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INFANTRY INSTRUCTORS' CONFERENCE


UNITED STATES ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL
Fort Benning. Georgia

23-27 June 1958

REPORT
PURPOSE: The Infantry Inltl'\lctor.' Conference Will convened to Itandardizl! Infantry doctrine.
tactic., and technique taught at Ichooh of the AnTlY Educational Syltem. [""
MISSION:

The milsion of the Infantry Inltructorl' Conference

Will:

'\

a. To exhibit an active and conltructive interelt in Infantry InltructOri at other lervic:e


I<:hooll .1 primary reprelenlOi.tive. of the US Army Infantry Scbool.

b. To bring Infantry Inltructor. abrealt of the latelt equipment, thinking. and trend. in
the Infantry.
c. To become informed of and to dilCu loh.ntry 10Itl'u<:tol'.' problems on an individual
and collective balis,

AUTHORITY: Paragraph 1, e. Section m. letter, ATTNG-31 352/517 (l Dec 53), OCAFF,


ZO April 1954, lubject: "Polic:ie. and Adminiltrative In.truction. _ Army Service Schooh."
u amended by Change 3, dated 30 September 1954; and US CONARC Me. .age. ATTlNF
38831. 15 March 1957.
CONFEREES: Repruentative. of Army Service School College., and The Military Academy;
Army Inlantry Inltructor. at other Service Schooh. College. and Academie USAF Ba.e.: and
Marine Corp. Schooh (AppendiX I.)

MAJOR GENERAL PAUL L. FREEMAN, JR.


Commandant. Ullited States Army Infantry School
Com mal/ding General, United Slates Army Infantry Center

..

BRIGADIER GENERAL J. P. RUGGLES


Deputy ComrtUJl'fdilW General
United Slah!s A","" /1fjtmlry Center

BRIGADIER GENERAL STANLEY R. LARSEN

Assistant Commandant
United States Army Infantry School

AGENDA FOR INFANTRY INSTRUCTORS' CONFERENCE


FORT BENNING, GEORGIA
23 - 27 JUNE 1958
MONDAY, 23 JUNE 1958

0825

Assemble in Pratt Hall

0830-0920

Welcome - Assistant Commandant


Orientation and Outline of Conference - Director of Instruction

0920-0940

Coffee Break

0940-0950

En Route to Brown Hall

l<XlO-I025

Presentation: Communications Depanment


Scope: Welcome by Depanment Director; The Infantry Battle Group Communication System, known areas of weaknesses and remedial action
that may be taken with existing equipment. (USAIS Current School
Position 118.)

1025-1050

Presentation: Communications Depanment


Scope: Characteristics and capabilities of the new combal leaders voice
radios, to include trends and developments in communication equip.
ment and electronic surveillance. Last 10 minutes devoted to question and answer period.

1050-1110

En Route to Pratt Hall

1115-1150

Presentation: Command and Siaff Department


Scope: Hellcopterborne Baltle Group Operations. Conference 'in which the
special considerations involved In the planning and cordueting of
helicopterborne battle group operations are presented.

1150-1300

Lunch

1305

Assemble - Ground Mobility Department (E-l)

1315-1405

Presentation: Ground Mobility Departmenl


Scope: Essentials of Ground Mobility. Conference and demonslratloncovering the means of mobilitY,capabilltyandlimltationso( means, operation of the means and maintenance of the means. (This will Include a
demonstration of the Mechanical Mule and the M-56 Assault Gun
Carrier.)

1405-1415

Break

1415-1505

Presentation: Ground Mobility Departmenl


Scope: Conference on the theory and requiremenls for a system of vehicle
navlgalion; lechniques of land navlgallon and developmental trcrw::lsof
navigational aids.

1530

Assemble In Pratt Hall

1530-1630

Conferees meet: with varloos Department representatives to set up times for


the alt8werlng of previously submiued queatlons, and/or to arrangt: for
visiting scheduled problema.

1730-1830

Commandant's Reception: TSB Area. BOQ Bldg 2755-8, Hqs Co, 2d Student
Battalion.

TUESDAY, 24 JUNE 1858


0755

Assemble in Pratt HaJJ

0800-0845

Presentation: Depanment d NRI


Scope: Conference concerning the functions 01 the Depanment Of Non-Resident Ilt8tructlon; the type, l@'Vel, purpose, methoddprocurement and
the benefits derived from the use ol nonresident Instructional material. A discussion concerning the revised Army Pre-Commission,
Infantry Company and Advanced Extension Course Programs the
United States Army Rcserve School Program: toincludea discussion
concerning the awarding d constructive credit between the Company
and Advanced Extension Coursc Programs and the USAR School
Program.

0845-0905

Coffee Break

0910-0950

Presentation: Command and Staff Department

Scope: Conference In which the results from the final repon of the Intelligence Seminar arc presented (Scheduled for 19 - 24 May 58).
0950-1005

En Route to Theater No. 1

1005-1200

Presemallon: United States Army Infantry Boud


Scope: Developmem and Test function of CONARC Boards with particular
emphasis on devclopmental items currcntly undergoing tcst at the
Infantry Board.

1200-1250

Lunch

1250-1330

En Routc to Problem 2067

1330-1415

Prc8cntatlon: Command and Staff Depanment (Problcm 2(67)

Scope: Demonstration (Live Firing) showing the actions and orders of the
weapons and as8ault gun platoon leaders In thcpreparatlon phases 0(
the allack; conduct d fire prior to and during the attack emphasizing
the collective effectiveness of the fires or the platoons; fleXibility,
displacement and the usc 01 communications to coordinate flre and
rt'KWcments to their platoons.
1..15-1500

En Route to Main POfit (Sightseeing Field)

1500-152~

Coffee Oreak

1525-1S45

Presentation: Airborne-Air Mobility Depanment


Scope: A dlAcu8sion of Air Mobility conct.'Pttl, teHts and problem areas.

1545-1635

Presentation: Airtxlrne-Air MObility Department


Scope: An integrated conference and den~<)llstration on the employment of
Army Pathfinder teams; utilization of Terminal Guidance personnel
in Army operations; and Air Mobility, using Army Aircraft.
WEDNESDAY. 25 JUNE 1958

0755

Assemble - English and Simpson Range Area

0800-1000

Presentation: Weapons Department


Scope: Orientation on range procedures for Trainfire 1 to include 25 meter
range, field firing range, target detection range and record firing
range.

1000-1020

Coffee Break

1020-1030

Presentation - Weapons Department


Scope: Orientation on recent changes to ROTC Manual 130-45 penaining to
marksmanship training with the Cal. .22 r.ifle. Orientationon current
U~A1S position relative to the U. S. Sniper.

1030-1050

Presentation: Weapons Department

Scope: Orientation on new developments In automatic rifle training with


emphasis on proposed changes to conform with Trainfire L
1050-1100

En Route to Hook Range

1100-1120

Presentation: Weapons Department

Scope: Discussion of Tralnflre II training methods, range requirements and


status of troop test.
1120-1135

Presentation: Weapons Department


Scope: Discussion of the need for lighter machine gun mount and demonstration of new mount currently being developed by Weapons Department.
Presentation: Weapons Department
Scope: Conference and firing demonstration covering general data, capabilities, and limitationsofthe M56as a carrier for the 90mm gun, l06mm
recoilless rifle, quad 50 machine gun, 4.2-inch mortar, and 8tmm
mortar.

Lunch
Conferences with Instructional Departments and/or observation of scheduled
problems.
THURSDAY, 26 JUNE 1958

0755
08000815

Assemble in Theater No.1


Prcsentation: Special Subjects Departmcnt
Scope: New devclopments in leadership training. To familiarize conferees
with the employment of the Tralnlead films as a training aid in
development of leadership.

0820-0825
0825-08S0

En Route to Brown Hall


Presentation: Special Subjects Depanment
Scope: New Developments in Atomic Weapons. To familiarize the Infantry
instrucrors with recent and impending developments in atomJc weapons, their delivery systems, and target analysis techniques.

0850-0910
0910-0925

Coffee Break

Presentation: Editorial and Pictorial Office


Scope: To cile the imponance of INFANTRY Magazine to the Infantryman
as an exJension of school instruction and as a means of bridging the
gap between the formulation at new tactics, organization and doctrine and their publication in Depanment of the Army media. To
encourage conferees to promoIe the subscription of INFANTRY
Magazine in their parent units and to solicit anicles for publication
from units in the field.

0930-1050

Presentation: Instructor Training Section


Scope: Mission of ITS, policy on attendance, scope of ITC, scope of orienration. The 3 pans of a presentation (introduction, bcdy, and conclusion), the preparation of teaching points, supponing material,
sub6ummaries, and transitions; conference method, control of
interest. The indicators of speaker attitude (sincerity, confidence,
enthusiasm, and sense of humor); platform technique; use of voice.
Emphasis is placed upon the Instructor's making the most effective
use of his own beSt qualities. Scheduling of student presentations,
with emphasis upon developing effectiveness for learning; development of student confidence in speech practice (skit of 3 min talk an:::!
critique by instructor) demonstration of speech workshop techniques;
smaH group instruction; improvements in instructional facilities and
training aids.

10SO-1100
1100-1150

Period reserved for the Assistant Commandant

1200-1300

Lunch

1300-1700

Conferences with Instructional Depanmcnt8 and/or observation of scheduled


problems.

Break

FRIDAY, 27 JUNE 1958

0900-1000

En Route to Problem 2155 Area - Moore Road

Presentation: Command atvJ Staff Depanment

Scope: Problem 2155 - Mobile Task Force Operations - Dress Rehearsal.


Demonstration (Live Firing) of a company-size combined arms m0bile tast force in offensive action; demonstration depiCtS tast (orce
utilizing active atomic suppan. anachecl tanks,/lnfantry carriers,
engineer suppan. aerial reconnaissance, and employment of helicopters to evacuate casualties and resupply ammunition.
10401140

Return to Main Post

1145~1300

Lunch

1305

Assemble in Pratt Hall

1310~1400

Presentation: Combat Developments Office


Scope: Presentation of the materiel development objectives and related
materiel requirements and concepts which have application to Ihe
future employment of Infantry during Ihe time (rame 1960- 70, to include USAIS views wirh regard (0 specific dcvclopmcnr projects ot
direct interest.

1400-1410

Break:

1410-1500

Presentation: Combal Developments Office


Scope: A comprehensive presentation on organizatiOnal and operational objectives of the In(antry baule group of the 1960-70 time frame. A
comparison ia made between the current battle group organizational
structure and that planned for the 1960-65 period. Because of the
expected availability of new equipment and the Impact of new weapons
systems on tactical formations, the operationalc::onceptsoCthc Infantry banle group are projected.

1500-1530

Coffee Breat

1530

Assemble in Pratt Hall

1530-1630

Assistant Commandant's Forum

1635~1650

ClOSing Remarks - Commardant

UNITED STATE ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL


DIRECTORY OF
STAFF AND DEPARTMENT DIRECTORS
TELEPHONES
POSITION
COMMANDANT

Aide de Camp

NAME

OfFICE

Maj Gen P. L. Freeman, Jr. 20101


Capt L. McCall, Jr.
27131

HOME
25100
25195

DEPUTY COMMANDING GENERAL


Aide de Camp

Brig Gen J. F. :tuggles


lsI Lt J. P. Ceglowski

32132
21233

31200

ASSIST ANT COMMANDANT


Aide de Camp

Brig Cen S. R. Larsen


1st u C. O. Neal

31222
31212

30225
20235

CHIEF OF STAFF

Col R. H. York

22J11

26216

COMBAT DEVELOPMENTS OFFiCE


Project Officer

Col D. E. Townsend
Lt Col J. H. Chambers

26101

31223

37109
61228

DIRECTOR OF INSTRUCTION
Project Officer

Col N. 8. Edwards
Lt Col A. L. Dean, Jr.

26211

32100

27124

33108

OPERATIONS OFFICER
Project Officer

Col R. L. Crouch, Jr.


Capt J. E. Tyler

37292

37164

29L07
MU 90554

SECRETARY

Col J. L. Osgard

20291

34128

LIBRARIAN

Miss Ruth Wesley

24172

MU 93871

AIRBORNE-AIR MOBILITY
DEPARTMENT
Proje<:t Officer

Col W. E. Ekman
Ma j L. L. Mowery

25102
33123

35295
MU 92532

GROUND MOBILITY DEPARTMENT


Projeci Officer

CQI J. J. Pavick
Maj B. F. Marshall

22192
29261

35218
26119

COMMUNICATIONS DEP ARTMENT


Project Officer

LI Col A. P. Brown
Lt Col J . ..::. Pleasant

29102
24131

MU 96375
31206

DEP ARTMENT OF NON-RESIDENT


INSTRUC ~ION
ProjeCI - ticer

Col R. S. Cain
Capt R. Arter

38133
36124

23208
MU 94100

SPECIAL ~ ]JECTS DEPARTMENT


Project Officer

Col G. A. McGee, Jr.


LI Col. G. B. Hankins

34101
36285

35154
30220

RANGER DE? ARTMENT


ProJecl Officer

Col J. T. Corley
1st Lt O. A. SchludeckeT

64224
62221

25146
MU 96945

COMMAND AND STAFF


DEPARTMENT
Projecl Officer

Col P. M. Izenour
Capt G. L. Owens

29291
32168

21127
MU 92765

WEAPONS DEPARTMENT
ProjeclOfficer

Col S. T. McDowell
Capt C. H. Ford

37211
32151

22208
MU 95560

35168

TELEPHONES
NAME

POSITION

OFfiCE

HOME

EDITORIAL AND PICTORIAL

OFFiCE
Project Officer

Col G. S. Peters
1st Lt L. P. Boucher. Jr.

30256

20239
MU 94761

RECEPTION AND PROTOCOL


DIVISION

Lt Col H. S. Sheldon

24211

23120

COMMANDING OFFiCER
THE SCHOOL BRIGADE

Col A. L. Hoetleke

Is! Lt T. H. Parsons

21292
30135

MU 92299

COMMANDING OFFICER
INF ANTR Y SCI-tOOL DETACHMENT

Lt Col R. O. Manasco

34103

24138

COMMANDING OFFICER
1ST STUDENT Bt\TTALION

LI Col J. L. Bryan

39212

31209

COMMANDING OFFICER
2D STUDENT BATTALION

Lt Col J. B. Zanin

30211

34127

COMMANDING OFFICER
4TH STUDENT BATTALION

Lt Col 8. W. Hart

22123

39239

COMMANDING OFFICER
3TH STUDENT SAITALIGN

MaJ J. L. Treadwell

25224

36135

25192
20212

27118
33215

Project Officer

30121

33146

UNITED STATES ARMY INFANTRY BOARD


PRESIDENT

Project Officer

Col H. B. Kunzig

Lt Col A. I-t Phillips

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER I.
Section

CONFERENCE INTRODUCTION
I.
U.

A iltant Commandant'. Welcome


Director of Instruction'. Orientation

I
I

CHAPTER 2.

THE NON_RESIDENT INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM OF THE


UNITED ST."\TES ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL

CHAPTER 3.

INFANTRY COMMUNICATIONS

18

Section

CHAPTER 4.
Section

I.
II.
ill.

Introduction
Infantry Battle Group CommunicUion.
Trend. and Development. in Communication. and
Electronic Equipment

INFANTRY WEAPONS
I.
ll.
III.

'v.

V.

VI.
VII.

lntroduction
Tl'"ainfil'"e I
Recent Changes to ROTCM 130-45: Snipel'" Doctl'"ine; and
Tl'"ainlil'"e III and IV
Autofil'"e
Tl'"ainfin II
Modified M2 Mount fol'" M60 Machine Gun
MS6 as a Multiple Cal'"del'"

18
18
'6
34
34
34

4'

4'63
68
71

CHAPTER S.

INFANTRY MAGAZINE

74

CHAPTER 6.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS

77

Section

I.
II.

Trainlead Film Pl'"ogl'"am


New Developmenu in Nuclear Weapon.

CHAPTER 7.

RESULTS OF INTELLIGENCE SEMINAR

CHAPTER 8.

AIR MOBILITY

Section

CHAPTER 9.
Section

CHAPTER 10.
Section

I.
II.
III.

Intl'"oduct ion
Ail'" Mobility
Pathfinders

GROUND MOBILITY
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Introduction
E . . entials of Ground Mobility
Infantry Light Weapona Carrier, M-274
Ms6 Auawt Gun Carriage
Vehicle Navigation

lNFANTRY INSTRUCTOR COURSE


I.
U.
In.
IV.

Introduction
Ltaaon Preparation and Control or Intere.t
Orientation on Inltructor Training Cour.e
New Tl'"enda in USAIS Inltructton

77
78

....
81

8'
94

'03
103
'03
107
10'
111
118
118
118

.,4
lZ7

CHAPTER 11.
Seetion

1Z9

INFANTRY TACTICS
I. Battle Group Tactici
II. HelicOplerborne Battle GrOup Operationa
III. Mobile Talk Force Operationa
IV. Weapons and Aalault Gun Platoonl in the Attaek

CHAPTER lZ.

