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Selection Decode-and-Forward Cooperative FSO

Systems with Adaptive Rate Strategy over


Gamma-Gamma Fading Channels
Bach T. Vu, Truong C. Thang, and Anh T. Pham
Computer Communications Lab., The University of Aizu
Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima, Japan 965-8580
Emaill:{m5172109,thang,pham}@u-aizu.ac.jp
AbstractThis paper analytically studies the performance of
selection decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative free-space optical
communication (FSO) systems employing adaptive subcarrier
quadrature amplitude modulation (SC-QAM) taking into account
the fading effect caused by atmospheric turbulence. Closed-form
expressions of outage probability, spectral efficiency and bit-error
rate (BER) are derived using a novel accurate series approximation method. Numerical results highlight the improvement of
the proposed system compared with all-active relaying and nonadaptive FSO systems. The validity of the analytical method is
also confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations.

I. I NTRODUCTION
Relaying technique in free-space optical (FSO) systems
has recently attracted much attention thanks to its advantages
of additional degrees, avoiding line-of-sight requirement and
mitigating atmospheric turbulence, which are the most critical
problems in FSO [1]. The performance of all-active relaying
FSO systems has been deeply considered with two practical
schemes: decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward
(AF) [2][3]. Despite those benefits, relaying FSO however
comes at the requirement of the synchronization between
intermediate nodes and the inefficient utilization of resources
since the fading effect caused by the atmospheric turbulence
may affect most of relaying paths.
To address such limitations in cooperative relaying FSO
systems, selective protocol, which allows selecting the best
intermediate node as a candidate for sending signal with
the assumption of channel state information (CSI) availability, has been proposed [4]. Selective relay protocol can be
classified into two categories: best relay selection, where the
selected node is decided based on CSI of source-relay and
relay-destination links, and partial relay selection, where only
source-relay hop is considered [5]. Recent studies related to
best relay selection have been carried out for relaying FSO
systems [6], [7]. In [6], the log-normal fading model, which
is only appropriate for weak turbulence, was considered. In [7],
only the asymptotic bounds were derived using the Meijers
G-function expression of the cumulative distribution function
(CDF) of Gamma-Gamma distribution.
On the other hand, another promising method to reduce the
impact of fading, and thus to improve the system performance
is the employment adaptive scheme. As the originally proposed idea, by varying transmission rate via changing modula-

tion order, adaptive technique allows maintaining the targeted


performance without increasing transmitted power, the cost
and physical size of the overall system. An adaptive subcarrier
phase shift keying intensity modulation (SC-PSK) has been
proposed in all-active relaying FSO considering both weak
and strong turbulent conditions [8]. In [9], Hassan investigated
the performance constant-power adaptive quadrature amplitude
modulation (QAM) FSO system over Gamma-Gamma channel. Such systems however require a significantly high signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for achieving the reasonable performance.
While adaptive technique has been widely studied for both
AF and DF cooperative wireless communication [10][12],
to the best of the authors knowledge, such study in FSO
communications, especially for the selective FSO, has not been
clarified.
In this paper, we therefore analytically investigate the performance of selection DF cooperative FSO systems employing
SC-QAM modulation over Gamma-Gamma channels, which
is appropriate for a wide range of atmospheric turbulence.
The adaptive rate strategy is employed to further improve the
system performance. In addition, a novel series approximation
method that offers more accurate and tractable form is proposed so that the closed-form expressions of outage probability, spectral efficiency and average bit error rate (BER) can be
analytically derived. The analytical method is also excellently
validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results
demonstrate the advantages of proposed system with adaptive
technique compared to non-adaptive and all-active relaying
system.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In
Section II, the system and channel model are described in
detail. In Section III, the performance analysis of the proposed
system is provided in term of outage probability, spectral
efficiency and BER for Gamma-Gamma channel. Next, in
Section IV, the numerical results are presented with different
number of relaying nodes and physical parameters. Finally, the
conclusions are given in Section V.
II. S YSTEM D ESCRIPTIONS
A. System Model
We consider a cooperative FSO system as depicted in Fig.
1 that includes a transmitter S, a receiver D and N relaying

in which, Ki () is the modified Bessel function of the second


kind and order i. () denotes the gamma function [14]. In
case the spherical wave propagation is assumed, the shaping
parameters and are related to the physical parameters as
#
)1
(
"
0.4922
, (6)
1
= exp
12/5
(1 + 0.18d2 + 0.562 )7/6
(
"
#
)1
12/5
0.5122 (1 + 0.692 )5/6
= exp
1
.
(7)
12/5
(1 + 0.9d2 + 0.62d2 2 )

