year.

A landfill site in Thieulloy (France) A hotel in London (United Kingdom)

The Heathrow Marriott is a large luxury hotel

with 390 guestrooms, a heated indoor
In 2004, eight microturbines of 30 kWe each swimming pool and a gym. Installed in 2001,
were installed on a landfill site nearby Paris. the 400 kWe cogeneration unit runs on
This cogeneration plant uses most of the average 17 hours per day with an average
biogas produced by the site rather than simply availability of 97.5%. The hotel management
flaring the gas. The electricity generated is sold calculated annual cost savings to have
to the French utility EDF at a price of €120,000 reached €75,700 for the first year of
per year. A greenhouse under construction operation, while avoiding over 250 tonnes of
next to the site will be supplied with heat. It is carbon dioxide emissions over the same
estimated that each year around 130 tonnes of period.
carbon dioxide will be saved thanks to the use
of biogas for producing electricity and heat.

The technical principles
Most people think of large clouds pouring out Cogeneration drastically reduces this waste
of a massive cooling tower when asked for a of energy. By converting the energy close to
picture that illustrates the production of the consumer of heat and power, it is
electricity. All of us have seen many different possible to use most of it. The graph belowe
power stations where water is used to cool illustrates this principle: in the upper half, it is
the process and then condensates into the shown how much electricity and heat a
air. Only a few, however, pose the question typical small-scale cogeneration produces
why we are actually wasting all this energy with a given number of energy input. In this
that has heated up the water and disappears example, the cogeneration unit has an
through the chimney and cooling towers? efficiency of 89%. In the case of separate
production of heat
Cogeneration Plant (in the boiler) and
electricity (in the
power station) the
11 units loss
efficiency is much
lower. Far more fuel
34 units
100 units Power is needed, because
fuel of the high losses in
Engine Generator 55 units
Heat the power station,
and additional
Separate Heat and Power Production losses in the
electricity network
33 units loss and in the boiler.
Total loss: 42 units 3 units loss

Cogeneration is a
34 units
131 units 70 Power principle and not a
fuel units 6 units loss
61 units 55 units
single technology. In
Heat general,
cogeneration can be
applied in all cases
where electricity is produced by thermal
combustion, may it be based on fossil or
renewable fuels. By exactly analysing the
consumption patterns of individual users,
cogeneration schemes can be optimised to
supply their specific needs.
The Cogeneration Principle

Engine/Generator Gas Turbine/Generator



an Power


ing O
Natural Gas
Fuel Cogeneration Plant

ss Heat
B io


Bio Fuel Cell Steam Turbine/Generator

al W

© Bundesverband Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung

The technical principles

Since the late 1990s microturbines have

become available. They are derived from
Most small-scale cogeneration units are automotive turbo-chargers and are available
internal combustion engines operating on the from 30 kWe to around 250 kWe.
same familiar principles as their petrol and Microturbines use less space than
diesel automotive counterparts. Engines run conventional engines and maintenance costs
with liquid or gaseous fuels, such as heating are lower. Moreover, the emission of
oil, natural gas or biogas, and are available pollutant gases is reduced, especially those
from 1 kWe to more than 1,000 kWe. Internal gases that cause acid rain and ozone layer
combustion engines have a higher electrical depletion. Electrical efficiencies are typically
efficiency than turbines, but the thermal lower than in internal combustion engines.
energy they produce is generally at lower
temperatures and so they are highly suited to
buildings applications. The usable Steam Turbines
heat:power ratio is normally in the range 1:1 Steam turbines have been used as prime
to 2:1. movers for large-scale cogeneration systems
for many years. Typically, steam turbines are
For very small-scale applications with a associated with larger power stations but
capacity between 0.2 kWe and 9 kWe, also smaller units starting with 200 kWe are
Stirling engines can be used. These engines frequently used. The overall efficiency
are external combustion devices and generally is very high, achieving up to 84%.
therefore differ substantially from the Steam turbines run with solid, liquid or
conventional models. The Stirling engine has gaseous fuels, both fossil and renewable.
fewer moving parts than conventional The typical heat:power ratio of steam
engines, and no valves, tappets, fuel turbines is around 6:1.
injectors or spark ignition systems. It is
therefore quieter than normal engines.
Stirling engines also require little
Fuel Cells
maintenance and the emission of pollutants A new development is the use of fuel cells
is low. for cogeneration. It needs to be said,
however, that fuel cells are not yet
commercially available. Fuel cells convert
Gas Turbines
the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen
Gas turbines have become the most widely directly into electricity without combustion
used prime mover for large-scale and mechanical work such as in turbines or
cogeneration in recent years. The waste engines. The hydrogen is usually produced
gases exhausted from the turbine have a from natural gas by a process known as
temperature of 450°C to 550°C, making the reforming. The total efficiencies of
gas turbine particularly suitable steam cogeneration systems reach 85 to 90%,
supply. Gas turbines are not only used in while the heat to power ratio is in the range
large-scale applications. Smaller units, 5:4. Fuel cells with a capacity of 1 kWe
starting at around 400 kWe are available on provide heat and power to single family
the market. houses, whereas bigger applications of
around 300 kWe can be used in hospitals for