ASSISTANT COMMANDANT'S FORUM

CHAPTER 13.

COMMANDANT'S CLOSING REMARKS

'Z9

130
138

..6

153

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1.

'54

Lilt of Confereu

APPENDIX It Oiltribution

ii

CHAPTER 1
CONFERENCE INTRODUCTION
Section I. ASSISTANT COMMANDANT'S OPENING REMARKS

BRIGADIER GENERAL STANLEY R. LARSEN


On behalf of General Freeman, I welcome you to the Infantry School, your home a. Infantry
men, and to relay hill regrets that he cannot be here perllon_Uy this morning to welcome you.
We want group' such as yours which come to the Infantry School, to recognize that the Infantry
i. a progressive branch and never stands still. It i. particularly essential that you recognize
this today, because everything is moving lIO r_pidly. We mUal continue to come forth with new
ideas and new trend. to further the Infantry and the Army a. a whole.
will cover a few poinu, alter which Colonel Edwards will give you a short orientation. We
hope, in the.e few day., to give you the latest trend., development., doctrinal thinking, and
equipment idea. which we have at the Infantry School and within the Infantry branch. There have
been change. within the last year and we hope they will be dra.tic enough so that those of you who
were here la.t summer will feel that progres. i. being made and that there is a difference be_
tween last year and thi. year. We hope our presentations will a.sist you in your individual jobs,
wherever you might be alationed. We abo hope they will aid you in putting out the story of the
Infantry so we can have a unified idea throughout our branch, as to where we are heading and
what our future will be.
You Infantrymen know, as I know, that one of our problems has been that wherever one
hundred Infantrymen get together there are one hundred different ideas as to exactly what the
Infantry means, where it i. going, and what it stands for. This bas been a problem ever since
I can remember and I am convinced that it has been so always. Sometimes this is progressive;
however. it can often be detrimental. We hope during these few days to get your ideas on this
subject.
I should like to illustrate our way of doing busine with a specilic example of ROCIO. When
the divisions were changed from the triangular to the Pentamic org_nizations, the Infantry School
had no officers who were qualified ROCIO experts. Therefore, we had to lean very heavily on
units in the field for basic ideas and trend. As a matter of fact, we have developed a monthly
letter from the Commandant to unit. in the field to probe for thoughts and ideas applicable to
the ROCIO concept. Con.equently, the doctrine and ideas we teach in the future will depend
largely on ideas obtained from people away from the Infantry School.
The Infantry should be proud of iu place in today's Army. A. to the concepts of the future
of the Army, the In!antry School is in full accord with directives _nd doctrine that have been
placed upon the Army as a whole by higher headquarten. We are in full accord with the guidance
given for the future. However, within this guidance, there are some point. we as Infantrymen
should give serious thought. One of these is the matter of command. The Infantryman today, up
through the grade of captain, has command. From then on, he mu.t wait roughly 14 years until
he becomes a colonel and is eligible to command again. Here we have the Infantryman, supposed
to be a commander; yet there i. no opportunity for him to gain command experience during the
cream of his IHe.
Another point is the personnel carrier in the ROCIO division. At preSent, it is assigned to
the Transportation Corps. However, the tllfantry personnel cilrr~.,r - or armored perlonnel
carrier, if you want to call it that - will be used primarily by the Infantry in battle. Close COOl'.
dination with Infantry units and a thorough knowledge of Infantry operation. will be e ential.
Thill can belt be achieved if the.e carrier. are operated by Infantrymen.

The huantryman of today 18 no 10llger a rl!leman who can be expected to pack aU of his light_
ing toola on foot. This brings to mind a question which has never been answered Cor me, just
what is an Infantry weapon? I would like to bave someone of you during your stay come up with
the answer, if you will. We have bad an Iniantry branch fOr nearly two hundred years but no one
has ever defined an Infantry weapon properly. We are inclined to think of an Infantry weapon
aa one which the Infantryman habitually uaes in carrying out his job on the front lines; one which
fires at a target visibleby frontline observation. Is thia thil'lkinl correct, in view of the require
ments of the modern battlefield? The idea of the Infantryman today having to carryall his fighting equipment on hia back, I believe, ia outmoded. Future trends require the Infantryman to be
able to fight on vehiclea and off vehicles. Even now a light tracked vehicle ia being developed
which will enable an Infantryman to do this.

What is an lnfantryman? Ia a paratrooper who wear. cro.sed rifle. an Infantryman?


Ye., he ia. Is a man who belongs to an armored divi.lon and called an Armored Infantryman
atill an Infantryman? Yes, he is. All these variou. type. of Infantrymen are .tiU ba.ically Infantry. The Infantryman of the future must be able to .wim riverS in amphibioua tracked vehicle.; he must be able to cros. mountains with Army aviation and have staying power when he geU
there. whether it be jungle, hilly country. snow, or ialand warfare. There i. no doubt that the
Infantryman is going to be needed In any warfare of the future. The point is we, in the Infa.ntry,
must be trained and equipped to perfrom our mission when and if the time comes.
We have many organbational changes in the Infantry School which we hope wiU be of interest
and of assistance to you in your work. wherever you are stationed. All of tbe department heacla
_d the Infantry Board will give you briefings. A liat of key officers and personnel has been
issued to you. We hope that you will be able to contact these individual. in your free time and
that you will have an opportunity to solve some of your major problems while you are here. PersonaUy, 1 hope that l'U have an opportunity to see thoae of you whom I've known before, as well
as to meet those I 1ut.ve not met previously. I will now turn you over to Colonel Edwards who
will give you a further orientation on the Infantry School.

Section U. DIRECTOR OF INSTRUCTION ORIENTATION


COLONEL NORMAN B. EDWARDS

Dinclm' of bLstnu::tioII
Gentlemen. I whh to add my welcome to that extended to you by the A i.t.1lnt Commandant.
,

A. General Lar.en .tated, for .ome of you. thh h not your fir.t conference. To tho.e, a
.mall part of my orientation may be a little repetitiou'. However. a brief refre.her never hurt
anyone and I am .lIre that you are aU intere.ted in the major chanael in the organh.ation of the
School that have taken place recently. Al.o. the two afternoon. which have been .et a.ide (or
you to vieit the variou. department. will be more beneficial if yOIl IInderU.l..nd the School organi
zation and the function. of the.e departmenU.
Now to brieny review the mi ion of the United State. Army Infantry School.
mi ion. of the Infantry School are:

the

The primary

To prepare Infantry officeu and .elected enliated personnel to perform tho.e dutie. within
group they may be called upon to perform in war.

~ttJe

To formulate and publi.h in appropriate training literature Infantry. Airborne. and Ranger
doctrine and technique

CCMv1AI'DANT
ASST COWOT r-- ED ADVISOR
D1R OF I\ISTR :

SCH BRIG

COO
sr~F

ACADEMIC

OFrflCE
/1

SECY

OPNS

llE!'lUlTllENTS
I

INSTlIUCT10NAL

I
ASH AIR

MOIl

GHO MOIl

COMM

WPNS

Figure 1.

EPO

Sf' Sl.8J

BOOK
DEPT

RANGER

Organhation of the United State. Army Infantry School.


J

"'"

Tbe CommanUnl ' .....jor Cen.ral Fn.man) command. and .upervi the operation. of the
Schoolaad 1. aleo the Commandilll General o( the United Stat Army InCantry Cent.r. The In_
(antry Cerat.r 1. compod o( the vario\l' poet \lniu not d.ir.ctly conn.ct.d with the School, with
. .c.plioD. o( the Zd InCa.D.try Diviaion.
Th. A hUnt CommanUnt lBriiadier Ceneul Lanen) .cU (or the CommanUnt in aU mat
ten pertainina to the InCentry School. In thil re'pect, he .upervhe. the .ctivitie. at aU School
a nei which ar hown in fiaure 1. Each o( th a,eneie. will be plained In detail.
To a ht the Aa.ietant CommanUnt, th.re h an Educational Advilor lOr. TUe). Hi. pri.
mary (unction i. to maintain liai.on between the USAIS and civilian .dueatlonallnetitution. to in ure a (ree chana. o( .dueational concept nd In.tructional tachnique .
The Director o( In.truction (Col Edward.) In.ure. that the objective. 01 ch Program o( In
.trllction ara appropriate and upto_clate. In .dditlon, he e rd.e. iener.1 'Ilperviaion over
the day_by.day op.ration. 01 the School. (The a,.ncie hown in Hiura I rapre.ant the miljor
alementa o( the School; we wiU conaidar e ..ch of tham aep.. rilte1y. L.ter, we will ret\lrn to Ugllre
(or any que.Uon. yOIl may have concarnina tbe oraani&ation in aanerill.)
ihe School Briaada con"at. of the variou. companie. and battalion. reqllirad to admini.ter
and provide 101llth:al .upport (or aU ra.id.nt atudenU. lu mia.ion r.quir approximuely 180
olficer' and IZOO enU.tad men. Some .... mpl of their .ctivitie ra etudent diaciplin., bO\1a_
inl, and ilUlpectlone.
Th. Combat Development. O((IC. II the long range pl.nnina arollp which dev.lop nd eval_
u,ate. new dOCtrine, tactic., technique., .nd Orll,.fti&ilUOO ollnlilntry and Airborne \lIliu. Thu
ofnce iIlao initiate. r.quirem.nu lor naw type weapon. within tha Iramawork of tha Unit.d Stat.e
Army Re.earch and Development Aaency. COO maintain. clo.a li.i"on wuh r rch ag.nde
both civilian .nd military, located hare ilt f'ort Benning and ela.where.
The Office of the Director 01 Inatruction 1. or,ani&ad to iI I.t the OIrector of Inetnlction in
the axecution o( hi. ra.ponal.billde. Her. are locatad the Advilnced and B ic Cour.e director.
who d.v.lop and monitor tha principill USAIS Proaram. 01 In.truction. AdditionaUy, tM. o(lice
hal thr.e ction. A Plan. S.ction which ald. the 01 in planning and .up.rvhing School Actlvi.
tie . An Analy.l Review S.ction which .valu.tel In.truction (on.t.ntly. by .n.lylll o( .xamination ra.ult., problem In.pection repOrtl, and Itudent comm.ntl. Thtl In.trUClor Trilinlng S.ction Ie alao. part o( thie ollic . It conductl three and one-hilli wetlk In.tructor Tr.ining Cour.a.
All in.tructor. a ianad to tha tnfantry School mue, be graduat 01 thi. cour'tl belor. they ilre
aUowed to cond\lct lormal inetruction.
ihe Sacr.tary le the prlncl.pa.a adminbtrative exacutlv. of the A i.t'nt Commandant. Hi.
po.ition la almUar to that 01. re,iatrar in our univaraiti He aJao i. cUliodian 01 .tud.nt
.cademic recorda and adminilter. the atudent .vallJ.i1tion progrilm. Th.r r tlv.ral ag.ncie.
to a iat him In p.rformln, hia duCi. Firat, a Special Tr.inin. S.ction, which ia r.'ponaibl.
for itin.rari.a and epeclaJ training programe (or vhitora, .uch a. youraeU. Next, th.r. i. iln
AUied Liaiaon Section, which coordinilte. the trilining o( aU .tudenU (ram our aUied counlri
Th. Inf'ntry School Library, which i. u.ed by both etudent. and inltructor. ahke, I. und.r auper_
Ti.lon of the Secretary. There la alao a Crad. R.corda Section to maintain record. of .I\ld.nt
acad.mic ,rad.
Th. Operationl OUice i. c~rged with provtdin, f.cilitl and a.rTic n.c ry lor the
academic department. to pre.ent their inatruction. One function of the Op.ratlona Ollictl is the
ached'llin, of cl To do thi., they maintain a maater tralnin, .chedul. board. Among the
m.ny Hem. 01 equipment thl. olllce mu.t provide .re weapon. of aU type . A weapon. pool is
maintained to i ue theaa w.apon.. Due to the complexity of the OperaUon. OUice .cthiti , a
more detailed brieRnl will be Jiven by that olfice 10Uowlng my pre.entatlon

The Editorial and Pictorial Office prepare. the many vhualaid. u.ed by In.tructorl. Tbi.
olfic up.rviut. the preparation of, and .diu all traininj tit.r..ture oriJinalinl at the School.
It .. leo publi.he. the Infantry Majuine. In addhiol'l. the Editorial ..nd Pictorial Office .upervi . . .
the Army Field Printlnl Plant which pUI'IU ,11 in.tructiol1&l material u.ed .t the School.
Th, Book Dep,artment oper..te. the Book Store. Her. the .hld.nu may pureha v ..riou
tation.ry .upplie. and material. ne.d.d to a tlt them in their .tudi.'. Thl. al.o give tu_
d.nu a loure./rom whicb 10 build up th.ir own perlonal library.
Now let'. COD.ider the v.n inltructioa.al d.partm.nu.
Tb. Airborn.Air Mobility O.pal'lment 11 re.pon.ible lOr a eeru..ill ..mount of l.ebnical (1'1
Iruction for the l.ader.hip Iype cour.... Ho",.v.r. h. primary COllCern it conduct oflbe Ballc
Airborn .end Pathfind.r Cour.... Thi. d.partment aleo conducU le.l. and formulal doctrine
r.lativ. 10 airborn. operation. and air..f1\obilily maU'r. a. oppod 10 airborne t..ctie .....h.ich h
the re.pon.ihility ol another departm.nt.
The Ground Mobilhy O,pillrtment teache. le..der el...... tho tbinj' they .hould know. con
eerning orjanir.atiol1&l maint.nanc., udlization. operation, ..nd In.p.clion ol whe.l and Irack
v.hlcle. of the baltle group. In addition. It eonducu .pectaHIt el...... lor baltle IrouP mOlor
ollicer. and automotive .upervhor
Th. Communication. D.parlm.nt. a. it. name implie boa. r pon.ihility lor iMtrucdon in
the organizational rnaint'l1&nc operaHon and utilization ol..u .ign.al equipm.nt found within the
battl'lroup. II al.o condueu .peci-.Jilt cl lor baltle jroup communic"Uoll olIicer. and
communicatiCWI.u".rviaor.
Th. W'~POll' Deparlment prenU in.truetion in aU W.apoM org.nic to the battle aroup.
from Ih. 45 caliber piltol throulh the 106mm recoiUe rin. [1'1 addilion to W. t.chnical
inltnlction. the Weapon. Department iI r pon..ible for (ormulatinllechnique. of {ire. includ.
tn, the new concept of Tra.l.nlire.
Th. Special Subj.cu Department it ehar,ed with in.truction in military manal.meot. map
and 'erial photograph readin,. military m.dicine. lead.r.hlp, atomic. inltruction...nd oth.r
common .ubject. which may b. dir.ct.d.
Th. Command and Sta.H Department In.trucU in aU a.pect. of organir.ation tall {unction.,
t.ctlc. and command oflnlantry uniu Irom company though the brigade and in the techniqu and
employrnent of '\Ipportin, arm. and rvic. Sufficient in.tructiOn i. aleo gtven.t divi.ion
l.v.l lor orienta.tion of .tudenll. Througbout their in.truction. tbe ernpb<l..ie it 011 hattlefield
mobility. flexibility, and the u .. of atomic and olber .uPportinl weapone. h h in thi. depart
mel'll that Ih. lactic. of airborne and air land'd operatton. are taught.
Wb'rea. the Comm.lld and Stall D.partmenl it re.pon.ibl. lOJ" tactical tr..ininl from com
pany level up. the R.n,er Oepartment it r pon.i.ble for tactical training o{ tbe tndlvidul .01_
di.r quad and pl..toon. In addition. It conduct. pb)'.icel training. b<l.ndtoboand coml),at. alld
ba)'onet tralninllor all ~our.e. r.e.lvinl Ihit Iype in.trucHon.
Th. Ranger Department allo condllCU an I-week apeciel cour.e, call.d lbe bnger COtoir ,
for .elect.d volunte.r.. Thll cour.e it a .trenuou. one empha.bing leader.hip and endu:rallc
It it rugged. apec\aliz.ed tral.ning. u.inglonl ranle combat and reconnai ance parrob a. tdcb.
Ina vehicl... The training h conducted in three dilf.r" locationa.
Th. fund.amental. are taull'lt here at Fort Bennlnl.