Relays

1
Feedback

Transmitter

where, d is the function of the link distance


L and the aperture
p
diameter of the receiver D as d = kD2 /4L, k = 2/ is
the optical wave number and the Rytov variance is given by

Receiver

Fig. 1. System model

22 = 0.492Cn2 k 7/6 L11/6 ,

nodes denoted by Ri , {i = 1, 2, ..., N }. The operation of the


system is epitomized in two phases: in the former phase, the
transmitter broadcasts SC-QAM signals with a Gray-coding to
the receiver through all of the relaying nodes. Here, a perfect
CSI estimation at the receiver is assumed and a fixed DF
strategy of N relays is applied to allow incorrectly decoded
signals can be forwarded to the destination. In the latter phase,
only the best relay will be selected as the candidate for the
transmission. Let denote the average SNR per bit on each
hop (S Ri and Ri D), the corresponding instantaneous
SNRs of the ith branch can be expressed as follows
SRi = x2 SRi ,

Ri D = x2 Ri D ,

(1)
(2)

where xSRi and xRi D denote the scintillations on S Ri


and Ri D links, respectively. is the optical-to-electrical
conversion index, 0 < 6 1.1 In best selection FSO system,
the best relaying path with largest received end-to-end SNR
will be selected. The equivalent end-to-end SNR on ith branch
can be approximated by adopting the cut-off bound in high
SNR regime as [13]:
eqi = min{SRi , Ri D }.

(3)

After the approximation, the best selection SNR is straightforwardly determined by the maximum value of eqi :
max = max {eqi }
i=1,...,N

(4)

B. Channel Model
The scintillation can be modeled as a random variance
(RV) using Gamma-Gamma distribution since it obtains a high
accuracy for a wide range of atmospheric turbulence [14].
The probability density function (PDF) of the scintillation is
therefore given by
fX (x) =
1 For

p

2()(+)/2 (+)/21
x
K 2 x ,
()()

(5)

high efficiency ( = 1), directly modulated laser diodes (e.g. JDS


Uniphase CTR915 Series) may be used [16].

(8)

where Cn2 is the strength of turbulence. For horizontal path


of up to a few kilometers, the value of Cn2 is taken to be a
constant in a range of 1017 m2/3 to 1013 m2/3 . By rewriting the modified Bessel function in term of the series and
making a simple transformation of RV, yield

+z
+z
X
dz (, )  2 1 dz (, )  2 1 
+
, (9)
f ()=

z=0
where, dz (, ) is defined as
()+z
(10)
2sin(( ))z!()()( + z + 1)
Consequently, the CDF of can be obtained by integrating its
PDF function

 +z
 +z

X
2
2
F ()=
+rz (, )
rz (, )
,
(11)

z=0
dz (, )=

where, rz (, ) = 2dz (, )/( + z). Here, it is notable


that the infinite series in (9) and (11) converge quickly with
the typical values of and ( > ) [14]. For obtaining
expressions of PDF and CDF of the instantaneous SNR on
each hop, parameters and are replaced by those individual
values on that link (i.e. on the first hop of the first branch, the
values of and would be SR1 and SR1 , respectively).
C. Adaptive Rate Strategy for SC-QAM
In this paper, a discrete adaptive technique is applied, the
system responds to the channel by changing the signals
constellation according to the received SNR. The targeted BER
is assumed to be BER0 , the estimated maximum end-to-end
SNR is partitioned into a specific region m m+1
using the K switching levels in the set > = {0 , 1 , ..., K }.
Once the SNR region is accurately determined, the receiver
will decide a proper modulation order, the transmitter is
then informed about decided modulation scheme through a
feedback path (i.e. RF link). Here, we used the relationship as
below to map from SNR region and selected constellation.
Mm = Im Qm = 2m
if m < m+1 .

The switching thresholds are similarly chosen as [15].

(12)

III. P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS


In this section, we derive some important metrics to analyze
the system performance. Firstly, let us derive the expressions
of CDF and PDF of max respectively can be given as
following equations2

 
X
X
,
(13)
Fmax () =
cz

p +...+p +q +...
z=0

In above equation, Pinst () is the instantaneous bit error rate


of Im Qm QAM system which can be calculated by summing
the error probabilities on each bit:
log2 Im (12u)Im 1

Pinst () =

X
gz

fmax () =

p1 +...+pN +q1 +...