F u n d a m e n ta l e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n
In order to fully meet the needs of the
cogeneration operator, the optimal size of the
cogeneration unit needs to be determined.
The heat load of the site is the most
important factor when defining the right
capacity. Other factors include the type of
cogeneration unit, the consumption pattern,
and the presence (or absence) of specific
public support mechanisms for cogeneration.

Example A

kWh (th)

730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h

Example A shows a cogeneration unit that is

sized in a way that allows for many operating
hours. The total amount of 6,800 operating
hours means that the unit is running for more
than nine months during the year. Only when
the heat demand is lowest (usually in the
summer period) is the machine switched off.
The rationale behind this approach is that an
investment in cogeneration amortises the
faster, the more the unit is in operation.
However, in this case only a relatively small
proportion of the heat demand is met by the
cogeneration unit. The rest will be supplied
by boilers.

Example B

kWh (th)

730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h 730h

Example B shows another possibility to

determine the right size for a cogeneration
unit. Here, the plant runs only for a certain
period of time. Consequently, the capacity
can be bigger, even if the heat load is
identical with the object of the previous
example. This option is chosen in cases,
when night time operation is uneconomic

F u n d a m e n ta l e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n
Investment into energy efficiency does not
come for free. The owner of a cogeneration
plant needs to calculate with two types of
cost: the initial costs for installing the
cogeneration plant (purchase of the
cogeneration unit, connection to the power
grid, the fuel system and the heating system,
construction and engineering) and for the
long-term costs for the fuel and for the
maintenance of the system.

Composition of typical initial costs per

unit capacity

Looking at the initial costs, the investment
into cogeneration is more capital-intensive 700.000 Connection to grid
than the investment into a boiler, which only 600.000 Connection to heating system
Total investment in Euro

produces heat and no electricity. The graph 500.000 CHP-Unit

above shows that the cogeneration unit

constitutes the biggest share of overall
investment. Generally, smaller cogeneration 300.000

units have a higher price per kWe, so that 200.000

the total initial costs vary from €700 to 100.000

€3,000 per kWe. 0

5 15 30 50 65 100 150 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
kWe of chp-plant

Initial costs of cogeneration investment

Source: ASUE 2005

Maintenance costs per unit capacity

Next to the fuel costs, long-term costs occur 4,00

due to maintenance and service needs. Most

Cost for Full-Service-Contract in [ct/kWh el]


suppliers of cogeneration units offer a full- 3,00

service contract: essentially a life-time

2,50 Price-function:
guarantee for the cogeneration unit. Full- Full-Service = 5.73 x pel-0,26 [Ct/kWhe]
service contracts have a duration of ten
years or more and should cover the costs for 1,50

lubrication, filters, spark-plugs (for engines), 1,00

etc. Cogeneration users should not shy away 0,50

from paying these additional costs, if they do
not have the knowledge for operating, 0 200 400 600 800 1.000