The .tud.nt. are then moved to the coa.1 of Florida lor .)u.nll. and amphibio"". trainiftl.

ACtlr complltion of thl FloridA pM.etudent. are then tAkln to tbe mountain. of North Georgia
for tralnlna In mountain cl\mbina And 10na ranae mountain patrol1ina.
Thl.1 are aU of the dlpartmenll which pre'ent re.ident In.truction; howlyar. thlrl I. 01'11
departmant th.&t proYidl. inuru<:tion to non re.ldent .tudenU.
The Department of Non-Re.ldent lnuru<:tion Adminiuer. the Army o:tln.Ion courle. which
al'l limilar to corre.pondance cour.el In a civiliAn .cbool .y.tem. Thi. department .1'0 prepare. and di.tributel inltructional materi.l for re.erva componenu. N.tionlll euard. And ROTC
l,Uliu. Thair miUlina Ult include. Z74. 000 Add..... ea.. To accomplhh the.e function. they
maintain .arehou.el and have A .eparat. mAil .ection.
Havina .een the mhlion and oraAnization of the USAts let UI now examine thl Army EducatioruLl SyUem and .el tlt.e part that the USAts play. in the .y.tem. We will then con.ider the
School curriculum.

TI ARMY EDUCATION SYSTEM

,..----_..:., ARMY WAR :


WAR'
'NIUt.
COLLEGE COLLEGE
'OfilCES
...' _-------... SOHOOLS~

IfCIOSTMlAl

----~

~-----

VAS OFS'VO

COllEGE:

~ AltMm

SELECT<lN (20lll

-~

-----,

ARMEO FORCES :
I STAFF COLLEGE I

L_____ _

1Q-21

8-15

ex-.w>aGENERAL STAFF COLLEGE ...


8RAr'Oi ADVANCED OFFICER COURSE ...

ALL

BRANOi COMPANY OFFICER COURSE ...

ALL(CO'<STllLCTM:

BASIC BRANCH OFFICER COURSE ..

ALL

USMA

II

ROTC

II

15-25

OCS

Fiaure Z.

II

OTHER

5-12

amn 2-5

wtN CO!oMSSlOIO

_ _ Al'NIY SCHOCLS

____JOM SCHOOLS

Source. of Commie.ion.

OfUclr. are comml. ion.dinto branchll of the Army from thl.e cour.l. (Fiaure Z). With
01'11 Ixc.ption. they' aU attlnd thdr branch IM.Ic cour.1 aftlr blina comml Ionld. The excep_
tl.on to thh h tho'e officer. who are commh.loned from OCS. which h .Imllar to the brAnch
ba.l.c cour'l.
Fol1o..,{nl the boa.l.c cOur aU Rillular Army UlutenanU muu take at ll t on. of the followinl: Airbornl Cou ..... Ranier Cour or Army Aviation Fltsht Tralninl .

After two to five year. a"rvice, an officer may rehlTn lor an i"termed'.te CO\l.r,,, of in.truetton - the A odate Company Ollieer Cour.e. Thi. cour." prepare. an officer for duty a. a
compAny commander and Junior .taU officer of the battle group. Normally. RA officer. receive
c:onuructivt! credit lor thl. cour.e. It i, u.ually attended by oUicer. who, for varlou. rea.onl,
have not received the normal troop duty aa.ignrnentl and need additional {....truction to c:ompente for back of experience. In moat c ea, thi, cour ., I. attended by re.erve offic:ert who
come on .cllve dl.lty for the apeclfic courte.
Between the 5th and IZth ye.. r of c:ommi ioned ."rvice, the officer returnl to the InCantry
School for the Advanced Courae. Thi. coura" trail'll itn officer for duty a. iI battle group Itaff
officer ilnd commander.
Up to thie point. all Ichooling hal been a requirement.

AU further .chooling i. by .election.

. ppro.i.mately SO" of the Infantry officerl attend the Command and General Staff College
between their 8th and 15th yeare of aervice. Thi. college prepare. an officer for divi.ion and
higher level dutie.
The percentage. ilttending the top level .chooh, L e., the Armed Force. Staff College, National War CoUege. and the Indu.tr!a! College. are con.ide'rably Ie ... All of thete. e.cept the
Army War College, are attended by officer. from all of the .ervice.
You will note tlult the Infantry School conduct. all the "mu.t have" coune' for Infantry
career offlcen. The ba.ic courle, of eight week. duration, i. deaigned for the Inlantry platoon
leader with lire placed on .mall unit tactic. in.truction. In the intermediate cour.e of .1._
teen week. duration, empha.i. i. given to dutie. of the company commander and junior Itaff
officer. Advanced tactic. are introduced, but Je empha.i. i. pbced on weapon. al the Iludent
by thil time hal a imilated much of thi. training through experience. The advanced level coune,
attended by officere of con.iderable co.mpany and junior "'aff e.perience. I. J4 week. in length.
Here the officer receivel inltruction to Include the reinlorced battle group wilh the .talr procedure. and combined arm. taCtiCI nece ary for thl. type organization. plu. training to qualify
him a$ an atomic Ilaff officer. An orientation on d,vi.ion level Itaff procedure. it alao included.
In all of our cour'e' we place empha.l. on the tactical employment of atomic weapon., guided mi ile., and rockell. We have not, however, di.regarded inltruction in conventional warfare, without atomic., thereby maintaining (Il1!xibility. We atre.1 greater battlefield mobility.
the key to .ucce'l, through the ulle of heHcoptere and Infantry penonnel carrier.: we .tre
night training and individual proficiency In night firing of weapon . A. they become available,
we integrate new communication. equipment, vehicle and weapon. Into our inn ruction.
The over_all .tudent load il approximately 11,500 for thl. fi.c.1 year. In addition to thit,
we conduct .peclal cour.e . For example, a two-week cour.e for 600 US Military Academy
Cadell, al well al a one-week cour.e for US AiT FOTce Academy Cadell. AI.tance I. given
to 1100 ROTC Cadell and the US ATmy Re.eTve unill during thit .ummer tTalning. We al.o conduct the Army orientation faT appTo:llimately 160 member. of the Joint Civilian Orientation Conference a. part of the ~pllrtment of Defen.e Orientation. At the.e lime., we hold an open hou.e
faT approJdmately 4.000 other Itudenll (rom variou. lervice .chool. luch a. Ordnance. Signal,
and ATmed FOTce. Staff College.
A few minute. ago I mentioned the Ba.ic Infantry OUker Coune. A. of I July thi. IS-week
coune will be dilcontinued. An 8_week Infantry Officer l.eader Cour.e will take Ita place.
Study revealed that the IS_week BlOC coune duplicated much of the USMA progTam of in.truc_
tlon ATP 145-60, general .c1ence curriculum for civilian and m'il\tlory college. The I-week
IOl.C eliminate. thi. duplication and more clo.ely (allow. a ranger type cour.e - empha.lzing
.ell_confidence and aggre"ivene . It doe. not Tepl.ce the ranger cour.e. All newly commi..ioned officen mu.l Ilill take the Ranger and/or Ai,'borne Courte. OT the Army AviatlonCO\Ir.e.
7

I would like to mention a ne... cour.e _ acutally a .ubc:our.e. Thh i. our Nuclear Weapoll.'
Employment OUlcer Coune. The advall.Ced da receive....pproxim...tely 135 hOUri oC atomi.c
UPOIl. Iraduation. tho.e who .ucce.lfuJly complete the atomic' in'truction are a .... rded a prefix
S to their MOS. The ,ociate .dvanced da receive. 77 hour. oC atomic.. Tbo.e .tudenu
...ho achieve certain ltandard re beld over alter tbey .raduate and receive .nother 60 houri oC
atomic in.truc:tioll.. Succe.'Cu! completion oC the.e bourl qualilie. them Cor a prefix S. In addition to thi. relatively lar.e lingle block of in.tructioll., the ...dv;t.nced level cl e. receive .pproximately 18t additioD.&1 hOUri of integrated Itomic in.truction pre.ented by other tha.n our
atomici committe.. W. bave had 3 d COmplete thie lub_courle 10 far _ two regul.1.r cl;t...el and one auoctate da... Approximately 65ft of the two regular daue. were qualified ....
nudear weapon. employment officer. and approximately 30ft of the a oclate da wa. qu;t.lilied.
Gentlemell.. that end. my pre.entation.

Are there any que.tion.?

CHAPTER 2
NON-RESIDENT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM
CAPTAIN ROBERT ARTER

Operations Officer, Department oj Non-Resident [nstructKm


During your vi, it to the United State. Army InJantry School, you have leen and wi.ll be .hOWD
many of the facilitie. whi.ch exilt here to ,uPPOl't the training of the fifteen thou. and plua studenu
who annually attend re.ident in.truetion. I'm wondering--jusl how many of you re;t.lize that the
lniantry Schoollupportl a current nonre.ident .tudent enrollmentoC 290, OOO? During thi, peri.od. we will discu the non-relidenl progn.ml in which these .tudenla are p&rticip&ting and the
types, benefits, and methods of procurement of non-re_tdenl illltructional material prepared to
lupport thelle progranu.
To admini_tel' and coordinate the support of the non-re.ident program. of the United State.
Army Infantry School, the Department of Non-Re.ident In.truction has been establi.hed.
The department is organized as follow.:
A department headquarters with a. colonel, Director. and lieutenant colonel. Deputy Director. The Deputy Director in this instance wear. two hat. a. he i. abo the InIantry ROTC Advi.or and a uch make. vhits throughout the country. learning how he can better .upport the
ROTC program.
An Operation. Section consi.ting of the Administrative Branch Which performs the normal
administrative duties of an SI section, and the Planning and Coordinating Branch which has the
re.ponsibility for coordinating all activities of the department. It is this branch which .erve. as
the department'. liai.on agent with all other departments and agencies concerned with the production of non-resident in.tructional material. Its activities can best be likened to those of an 53
office. This office also monitors the expenditures of all funds allocated to .upport the various
non-re.ident programs.

The Logistical Section performs a dual function. It is respon.ible for distribution of nonresident material to individual students in the ca.e of Army Extension Courses and to the instructor. in the other non-l"esident programs. It abo .erve. as the .upply agency for the department.
The Editorial Committee is charged with the writing. rewriting. and editing of all nonre,ident instructional material. It is compo.ed of officers with considerable miJitary experience, and civilians wh.o have h<l.d military experience and who po.sess excellent writing background
The AEC Committee i. re.pon.ible for administration of the Army Extension Course.; it
grade tudent les.ons and maintain. extensive record. on all students. For your information,
approximately eighteen thousand .tudent paper. are graded weekly.
In keeping with the reorganizations which have taken place throughout th.e military e.tabli.hment to .trengthen ,upport of the re.erve program, a Re.erve-ROTC Committee wa. organized (Figure 3). The Re.erve-ROTC Committee aui.t. the ROTC Advisor in maintaining liai.on with and providing proper .upport for ROTC unit. and maintain. liai.on through vi. itt and
corre'pondence with. NO and USAR units .upported by the Infantry School.

OOTHQ

IOTe

ADV!SOI

I
.

lOGISTICAL
SECTION

orEMTIONS

SECTION

I
I

I I'l..~OID

"O:IN

.
<C,,.

1OIT00ltol
COM

Filur", J.

16 IOIC
COM

Or,anuatioD oJ the Department of NonRe.ident lnltruction.

By now, I'm ,"U"e that yo... are beginning to wonder, "What i. this nonre.ident material il.nd
bow i, it uled 1" To belt ...nder.land it. let'. consider ... man'. life cycle. Ye.our .cope nearly covers "from the cradle to the gr"ve. "
There are four major non-re.ident program. lupported by the Infantry School. Thes", are:
Re.erve Officers' Training Corp', United States Army Reserve. National Guard. and Army Ex-

tenlion Courl"'"

Nltl PROGRAM

USAIS

I
ROTC

I
USA>

Figure 4.

NG

Non-Resident Programs.

10

AfC

Let'. consider an average American boy whom we find enrolled in the Reserve Officer" Training Corps Program of hi, local high school (Figure 4). He'. participating either in the Junior
ROTC or Natio......l Deh:nse Cadet Corps and will receive 96 hours of training in bil8ie miUt.ry
subjects each. year for three years. This training is designed to make him a better American
citizen and to prepare him for pO'lible service as an enlisted man. There are two types of unitt
at this level of instruction. the regular Juni.or ROTC units and the National Defense Cadet Corps
units training under Section SSe, the:National Defense Act. The Latter units aTe suppo:rted only
by inltructional material, whereal, regular Junior ROTC units are provided active Army instructOTII as well a. training material support.

ROTC

l
J'
DIV

MS
DIV

NDCC

Figure S.

SR
DIV

ROTC Programs.

Our lad could have participated in the Military Schools Division of ROTC (Figure 5). It consists of military institute. and military junior college! with an enrollment o( approximately
13.500. These !chools have a six-year curriculum with ISO hours of military instruction per
year.
Now. let's assume that our lad has graduated from high school and enrolled in college. Here
he may receive additional training under an ROTC program which paralleb the resident OCS
course. There are ZSO umior ROTC unit! which are supported by the lnfantry School; this include. ZOZ General Military Science and 49 Branch Material uniu including 17 Infantry unit!.
Total en"rollment is around 144,500. The General Military Science (GMS! curriculum is keyed to
produce junior officer. who by their education. training, and inherent qualities are suitable (or
continued development as officer. in any branch o( the United States Army. The Infantry branchtype curriculum, as the name implies, is designed to train officer! for Infantry commissions.
Effective this !chool year. both program! included relatively the same .ubjech for the fre!hman
and sophomore years with little difference in the final two years. The trend is to convert all
branch-type units to GMS units.
A senior ROTC student receives 90 hours of instruction each year [or the first two year.
and 150 hours annuaUy [or hi. lall two years. In addition, to qualify for a commis!ion, he mu.t
attend summer camp. Thi. is normally accomplished between the third and fourth years of
ROTC. Last school year, 14,656 offi.cers were commissioned through the ROTC program with
about Z004 going into the infantry. (The Artillery Branch received the large.t number of officers. about 4, 000.)
The ROTC curriculum has been changed to include instruction o( the new organization!.

11

To aupport the ROTC progranu there are 53 .ubject .chedule 3 inUnidor manu.cript.,
and 1 new developmenU pamphlet prepared here. There are an additional 15 .ubject .chedu.1e.
and II inuructor manu.cripu which are prep;t.red by other .erviee .chooh but whl.
Ire edited.
publi.hed, and diuributed by the United State. Army Infantry School. Let 'a take a h ....k al a
typical subjed .chedule. Plea.e refer to Subject Schedule Nr 480. Thl. ~rtlcular aubject
.chedule wa' prep;t.red to a i.t the Profes.or of Military Sdence and Tachcs in pre.enting in
at ruction on the Rocket Launcher 3.5, Hand and Rule Grenades. The cover contains the title
as well al the school year il.Ild ATP paragraph which the .ubject schedule .upporu. On the re
verse .ide Is a table of contents.
Page I outlines the purpose, training objective, .cope, reference., training aids, facihties
and equipment, and general information which an instructor should have to pre.ent thl. subject.
This general information includes any training hlnU which the Infantry School inltruclOr has
found to be helpful In the pre.entation of thit parlicular block of inllruction. On page Z I t a
chart of the cour.e, giving a breakdown by period and showing lesson title, tell:t reference, area,
tr..ining ..id., and equipment. Thill ill followed by paragraph. containing an outline of each hour,
stating the lesson objective, and shOWing the recommended les.on outline with a ume breakdown.
At present, there are only three inlltructor manu.criptt written here at United Slates Army
Wil.Iltry School. lnUructor manu'cripts contain complete narrative. for each hour of Inltruction
aupported and they are prepared on subjecU wherein reference material may be scarce or there
i. a need {or unuorm in.truction.
Additional as.iatance i. rendered tbe ROTC program through halt on vuiu and procurement
o{ .pecial item. lIuch aa name tag., miILg~ine .ub.criphons, a.nd books. Certain InUructional
items are purcha.ed and automatically diuributed. Recently, plastic working modeh of lIeveral
weapon. were purch.ued through a. special tra-ining fund ilLnd hilLve been di.stributed to ROTC units.
Each aenior achool is allocated money qua-rterly CrOm the ROTC Support Fund. This money il
uaed to purcha.e item. which are not available through aupply channels. There are several
Senior ROTC ma.nuah and one Junior ROTC ma-nual which are now published by the Department
of the Army a. te~t reference', The Uniteo State. Army Wantry School does have respon&ibiltty for preparing tho... DOrtions of the manual. which pertain to instruction at this .chool. The.e
publication. are curreutly being revilled along ROCID lines and will be available through AG publication ch..nnels a. they are printed.
Let'll assume that our hypothetical Individual has graduated from ROTC and has been commissioned a .econd lieutenant, Infantry. He I. caUed to active duty with hi. fiut assignment
being here at FOrt Benning where he attends the Ba.ie Wantry Officer Course. Under the 1955
Rellerve Force. Act he may complete hi. 6 month.' active duty requirement by attending BlOC
and then attending further .chooling or being .... igned al Benning until discharged. If he elect.
a- two-year tour of active duty he'll a igned according to the needs of the service upon compJe
ti.on of BlOC.
Let'. a ume that our young man haa completed hi, two year" active .ervice and reverted
to a c:ivilia.n atatua. If he i. to remam ..clive With the mUitary, he may participate in the USAR
or NG progranu. Let'. as.ume that he elects to JOUl the USAR. There are two USAR ..ctivitles
in which he may partlc:i~te.
The fir.t USAR .chool was organized at Allento....n. Pennaylvania, in 1949 and the program
mel with .uch aucce.a that today there are 84 USAR .chooh with 154 Infantry DepartmenU op'
er..ting throughout the United State. (Including .chools In France, Germany, and Hawaii). The
enrollment it about 1800 oUicera (Figure 6).
What" a USAR school and how is it organized? A USAR achool II run by re.erve oHicerl
for re.erve officers. The facully con. ius of a commandant with hi. regular uaff (SI, S3, S4)
ptu. a lpedal ttaif. The .choat is organized into de~rtmenU based on branches with an in8lruc

12

tor Cor each branch. A minimum of 10 students i. required to organize a dep...rtment. Since everybody involved--studenu and instructors, ... re civilians. the material which i. prepared Cor
them must be complete to the last detail. A civilian instructor has no library facilities, etc
he can turn to--and we don't want him to need them.

