2 views

Uploaded by Bách Vũ Trọng

- Process Parameter Optimization for Fab
- Commscope Commissioning Procedure_ION-B Rev 0
- Get 22 PDF
- Commscope Commissioning Procedure_ION-M Rev 0
- Rocketdish Rd 5g31 Ac Ds
- 62 - edit[1]
- qam
- Optimization and thermal analysis of Friction Drilling on Aluminium and Mild Steel by using Tungsten Carbide Tool
- TQM
- Answer Chapter 3
- APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD for dissimillar metal.pdf
- DT Parameters
- Influence of Process Parameters on the Deep Drawing of Stainless Steel
- NoisedetectionPhysMeas2012.pdf
- Average Snr and Ergodic Capacity Analysis for Opportunistic Df Relaying With Outage Over Rayleigh Fading Channels
- Unser Manual -Thor Broadcast H-1-4hdmi-Qam-ipll- H-1-4sdi-Qam-ipll 1-4 Hdmi & Sdi Encoder Modulator
- chapter12
- Passive Intermodulation v2a
- Bassler Cameras Catalog
- M_der_zxmw Nr8120a Nr8120d (r4.2a) Product Description_v1.01_20160330

You are on page 1of 6

Gamma-Gamma Fading Channels

Bach T. Vu, Truong C. Thang, and Anh T. Pham

Computer Communications Lab., The University of Aizu

Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima, Japan 965-8580

Emaill:{m5172109,thang,pham}@u-aizu.ac.jp

AbstractThis paper analytically studies the performance of

selection decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative free-space optical

communication (FSO) systems employing adaptive subcarrier

quadrature amplitude modulation (SC-QAM) taking into account

the fading effect caused by atmospheric turbulence. Closed-form

expressions of outage probability, spectral efficiency and bit-error

rate (BER) are derived using a novel accurate series approximation method. Numerical results highlight the improvement of

the proposed system compared with all-active relaying and nonadaptive FSO systems. The validity of the analytical method is

also confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Relaying technique in free-space optical (FSO) systems

has recently attracted much attention thanks to its advantages

of additional degrees, avoiding line-of-sight requirement and

mitigating atmospheric turbulence, which are the most critical

problems in FSO [1]. The performance of all-active relaying

FSO systems has been deeply considered with two practical

schemes: decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward

(AF) [2][3]. Despite those benefits, relaying FSO however

comes at the requirement of the synchronization between

intermediate nodes and the inefficient utilization of resources

since the fading effect caused by the atmospheric turbulence

may affect most of relaying paths.

To address such limitations in cooperative relaying FSO

systems, selective protocol, which allows selecting the best

intermediate node as a candidate for sending signal with

the assumption of channel state information (CSI) availability, has been proposed [4]. Selective relay protocol can be

classified into two categories: best relay selection, where the

selected node is decided based on CSI of source-relay and

relay-destination links, and partial relay selection, where only

source-relay hop is considered [5]. Recent studies related to

best relay selection have been carried out for relaying FSO

systems [6], [7]. In [6], the log-normal fading model, which

is only appropriate for weak turbulence, was considered. In [7],

only the asymptotic bounds were derived using the Meijers

G-function expression of the cumulative distribution function

(CDF) of Gamma-Gamma distribution.

On the other hand, another promising method to reduce the

impact of fading, and thus to improve the system performance

is the employment adaptive scheme. As the originally proposed idea, by varying transmission rate via changing modula-

performance without increasing transmitted power, the cost

and physical size of the overall system. An adaptive subcarrier

phase shift keying intensity modulation (SC-PSK) has been

proposed in all-active relaying FSO considering both weak

and strong turbulent conditions [8]. In [9], Hassan investigated

the performance constant-power adaptive quadrature amplitude

modulation (QAM) FSO system over Gamma-Gamma channel. Such systems however require a significantly high signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for achieving the reasonable performance.

While adaptive technique has been widely studied for both

AF and DF cooperative wireless communication [10][12],

to the best of the authors knowledge, such study in FSO

communications, especially for the selective FSO, has not been

clarified.

In this paper, we therefore analytically investigate the performance of selection DF cooperative FSO systems employing

SC-QAM modulation over Gamma-Gamma channels, which

is appropriate for a wide range of atmospheric turbulence.