maintaining and overhauling these machines. electrical power of chp unit in kWe

Full-service contract costs

F u n d a m e n ta l e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n
Benefits The European Directive on Cogeneration
has been transposed into national law in
Investing into cogeneration is profitable when 2006 and obliges all European Governments
the income from the investment is higher to promote cogeneration in general and
than the initial and long-term costs. The small-scale cogeneration of up to 1,000 kWe
cogeneration owners earn money by in particular. In order to increase their share
producing electricity that they can either of cogeneration, many European
consume themselves or sell to the local Governments offer financial support for
electricity supplier. In many countries, they cogeneration users. These support
receive additional financial support from the mechanisms can be very different and are
governments, as cogeneration offers many designed according to the needs of the
benefits for the society, such as saving specific countries. Typical mechanisms are
primary energy, avoiding network losses and investment subsidies, favourable feed-in
reducing greenhouse gases. tariffs for excess electricity, white or green
certificates, reduction of energy taxes or VAT,
The cogeneration operators no longer only or specific loan programmes. In order to
buy from the local electricity supplier, they calculate the profitability of your cogeneration
produce their power themselves. However, in project, you will need to know about any
order to cover peak demand and in times, support mechanism put in place by your
when the cogeneration units are switched off, Government. A regional "cogeneration
they will rely on the electricity from the grid. facilitator" can help you, as well as national
As they can produce a considerable part of cogeneration associations or governmental
the electricity and heat needs of the site, bodies. In order to get some first indication,
substantial energy and cost savings are please consult the
achieved. website and download the country fact sheet
for your home country.
Austria 13.6
Belgium 7.5
Cyprus 0.0
Czech Republic 17.1
Denmark 49.1
Estonia 11.0
Finland 38.0
France 4.0
Germany 9.8
Greece 7.8
Hungary 21.5
Ireland 2.5
Italy 7.4
Latvia 37.5
Lithuania 9.7
Luxembourg 7.9
Malta 0.0
Netherlands 29.9
Poland 16.0
Portugal 10.0
Slovakia 17.5
Slovenia 5.9
Spain 7.8
Sweden 6.8
United Kingdom 5.4

Share of cogeneration in the

10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 %
EU-25 countries in the year 2002 (in %)
Source: Eurostat 2006

Basic phases of a cogeneration project
different sizes of cogeneration units. They
Sizing of the cogeneration unit
can calculate for each size the profitability
If a cogeneration project is well designed, and then propose the best option giving also
primary energy savings of 10 to 25% can be an assessment of the economical benefits,
achieved. Projects with such a high amount the energy and environmental balance, and
of energy savings are also known as "high the technical integration into the building.
efficiency cogeneration". In order to reach
these results, it must be ensured that as little The COGENchallenge team recommends to
energy as possible is wasted. This can be you to begin by doing the first assessment
only done by using the entire amount of heat yourself. For this reason, we have created a
and electricity produced by the cogeneration simplified version of the same software tool
unit in an effective and efficient way. that energy professionals use in their work.
The Excel-based software easyCOGEN.xls
The first big challenge for the realisation of a allows also non-experts to carry out a first
high efficiency cogeneration project therefore rough assessment whether the installation of
is to find the right capacity of the a cogeneration plant is a good option or not.
cogeneration unit. If the unit is too small, the On the pages 14 and 15 of this brochure
opportunity to save more energy is missed. If there is a manual on how to use
the unit is too big, energy will be wasted. easyCOGEN.xls.
Project developers determine the size of a
unit always according to various criteria such
as the heat load, the electricity needs and Choose your individual financing option
the regulatory framework. Another important As with all other investments in life the rate
aspect is the question, whether it is possible of return of your investment in cogeneration
to sell excess electricity. depends on the level of risk that you are
willing to take. You have different options
The purchase and the installation of a such as managing the entire investment by
cogeneration unit is a considerable yourself, signing a "partnership contract" with
investment which needs to pay back. The an energy supplier, or agreeing to a so-called
more hours of a year the cogeneration unit is Third Party Financing (TPF) contract. In this
in operation, the more money is saved during case, a third partner will carry out the
this year. Therefore, project developers investment and the maintenance of the unit.
choose a size for the cogeneration unit which You should thoroughly assess, which option
does not cover the highest possible heat fits best to your financing plan. If you want to
load but only the base load which is stable know more about financing cogeneration
during the year. projects, please consult the respective
COGENchallenge brochure, which will be
available on the website from June 2006
Do your first assessment for free onwards.

Depending on your site's energy needs and

the operational requirements, a range of
energy experts can assist you in carrying out
a proper sizing of your cogeneration project.
These may be the supplier of the
cogeneration unit, an energy consultant or a
so-called energy services company (ESCO).
With a "feasibility study" the experts can
measure your consumption of heating fuel
and of electricity and simulate (with a
complex software tool)

A brief project checklist
If the technical and economical analysis is It is also helpful to know the interconnection
positive for a cogeneration plant, some legal costs. These costs can vary from 5 to 20% of
and other aspects have to be kept in mind. the total installation costs. More often, the
Depending on the size of the plant, an distribution network operator will facilitate the
operator needs permissions from different interconnection of your cogeneration unit.
parties. The following checklist will give some For instance, the electricity produced by a
hints, but cannot cover all national cogeneration unit might receive preferential
regulations in the European countries. Again, treatment when fed into the grid. The
it is helpful to ask local facilitators or distribution network operator is normally the
engineers or even the suppliers which have right address to find out about the conditions
experience with cogeneration installations. in your country and region. In some countries
you will be asked to add a "decoupling
connection" system to your cogeneration
Grid connection
plant. The performance of this decoupling
The distribution network operator should be system needs to be tested before you start to
involved in the project at an early stage. In run your cogeneration plant.
the case of bigger units the impact on the
grid needs to be checked and the point of
interconnection needs to be defined.