I
'iCHOOlS

USAR

NO

TOE

TOE

UNITS

UNITS

I
NGSOC
COURSE

I
I
STAFF TNG POI

Figure 6.

USAR and NG Programs.

It's possible Cor a USAR student to spend 11 years in a l1SAR school. Each Infantry blanch
department has two courses oC three ye... r. each. The USAR Associ...te Company Cour.e parallels the resident Associate Company Course ... nd the USAR Associate Advanced Course parallels
the resident A.sociate Advanced Course. Each year is broken down into two phases--the active
duty Cor training and the reserve duty phases. The reserve duty phase consi.t, of 48 hours oC
instruction which is pre.ented in the individual's hometown. The active duty for training phase
of 80 hours is received during a two-week summer CillTlp which is conducted at a military post.
In addition. the Command and General Sta.!C College has a five-year progrillTl for USAR .chools.
Let's take a look at the type of material which is prep... red to support instruction in USAR
school. Pick up problem number 4901-R which is on your desk. A USAR problem normally
consists of two parts--an instructor and a student set; however, this particular problem does
not require any homework by the student and hence there is no student set. Look at the heading.
It contains the subject, time allotted, type oC instruction. scope, subject schedule. special preparation by the instructor (included here are aU details or items which the resident instructor h....
encountered in the presentation of this problem and which should be passed on to the reserve instructor), and special preparation by the student (the exact same study of assignment that is
given resident students). Note the outline of presentation. time chart, and complete narrative.
At the end of each phase of USAR school in.truction an examination. which is prepared by the
Dep... rtment of Non-Resident Instruction. is administered to each reserve student by the USAR
8chool faculty. There are two established ways for you to obt...in these USAR problems.
The first oC these h thlOUgh the Monthly List oC Instructional Materi... 1. This publication is
diltrlbuted monthly by the Editorial and Pictori...1 Office (formerly Publications and Visual Aids
Office) to PMST's, senior Infantry instructors at servi<:e schooh. chiefs of military districts.

13

lenio .. advilors to National Guard and USAR units, and various other agencies. Add ..essees are
to receive .... ithout cod one copy of all problems lilted therein. It Ihould be SOP for
someone in you .. shop to check this list clolely. ci..culate it among inte ..elted perlonl, and then
order vou .. free material .... ithin 45 daYI. The number of addrelsees ....ho fail to take advantage
of this free service is turprising. The Infantry USAR school curriculum has been conve ..ted to
ROClD effective .... ith the active 'duty fo .. t ..aining phase, Ichool year 1957-58. In acco..dance
....ith 01,1" publications Ichedule. USAR material published from Augult 1957 on. included the ne....
organizations.
authori~ed

Another means of procuring thele USAR p ..oblemt is by order f ..om the Book Store. This
method costs you money. Please rder to your Book Sto ..e Catalog. This catalog is still cur..ent although the date does not so indicate. A new edition is to be published about 1 July. Page
I containl instructions for ordering. For your info..mation, the ROCID and ROTAO training
textl cannot be purchased from the Book Department.
Wantry USAR schools receive additional luppert through transparendel. Ipecial texu, and
handbookl ....hich a .. e provided. plus liaison visits by personnel from the Department of Non-Retident Instruction.
Our hypothetical man whom ....e are considering could have elected to join a USAR TOE unit
which .. eceivel no direct support f ..om the United States Army Wantry School.
No..... instead of joining the USAR. our individual could have joined a National Guard TOE
unit organized by his home state. We provide no Ipedal material to support NG TOE uniu;
however. they may orde ... lubject to their availability of fundi. any USAR p ..oblem from the
Book Store.
Both USAR and NG TOE units are suppo ..ted by a staff training catalog which it prepa.. ed
and fo ......a ..ded to all state adjutant generall and Reserve Corps Headquarters. This catalog con
tainl a recommended lht of USAR. school problems for training Infantry Divilion and Battle .
Group; Armored Division and Armored Infant ..y battalion Itafh. This training is conducte.d du ..
ing the periods while the companies are drilling. Material is ordered in December and shipped
the next July. AU NG material is paid for by National Guard funds. whereat USAR units receive
material which il paid for by Infantry School non- ..esident instruction fundi. The program has
been converted to ROCID for school year 1958-59.
The Infantry School is the sale agency which supportl the National Guard State Officer Candidate Program. At present, this program is being conducted by)) statel through the operation
of 4) schools with an enrollment of 2468 studentl. The course is supported by 21 Annexes con
taining 227 hours of inlt ..uction which parallel the resident Office .. Candidate Course. These
annexes are used by NG officers to teach clalses. normally held on weekend I. to National Guard
Officer Candidatel. In addition. most states require their officer candidate I to serve in' alec
ond lieutenant'l job at lumme .. camp. Thil way he il evaluated as to hil job peTformance at
well as academic Itanding. A commhlion gained through the NGSOCS program doe I nOl have
to be recognized by the federal governmenl; however. it normally is when the unit is called inlO
federallervice.
Let'. look at a typical NGSOCS problem. Pleale pick up National Guard problem 1806. A
limitar problem il prepared for every period of inltruction in thil program. Turn to page 1 and
note itt Ilmilarilyto page I ofa USAR problem. Look on page 2. Here beginl the na .. rative. JUlt
al in USAR probleml, each problem normally conliltl of an inltructor let and a student let.
The Itudent set outline I the home Itudy assignment and normally containl a preclasl requirement. Each phale of inet ..uction il followed by an examination which il adminiltered by the
.tate and graded here at the Infantry School by perlonnel of the De~rtment of NonRelident
InltrucUOn. Within 48 houri after receipt of the.e examl, they are graded. recorded, and on
their way back to the appropriate ltate Ichooll. NGSOC Ichoola are allo supported by Irani
parende., Ipedal text. and Hail on vilitt.
14

The National Guard State Officer Candidate Course curriculum hal been nevi8ed to include
the ne.... organi1:ationl eUective with school year 1958-59. Material prep.ned to support this
cour.e i ' il.utomatically distributed to Comrn;l.ndantl of NGSOC schools only. 1 will have infOI'
mation copies of the National Guard State Officer Candidate Course and USAR School Prograznl
of lnuruction available uteI' this cla lor thOle who are particul;lrly inter~.ted.

Let', assume now that our selected individual hal grown older. Perhap' he hal .erved
several yeaI'll with a USAR or NG TOE unit. Due to hie family and bu.inelll activities, he i ' no
longer able to regularly attend meetings at the armory. However, he wanta to keep active in the
military ;utd to gain retirement benefitl; then we have the tolution to hit needtparticipation in
the Army Extention Courses Program. Army Extenllion Courlles provide a progressive nonresident courte of military inlltruction for all components of the Army.

AEC

I
PRE COM

CO GRADE

Figure 7.

ADV

Army Extension Course Program.

Effective 2 July 1956, the Army Extension Courlle Program was revised from a lIerielltype organization to a coursetype organization. It now consittt of the- PreConunitsion Exten
sion Courte which is to generally parallel the resident OCS Course; the Company Grade Exten
sion Course: and the Advanced Extension Courlle which parallels the resident Assodate In!antry
OHicen Advanced Course (Figure 7).
Any oHicer on active duty may enroll in any subcourse; however. a reserve student must
complete the tubcourses appropriate to his grade before enrolling in more advanced instruction.
For your information, the percentage of enrOllment by component breakll down all follows;

56'fo

NG

20'1.

USAR

24'"

Active Army (this includes all RA, USAR, It NG personnel on active duty; ROTC
cadets, WAC's, Air Force, and Naval perllonnel.)

Please reier to the publication with the picture of a lieutenant briefing two sergeantll on the
cover. This is a typical subcourse. This particular one happens to be In!antry lIubcourte 21
and ill prepared for instruction on the company oHicer's level. Let's hurriedly look at it.
On page 2 is the beginning of lesson 1. NOTEat the top of the page ill thown the AEC
credit hourt, text assignment, material. required, letson objective, and tuggelltion. to the
ttudent. Utually there ill an introduction. All you leal through the lesson, you will note that
there are a .erie. of general and tpedal tituationt followed by multiple choice queuions, nor
maUy twenty per let.on.

15

Turn to the bilCk page of the booklet. This i.s the answer sheet which the nudent should
tear oU and mail i..n upon completion of lel.on 1. Remember th<t.t Army Exten.ion COl.lrlea con
the student absolutely nothing and dt cou'elpondenc:e i, handled throulh franked envelopes. This
an.wer .heet i. graded by personnel of the AEC Committee. and tben the .tudent', trade a100a
with a correct .olution .beet and dhc\u.ion of difficult questioDs i, on the way b&c:k to him within 48 hours. Students c:ompleUDg a .ubcour.e receive a leiter of completion through c:hanneb
whUe .udenU completing a course receive a certificate of completion.

Special Texu are written in the form of Held manuah but ilre better reading and easier to
understand. Everyone realizes th"t often the latest doctrine or techniques which you are teaching al'e not contained in the field manual. The only way that we can make this material available to the non-rellident .tudent i, through the preparation o( 'pecial text. or attached memorilndum. Special text. are popular with non-reddent lItudentll and they are permitted to retaill them
for their reference library.
Converllion of Al'my Extenllion Cour'e material to ROCID hal been initiated during i.cal
year 1958, and will be completed by December 1958. Reviled DA Pamphlet 350-bO .hould be
publi.bed in September and thill will contain our prOllpectu. for .chool year 58-59.
Actually. there are many benefits to be derived fl'om u.ing non-re.ident inlltructionu material. Some of the.e are:
There may be 1I0me type of job that an Individualellpechilly dellirell or an allllignment thllt
he receives orderll for and yet he know. that he i. not fully qualified to perform. By enrolling
in .ubcourlle. covering that particular type of duty, he can prepare hirnseU profe.donaHy.

If an individual i, lIlated to attend a lIel'vice .chool and realizell tbat he ill particularly we...
in a given .ubject, he may enroll and review that .ubject. Cb&nce. are he would lItudy many of
the .ame problem. and .Ituation. that he would encounter in re.ident inlltruction.
I doubt that there are few here wbo have not at .ome time been all.igned the ta.k of prelIenting a c1a'lI about .ome lIubject witb which they wer~ not. a.zniliar. Imagine ho.... valuable a
USAR problem with a complete narrative would be under lIuch condition. Everyone will agree
that poll.e.lion of a narrative does notmue a good in.ti"Uctor; bowever, it certainly provide.
the be.t point to lItart preparation of ada
In addition to Wantry .ubeourse., there are alllO .ubcour.e. covering all .ubject. taught
at otber .ervice lIchool Thelle Clln be bad witho...t co.t to the .tudent. (Example. are color
televillion, accO\lnting procedure., radio, etc.)
There are many other benefit. to be derived from participation In the non-reddent program.
One iI that it can enable re.erve perllonnel to gain retirement 01' retention point Tbree Army
Extenllion Coul'lIe credit hourll eq....u I credit poinl. Twenty-lleven pointll are required by re.ervell to remain active and 50 points mu.t be accr...ed &nnwally to q\lll..lily for retirement benefit Allo completion of certain de.ignated lIubeourlle. i. req...ired 10 qualify National Gward
oficer' for promotion.
The Wantry publicity politer ....ch a. II di.played on the board il prepared for the purpOlle
of arou.ing ROTC Cadets' interellt in the Infantry. It il aho dillributed to Wantry inllructol'l
and Hai.on officerl at the variou. lervice .choob and headquarterll. and to Wantry USAR and
National Guard State OHicer Candidate Schoob. If you are not prelently included in the maUina
lilt, plealle .ee me at the conclu.ion of tM. period. Tbere are nine hluell printed annually,
for each monlh oflhe lIchool yellr. Thelle politeI'll lIhould be prominently d.illplayed .... herever
pouible.

"

During thb period we hOj.ve briefly di.eu'.ed the orgilnizat\on and function. of the Department of Non-Resident Instruction, the various non-re.ident progranu with their Z90, 000 students, and the type. of non_resident in.tructional Jnaterial prepared to .upport the.e non-re.i
dent program . Further, I lu.ve pointed out the .chedule date. for converllion of non-re.ident
instructional material to the new organizations. You have been told what material i. avAilable
ano how you can obtain it. the next Itep i. yours.

17

CHAPTER 3
INFANTR Y COMMUNICATIONS
Section J. lNTRODUCnON

COLONEL JULIAN H. MARTIN

On beh&1l of the olficen _d mea of the CommunicatiOft Department. I wi.h to extend ou.r
welcome. Aad co iovitt! )'ou. while bere. co c&11 011 any or <111 of the personnel of the department
to ,i,t you. you require.
Over and over ilgain. great And ,ucC;:ludul comb,at leaders have reiten,ted that the three
mOlt importOl.nt iDgredient. for succe in com~t have been and will continue to be, one. communication: two. lirepower; and three. mobility. We in the Communication Department believe
that beeau.e of the ch&r&cteri.Ucl of the luture b&ttlefield, the word "communic..tion," and &11
it connotes, bal gained added importance. Bec.lue of the extended distances on the future battlefield, the problem of command and control will be increa.ed many dmes beyond that kn<)Wn
in the past. We believe that unless the commandflr (ully capitalizfls on the communication avail
able to him. he will not be able to dflat with the extflndfld distance problem and success in com
bat will be an almost impossible task.

,.

The pia_flU o( the new ROCID organiJ,ation. cogrl.bant o( the importance of commu.nlcatiorl.
to thfl commander. reorganized the communi<:atioa struchare o( the Infantry division. Since this
reorganbuion however. it b... been concluded. throuab shadies, itIvestiaatiorl.s. and reports
(rom Held comm.llndeu. that the communication perso_elllnd commu.nic.lliion equipment ora.ll.nic to the battle arOlip are not .lldequate. Aa a result o( thil conclusion, the Infantry School
h.lls recommended that variOlis items o( communication equipment and .lldditloaal perso_el be
.lldded to the battle aroup TOE. U this recommendation is approved by United States Continerl.Ul
Army Command and Department of the Army, we believe that the commander will bave thfl tooll
with which to successCully command and control his subordinate units as well as support units.
This In(antry School recommflndation will be dlscussfld in detail by C.llptain Piaseczny. Research
Coordinator, Communication Ot!partment. during the lirst portion o( the period this morning.
A. in all other military field continuous experimentation and re.earch are bfling conducted in the lield 01 electronic.. Each new idea or suaae.tion (or improvement is exploited to
the fullest. Current development. and trend., arl.d a lina.! version of many pieces o( equipment
that will be in the hands of troops during 19600, wUl be discu.ssed by Major McDonnell, Chid of
the Radio Maintenance Group. Communication Department, do.ring the .econd hall o( thi. mornina's pre.entation.