The adaptive rate strategy is employed to further improve the

system performance. In addition, a novel series approximation

method that offers more accurate and tractable form is proposed so that the closed-form expressions of outage probability, spectral efficiency and average bit error rate (BER) can be

analytically derived. The analytical method is also excellently

validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results

demonstrate the advantages of proposed system with adaptive

technique compared to non-adaptive and all-active relaying

system.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In

Section II, the system and channel model are described in

detail. In Section III, the performance analysis of the proposed

system is provided in term of outage probability, spectral

efficiency and BER for Gamma-Gamma channel. Next, in

Section IV, the numerical results are presented with different

number of relaying nodes and physical parameters. Finally, the

conclusions are given in Section V.

II. S YSTEM D ESCRIPTIONS

A. System Model

We consider a cooperative FSO system as depicted in Fig.

1 that includes a transmitter S, a receiver D and N relaying

kind and order i. () denotes the gamma function [14]. In

case the spherical wave propagation is assumed, the shaping

parameters and are related to the physical parameters as

#

)1

(

"

0.4922

, (6)

1

= exp

12/5

(1 + 0.18d2 + 0.562 )7/6

(

"

#

)1

12/5

0.5122 (1 + 0.692 )5/6

= exp

1

.

(7)

12/5

(1 + 0.9d2 + 0.62d2 2 )

Relays

1

Feedback

Transmitter

L and the aperture

p

diameter of the receiver D as d = kD2 /4L, k = 2/ is

the optical wave number and the Rytov variance is given by

Receiver

system is epitomized in two phases: in the former phase, the

transmitter broadcasts SC-QAM signals with a Gray-coding to

the receiver through all of the relaying nodes. Here, a perfect

CSI estimation at the receiver is assumed and a fixed DF

strategy of N relays is applied to allow incorrectly decoded

signals can be forwarded to the destination. In the latter phase,

only the best relay will be selected as the candidate for the

transmission. Let denote the average SNR per bit on each

hop (S Ri and Ri D), the corresponding instantaneous

SNRs of the ith branch can be expressed as follows

SRi = x2 SRi ,

Ri D = x2 Ri D ,

(1)

(2)

and Ri D links, respectively. is the optical-to-electrical

conversion index, 0 < 6 1.1 In best selection FSO system,

the best relaying path with largest received end-to-end SNR

will be selected. The equivalent end-to-end SNR on ith branch

can be approximated by adopting the cut-off bound in high

SNR regime as [13]:

eqi = min{SRi , Ri D }.

(3)

After the approximation, the best selection SNR is straightforwardly determined by the maximum value of eqi :

max = max {eqi }

i=1,...,N

(4)

B. Channel Model

The scintillation can be modeled as a random variance

(RV) using Gamma-Gamma distribution since it obtains a high

accuracy for a wide range of atmospheric turbulence [14].

The probability density function (PDF) of the scintillation is

therefore given by

fX (x) =

1 For

p

2()(+)/2 (+)/21

x

K 2 x ,

()()

(5)

Uniphase CTR915 Series) may be used [16].

(8)

of up to a few kilometers, the value of Cn2 is taken to be a

constant in a range of 1017 m2/3 to 1013 m2/3 . By rewriting the modified Bessel function in term of the series and

making a simple transformation of RV, yield

+z

+z

X

dz (, ) 2 1 dz (, ) 2 1

+

, (9)

f ()=

z=0

where, dz (, ) is defined as

()+z

(10)

2sin(( ))z!()()( + z + 1)

Consequently, the CDF of can be obtained by integrating its

PDF function

+z

+z

X

2

2

F ()=

+rz (, )

rz (, )

,

(11)

z=0

dz (, )=

that the infinite series in (9) and (11) converge quickly with

the typical values of and ( > ) [14]. For obtaining

expressions of PDF and CDF of the instantaneous SNR on

each hop, parameters and are replaced by those individual

values on that link (i.e. on the first hop of the first branch, the

values of and would be SR1 and SR1 , respectively).

C. Adaptive Rate Strategy for SC-QAM

In this paper, a discrete adaptive technique is applied, the

system responds to the channel by changing the signals

constellation according to the received SNR. The targeted BER

is assumed to be BER0 , the estimated maximum end-to-end

SNR is partitioned into a specific region m m+1

using the K switching levels in the set > = {0 , 1 , ..., K }.