G easyCOGEN.xls
G feasibility study
G grid connection
G distribution network operator
G fuel contract
G building authorities
G administrative procedures
G emissions regulations
G maintenance
G public support mechanisms

A brief project checklist

Electricity distributor Emissions regulations

Running a cogeneration unit may have an In each country there are certain regulations
effect on the price you pay for electrical on air quality that need to be fulfilled.
energy. Even if your electricity bill will Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) typically
decrease after installing a cogeneration unit, cause the greatest concern and legislative
the unit price of your electricity might attention. Nitrogen oxides are toxic, form
increase, because you purchase fewer units. acid rain and contribute to the depletion of
This effect must be taken into account in the the ozone layer. Emissions can be reduced
feasibility study before you decide whether to by regularly maintaining the cogeneration
install a cogeneration unit or not. plant. Additional emissions regulations may
concern sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon
Fuel contract monoxide (CO) and dust.

With the installation of a cogeneration unit,

your fuel consumption on the site will Maintenance
increase. Therefore, you should contact your In order to calculate the economical benefits
fuel supplier to amend the contract, if of a cogeneration plant it is necessary to
necessary. know the maintenance cost for a "full-
service-contract". You will find more
information on maintenance costs on page 9
Building authority
of this brochure.
Depending on your home country and
region, you might need to ask for a
permission of the building authorities Public support mechanisms
allowing you to install a small-scale This is an important item for the potential
cogeneration unit. The building regulations investor and needs to be thoroughly
vary substantially across Europe, so that a checked. All over Europe there are different
generalising statement is difficult to make. In public support mechanisms for cogeneration
any case, you should get informed about the in place. It is sometimes necessary to
regulations in your region. contact a variety of different public authorities
in order to receive all financial support (for
the actual investment but also for the
Administrative permitting and feasibility study). You will find more
licensing procedures
information on the public support
In some countries, you will need a license to mechanisms in your country on the
generate electricity. In other countries, the COGENchallenge website. In order to have
authorities will require you to fulfill certain complete information on possible support,
legal regulations if you want to sell your you should also ask a regional expert in this
electricity to a third party. These regulations field.
vary substantially depending on your country
and region. In order to clarify these rules you
need to ask a cogeneration expert.

Make your first assessment with
easyCOGEN.xls allows you to make a first please first choose whether you are using
rough assessment whether the installation of gas or heating oil for heating your building.
a cogeneration unit is an option for you or Type in the annual consumption (in kWh for
not. You can download this Excel file on the gas, in litres for heating oil) of heating fuel. website. By You will find this information on the bill from
entering key data of your project (buildings, your energy distributor.
enterprise, offices, etc) in the blue boxes you
can assess easily the size and the
profitability of a suitable cogeneration unit 3. Step: Choose a specific thermal profile
(results are shown in the grey boxes).
By selecting one of the six activities of the
Please be aware that this is only a very drop-down menu you know the optimum
rough indicator whether your cogeneration share of your heat demand that could be
project is profitable or not. If the covered by a cogeneration unit. You will see
"conclusions" at the end of the programme automatically, how many hours of the year
appear in green, you should consult an the unit would be in operation, the thermal
expert (e.g. a supplier, a developer, a capacity (in kW), and a graph with your heat
cogeneration facilitator) for carrying out a production (cogeneration and boiler) per
feasibility study. month.

easyCOGEN.xls cannot assist you for

planning cogeneration projects based on 4. Step: Choose the cogeneration
renewable fuels. These projects are more technology
complex to calculate as they, on the one
hand, need more technical equipment, and, If you use natural gas as fuel for your boiler,
on the other hand, benefit from additional you will automatically choose the natural gas
financial support programmes. engine as cogeneration technology for your
project. In the case that you have an oil-fired
boiler, you have the choice to either opt for a
This small users' guide explains to you diesel-engine or for a natural gas engine.
how to work with easyCOGEN.xls. Should
you have difficulties with this programme,
please contact the COGENchallenge team 5. Step: Determine your profits from
producing electricity

1. Step: Location of the project: Please type in the amount of your annual
electricity consumption and of your annual
Please choose the country (and region) electricity bill. The programme will calculate
where you want to realise your cogeneration the average electricity price that you pay and
project. Due to geographical differences such multiply it with the amount of electricity
as climate conditions and public support produced by your cogeneration unit. Below,
mechanisms, the location has got an you will find your annual profits by producing
important impact on the calculation of the the power yourself.