At the conclusion o( the two presentatioas just mentioned. we bave set aside a ten minute
period to answer your quest.ions. At this tUne I would like 10 pre.ent captain PiaUlCzny.

&!ction D. INFANTRY BATTLE GROUP COIOlUNICATIONS


CAPTAIN JOSEPH J. PIASECZNY

The United States Army Infantry School iI vitally Interelted In continually Improving the
means of communication available to our Infantry units, and In particular, the rifle company.

"

We believe Ihal if complete and reliable means of communication are provided to the rifle company, the remainder of our problem area. will more ea.ily Cit into place.
Several communication studie. have been undertaken by the Infantry School dUring the p .... t
year in order to improve upon Infantry communication. Units in the field were SOlicited for
comment, and a. a result, a formal position regarding battle group communicationll was adopted
by the School and forwarded to USCONARC in February 1958.
The improvements called for may be accomplished with existing equipment, the highlights
of which are as follows: Our problem begins with the Infantry rifle platoon (Figure 8).

RIFLE PLATOON

~~ [8]--[8]

[8]~.NY
Figure 8.

Rifle Platoon Communications.

The platoon leader does not possess organic means of communication to control hill squads. The
means 01 communication available to this unit have not changed very much since the dawn 01
Inlantry. The need for organic means 01 communication within the rille platoon has long been
recognized in Airborne and Armored Infantry units. However, the platoon leader is provided a
radio to communicate with company. The AN/PRC-6 with a limited one mile range is provided
lor tM. purpose, This radio as you know may be hand held for operation, which ill the more
common method used, or it may be shoulder carried which may be more convenient, utilizing a
handset with extension cord. This aHow. the hand. to be free since the handsf'.l ~y be hung on
the InIantryman's pocket.
We propose to add live additional AN/PRC-6 radios to the rille platoon in order to establish
an organic platoon command net (Figure 9). This distribution would include the platoon leader.
platoon sergeant, and each .quad leader. Thill is con.idered to be an interim measure only
pending availability 01 lighter weight equipment. For communication back to company, the more
improved AN/PRC-IO radio should be provided to the platoon leader. Thi. radio set with a l
to 5 mile range would fill a more realistic range requirement. Since it i. e entially a back

"

RIFLE PLATOON (PROPOSED)

~~~ ....~

.....

~,..A06"

LAT
SGT

~~PANY

Figure 9.

Rifle Platoon COmmunicationl (Propoaed).

carried radio, a radiotelephone operator mUlt be made available at platoon headquarter .


Thi.. then would provide two radiol ilt platoon level - the AN/PRC-IO with it. J to 5 mile

WEAPONS PLATOON

&&&
eBB
TO

~
Figure 10.

Weapolu Platoon Communicationt.


ZO

range Cor communication with company OUld the A14/ PRC6 Cor communicating with .quad leader .
Our rine platoon communication .yuem would then correapond more Cavorably with the Air.
borne and Armored Infantry riOe platoona. Five additionu aound powered telephone a have aho
been recommended Cor the rUle platoon to complement the radio ayatem.

10

fOC

TO

~~T
Figure II.

Weapona Platoon Commun,,;ationa (Propoaed).

The rifle company .... eapon. platoon ia In .ome ....hat better condition (Figure 10). Here Ihe
AN/PRCIO ....ith lu 1 to S mile range h ,aed exduaivel'l .... ithin the platoon for communIcation
bet ....een platoon headquartera. and each of the forward obaervera. Ho....ever. Ihe A14/PRC6
radio .... ith limited one mile range ia again uaed here for communicating bar;k 10 company. Thia
r;ondition may be improved upon. We propoae to provide t ....o additional ~/PRCIO radioa to
thl. unit (Figure II).

RIFLE

CO~PANY

BAT GP
COMO NET
BAT GP

~~~-ee
~
z lC:J
Figure iZ.

Rifle Company Communication.

Z1

This additionill diuribl,ltion would allow for an improved radio for communicating back to
company, and one additional set within the platoon (or displacement of the FOe. Additional wire
and radio remote control equipment hall also been recommended lor this platoon.
The meilnll of communication ...ilhin the rille company mus! be considered (Figure IZI. At
the pre.ent time the rifle company employs nine AN/pRC-6 radios with one mile range for communicating in the Rille Company Command Net which in addition to the commander includes
company headquarters. each platoon. the antitank squads and the mortar battery forward observer, who provide. hi. own radio lei for lhh purpo.u:. The one mile range of this radio, as
brought out e;r,rlier. i. not adequate for th .. nel and muU be subslituled. Two AN/PRC-IO
radIos with 3 to ') mile ranges are employed al the command POllt for communicallng with battle
group. The range of thlll equIpment IS not considered adequate for use in a Battle Croup Net.
and in order to make them e(fective. improved stationary type antennas must be used. An addi
Ilonal AN/PRC-IO radio is provided to the company commander for us", whIle dIsmounted from
hu vehicle or on a company OP. For communicating back to battle group. the n(le company
commander III provided a very good 10 mile range vehicular lIet. the AN/VRC-18 which is
mounted in his 1/4-ton vehicle. ThIS lIYlltem can be .mproved (FIgure Il).

Figure I).

Rifle Company CommunIcations (PrOposed).

We propose to eliminate the A>-':/PRCb one mIle range radio from u.e wlthm the; company. and
Subll,tule; Ihe Improve;d AN/PRC-IO rad,o with liS J to ') mile range wllh,n the compilny command net. ThiS chilnge 'vould be concurrent for the radio prOVIded the mortar battery forward
observer
In add1l10n. twO utility .eu should be prov'ded at company headquarters for added
(le",.b,llly
Theae sels could be used for patrol. or relay Uiltlon. a. needed
SpeakIng of relay. they could be u.ed better when .et up a. automatic retranam
on statton. Automatic reIran.m ....on can a ul greally in ,,"'tendin,g the ranges of our rad, equ'pment when nece ary
When u.ed however. t ....o frequencies or channels mu.t be made ava.lable and a Ipec'al cable.
Ihe retran.mi...on cable kit MKIZt>. muu be prov.ded
Per.onnel mUlt be trained to perform
th.1 technIque;, To gaUl ildded range. p.artlculanly durmg defen .. ve operation Ihe 'mproved

zz

antenna RCZ9Z may be used at the retransmission sile. For communication with battle group.
the rifle company executive officer should be provided with a vehicular mounted 10 mile range
radio similar to the rifle company commander. This is considered essential not only to im.
prove upon the Battle Group Administrative Net. but to enable the execut.ve officer to rapidly
regain control of the company in the event the company commander becomes a casually and his
vehicular radio equipment is damaged or destroyed. Time does not permit elaborate maintenance procedures within the rifle company during offensive actions. The AN/PRC-IO radio, IS
again recommended (or the commander and executive officer for dismounted use. Improved
wire. wire recovery equ.pment. and additional radio telephone operators have also been recommended. Now what about the battle group itself.

BATTLE
GROUP

CO

V'O)
.. ~

NET

.-,

EXfC

rV'O)
.. 3

COMMAND

l;

:~Q)

$.3 AIR
VRC I
,....11

.-.

: lYRC)
r-oJ-.'

.....

r:V~Q)

NCSIJV~O~

Figure H.

TOOIV

Battle Group Comm;and Net.

The billde group commander, selected staff mtmbers. and all UnlU operate In the Battle Group
Command Nt'! with a 10 mile rllnge radiO of one type or another (F.gure (4). The rifle c
pany
commanders. SZ and 53 Air for example, are prov.ded the veh.cul;ar radiO .et AN/VRC-18.
On the other hand the banle group commander IS provided the r;ad,o set AN/VRQJ. a port.on
of whlct> he u.e. to al.o CO"ln,un.cate wnh dlvlS.on. The executIVe off.cer. 53, and Commo
;are prOVided "mllilr .eU. This radiO net ilppears to be adequate except that .t may be further
refined by prOViding the AN/VRQ-j to the company commanders and Sl
The B;attle Group AdmlnlttriUlYe Net I t a (hrrerent mailer t.'lgure 15)
Here all member.
of the net iI re prOVided the ANI PRe-1 0 r;ad.o w.th a 3 to 5 mile r;ange to communlc;ate over the
.;ame d.stances as the commilnd net. The S4 and .upply ilnd mllllnteniince platoon le;ader are the
only members prOVided wllh ;a 10 mile range vehll::ular sel to commun.cate over the.e dlst;ances
ThiS Impo.e. iI deuded advantage In favor of the 10 m.le range rlildio.
The other stations, w.th
low powt'red equipment would be reqUired to frequently stop lIInd .eleci Improved radiO '"el It
I t felt that r.d,o .eou With almllar ChiHacterltllcs must be eomployed In order 10 rendeor any rllld,o
net l'ffectlYe. The net control IUlion Itt bailie ~roup heildquarters does not actual1~' e.'lt .n thiS

Fisure IS.

Battle Group Adminin ..alive Net.

net. The radio u.ed for NCS purpose. i, one of the lour utility AN/PRCIO radiol obtained
from the commUniCiltion platoon. ~d the operator i. diverted !rom other duties. Thi, i. not
de.in.ble llrrangemenl. We may improve ",pon this net by providina .imilar equipment to all
uiltlon.
\lIed in the comm..nd net (Figure 16).

a.

S8M~
v

FI,u.re 16.

Battle Group Admlnll1ra,ive Net (Propoaed).

"

<II.

ERRATA SHEET
The following changes will be incorporated in the Infantry Instructors' Conference Report,
dtd 23 _ 27 June 1958:
1. Table of Contents, page i, Chapter 4. change " ... J4" to read " .. 40."
2. Table of Contents, page i. Chapter 4. seClion J, change " ... 34'~ad " ... 40."
J. Table of Contents, page i, Chapter 4, section II, change ,~"" to read '~O."
4. Table of Contents, page i, Chapter IV, section Ill, change~ROTCM IJo::iFio read
" .. ROTCM 145.30."
5. Table of Contents. page i, Chapter IV, section tIl, change "
46" to read ' ~ "
6. Table of Contents. page i, Chapter IV, section IV, change "
49" to read ' ~ "
7. Page 52, section Ill, line 2, change " .. Manual 130.45" to md7' ... Manual 145.30."
8. Page 52, section III, line 6, change " .. ROTCM 130.45" to read " . ROTCM 145.30."
9. Page 52, section III, 1;".~ 10, change " .. ManuaI130.45" to read " . Manual145-30."

21474 Army-Ft. Benning. Ga. 26 Aug 58 ZIZ5

As previously mentioned, the prOVilion of 10 mile range AN!VRC-18 type radiol to the rifle
company executive officerl wUI materially allilt here. The other Itationl including mortar
battery must be provided with limUar 10 mile range equipment including the net control station
at battle group.
At this time we would also like to introduce a recommendation for a Battle Group Special
Purpose Net. We believe that we are leaning a bit too heavily upon our frequency modulated
(FM) radio equipment. With the increased need for more radio nets. a shorlage of available
FM frequencies or channels can be safely predicted. We have recommended that three ulility
radio teams be provided to the battle group communications platoon. Each team would mount
an amplitude modulated (AM) radio set similar to the combat proven AN!GRC9 or its newer
equivalent. Theile type radios have about similar range characteristici as our other radios
when operated on voice. but are capable of &reater ranges if needed when used on keyed opera~
tion or CW by a trained operalor. Perhaps more important, they do not use any of the critical
FM channels Or frequencies and may easily be removed from vehicles for ground operation when
necessary. which is a missing characteristic in the AM type radios we presently use to com
municate with division . .()ur other AM type sets are vehicular bound. The utility teams thus
provided, with driver/operators would add considerable fiexibility to Our battle group radio
system whlln attached to long range patrols, or special operations typified in helicopterborne
auaulu. For added flexibility, an FM radio similar to the AN/VRC-IO may be mounted in the
same vehicle. Since one of these teams would be required to remain at the battle group command post, the FM radio mounted in this vehicle would alao fulfill the requirement for a net
control station in the Battle Group Administrative Net. So much for radio.
A fourth wire team and more wire hall been recommended for the communication platoon.
This platoon cannot be expected to eUiciently install, maintain and operate wi.re ci.rcuits to four
companies, mortar battery, attachments and rear installations without sufficient equipment.
Although time may prevent the elaborate wire installations to which we have grown accustomed
in the past, it must be available when needed. pending the development of a better substitute.
A Lieutenant platoon leader h." been recommended for the communication platoon.
Gentlemen, these are only the highlights of what we are trying to do in order to improve
upon our Infantry communications with exilting methods and equipment.
On the battlefield of today, with its unprecedented firepower, time will not permit the improvilations to which we frequently reaorted in the past.
Complete and reliable means of communications must be made available and reflected in
our tablea of organization if we desire to take full advantage ',f the firepower and mobihty given
to us today.
Communication studies will continue in order to take complete advantage of new developments as they occur.
At this time, I will turn you over to Major McDonnell who will cover signal communication
trendl and developments.

Z5

Section III. THENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN COMMUNICATIONS


AND ELECTRONIC EQUlPMENT
MAJOR PATlUCK J. Mcl>ONNI:.I.L
CJliej, /tadia MllilltmulI/ce Group, COlllmullication Departme"t
The Communication Depanment III ""tally lllt('relited In unpro"'lng the ablllt)' of the Infantry
commander to commUnicate With all of hili subordinate commanders and \I.-Ith hl"her headquarters, During the past year many Impro...ements In the field of command ("ontrol <:ommun,,::atlon
ha ...e bee"! made,

Fi/olure 11,

RadiO Set AN/PRC-la.

In order to RIVe our IIquad leader and "un h'am hader_ a means of eommunlcatu''O",. th ..
1F"lgurf' 111 IndIVidual radIO Ui pr.. ltf'ntl) belnfl manufaetured. As you "a",' thul Itet
lilst y~'ar the a"ten"a "'d~ mOUnled Int('rnall}"
Ho"'("~r. du. to) thl' d,rtttlonal a"peetll of the
Internal antenna. Ihl' small whip anl~'nna ""Ill bt u!l~d .tnd a pu"hto-Ialk lI)o:ht""'o.:hl micro,
phon.. ,
A;~/PRC-Jb

The recel ...erlranSmlltl'r and baltl'r)' art' mounted In th(' ,,,t.. rlor oj Iht' helmd radiO. Th.
l'arphol1l' t('rmUlah'lI In .I\lello tub('~. Thl' tone ",odulah-u jo:f"nt'r.ltor hal> an O:\:OF..- "'.... I<.h. <l
volllm., control and a s ..,,\H plllh blUtOn whan ",h~'n d"pu ....d ~.l"lIell th,' d tn trotnll"'" a
"bl'~'I''' typt' tone.
Thill will bt' ('xtrl'mt'ly ull..!ul ..... hl'r~ our "pok('n .....ord .... oul<l ('nablt' th .... nen,)
to drtl'n our pOS1\10n. U)' th., 1111(' of the ton. IT1odulal~'d j.:t'n.. r"tor pr... arranpd ",~nallt 11M)' b.'
lransn\lttl'd, ThIS radIO Will h ......(' a n(>w "'OH~' r,lnf:e of l"lO yard" \0 "i00 vardtt ,l"d Will ha,e.1
fr~qu.'n<y ra0lo:(' of IM.O \0 "il. 0 me- allo .... "').: II thannc1l1 of <on,",Unlcatl<ln, ,10\' 011<' 01 .... hl,h

J-

Figure 18.

Radio Sct AN/PRe-H.

must be preset. It will weight approlCimately Z pounds. The companion set is the belt radio
known as the AN/PRC-)4 (Figure 18). It will have identical operating characteristics but wi.ll
have the capability of being mounted on the users bell. The antenna and audio tube are fastened
10 any conventional helmet by this clastic band. The components arc housed in a small case
2. by 3 by 5 inches. Components of the bell and helmet radio will be interchangeable. 800 of
these radios aTe scheduled for a test in early FY 59 by as yet an unnamed dIvision of the Third
US Army. The AN/PRC-6 (Figure 19) will be replaced by the ANjPRC35 (Figure lO).

27

Figure l't.

Radio Sets AN/PRC-b and AN/pRC-35.

It will weigh appro>dmateIy 8 pounris. This is an il'lcrea.e over the origina.l rl:quirement of 4
pound however. thi. i. nece.sary to give u. what we want. It will be pouch Or sling mounted.
It will have range of I mile with a frequency range of 30. 0 me to 70. 0 mc allOWing 800 channels
of communication . This .et has a selector knob that will allow the operator to .elect anyone
of four frequencie. or channels which have been preset.

Z8

Figure lO.

Figure ll.

Radio Set AN/PRC-)S.