Once the SNR region is accurately determined, the receiver

will decide a proper modulation order, the transmitter is

then informed about decided modulation scheme through a

feedback path (i.e. RF link). Here, we used the relationship as

below to map from SNR region and selected constellation.

Mm = Im Qm = 2m

if m < m+1 .

(12)

In this section, we derive some important metrics to analyze

the system performance. Firstly, let us derive the expressions

of CDF and PDF of max respectively can be given as

following equations2

X

X

,

(13)

Fmax () =

cz

p +...+p +q +...

z=0

of Im Qm QAM system which can be calculated by summing

the error probabilities on each bit:

log2 Im (12u)Im 1

Pinst () =

X

gz

fmax () =

+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

z=0

1

(14)

where cz and P

are given in Eqs (15) and (16) respectively,

N

gz = cz /2.

i=1 pi + qi + wi = N , pi + qi + wi = 1

and pi , qi , wi {0, 1}. pi1 , pi2 , qi1 , qi2 , wi1 , wi2 , wi3 , wi4

{0, 1}, pi1 + pi2 = pi , qi1 + qi2 = qi , wi1 + wi2 = wi , wi3 +

wi4 = wi . SRi and SRi , Ri D and Ri D are the shaping

parameters on S Ri and Ri D hops, respectively. The

notation r(t) in (16) means that r is convolved (t 1) times

with itself (i.e. r(2) = r r, r(1) = r, and r(0) = 1) [14].

General Case. This Corollary considers the system performance in general case when the instantaneous SNRs on each

hop are independent but not identical.

threshold which corresponds to lowest possible modulation.

Based on (13), the outage probability can be expressed as

Pout = Pr(max < 0 ) = Fmax (0 )

u=1

i1 =0

w=1

j1 =0

A(Qm, w, j1)Q(B(Qm , j1 ) ),

are the functions respectively defined as

x1

2

c

b t.2

A(Im , x, t) =

(1) MI

Im log2 (Im Qm )

t.2x1

1

2x1 b

+ c ,

(22)

I

2

sm

6 log2 (Im Qm )

,

(23)

B(Im , i1 ) = (2i1 + 1)

2 + Q2 2

Im

m

here, btc denotes the largest integer to t. Combining (14)

and (20), and using integral techniques, we have following

expression for Pm :

log2 Im (12u)Im 1

Pm =

A. Outage Probability

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

1

1

N

+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

u=1

i1 =0

+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

X

z=0

gz

(25)

"

/2 2 m+1

Q B(Im , i1)

+

m

m+1 !#

2

/2 eB(Im ,i1)2 /2

e2B(Im ,i1) /3

+

2

6B(Im , i1)2

2B(Im , i1)

A(Im, m, i1)

(17)

B. Spectral Efficiency

transmitted per unit bandwidth and given by

K

X

S=

bm log2 (Mm ),

(18)

m=1

m th region, bm = Fmax (m+1 ) Fmax (m ) with m is the

mth switching threshold.

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

w=1

j1 =0

+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

X

z=0

gz

"

/2 2 m+1

A(Qm, w, j1) Q B(Qm , j1 )

+

m

m+1 !#

2

/2 eB(Qm ,j1 )2 /2

e2B(Qm ,j1 ) /3

+

2

6B(Qm , j1 )2

2B(Qm , j1 )

m

The average bit error rate can be defined as the ratio of

the average number of bits sent in error to the average total

number of transmitted bits, therefore given as

PM

Pm log2 Mm

,

(19)

P = Pm=1

M

m=1 bm log2 Mm

here, Pm represents the BER when received SNR falls into

mth region. Over slow fading channel, Pm can be averaged

over the change of CSI as

Z m+1

Pm =

Pinst ()fmax ()d.

(20)

m

2 The

CSIs. The complexity for computation of Pm mainly comes

from the selection of parameters pi1 , pi2 , qi1 , qi2 , wi1 , wi2 ,

(i = 1, ..., N ) and the convolution in Eq. (16). For the

practical systems, if the relaying nodes are located close

to each other with the same distance from the transmitter

and the receiver, all of the links have the same atmospheric

turbulence condition, the instantaneous SNRs can be seen

as the independent identical distributed Gamma-Gamma RVs.