6. Step: Determine your profits from

2. Step: Determine your net heat demand producing heat

The net heat demand is the single most Please type in, how much you pay per year
important value that determines the size of for heating oil / natural gas. The programme
your high efficiency cogeneration unit. In will automatically calculate your average fuel
order to calculate the net heat demand, price and will determine the value of the heat
that you produce with the cogeneration unit.

Make your first assessment with
7. Step: Determine the long-term costs of In the case that you want to realise your
the cogeneration plant cogeneration project in one of the
COGENchallenge focus countries (Austria,
As page 9 of this brochure shows there are Belgium, Germany, Slovenia and Spain),
long-term costs for investing into easyCOGEN.xls will automatically calculate
cogeneration. easyCOGEN.xls calculates the level of financial public support for your
automatically the amount of fuel consumed plant.
by the cogeneration plant per year and the
level of annual maintenance costs. By typing For all other countries, you need to enter this
in the costs (per kWh in the case of natural data yourself. Principally, there are two
gas, per litre in the case of heating oil) you support instruments: the first is an
can assess how large the fuel bill would be, investment aid that covers a certain
if you realise the project. percentage of your initial investment costs.
Should your government have put such an
instrument in place, please enter the value
8. Step: Determine the profitability of your (in %) so that you can see the amount of
cogeneration project: money that you will have to investment
yourself upfront. The second type of public
easyCOGEN.xls calculates for you the "Total support instruments is paid on an annual
initial investment" which is the sum of the basis. Should your cogeneration plant be
cogeneration unit (72%), the installation eligible for such financial help, please type in
costs (7%), buildings adaptation costs (7%), the amount of money (in €) you expect to
study costs (5%), grid connection costs (3%), receive per year.
and other costs (6%).

easy COGEN.xls
Rough calculation tool for small-scale cogeneration projects

= Enter your data in the blues boxes.

= The results are given in the grey boxes. If you want to, you can change the underlying formulas.

Name of the project :

...type in the name of your project...

First sizing of the cogeneration unit

1 step : Location of the project Austria

If the "Conclusions" at the end of the programme appear in green,

you should consult an expert for carrying out a feasibility study

The European information campaign on small-scale cogeneration

About this guide Visit our website

The basic guide on the principles and Under you will
profitability of small-scale cogeneration is find additional information on small-scale
aimed at everybody who is interested in cogeneration, including:
reducing energy bills and contributing to a
cleaner environment. It explains in clear addresses of suppliers of
terms what cogeneration is, who can use it, cogeneration units and of project
and how much sense it makes from the developers close to you
economic point of view. The guide includes
examples of typical small-scale cogeneration fact sheets describing the legal and
applications and shows how to make a first economic framework in your country
rough cost-benefit analysis.
calculation tools that help you to
Further information carry out feasibility tests

In the case that you find the installation of a a list of showcases of successful
cogeneration unit useful for your situation, small-scale cogeneration projects
you should consult an expert. In six (target: 1,000)
European cities a “facilitator” for small-scale
cogeneration can assist interested parties a calendar showing information and
with his knowledge and experience with this training events on small-scale
technology. In Graz (Austria), Namur cogeneration
(Belgium), Frankfurt am Main (Germany),
Lyon (France), Ljubljana (Slovenia) and
Oviedo (Spain) the facilitators can be
contacted directly as experts for their regions
and countries. In most other European
countries there is a national cogeneration
association that is able to assist you.

Legal disclaimer Contact

The publication of this brochure has been

Frank Knecht
supported by the European Commission under its
Intelligent Energy Europe Programme. The sole
Project Co-ordinator
responsibility for the content of this publication lies T: +32 (2) 772.82.90
with the authors. It does not represent the opinion E:
of the Community. The European Commission is
not responsible for any use that may be made of
the information contained therein.