+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

z=0

 1

(14)

where cz and P
are given in Eqs (15) and (16) respectively,
N
gz = cz /2.
i=1 pi + qi + wi = N , pi + qi + wi = 1
and pi , qi , wi {0, 1}. pi1 , pi2 , qi1 , qi2 , wi1 , wi2 , wi3 , wi4
{0, 1}, pi1 + pi2 = pi , qi1 + qi2 = qi , wi1 + wi2 = wi , wi3 +
wi4 = wi . SRi and SRi , Ri D and Ri D are the shaping
parameters on S Ri and Ri D hops, respectively. The
notation r(t) in (16) means that r is convolved (t 1) times
with itself (i.e. r(2) = r r, r(1) = r, and r(0) = 1) [14].
General Case. This Corollary considers the system performance in general case when the instantaneous SNRs on each
hop are independent but not identical.

An outage occurs when the end-to-end SNR falls below a


threshold which corresponds to lowest possible modulation.
Based on (13), the outage probability can be expressed as
Pout = Pr(max < 0 ) = Fmax (0 )

u=1

i1 =0

A(Im, u, i1)Q(B(Im , i1) ) (21)

w=1

j1 =0

A(Qm, w, j1)Q(B(Qm , j1 ) ),

where Q() denotes the Gaussian Q-function [17]. A and B


are the functions respectively defined as
x1
2
c
b t.2
A(Im , x, t) =
(1) MI
Im log2 (Im Qm )

t.2x1
1 
2x1 b
+ c ,
(22)
I
2
sm
6 log2 (Im Qm )
,
(23)
B(Im , i1 ) = (2i1 + 1)
2 + Q2 2
Im
m
here, btc denotes the largest integer to t. Combining (14)
and (20), and using integral techniques, we have following
expression for Pm :
log2 Im (12u)Im 1

Pm =

A. Outage Probability

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

1
1
N
+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

u=1

i1 =0

p1 +...+pN +q1 +...


+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

X
z=0

gz

(25)

"


 /2 2 m+1
Q B(Im , i1)
+

m
m+1 !#
2
 /2  eB(Im ,i1)2 /2
e2B(Im ,i1) /3 
+

2

6B(Im , i1)2
2B(Im , i1)

A(Im, m, i1)

(17)

B. Spectral Efficiency

The average spectral efficiency is defined as the bit rate


transmitted per unit bandwidth and given by
K
X

S=

bm log2 (Mm ),

(18)

m=1

where bm represents the probability that the SNR falls into


m th region, bm = Fmax (m+1 ) Fmax (m ) with m is the
mth switching threshold.

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

w=1

j1 =0

p1 +...+pN +q1 +...


+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

X
z=0

gz

"


 /2 2 m+1
A(Qm, w, j1) Q B(Qm , j1 )
+

m
m+1 !#
2
 /2  eB(Qm ,j1 )2 /2
e2B(Qm ,j1 ) /3 
+

2

6B(Qm , j1 )2
2B(Qm , j1 )
m

C. Bit Error Rate


The average bit error rate can be defined as the ratio of
the average number of bits sent in error to the average total
number of transmitted bits, therefore given as
PM
Pm log2 Mm
,
(19)
P = Pm=1
M
m=1 bm log2 Mm
here, Pm represents the BER when received SNR falls into
mth region. Over slow fading channel, Pm can be averaged
over the change of CSI as
Z m+1
Pm =
Pinst ()fmax ()d.
(20)
m
2 The

detail proof of Fmax () can be found in the Appendix A.

Above equation can be applied for arbitrary conditions of the


CSIs. The complexity for computation of Pm mainly comes
from the selection of parameters pi1 , pi2 , qi1 , qi2 , wi1 , wi2 ,
(i = 1, ..., N ) and the convolution in Eq. (16). For the
practical systems, if the relaying nodes are located close
to each other with the same distance from the transmitter
and the receiver, all of the links have the same atmospheric
turbulence condition, the instantaneous SNRs can be seen
as the independent identical distributed Gamma-Gamma RVs.
Thus, it is worthwhile to take into account such special case
in our proposed system in the following.
Special Case. The instantaneous SNRs are independent and
identically distributed Gamma-Gamma random variances with
parameters SRi = Ri D = and SRi = Ri D = .