Thus, it is worthwhile to take into account such special case

in our proposed system in the following.

Special Case. The instantaneous SNRs are independent and

identically distributed Gamma-Gamma random variances with

parameters SRi = Ri D = and SRi = Ri D = .

N

N

i

X

X

1h

z+

SRi (pi1 + wi1 ) + Ri D (qi1 + wi2 ) +

SRi (pi2 + wi3 ) + Ri D (qi2 + wi4 ) ,

2

i=1

i=1

cz = (1)

w1 +...+wN

(15)

(16)

m+1

2

[z+l+(2N kl)]/2

PI = A(Im, u, i1) Q B(Im , i1)

z + l + (2N k l) m

m+1 !

2

[z+l+(2N kl2)]/2 eB(Im ,i1)2 /2

e2B(Im ,i1) /3

+

+

2

6B(Im , i1)2

2B(Im , i1)

(24)

expressions respectively as follows

and

fmax () =

kX

N 2N

X

X

k=0 l=0 z=0

gzkl (2N k l, l)

!

kl)

z+l+(2N

1 1

2

Selection

Simulation

Allactive

10

Outage probability

N 2Nk

z+l+(2N2 kl)

X

XX

czkl (2N kl, l)

Fmax () =

(26)

10

10

10

N = 4, 3, 2, 1

4

10

(27)

5

10

where

czkl (u, v) =

rz(u) (, ) rz(v) (, ),

1

2 czkl (u, v)

be further simplified as

Pm =

N 2N

kX

X

X

k=0 l=0 z=0

i1 =0

10

10

20

30

40

50

(28)

Fig. 2. Outage probability versus SNR per bit of selection decode-and-forward

cooperative FSO systems with adaptive rate strategy over Gamma-Gamma

2 =

fading channel for various number of relay nodes, L = 2000 m, Cn

9 1014 m2/3 .

(29)

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

PI +

gzkl (2N k l, l)

"log Im (12u)Im 1

2

X

X

u=1

2N k

N

(1)N k 2k

l

k

w=1

j1 =0

#

PQ ,

the similar way, PQ can be obtained by replacing parameters

Im , u, i1 in the formula of PI by Qm , w, j1 , respectively.

IV. N UMERICAL R ESULTS

In this section, we verify the derived formula of CDF

from Section III by Monte Carlo simulations and use them

to consider the performance of the proposed system over

Gamma-Gamma channel. For sake of simplicity, we limited

our study case of instantaneous SNRs to independent identical

aperture diameter of the receiver is D = 0.01 m, which is

a proper value in agreement with [16]. The link distance on

each hop is equally chosen to be L = 2000 m, the operating

wavelength is assumed to be = 1.55 m and required BER

is BER0 = 105 .

In Fig. 2, we investigate the outage probability of the

proposed system with different number of selections and

turbulence strength Cn2 = 9 1014 m2/3 . It is remarked

that when the series in (13) are truncated to z = 50, we can

obtain theoretical curves closely follow the simulated curves

in N = 1, 2, 3, 4 cases. As expected results, the increase in selective path yields the significantly better outage performance.

10

10

Theory

Simulation

10

N = 1, 2, 3

Cn2 = 5 1014

10

10

Average BER

Outage probability

10

10

10

10

10

10

Non-adaptive N = 1

Non-adaptive N = 2

Non-adaptive N = 3

Adaptive N = 1

Adaptive N = 2

Adaptive N = 3

N = 1, 2, 3

Cn2 = 1014

10

10

10

6

10

10

20

30

40

50

10

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

cooperative FSO systems with adaptive rate strategy over Gamma-Gamma

fading channels for various turbulence strength, L = 2000 m.

Fig. 5. Average bit error rate versus SNR per bit of selection decodeand-forward cooperative FSO systems using SC-QAM over Gamma-Gamma

fading channel with adaptive and non-adaptive schemes, L = 2000 m,

2 = 9 1014 m2/3 .