Figure ll.

Radio Set ANfPRCZS.

"

Comparilon of Radio Set


AN/PRe-IO ""ith ANfpRC-lS.

The AN/PRCl5 (Figuru II and UI will replace the AN/PRe-B, 9 ;and 10. It Will weigh
;approximately 15 pound.: this i. more than Ihe original II pO.... nds that was wrluen InlO Ihe MG'"
It will have a voice range of ) 10 5 mile. by the ..... e of a lighlweight high gain antenna equipment.
Thi. 'et will have a frequency coverage of 30. a to 16. 0 mc affording 9Z0 channels of communlca
tion continuou.ly tunable by the operator. Thi. i. an increa.e of lZO channels over the $Cl
which we di.cu ed last year. In addition to the receiver-transmitter, it will al.o have an auxI]'
i;ary receiver which will allow the user to monitor a second net while operating in a primary nel,
Figure II .how. the vehicular power supply that may be ..... ed in place of the dry ballerr when
operating the AN/PRCZ5 or 35 in a vehicle.

.,

:a::..

".'('t-'~'

:~

.. .-,

Figure ZJ.

Vehicle Version AN/PRCZ5.

The entire AN/GRe_l thr .... 8 sene. radiO' (Figure l4) IS to be replaced by the AN/VRC.IZ
Thi et will ....eigh apprOXimately 85 pound. plus or min...... The receivcr.tran.mltter (Figure
l51 Will have a voice range of ZO mIle. whlll!' Operatlnjl: on a moving vehicle u'ln,!: a Whip antenna.
Given Ihe opp<>rtunily 10 .eJect a .ile and uSing IJghlwel~hl 'ugh gain anlenna equlpmenl thlll
range can be Increalled to 50 mile.. The .el has a fro:lquconcy range of 10. 0 to 16.0 mc alfordIng 9Z0 channel. contlnuou.ly t.... nilble by the operator. ThIS .et hall 01.1'0 becon Increased In
frcoquency range allowinS IZO ildditional channel.. For rapid frequency chansmg any tf':n rre.
quenclea/channel. may be prf':ael and 'f':h~ctf':d by uSing the ootton. In the right center or the
operating panel. One of the marked improvemenu or thl' set IS the ab'('nc(' of power dlStrlbu
tion arrangements in the moun I. ThIS mount IS merely a carrYing rack.

'0

F"1~ure

,24.

Comparison of R..dio Sel AN/CRC_7 wllh Recelver-Transm,lter RT-,246


..nd Receiver R-44l/VRC-t2.

11

Figure 26.

Comparilon of Radio Set AN/AP..C27 .... ith Radio Set AN/VRC-Z...

A'il replacement lor the ground to air u.dio leI AN/Me-Z7 (Figure 261, we .... ill have the
AN/VRC-Z4. The AN/VRCZ4 will have a voice range of )0 mile. with AircraIt at 1000 feet.
It wUl cover the frequency range from 225.0 to 399.9 me allowing 1750 channel. of communication. any 20 of which may be pretet.
All of thele radiol which I have diecu ed will have the capability of operating in ill retranlmi ion .ynem: or from ill remote pOlition. They will employ plug in type c::irculU which are
partially tranlluorized. and will be capable of operation for 5000 houri without il mlljor repair
job. It i. anticipated that thi. new lamily of radiOI will be ilvailable for troop i.lue in 1960.

Much work i. being done in the Held of mobility for riI.pid di.placement of CP'. using electriciLl .helters in which equipment i. installed for operation. Thi. then will reduce the time
lo.t in di.mantling and installation. Our airborne diviaion' are conducting extensive experimentation in the field (Figure Z7).
In the very near future. we expect to .w:tch our rAdio caU. in a: nner .imilar to the way
we .witch our telephone caUs today. Thi ystem III known as the AN/MRC66 and wa ucce.alully tested at the Electronic Proving Cround la.t December. It will iLllow telephone type
communication but utilldng radio Hnk equipment, while the user i. on the move.
In the current divi.ion of the pre.ent day Held army. communication. are furni.hed through
the medium ol radio net., point-to-point radio relay. Held c.ble and wire 'ervice. Since disper.ion and A hiaher dearee of mobility are con.idered a delen.e against atomic and ma de.truction weapon ttme is not available lor In. tall at ion ol an adequate rield cable and wire .y._
tem. This leave. the radio nelll to carry the bulk of the trallic. A radio net ha. the advantage

JZ

FUTURE NOBIlE COAfAfI/,4/ICAT/O,v CE,wER

Figure l7.

Electrical Sheltllr!ll.

of poll."ing information to II large number of u.ers simultaneousl\', but has the disadvantage of
low volume of traffic cilpa.b.hly per u.er which deerea'Il" lUI the number of uscrs increase.
Thl' 1nerell.e. the wailln~ lime to gain access to the nel. Since all user. can h",ar ..l1lran.ml'"0n, privacy of communu:.;l.t.on' II lo.t.
An alternative to the radio net. and pOInt-la-pOInt rlld,o IS to bnnJl, a communll:,atlon loop
(rom each .ub.cnb4'.:r Into a lungle locallon ...hc-rc the'! .ub,crlber may be ~Iched to communicate with OI:her lIub.c",ber . ThiS patching facIlity i. called a CENTRAL. If the maJorlly of
the communU:i11l1on loop. 10 the Cenlral are via radIO It would be called II RADIO CENTRAL.. A
po ble .clUtlon to the diVISiOn COmmUniCallons problem ap~ars 10 be an extension or the
original RadiO Central concepL Th,. concept COnllil5U of a combmallon of multichannel n.dlO
(relay) systemJl, capable of bemg JI ....llched to lIatlJlfy the "Iong lines" requlrementJl. Thl.leav",.
the problem o{ local thJllnbution, diJilanceJl of 1/4 to 5 or 10 mileJi. to radiO 3nd llhon haul
....'re. ThuJI having 1....0 kinds of radio centrals, compatible ....llh each oth.'r. lIatul{u:ll mOSl of
the communications problcms and inCreallCJI mobility of the dlv,slon. A l/ol-Ton truck may
have mounted in It the 513-86 lIw.tchboard and the radIO relay equipment. ThiS IJI the radiO
central (Figure lS).

JJ

FUTURE RADIO SWITCHING CENTRAL

--

---

_.
.....
--'.......

.
..
RADIO CINTRAL~TlR"INAL
'

Figure l8.

..~

Had,/) Central.

Thl' .ubllcribcr equipment wtl1 b{' mounted In thlll manner. The sub.cube,. UU~lI hlH equ.pmt'nl In a manner which IS v.. ry similar to lei <'phone oper.llml" pracIIC('A. He has a regular
telephone type handllcl ..... 11Ich IS I'lormally placed In a hao):up ..... ,tch located on Ihe dashboard
or Ihe vehicle. He III abl .. to communicate over two rf'/olu!ar channt'I, and a eonfercnce channel
marked "CooL' J:;ach channl'! hal .1lI own mdlcator ll'lhl. In Ih(' c~cnl Ihe Central slat,on
b('com.. ' moperat ....". all .ubscr.bcr. could lI .... lIch 10 Ih .. EMERGENCY NET 1>ollon and commuole.tlc wllh each othcr on a "pusktotalk' bal>II,
Whcn reCCIYln," II o:;all, the subscriber III alerted by h bu>:t.l"r. He then observe' the con.
Irol unIt
Thc l.ghl assocIated with the channel on which hC' II beln~ called Will be f1ashln~. Ill"
Iht'n pOllllOnl hil channt'l It'h'ctor SWlich 10 the mdl<alt'd channC'l. and answers the call
As
ht' rl.'movt'l Iht' handlt'l from Its han~up SWllch. Ihe channel ilJ:nt "Ill chanj;:e from fla/;hm~ (0
lil"ady.
When ,n,llat'nll a Colli, tht' .ubscrlber ob.ervt'l hI' conlrol unll 4ril rotalt'l hll channel
l..l("(for IWllth 10 a channt'l ""hlch h.u nelth"r a f1.lhm!' nor a IItl.'old)" Iljo;'H Ihowln,ll:
11(" then
proc"t'd. m a manner 'Im.IOllr (0 IhOilt of 011 ""Irt' sub (rlbC'r

CONVENllONAI PARIS fOR lUB[S

MICROMINIAIURE PARIS fOR IRANSISIORS


Figure Z9.

Compar1!lon 01 Parts.

The entire system mcludes full duplex Oper31l0n. conference capabllll~ controlled b)' th ..
cenlral station operator, ('m"''')olenc)' conventIonal netllng
cvent til(' C~'lllral f;\al'on becomes
inOperative, VIsual and aud,bl.., signallln.'l at tht' subscrIber statIOn from a ("onq~ntlonal switch.
board'.. t the Central Station, eight rul1 duplex voice channels available. With each !Iubllcrlb~r
ha\'lng ,1 choice of Iwo channels. automatic power output control at sub/H'T'!.>"" station to prevel'll blockIng Or dCllcnSlllJ:atlon of thl' central stat,on reCelver when located close-In and, capa_
bilIty of operation wh,le movmg.

,n

Coupled WIth radiO f1W1IChlnj,l. UI the idea of completely mob,lll.lng our <:ornrnumcatlon centers
!I0 th.1t rapid dlflpla<:cllleni of unil8 "nil no longer present a problem 10 the commander. II IS
antlClpaled that we Will be .. ble to perform all SWltchmp; (un<:tionll m II 11IailC position Or whlie
on Ihe move.
Even though our new r:tdio equ'pment Will !(iVI' liS better ranges there will be ,solated
cascs when we Will need Ci<ccptlOnally Ion!! ranges from our vOI<:e equ'pmcn!.

J5

10 the [Irld of de.lro"" pil.ru il.od d .. , ..." "rt ..1 Imprtl .." c-ou ...... kWInt: mAdt d.. II,
I"
Ih" upper row of f'1~urr 19. w. .,." tleplll"d II.. p.lrl. u ... d ... ,lh lub. 1\J1C' .. quIJlmen! ... tllll' ,n
Ih.,ln"'.. r ro .... w.' . !hl" .,.'(" of th.. poi"! u"ed ""Ih trlou.tor IVp" equlp",,,nl

"~Ijl.urt'

JO.

IJ1tltrrlt'lJ.

f"jl.ure 30 shows Ih.. pro~r"lJlJ b,'IIIt: m1'lde In the f"'ltl of ball.'r"...


In th ... upp"" 1.. 1I tOrllr ..
of the ('gure w.., see Ih.., SI:tmlard BA-JO nashl'!:hl type and IU ult,mah r"pla'''"U-''1 Ih.. trlt,u",
bauery shown in Ihe rlllhi c<,nler.
'\ hoe first applu:atu)n of prarllc"l m'n>"'urll..llIon ... ,11 b., lQuod In ,ho: h.'lnll'1 11' I):urc 11)
and bell radios. These radIOS will employ plu)o:- UI Iyp;; mooul"t\ ,'nd I riln"UlIQr t'qulpml'n!

3.

Figure 31
Com~rl.on of Sell.
A more extenllve ule of lhe module Cilln be leen In Figure 31 .... here we hnd thai many
modules are mounted on a printed CirCUli b~rd and are uled In the c,rcu,llI of a teletypewriter.
In addition 10 the reduction In 'llU', beillr In mind In.U thefe .1 .1'0 an appreciable reduction in
wC!llIhl plus I tremendoul Increale In dependability
One held of conct'rn loday to UI II 'n lhl!' lecurlty a.peen of the data link from a drone type
equipment 10 lhf' (ontroldilta cent.. ,
we now have Iht' cap.bllny of o~rattng TV, lR Photo
and Radar from. drone platrorm (Flgurl' ll). H,.,wever. wh n the reqUired dill. II transmined
from the drone 10 the data collecllon il8f'ncv. there .1 il po."blhly thai Ih.. daHl link can be
Jammed or altered electrically by the II!nf'my. 11.1 toward th~ I~curlly of thll data link that
w~ ar~ pornllng.
We find that much 1n"'~ltlllation II b~lnR don~ In the field of new typ~ power lupphel. W~
all r~/lhJ:e that our pott'nlull ~n~my h.1 the Cllp"-blhty 10 dt'lect the .ound lind heat thoU II emitted
from our prelent nOlly. hot. ~t'nt'rator eqUipment
Tht'reror~. In order to aVOid dt'lt'ction it
11 ablolutely ellenllal thoU we find lome lylX' of power lource that neither makel nOlle nor
emlll heat
We are looking ror a 111enl power lupply

17

AI RBORN E S.URVEI LLANCE


WIT" DRONE

TV IR
RADAR t
PU'OTO

~
. . ...

\ ...

...

\
\

DATA

~.

......

CONTROL

...

\
\

... ...

~"''':'''''''';'''''''
... ...
...

\~

..

~..,(

...~

Figure JZ.

..".,.

Airborne Survl-Illanee.

The baltle group commander and slaff ofhcers of lomorrow will have (Fi~ure 3Jl autom311C
data processing (acllzllell whIch will record, IItore, compute, and tabulate an unhe\levable
amount of Information. Included will be Intelligence Infor-mallOn, patrol Informat,on, route reconnaissance data, logistlC:al data, peraoonel ro::cords, ammUl1l110n reqUirements, yes. even
weapons selecllon information. All at electronIc apecds.

J8

.mn l'ROCl'SSJN;;n-~'~~~~;::~!!~
..

f\l:ILlTr...

(TOC MOBlOlC )

:i:

"

CHAPTER 4
INFANTR Y WEAPONS
Section l. INTRODUCTION
COLONEL MARCUS W. ADAMS

Deputy Director, Weapons Department


On behalf of Colonel Samuel T. McDowell, Director of the Weapons Department, 1 am
pleased to welcome you to the Weapons Department portion of the Infantry Instructors' ConIer_
ence.
This morning we shall present to you weapons subjects which we believe are timely and
interesting. All are new. Some subjects include changes recently adopted by Department of
Army while others represent only trends of thought and areas of study by the Weapons Department. We shall differentiate between established doctrine and developmental studies as we go
along.
TRAJNFIRE I ranges are in the process of construction. We have stopped construction long
enough to show you the.e ranges however. since we want 10 demonstrate. at lea.t in part, their
manner of operation.
The first speaker thi, morning will be Captain Semmens who will di.cus. TRAlNFIRE I.

Section II. TRAlNFLRE 1


CAPTAIN JAMES R. SEMMENS and CAPTAIN ALLAN A. I3UERGIN

instructors, Rifle Committee


CAPTAIN SEMMENS
Your first two hours will concern TRAlNFIRE I, the newly adopted individual marksmanship
COurSe. You will have an opportunity to lIee each phase of the program in operation on actual
TRAINFIR I range .
But first, let UII look at the events leading up to what is considered by many, one of the
mon radical change8 in training techniques in some time.
Le than 100 years ago the American frontiersman was known around the world for his expert mark8manship and skilled wood8manllhip. However, a. the frontiers dIsappeared this
national trait began to lose prominence also.
Recognizing the value of this disappearing art, efforts were made to I rain mark.men. Since
the criterion {or a.signment to a .harpllhooter regiment during the Civil War was plaCIng 20 con_
.eCIH,Ve shots in a LO_inch circle at 200 yards, training was directed IowaI'd this objective,
hence the familiar bull's_eye. Analyzed in the light of battlefield conditions, the bull'.-eye,
silhouetted on the bull. at a known range, Wil8 not realistic. Tran.ition {iring with ill 2 rounds
and 30 .econd. allowed for each clearly vi.ible target did not develop a combat rifleman. In
addition, the long hour. of dry {iring on PRJ circle. and larget pulling in the pit. tended 10 reduce the effectivene.s of the training. Soldier. were not trained well enough in the use of their
weapons, and in addition, since they lacked confidence in themselves and their weapons, Ihey
did no! [ire at aJi on many occa.ione in combat. Report. from World War JI and Korea indicated
that our mark.man.hip program left much to be de.ired.
40

The United States Army Infantry Human Research Unit at Fort Benning wa. directed to re
.earch the problem and come up with a new mark. mans hip course of instruction. Thi. research
consillted 01 the interviewing 01 thousand. 01 combat veterans from World War U and Korea. In
addition, alter action reports from both conIlicts were carefully .tudied.
This research resulted in the Iormulation of certain premises upon which the new cour.e
would be based. These premises described the battlefield and the targets thereon as they appear
to the centbat rineman. These premises are:
Thill mollt baulefield targeu con.i.t of a number of men or objecu linear in nature but
irregularly spaced along tree lines, hedge rows or other objects which will provide cover and
concealment.
That these targets would rarely be visible except in the close assault.
That normally, the range to a combat target will not exceed 300 meters.
That these targets can be detected by smoke, nash, dust, noise and movement and are
usually seen only in a Ileeting manner.
That these targets can be engaged by using a nearby object as a reference point.
That the selection of an accurate aiming point in elevation is difficult because of the low
outline and obscurity of the target.
That this problem is further complicated by our present >:eroing technique, that is, using
a 6 o'clock hold to hit the center of the bull's-eye.
That battlefield conditions will rarely permit or require the use of a windage adjustment.
That the nature of the terrain, the target and the defensive requirement for digging in,
often precludes the use of the prone position but favors such supported positions as the standing
foxhole and the kneeling supported position.
With these premises in mind, the de.ired objectives of a new marksmanship cou ... e were
apparent:
To instill in the individual soldier the will and confidence to destroy the enemy.
To develop the soldier'! skill in detecting combat type targets.
To improve the loldier's skill in hitting these targets once they have been detected.
The TRAlNFIRE I Marksmanship COUr!e accomplilhes this in 18 hours (Figure 34).
Two hours are devoted to an orientation period, four hou ... to mechanical training, and Z6
hours are given to preparatory marksmanship training and ZS meter firing. You will notice that
mete ... are used rather than yards or inches. Thil is consilIent with a recent Department of
Army directive changing all range distances to the metric system. Four hours are devoted to
battle sight zeroing and 18 hours to fiel": flring. Sixteen hours are given to target detection training and it requires eight hourl! to fire the record course. This is a savings in training lime of
eight hOUr! over the Known Distance Marksmanship Course of 86 hour!.
The two_hour orientation period il designed to motivate the soldier toward accomplishing
the three objectives of the cOurse. During this period he is oriented on the history and importance

TRAINFIRE I
RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP COURSE
HOURS

SUBJECT

ORIENTATION
_
.
MEeHAN ICAl TNG . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREPARATORY MKMNSHIP TNG & 25M FIRING
BAnLESIGHT ZEROING
FIELD FIRING

2.