N
N
i
X
X
1h
z+
SRi (pi1 + wi1 ) + Ri D (qi1 + wi2 ) +
SRi (pi2 + wi3 ) + Ri D (qi2 + wi4 ) ,
2
i=1
i=1

cz = (1)

w1 +...+wN

(15)

r(SR1 , SR1 )(p11 +w11 ) ... r(SRN , SRN )(pN 1 +wN 1 )

r(R1 D , R1 D )(q11 +w13 ) ... r(RN D , RN D )(qN 1 +wN 3 )

r(SR1 , SR1 )(p12 +w12 ) ... r(SRN , SRN )(pN 2 +wN 2 )

r(R1 D , R1 D )(q12 +w14 ) ... r(RN D , RN D )(qN 2 +wN 4 )

(16)

m+1

2
 [z+l+(2N kl)]/2

PI = A(Im, u, i1) Q B(Im , i1)

z + l + (2N k l) m
m+1 !
2
 [z+l+(2N kl2)]/2  eB(Im ,i1)2 /2
e2B(Im ,i1) /3 
+
+

2

6B(Im , i1)2
2B(Im , i1)

(24)

Formula (13) and (14) reduce to simpler and more tractable


expressions respectively as follows

and
fmax () =

kX
N 2N
X
X
k=0 l=0 z=0

gzkl (2N k l, l)

 !
kl)
  z+l+(2N
1 1
2

Selection
Simulation
Allactive

10

Outage probability

N 2Nk

 z+l+(2N2 kl)
X
XX
czkl (2N kl, l)
Fmax () =

k=0 l=0 z=0


(26)

10

10

10

N = 4, 3, 2, 1
4

10

(27)
5

10

where
czkl (u, v) =

rz(u) (, ) rz(v) (, ),

1
2 czkl (u, v)

and gzkl (u, v) =


be further simplified as
Pm =

N 2N
kX

X
X
k=0 l=0 z=0

i1 =0

10

10

20

30

40

50

(28)
Fig. 2. Outage probability versus SNR per bit of selection decode-and-forward
cooperative FSO systems with adaptive rate strategy over Gamma-Gamma
2 =
fading channel for various number of relay nodes, L = 2000 m, Cn
9 1014 m2/3 .

(29)

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

PI +

Signal to noise ratio per bit (dB)

(z + v + u). Also Pm can

gzkl (2N k l, l)

"log Im (12u)Im 1
2
X
X
u=1



 
2N k
N
(1)N k 2k
l
k

w=1

j1 =0

#
PQ ,

with PI is given in Eq. (24) on the top of this paper. In


the similar way, PQ can be obtained by replacing parameters
Im , u, i1 in the formula of PI by Qm , w, j1 , respectively.
IV. N UMERICAL R ESULTS
In this section, we verify the derived formula of CDF
from Section III by Monte Carlo simulations and use them
to consider the performance of the proposed system over
Gamma-Gamma channel. For sake of simplicity, we limited
our study case of instantaneous SNRs to independent identical

distributed Gamma-Gamma RVs. In following analysis, the


aperture diameter of the receiver is D = 0.01 m, which is
a proper value in agreement with [16]. The link distance on
each hop is equally chosen to be L = 2000 m, the operating
wavelength is assumed to be = 1.55 m and required BER
is BER0 = 105 .
In Fig. 2, we investigate the outage probability of the
proposed system with different number of selections and
turbulence strength Cn2 = 9 1014 m2/3 . It is remarked
that when the series in (13) are truncated to z = 50, we can
obtain theoretical curves closely follow the simulated curves
in N = 1, 2, 3, 4 cases. As expected results, the increase in selective path yields the significantly better outage performance.

10

10
Theory
Simulation

10

N = 1, 2, 3
Cn2 = 5 1014

10

10

Average BER

Outage probability

10

10

10

10

10

10

Non-adaptive N = 1
Non-adaptive N = 2
Non-adaptive N = 3
Adaptive N = 1
Adaptive N = 2
Adaptive N = 3

N = 1, 2, 3
Cn2 = 1014

10

10

10
6

10

10

20

30

40

50

Signal to noise ratio per bit (dB)

10

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Signal to noise ratio per bit (dB)

Fig. 3. Outage probability versus SNR per bit of selection decode-and-forward


cooperative FSO systems with adaptive rate strategy over Gamma-Gamma
fading channels for various turbulence strength, L = 2000 m.

Fig. 5. Average bit error rate versus SNR per bit of selection decodeand-forward cooperative FSO systems using SC-QAM over Gamma-Gamma
fading channel with adaptive and non-adaptive schemes, L = 2000 m,
2 = 9 1014 m2/3 .
Cn

5
4.5

Spectral efficiency

4
3.5
N =3

3
2.5

N =2

N =1

2
1.5
1

Cn2 = 5 1014 m2/3

0.5
0

Cn2 = 9 1014 m2/3


0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Signal to noise ratio per bit (dB)

Fig. 4. Spectral efficiency versus SNR per bit of selection decode-andforward cooperative FSO systems using SC-QAM over Gamma-Gamma
fading channels with four-regions adaptive scheme, L = 2000 m.