Cn

5

4.5

Spectral efficiency

4

3.5

N =3

3

2.5

N =2

N =1

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Fig. 4. Spectral efficiency versus SNR per bit of selection decode-andforward cooperative FSO systems using SC-QAM over Gamma-Gamma

fading channels with four-regions adaptive scheme, L = 2000 m.

benefits roughly 20 dB of the required SNR per bit compared

to that of single-selection. Moreover, a comparison to all-active

system highlights the improvement of selective scheme with

roughly 5 dB of SNR gain (i.e. at Pout = 106 , proposed

selective system with three-selections only needs 35 dB while

all-active system with three-relay requires about 40 dB of SNR

per bit).

In Fig. 3, the impact of the turbulence strength on the outage

performance with various selective relay systems is presented.

By comparing two regimes: Cn2 = 1014 m2/3 and Cn2 =

5 1014 m2/3 we can observe that the system performance

depends strongly on the turbulence strength. Particularly, in

moderate turbulence condition Cn2 = 1014 m2/3 , the singleselection DF system performs similarly to the performance

of three-selections DF system over strong turbulence channel

Cn2 = 5 1014 m2/3 .

Next, the spectral efficiency is discussed in Fig. 4 for K = 4

regions adaptive DF relaying system for different turbulence

strength Cn2 = 5 1014 m2/3 and Cn2 = 9 1014

m2/3 . By comparing three cases with N = 1, 2, 3, it is seen

that selective relaying system greatly improves the spectral

efficiency. Moreover, the spectral efficiency decreases slightly

when the turbulence becomes stronger. This is because the

system required additional SNR to maintain the targeted BER,

thus it switches to the lower-order modulation.

Finally, Fig. 5 shows the average BER of both proposed

system and non-adaptive selective DF/FSO system over strong

turbulence channel with Cn2 = 9 1014 m2/3 . As can be

seen from this figure, using adaptive technique can improve

the systems average BER. For instance, in case of twoselections DF relaying system, adaptive technique advantages

approximately 2.5 dB compared to non-adaptive regime. However, adding more selection from N = 1 N = 2 and

N = 2 N = 3 leads to the reduction in term of required

SNR gain. This is an expected result since the system tends

to pick the highest modulation order as the fading effect is

mitigated when increasing the number of selections.

V. C ONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we have derived the novel accurate closedform expressions of outage probability, spectral efficiency

and average BER of selection decode-and-forward cooperative FSO systems with adaptive rate strategy over GammaGamma fading channels. The numerical results illustrated the

dependence of system performance on physical parameters

selective scheme in mitigating the fading effect. Monte Carlo

simulations were also provided to validate theoretical results.

A PPENDIX A

D ERIVATION OF CDF OF max

From equation (3), the CDF of the equivalent SNR of ith

branch can be expressed as

Feqi () = 1 1 FSRi () 1 FRi D ()

(30)

= FSRi () + FRi D () FSRi ()FRi D ().

Fmax () =

N

Y

i=1

N

Y

+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

i=1

w1 +...+wN

(1)

+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

(31)

of CDF of max as in equation (13) and the derivation of PDF

is completed by deriving its CDF function.

A PPENDIX B

BER FOR N ON - ADAPTIVE S YSTEM

For non-adaptive system, the BER can be calculated as

Z

P =

Pinst ()fmax ()d,

(32)

0

where Pinst () and fmax () are given in and (21) and (27),

respectively. According to an useful equation [14, Eq. 41]:

Z p

(b, ) =

Q b 2 y1 d

0

y

,

=

b y

we have

N 2N

kX

1

X

X

P =

gz

z=0

(33)

(34)

k=0 l=0

h

X

X

A(Im, u, i1)

B(Im , i1)2 , +

u=1

+ A(Qm, w, j1)

i1 =0

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

w=1

j1 =0

i

B(Qm , j1 )2 , .

R EFERENCES

[1] Tsiftsis, T.A.; Sandalidis, H.G.; Karagiannidis, G.K.; Sagias, N.C.,

Multihop Free-Space Optical Communications Over Strong Turbulence

Channels, Communications, 2006. ICC 06. IEEE International Conference, vol. 6, pp. 27552759, June 2006.

[2] Bhatnagar, M.R., Performance Analysis of Decode-and-Forward Relaying in Gamma-Gamma Fading Channels, Photonics Technology Letters,

IEEE, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 545547, April 2012.