18

I.

TARGET DETECTION
RECORD COURSE . .
TOTAL

Figure 34.

8
78

TRAlNFlRE I RiOe Marksmanship Course.

of the rifleman. He is taught basic nomenclature, how to load. Cire and unload his weaj>On, and
he ill lIhown two training (ilms: "This is the Infantry," and "Infantry Weapons and Their Effects."

...

&&&\
300

METERS

-(

175

METERS

25METERS

RANGE

Figure 35.

~i .
75

MET RS

. ... ... ... ... ...


I

&,. &

...
33

,.

34 35

TRAINFIRE I Z5-Meler Range.

4Z

Immediately following this orientation period, the soldier is taken to the Z5_meter range
(Figure 35) to begin his preparatory marksmanship training. During thill four_hour period he
will be required to fire an early firing exercise for familiarization. However, before going on
the firing line he observes an antifear demonstration. Here a trained rifleman fires the rifle
from the groin, stomach and chin. The purpose of this demonstration is to show the soldier that
he has nothing to fear from the recoil of the weapon and can thus devote all his attention to prop_
er sighting and aiming. trigger control. and a good steady position. After a brief explanation
on sighting and aiming, trigger control and the prone position, he fires one 3-round shot group.
He then observes the eective shooting of a trained rifleman. By comparing his ability with
that of the trained rifleman, the soldier sees the need for training as well as its validity.
Following this early firing period the soldier returns to the classroom to receive his instruc_
tion in mechanical training. This four-hour block is essentially the same period of instruction as
presented in the known distance marksmanship course. The major difference is in its sequence
of presentation. It has been found that a soldier is more interested in learning the functioning
and care and cleaning of his rifle, after he has fired it.
Following this period the soldier returns to the ZS_meter range to continue with his prepara_
tory marksmanship training. The Z5-meter range is similar to the familiar 1000-inch range ex_
cept that stumps and foxholes have been added to the firing line. This is to facilitate the instruc_
tion and practical work in firing from supported positions as well as unsupported positions. A
supported position is one of standard positions as outlined in FM Z3_5 adapted to some type of
support such as a stump or a foxhole. Reports from combat indicated that most firing is done
from some sort of supported pOllition. Consequently bOor. of all firing in TRAlNFIRE I is supported firing. The soldier ill taught to ire without a sling and he wears his combat pack and
steel hellnet throughout all preparatory marksmanship practice firing and on the record course.
The purpose of preparatory marksmanship is to have the trainee achieve a tight shot group
in each position learned. To accomplish this. TRAlNFIRE I utilizes the "whole" method of
teaching. Instead of teaching the soldier all the steps of marksmanship separately and then hav_
ing him attempt to combine these steps on the range, shooting is taught as an integrated act.
The soldier fires from each position as soon as it has been explained and demonstrated. He is
told that the integrated act of shooting is composed of two components. sighting and aiming and
the steady hold.

Figure 3b.

"One-Half Bull's-Eye" Target (TRAlNFIRE Il.

Let's take a closer look at these two componenU: Sighting and aiming procedures remain
unchanged with one exception. In order to eliminate the 6 o'clock hold and thus have the point of
'lim and intended point of impact to coincide, the onehaU bllll's-eye target is u8ed (Figure 36).
The small cutout section h to prevent the edging of the front sight blade into the black and pre_
sent a more accurate aiming point. The one_hall bull's-eye t'lrget requires a revision in the
sight picture model. This is easily accomplished by simply cutting the standard bull in hall.
Sight alignment remains the same and retains its importance. The sight picture is completed
when the one_hall bull'seye is placed on top of the front sight blade. As belore, the last focus
of the eye is on the (ront sight blade and consequently the target becomes ha7'y. To give the
soldier practice in sighting and aiming and to insure hh understanding of the subject the 3d
sighting and aiming exercise is utilized for practical work. In this exercise one soldier places
himsell behind the rifle and the other sits on the aiming box. Motioning with his hand the lirer
adjusts the target held by the marker. When the lirer indicates that correct sight picture has
been obtained, the marker inseru his pencil through the hole in the center of the bllli and m~es
a dot. The exercise is repeated 3 times and the reslllting dots should form a triangle which can
be covered with the unsharpened end of a pencil.
In the second component, there are 8 factors which must be present in a firing position to
produce a steady hold. These factors apply to all positions; however, the method in which they
are achieved may diller slightly from posHion to position. Steady hold factors are lilted below:
Left Arm and Hand
Butt of stock in pocket of sholllde r
G rip of Right Hand
Spot Weld
Right Elbow
Breathing
Relaxation
Trigger Control.
The practical work for the steady hold is called the "tin disc exercise." Thh exercise precedes the live firing in each position. The lirer geU into the prescribed position and closes his
bolt on an empty chamber. The coach places a small tin disc on the barrel forward of the front
eight. The firer then attempts to lire without dislodging the disc. An exceptionally lItrong ham_
mer spring may cause the disc to (aU but if the steady hold is applied correctly the disc should
fall to the front.
Having completed the practical work, the soldier is ready to begin firing. Thus (ar he has
completed 13 hours of instruction: Period I, Orientation; Period Z, Early Firing; Period 3,
Mechanical Training. and the first three hours o( Period 4, The Integrated Act of Shooting. Th.
remaining three hours of Period 4 are devoted to firing 18 rounds from the prone position. This
(iring is conducted on the Z5meter range and requires one point per two students.
In Periods 5 and 6 the soldier receives his position training. He spends eight houra liring
from eight positions, two 3 round shot groups in each. Each position is explained and demon_
strated before practical work begins. An effort is made to teach positions from a standpoint of
their appropriate use based on their advantages and limitations. For example. the prone posi_
tion gives maximum support but minimum visibility. The slanding position is the least steady
but offers the maximU1T\ visibility and speed of assumption.

44

There are live un.upported po.ition. lll.ugbt;

the prone. ,IUing.

~WlUing.

kneeling

~d

.t~ding.

There are three .upported polition. lilughl: the prone. kneeling and foxhole. In each c ....e
the loldier tde. lor maximwn support and cover aDd c;olu:ealmenl; however, the rifle mUll not
touch the lupport. To te.t the loldier'. ability to obtain <II. tight .hot group {rom e.ch po.ition he
i. given a progre tell in Period 7 wherein he is required to fire eight 3_round .hot group.,
one from each podtion. The.e groups mull meet ....ith prescribed .peciIic&non.: wilhin a lcentimeter circle for prone and ,tanding .upported, "ndwithin a 5-centimeter circle for the other
petition. In the event he fails any ,hot group he i. given an opportunity to reCire the group_
Throughout aU the Z5-meter Ciring individual anention is adminbtered where necessary by
the corrective platoon. This is a group supervised by experienced coaches who are able to
quickly detect and help the soldier to correct his difCiculty. When the correction is completed,
the soldier returns to his platoon to continue training with the resl of the company.
To aid corrective platoon instructOrl in analyzing difficulties and so that the soldier can
see his day_to_day progress, he maintains a.lJ his Z5_meter targets in a progress envelope which
he carries with him at aU times.
The corrective platoon and the progress envelope .y.tem are paramount feature. of the
TRAINFlRE I Program. It is imperative that sufficient emphasis be placed OD these two areas
to insure eCleetive training.
Once the soldier has demonstrated his ability to fire a tight shot group in each position be is
tben prepared to zero his rifle for a battle sight .etting of Z50 meters. He aceomplishes t.h.is zero
by aiming at the bottom center of a b1..;lck pa.ter 8.5 eentimeters square mounted on an tiE" type
silhouette at a ranSe of 75 meters. (Figure ]7). He adjusts hi. sights so Ihat the center of his
.hot group falls at tbe top center of the ~8ter .ince the trajectory of the bullet drops approximately 8. 5 centimeters between 15 and Z50 meters. This is the sight settinS used throughout the
rest of the course. Such a metbod of zeroing will be useful knowledge in combat where ZSO
meters are rarely available for zeroing purposes.

PRINCIPLES OF ZEROING
STRIKE

STRIKE OF

BUUE~ BUL[E~

r8.5 CM

POINT OF AIM

<T

2 SO METERS

POINT
A'iM

T_R__A_J_EqORY

B~TLE 51(,HT

t.5 CM

-~

SIC,HT
......_-~~

75 METERS
Figure ]7.

LINE' Of

2 SO METERS

Principles of Zeroing (TRAJNFIRE I).

45

Thi' exercbe may be conducted on the Z5_meter r&nge, il7S_meter depth i. available. Or
the lield firing ..a.oge; or on both .imullaneously. However, it is p!'obable that some of the
.lower .tudent......ill not be ready for zeroing yet and thull require at lea It a po .. tion of Ihe 25meter facilitie .

With bi. weapon 'l.e-roed properly the aoldier is ready to begin hi. field firing traWng. Thi.
range (Figure 35) ... you have noticed i. located adjacent to the ZS-meter range. Thill allows tbe
continued work of the corrective platoon and also the conduct of three period. pI field firing
which present concurrent training On the Z5-meler range reviewing and re-emphaaidng the fun_
damentals DC IIhooling.
Only ball DC the company reports to the field firing range at OJ. given time. The remainder i.
on the Z5_meter range and/or target detec.tion range . Period 7. the progre check. divide. the
company into two group' according to their proficiency. To begin Period 9. the Hrst period of
tidd tiring, the A group, or better shooter., report fir.t. The B group or poorer .hooter report to the Z5meter range and target detection for Z ho",r. eac.h while the A gro",p .peru!s '" bour.
on the tield tiring range. This give. an additional two ho",r. of preparatory mark.man.hip to the
B group before reporting to the field tiring range.
The field firing range (Figure 351 i imllar to a KD r"'nge. and ln fact .1 u.ed 10 be Ju.t that.
There are two major difference . Stump' and foxhole. h",ve been added to the firlllg line to
facilitate supported firing. and replacing the familiar bull' eye on the bull. are .,lhouelte targeU
at 15 meter 175 meter., and 300 meier'. F type .i1houetle. are used at range. le.s than 100
meters and E type silhouettes are used beyond. These targets are operated electrically by a
device run on either A. C. or D. C. (Figure 381. The target Is wired from the largel posilion to
the control tower behind the firing line. In the tower a panel of up and down .w.tches allow the
targets to be rai.sed or lowered at wiU.

'6

The outstanding feature o( Ihis device is the fact thai it prest:nts a "killable" target; thai It,
when it is struck by a buHel, il automalically falls. Thi. gives the soldier immediate knowledge
of his firing result, and of cour'e eliminates Ihe costly Pit delaile common to the Known Distance
Range.
II is on this range that the soldier learns the principle of hold off or "Kentucky ....indage."
He finds he must aim lower on near targelll and higher on mOre dIstant targets if he ill to gel a
kill.

Initially he is given ample time for Ihe aCcurate selection of these aiming poinn in elevation.
However, as he progresses hill time limilll are reduced to S second. for targelll under ZOO
meters and 10 second. for targelll beyond that range. Bear in mind that Ihit includes the time
required to select and allsume the firing position.
The 18 hours of Field Firing are divided into 8 periods with each period having specific
teaching points.
Period 9, the first period on this range. is designed to familiarize Ihe soldier wllh the range
and the target. He fires 54 rounds from various positions and at targets at different ranges.
Most of the firer. develop "buck fever" initially but by the end of the period they begin to settle
down and apply the les.on. learned On the Z5-meter ra.nge.
To demon.trate the operation of the range a pori ion of Period 9 wilJ be fired at thll time.
Scoresheets foUow the presentation sequence of targen and ,He marked with a hil or/mi.s by
the scoler. These .coresheelll are retained in the progress envelope. A greiltdealcanbelearned from observing the firing of others and thull lhe ready line may be referred to as an observer
line. Changeovers occur frequently to maintain interest and avoid fatigue. There is no time
limit imposed on the firer i.n Period 9.
In Period 10 the soldier fires at the advance of simulated enemy target . Thirty.llx rounds
are fired in this period and a time limit of 10 seconds is impo.ed for the 11S and 300-meter tar
get. and a 5.second limit for the 15_meter targel. A whistle notifies the scorer that the time
is up and the targelll are being lowered by Ihe tOWf!!r. The firer loads a pa!'nal clip of four rounds
to gain practicf!! in reloading.
Period II is conducted similar to Period 10 except that the targets are surprise targelll
since their sequence of pre.entation is unknown to the trainee. Thirly.six !'ound. are fired; only
1 seconds are allowed for the I1Smeter target. In both periods he fires from .evera.! diUerent
po.itions.
In Period IZ the .oldier learns to assume prelcribed posinons rapidly and move with a
loaded weapon. Exposure of the 175.meter targel is now reduced to 5 lecond . Forty.two rounds
are fired.
Period I) is conducted the same a. Period IZ except that the lower doe. not tell the firer
Ihe area from which he wiU (ire, Ihe po.ltion to be used, or which target ....iU be raised. Thirty
rounds are (ired.
In Period 14 the soldier fire. 45 rounds. The firing conlisu of 16 conaeculive .hou at the
115_meler targets, then 16 al the JOOmeter targets and then 16 mixed. Thla IS an excellent
opportunity 10 thoroughly confirm aiming pomu for the disla.nt targets. Concurrent with thi.
period trainee. are given an opportunily 10 conhrm r.eroel at the 1Smeter range.
Period. 15 and 16 are very aimilar in that each firer is responsible for ..... 0 lanes in.tead of
JUlt one. First the firers on odd poinu fire, then tho.e on even poinu. In Period IS he fire.
3Z rounds from the foxhole and in Period 16 he firel Z4 roundl from a po.uion of hil choice a.
41

he advancel forward. In both periods the 1I0idier hal a dummy round in each clip to give him
practice in applying immediate action. He il allowed Z lIhols at each larget and point valuell
make the near targets more valuable.

CAPTAIN BUERGIN
In the interell of time economy, we will not move to a target detection range to discus I lhis
phase of training. A target detection range is a Iparsely vegetated area left primarily in itl
natural state (Figure 39). It has a depth of approx.imately 300 meters and a (an of observation of
approximately 60 degreell. Down range are located lettered panels which serve two purp<)ses;
one ill to limit the student's observation by defining lfectors when he is attempting to locate a target and the other is to permit him to use thelle panels as reference points when marking a tar_
get's location. In place of a firing line, we have a 2,5-point observation line.

"

----

...",

}
.-.~-3,
.... ~.,. ,i

OBSfRVATION
Figure 39.

UNE

Target Detection Range.