For example, at Pout = 103 , the system with two-selections


benefits roughly 20 dB of the required SNR per bit compared
to that of single-selection. Moreover, a comparison to all-active
system highlights the improvement of selective scheme with
roughly 5 dB of SNR gain (i.e. at Pout = 106 , proposed
selective system with three-selections only needs 35 dB while
all-active system with three-relay requires about 40 dB of SNR
per bit).
In Fig. 3, the impact of the turbulence strength on the outage
performance with various selective relay systems is presented.
By comparing two regimes: Cn2 = 1014 m2/3 and Cn2 =
5 1014 m2/3 we can observe that the system performance
depends strongly on the turbulence strength. Particularly, in

moderate turbulence condition Cn2 = 1014 m2/3 , the singleselection DF system performs similarly to the performance
of three-selections DF system over strong turbulence channel
Cn2 = 5 1014 m2/3 .
Next, the spectral efficiency is discussed in Fig. 4 for K = 4
regions adaptive DF relaying system for different turbulence
strength Cn2 = 5 1014 m2/3 and Cn2 = 9 1014
m2/3 . By comparing three cases with N = 1, 2, 3, it is seen
that selective relaying system greatly improves the spectral
efficiency. Moreover, the spectral efficiency decreases slightly
when the turbulence becomes stronger. This is because the
system required additional SNR to maintain the targeted BER,
thus it switches to the lower-order modulation.
Finally, Fig. 5 shows the average BER of both proposed
system and non-adaptive selective DF/FSO system over strong
turbulence channel with Cn2 = 9 1014 m2/3 . As can be
seen from this figure, using adaptive technique can improve
the systems average BER. For instance, in case of twoselections DF relaying system, adaptive technique advantages
approximately 2.5 dB compared to non-adaptive regime. However, adding more selection from N = 1 N = 2 and
N = 2 N = 3 leads to the reduction in term of required
SNR gain. This is an expected result since the system tends
to pick the highest modulation order as the fading effect is
mitigated when increasing the number of selections.
V. C ONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we have derived the novel accurate closedform expressions of outage probability, spectral efficiency
and average BER of selection decode-and-forward cooperative FSO systems with adaptive rate strategy over GammaGamma fading channels. The numerical results illustrated the
dependence of system performance on physical parameters

and highlighted the advantages of adaptive technique and


selective scheme in mitigating the fading effect. Monte Carlo
simulations were also provided to validate theoretical results.
A PPENDIX A
D ERIVATION OF CDF OF max
From equation (3), the CDF of the equivalent SNR of ith
branch can be expressed as



Feqi () = 1 1 FSRi () 1 FRi D ()
(30)
= FSRi () + FRi D () FSRi ()FRi D ().

Using (4), we have


Fmax () =

N
Y

(FSRi + FRi D FSRi FRi D )

i=1

N
Y

p1 +...+pN +q1 +...


+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

(1)wi FSRi pi +wiFRi D qi +wi

i=1
w1 +...+wN

(1)

p1 +...+pN +q1 +...


+qN +w1 +...+wN =N

FSR1 p1 +w1 ... FSRN pN +wN

FR1 D q1 +w1 ... FRN D qN +wN .

(31)

Substituting (11) into (31), we can obtain the serial expression


of CDF of max as in equation (13) and the derivation of PDF
is completed by deriving its CDF function.
A PPENDIX B
BER FOR N ON - ADAPTIVE S YSTEM
For non-adaptive system, the BER can be calculated as
Z
P =
Pinst ()fmax ()d,
(32)
0

where Pinst () and fmax () are given in and (21) and (27),
respectively. According to an useful equation [14, Eq. 41]:
Z p

(b, ) =
Q b 2 y1 d
0

2y/21 ((y + 1)/2)


y
,
=
b y
we have
N 2N
kX

 1 
X
X
P =
gz

z=0

(33)

(34)

k=0 l=0

log2 Im (12 )Im 1


h
X
X

A(Im, u, i1)
B(Im , i1)2 , +
u=1

+ A(Qm, w, j1)

i1 =0

log2 Qm (12w)Qm 1

w=1

j1 =0

i
B(Qm , j1 )2 , .

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