[3] Karimi, M.; Nasiri-Kenari, M., Free Space Optical Communications

via Optical Amplify-and-Forward Relaying, Lightwave Technology,

Journal, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 242248, Jan. 2011.

[4] Bhatnagar, M.R., Average BER analysis of relay selection based

decode-and-forward cooperative communication over Gamma-Gamma

fading FSO links, Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International

Conference, vol., no., pp. 31423147, June 2013.

[5] Moradi, H.; Refai, H.H.; LoPresti, P.G.; Atiquzzaman, M., Selection

diversity for wireless optical communications with non-coherent detection without CSI, GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2010 IEEE,

pp. 10101014, Dec. 2010.

[6] Abou-Rjeily, C., Performance Analysis of Selective Relaying in Cooperative Free-Space Optical Systems, Lightwave Technology, Journal,

vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 29652973, Sept. 2013.

[7] Chatzidiamantis, N.D.; Michalopoulos, D.S.; Kriezis, E.E.; Karagiannidis, G.K.; Schober, R., Relay selection protocols for relay-assisted

free-space optical systems, Optical Communications and Networking,

IEEE/OSA Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 92103, Jan. 2013.

[8] Chatzidiamantis, N.D.; Lioumpas, A.S.; Karagiannidis, G.K.; Arnon, S.,

Adaptive Subcarrier PSK Intensity Modulation in Free Space Optical

Systems, Communications, IEEE Transactions, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1368

1377, May 2011.

[9] Hassan, M.Z.; Hossain, M.J.; Cheng, J., Performance of adaptive

subcarrier QAM intensity modulation in Gamma-Gamma turbulence,

Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference, pp. 3137

3141, 9-13 June 2013.

[10] Rao, A.; Alouini, M.-S., Adaptive modulation with best user selection

over non-identical Nakagami fading channels, Wireless Communication

Systems (ISWCS), 2011 8th International Symposium, pp. 609613, 6-9

Nov. 2011.

[11] Dawei Zhao; Honglin Zhao, Constellation design for decode-andforward relay networks with adaptive modulation, Personal Indoor and

Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2012 IEEE 23rd International

Symposium, vol., no., pp. 851856, 9-12 Sept. 2012.

[12] Nechiporenko, T.; Kalansuriya, P.; Tellambura, C., Performance of Optimum Switching Adaptive M -QAM for Amplify-and-Forward Relays,

Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 22582268,

Jun 2009.

[13] Duong, T.Q.; Vo Nguyen Quoc Bao; Zepernick, H., On the performance of selection decode-and-forward relay networks over Nakagamim fading channels, Communications Letters, IEEE, vol. 13, no. 3, pp.

172174, March 2009.

[14] Bayaki, E.; Schober, R.; Mallik, R.K., Performance analysis of MIMO

free-space optical systems in Gamma-Gamma fading, Communications,

IEEE Transactions, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 34153424, Nov. 2009.

[15] Goldsmith, A.J.; Soon-Ghee Chua, Variable-rate variable-power

MQAM for fading channels, Communications, IEEE Transactions, vol.

45, no. 10, pp. 12181230, Oct. 1997.

[16] Peppas, K.P.; Datsikas, C.K.,Average Symbol Error Probability of

General-Order Rectangular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation of Optical Wireless Communication Systems Over Atmospheric Turbulence

Channels, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 102110, Feb. 2010.

[17] Vu, B.T.; Dang, N.T.; Thang, T.C.; Pham, A.T., Bit error rate analysis

of rectangular QAM/FSO systems using an APD receiver over atmospheric turbulence channels, Optical Communications and Networking,

IEEE/OSA Journal, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 437446, May 2013.

- Process Parameter Optimization for FabUploaded byVijay Thomson
- Commscope Commissioning Procedure_ION-B Rev 0Uploaded byroybutcher
- Get 22 PDFUploaded byvaibhauu
- Commscope Commissioning Procedure_ION-M Rev 0Uploaded byroybutcher
- Rocketdish Rd 5g31 Ac DsUploaded bypablodres17
- 62 - edit[1]Uploaded byDan M Shalev
- qamUploaded byAmzar Abdul malik
- Optimization and thermal analysis of Friction Drilling on Aluminium and Mild Steel by using Tungsten Carbide ToolUploaded byIRJET Journal
- TQMUploaded byPavas Singhal
- Answer Chapter 3Uploaded byTruong van Truong
- APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD for dissimillar metal.pdfUploaded byDxtr Medina
- DT ParametersUploaded bybilalmaanbzu
- Influence of Process Parameters on the Deep Drawing of Stainless SteelUploaded byCosmin Tanase
- NoisedetectionPhysMeas2012.pdfUploaded byNASAyko
- Average Snr and Ergodic Capacity Analysis for Opportunistic Df Relaying With Outage Over Rayleigh Fading ChannelsUploaded byDang Khue
- Unser Manual -Thor Broadcast H-1-4hdmi-Qam-ipll- H-1-4sdi-Qam-ipll 1-4 Hdmi & Sdi Encoder ModulatorUploaded bythorbroadcast
- chapter12Uploaded byglas76
- Passive Intermodulation v2aUploaded bytomo
- Bassler Cameras CatalogUploaded bypetergedei
- M_der_zxmw Nr8120a Nr8120d (r4.2a) Product Description_v1.01_20160330Uploaded byBekti Agung DTg
- Analog CommUploaded byNishanth Asmi
- Datasheet Search Site _ Www.alldatasheetUploaded byPanagiotis Panagos
- pub_2012.pdfUploaded byAndy Arest
- NSFMW-2005-How-Todays-USM-Diag-Solve-techWpaper.pdfUploaded bysaulogarcia
- aic23 datasheetUploaded byBalacescu Claudiu
- SystemLevel Design and Simulation of a Bluetooth ReceiverUploaded byterrozer
- Baseline ReceiverUploaded bySwarna Ravindra Babu
- 1-s2.0-S0921889002003251-main.pdfUploaded byFilippin
- jee-2015-0050.pdfUploaded byAhmad Cakep
- LNBTS Message Sequence Charts With PM Counters0 4(1)Uploaded bymohamed.abdelsamiea

- ADR141A_R6_10.12.11_Leaflet (1)Uploaded byVishwanath Todurkar
- 10bq015pUploaded byMarcos E. Cuevas
- Jules Guillot -- Atmospheric Electric Generator -- Article & 2 French PatentsUploaded bygiorgio2558
- Chanel Estimation Foor OFDM StsyemsUploaded bymehdiduman
- 1885683.pdfUploaded byCristian Bandila
- ICHVET(2019)-Feb_7th_8th_2019 Brochure_22-01-2018Uploaded byOrlando Williams
- A General Simulation Algorithm for the Accurate Assessment of Isolated Diesel-wind Turbines Systems Interaction. I. a General Multi Machine Power System ModelUploaded byMelissa Holmes
- DAB - Overview_2017Uploaded byArken87
- Tormax ManualUploaded byeulogitos2005
- Est Questions -ECEUploaded byRobert James Bedaño
- Res TargetUploaded bydragan_petkov
- viewsonic_vg1930wm-3_sm_[ET]Uploaded bycomputerworldservice
- Trane Manual a-C 6209 AtticUploaded byvioletfire2
- Zener Barrier.pdfUploaded byGordanPešić
- sample report for rtu format 1-2.docUploaded byhimanshu
- microprocessor labUploaded byTanmay
- 4418300_Rev04-F4SSC-A-IOM_web.pdfUploaded byJavier Alejandro Quinga
- TIP41A datasheetUploaded byNae Adrian
- Boeing Bond and Ground Job AidUploaded byEdwin Valencia
- 2009-01-1139Uploaded bypiyush_aggarwal79
- Chloride Power Lan Green 5 7 KvaUploaded byfedericosanchez
- Tutorial-Motor-Basics-LectureUploaded byapi-3765150
- NavigationUploaded byFahmi Prayogi
- 241ce II Ehs English Reve PDFUploaded byelizabethchemestry
- BT IntercomHeadset ManualUploaded bywladpato
- LM2576 SeriesUploaded bykaveh-bahiraee
- bjtsUploaded bySwaroop Ramaswamy
- MVA Short Circuit AnalysisUploaded byRizwan Haniff
- REVlEWER Class C Amateur Radio Operator's Exam.pdfUploaded byLemuel Toribio
- 16-Ohm's-Law-webUploaded byAdam James Zulueta