The target detection range Ihould be within a ten-minute movement time of the Z5-rneter and
field firing range I lince target detection training iI conducted concurrently with the firing on
thele rangel.
It is on the Target Detection Range that the rifleman achievel the second objective of the
TRAINF"IRE I program; that is, leilrning to detect reillistic combat-type tilrgell. Live target
men, drel.ed in combat clothing and equipment, occupy positions down range.
Target Detection il a three. step procel. that i,wolvel locating a target, marking it with
reference to a nearby object, and rapidly and accurately estimating the range to the target.

48

On this range the rifleman learns to detect amgle, atationary targets; single and multiple
moving targets; and sound targeta, by the indications of sound. movement and the impropf.!r use
01' lack of camouflage,
The iret target detection instruction ia presented in Period 5 concurrent with the firing on
the Z5_meter range. Here the IItudent ia introduced to the aubject and learns the principlfls and
techniqufls used in the detection of statiotary targets. The target men located down range each
have a target sheet which indicates to them the stake locations at wruch they will be poaitioned
and the actions to be performed at these positiona. These actions are termed a "trial" and each
trial consists of four phases, the first three of which each 'ast 30 seconds. As I discuss each
of these phases I would like for you to attempt to locate a target man that we have placed down
range at a range of less than 50 meters, who will perform these phases.
In the First Phase. the target is absolutely motionless but he is in such a position that he
can observe the personnel on the observation line from the waist up. In the Second Phase he
makes a slow, deliberate movement, slowly moving his head and shoulders so that he can see the
observers from the ground up. This movement continues throughout a 30_second period. In
Phase 3 he repeats Phase Z in a rapid, jerky, incorrect manner. And in Phase Four he ires
one or two blank rounds depending on how far he is from the obaervation line.
How many were able to detect our target man? We'll have the target man stand and disappear. Again, we'll review the actions in each phase. Phase 1. absolutely motionless; Phase Z,
slow deliberate movement: Phase 3, rapid, jerky movement: and Phase 4, he fires one or two
blank rounds.
Before each trial begins, the students are told to face to Ihe rf.!ar so that the target men can
assume their positions without being observed.
Then they face down range and are told thf.! sector in which the target ill located.
is defined by the lettered panels, the range a to which are given to the student.

This sector

The command is given: "Trial one, Phase one, Observe." If, during the 30 llecondll the
phalle lasts the student feels that hf.! has detected the target, he steps 3 paces to the rear and
makes an enlry On his scoreshcel. This entry includes the neareSI panel to the target and the
range to the target, for which he is allowed a 10 perCe'll error. This estimate is immediately
checked by an aSSistant instructor. Whether correct or incorrect, the student returns to the
observation line for the remaining phases. At the end of the phase, the students are again lold
to (ace to the rear, The command it given: "Trial one, Phase one, Record." At that time,
if the student had not yet correctly detected the targe\, he places a zero in the box for that phase,
If he had correctly detected the target and his answer had been verified by an assistant instructor, a check mark is placed in the box. The student again ia told to face down range and remain_
ing phases are conducted in the same manner,
The detection of stationary targets ia continued in Period 6; the only difference is that it ie
conductf.!d on a different range.
In Period 9 the trainee receives instruction and practical work in the detection of aingle moving targets. Here, he is (aced with lhf.! problem of deciding when to fire at a moving target while it is moving, after it disappears, or after it rises and before it begins to run. Factors
which would afled his decision are explained and demonstrated to him during the conduct o( 10
trials when he adually simulates firing at these targets using a rifle without a firing pin. These
factore are: the firer's reaction time, the cover available to the target, whether or not the target rolls or crawls to a new position after disappearing, the range to thf.! target, and the direc_
tion of movement, l:tterally or toward him.
Multiple moving targets arf.! presf.!ntf.!d in Pf.!riod 10. Thf.! trainefl ill teUed on his ability to
mark the POlnl8 of dIsappearance of more than one target. He docs so by uSing an aiming device
which contains movable, pistol-shaped piPflS IFigure 40}.

49

The trials are conducted in thll following mannel": Initially, the targets al"e told to stand,
then to disappear and make their lirat move. During this move, the student must watch as

Figure 40.

Target Detection Aiming Device.

many of the targets as possible and mark their points of disappearance by aiming at them with
the devicll. Then, the targets stand and the alinement of the bars is checked by the observer's
partner, who becomes the observer for the next movement. This process is continued until after
3 or 4 rushes, at which time the targets finally stop and fire a blank round from their last positions.
During the conduct of this period the student must react to the following situations: few tar
gets and many targets, varied exposure limes, targets close together and far apart. targets dis.
appearing at good and poor aiming points, and near and far targets.
The detection of targets by sound alone is discussed in Period II. The trainees are requil"ed
to make a range card on the back of theil" score sheets, on which they indicate the 14 most likely
tal"get areas.
After a few of the student Bolutions are discussed, then the "school solution" is
lIhown and numbered panels are raised at lhese locatIons. This is foHowed by Ihe pract,cal work
which consius of the firing of a blank round from one or two of the positIons and thc tl"amces
attempting to determine from which positions Ihey were fired.
The subject. of individual ca.mouOage and movement are covel"ed in great detail in Period 13.
Hel"e the student learns the techniques and methods used in individual camouflage along with the
types of movement he will make such as rushing, low crawl, high crawl and bound. The students
are organb;ed into lheir squads, and u.sing existing vegetation and camouflage paint, they carnou
nage themselves. In the last part of the period, twO squads occupy positions down range and
perrol"rn IItationary tal"get trials like tholle they witneslled in Periolls 5 and 6, plus the types of
movement they have learned while the olher twO squads on the ob.servation line allernpt to detect
them. Then the situation III reverlled.

Trlall Involvln~ a cOmbtrt.llIlQD of 10lmd &lid mWlJple movUlg tAraten are prelented III
Period IS. Hel'l Ihe Iralnee II lubJecled to 11I11<I110nl where larliit mell advAnce lo_rd him b)
rUlhe. while bem, .upporled by Olher IAr,U men farml blAnkl {rom a UatlOtUry potillon.
Again uunelhe almlne deVice, he llltempn 10 mllrlo' the IOC:llI10n. o{ thele tllrien. In Ihu penod.
Icorelheen llre Allun uled and Ihe trllinee reCllvel I poml credit (or ellch tllrllel correctly
ll.1med al with Ihe deVice
PerIod 16 u 1I revle", o{ Ihe delll'Cl10n of 1I1I1lOnAr)' U.rgen, lingle lind multiple moving Illr_
gen. and .ound largell. Thll I' the III II IArget detectIon period before the Illrll.et detecllon
te.n. which llre condu(;led concurr"ntl)' wllh record fanng m Period, 17 and Itl. The .corei obtaIned on Ihe deteclion leln hllve no bt!arlll~ on the student'. quahfic.tion. Thll I I delermlllcd
.olel)' b)' hi. record hrlng.
Period 17 b A te.1 of Itllllonary Illrgell. The trainee receIve poinll credit for each targel detecled In Ihe I.t P ...... e. 3 pomll credit {or the ld, l pollllS credIt for the 3d. ulli I po,nt
credl1 {or the F'ourtn Phll.e.
There are ""01,,'11 conducted In Period 18. Onc II a IClt ,n th.. deteCllon of .ound tllq~etl
..... h .. re the trainee r.,celY.,1 I poml credit (or correctly locAling Ihe targell III .,acn IrIAI. rh.,
other 'I a te.t of movlnK largell llnd the trainee r.,celYe. I point credit for ellch target correct_
ly llImed at ""Ith Ih., d"vlce. rhll conclude. Ihe Illrgel del.,ctlOn trlllning llnd te'lI conducled tn
tile Stilnd,llfd 7tl_hour rRAINf'lRE I prolfllm.

nJ

.. ,....,-t-

100

50

"""

, ,

" "

F'lgUre 4"

TRAJNJo~IR t

Record RAnle.

Ldle the Tll'let Delectlon Rlln.e, the Record F'lrlng R.nge, IhAI you lee before you. \ I A
.parlely ve.etAled are. It conl..t. o{ 16 nnn.a: lanel. e.ch Approxlmalely lS meteI'I WIde and
ellch equipped wtth. fO:llhole politlon (F'tlure 41). Seven cllmoulbged and conceAled IllhO\leue
tArgeli Are pillced In ellch Illne {rom SO 10 3SO meters. The Imdl F'-Type "Ihouelte .. u.ed
at SO meterl And 100 melers And the lAl'ler _Type lilhouette u u.ed At the greAter rangel.
T.rgell from 50 to lOO meteI'I Are expoled {or S lecond thOle At IreAler rAngel. 101...col1dl.
Record !irlnll I I conducted in IWO phalel. Supporled llnd Unlupported. Durmi the Supported
PhAle the student movel to II foxhole pol ilion llnd loadl hll nne Wllh A {uJl clap of 8 rounde.

"

ot kno,", olt ....}at


Upon comrn.lnd from Ihe to .... "r. one t~r5"t "III b" r~'I"d In hu h,nr. II. doeranll" the t"rlt"t "Ill b" Io<:.l.trd. Within the allott"d time 01 '> .;Ir 10
o d. be me,,'t del" .. t ..
rnlla~e IhC' urllll:t.
lhrn. "'Ithout further command LV"n .. ddltll,'n~1 l ... rl'"I .or" r;:u" ,n hu
l~n" ..... illCh he mUlt ..1.0 detect olnd engolge within tke ilUou"d tlmo<.
rh" ...m!:' t"xo<rCII" II performed from a aecond, thIrd.
Ph~ .., a 10t.. 1 of Jl rounds.

~nd

lo",rth Ian,.

I hla cumplo<t I III,..

"upport~d

Ih.,. rlll,..m..n tht"n r"turnll to hi. hr.t lanr. and th'" time, "'hll" mO~ln lor'lloard to", .. rd the
,O-m"h:r line 01 t.. ricl he engag". S taq:ru (rom ion unllupported pOalluJn 01 hI" o",n cho"".
fhHl ex"reue ,~ performed from a ld and 3d Ian". rhlll <ompl.:lell th., Un .. upp<uh;d Ph.... < .,
lotal of 2:-1 ruund.,
Becau>le 01 th.. tremendous Ira\llln~ value found In hrln!,: Ih.' Rt:'t:ord Courl" Ilw Illude'll
Ctrl:1 11 t..... lce. a lotal of III roundl for a pOlllllbh: III polnili. Quahtu:allullICOr,. are Mark .. _

m ... n, Jo, Sharplhooter, 54, Expert, uS.


TRAIN FIRE I "'oll troop le~ted b)' 12,000 tr;:uneel ...t Fort ,<cklon, S. C . . . nd tOrt C .. r .. on,
Colorado, lrom Augult IliS; to October I'ho. fh., rellulti; ofth..- e t,'IU 'llo..-r. 100V r",hclnung.
I)' In iavor 01 TRAINFIRE: I to r .. place thr convrntlonal 'yfOtem that II Impl.m"nt.. tlon "'a nl_
rect.,d.
ThIS Implem..-nt..tton IS to take plac., In threr ph;:.." In the ht Pha ..,.. FOri la' k on. tor'
C .. rson, ..nd Fort B"nnlnll: "'111 Implement ... soon ol. pollSlblr, Phau' II p"rtaln" 10 ... 11 oth.,r
..ctlve Arm)' ","IU, ... orld "'Ide. Pha.e III Includ~. ROfC. :\ational Guard, ~nd R",,,cr'e Com.
ponenll. It IS plantl~d tholt lmpl~menullon ..... 111 ~ completed b)' th~ end of Fucal Year I"o~.

Section 111. RECENT CHANGES TO RESERVE OFFICERS TRAINING CORPS


MANUAL 130-45; SNIPER DOCTRINE; TRAlNFlRE lU AND IV
CAPTAIN WILBUR G. JENKINS

IllstrucJor. Rifle Committee

fhe r.,vI.ed edition o( R01CM IJO.45


Sniper Doctrine
TRAIN~~IRE: I prinCIples a. thq; are applwd to thl: automatic rllit'.
AUTOFIRE:.

RoO

rc

Vol'! reler 10 Ihu all

MANUA L

The RO fC Manual IJO-45 has been revlst'd to rl'iled fRAINFlRt.: I Marlum.. n.hip prlnc.plea.
Ho .....ever, ....e ha~ rel~lned the convenllon.. 1 'yllem for .mall bore traltllnl, "'l: h'ellhat the
manual i. complete In ev... ry dcl;:ul and u not dcp"ndenl on any oth"r molrksm;an hlp pubhC"lIon,
II .hould be pubh.h"d In tht' "ery near fUlun'.
Ch.. pter II of the m,lnual .... 11I d"al "lth .m"U
elt-menu or m .. rksm..ns'lI;)

A,mln
"jl,llhllnll
I rllJaer S'i",""t'
R"pld t Ife
SI,lIht Ad,ustmt'f!1.

bor~

m .. rkamansh,p and .111 CO,er the Iv.'

Aiming: We have retained the conventional b o'clock hold. Four pictures will cover sight
alinement and sight pichHe for the small bore rifle. Three aiming exercises are presented In
detail.
Poution; The adjustment of the loop and hasty sling as applied to the convenllonal Prone,
Slttlng, Squatling, Kneeling and Standing are discussed.
Trigger Squeeze: Trigger squeeze has been modified for the Single and two stage triggers
of the small bore rifle.
Rapid Fire:
fire exercises.

Rapid fire will' tress bah manipulation, boll manIpulation exercises, and rapid

Sight Adjustment: Sight adjustment is designed [or the standard 50.foot small bore range.
The code word BRASS is explained in detail along with "calling the shot."
Technique of coaching, safety precautions, instruction fire, and record hre arc developed
great detilil.

In

SNIPER DOCTRINE AND TRAJNFIRE 1JI AND IV


Before beginnmg a discussion of sniper doctrine it must be pointed out that the Views expressed are not necellsarily those of the United States Army Infantry School. The discussion outlines Weapons Department thoughts and describes developmenu that are being lIludied In order
to make the U. S. Sniper more effective.
The term "sniper" has various meanings. The connotation varies (rom country to country
and indIVidual to individual .- always adapling itself to the tactical doctrine of the army Or armed
service in which the sniper is employed.
The armies of most nalions have used expert marksmen Or snipers of some form. Our own
Army has used men known as "sharpshooters" since the days of the American Revolution. In the
Civil War expert riflemen, known as "The Sharpshooters" reached a peak of perfection under the
leadership of General Hiram Berdan.
The only nallon known to have devoted any time to the techniques of snIping after World War
! was RUllua. fhe Soviets began the training and equlpp"'g of snipers in 1930. B)' the time of
World War II. they had carc!ully Integrated sniping tactics Into all of their tactl(~al doctTlne. The
Russian SOlper took. a heavy toll of key German personnel in that confhct.
The Japanese aha produced a type o[ sniper, but their product lacked mal'ly of the characteristics traditionally allsocialed with snipers. Experts at camouflage, they frequently took up poli.
tiOl'lS il'l treell and waited for targets to appear. Luck.i1y for us. they were poor IhOIS. At the
short ranges of jungle fighting, they averaged only one hit In ZO to 30 shots.
Today. our mobilc concepts. the requirement for increased dlsperllion and the coveTIng of
gaps between unil8, enhance the value of expert riflemen. Il'Idivldual, long. range targetll can be
expected to appear more frequently and infiltration by enemy Sl'lipers and small unitl may be
common. ThiS will present unlimited pollSlbiliticlI for the use of snipers. Under the prelent
Tablel of Organization each rine squad has a sniper who should be able to employ hl8 nne more
e(fectively than the average rifleman by virtue of his superior ability and more advanced equIpment. However, we believe that this Individual should be caUed by some other name luch all
"seniOr marklman." since hill duties are not those of a true Inlper. We fl."cllhat thiS rlfll."man

should always be employed .s a member 01 his squad.


effective range 01 his squad to 500 or 600 meten.

His primary duty should be to extend the

While TrainIlCe assumes that battlefield targets will rarely exceed lOO meters, it is still
important that all members 01 the ciOe squad be able to deal effectively with targeta of significance which appear at Jonger ranges. All Inlantrymen, therelore, should be able to perlorm
thh "long_range" mission when the occasion demands. But tbe Senior Marksman would be the
specialist for this mission and should have Hrst r~und hiu at ranges up to 600 melers.
The InIantry soldier h a riOe specialist. He should have additional marksmanship instruction in the advanced individual phase of ~raining. CONARC has directed that ZO hours of ad_
vanced marksmanship training be included in the next revision of Army Trainin!J Program 7-17.
The scope of this instruction will be outlined in the near future by CONARC and will include firing
at lOO meters and 500 meters. Following this thought a little further, the next logical atep is to
select the best shota developed in advanced marksmanship training, and further prepare them as
squad snipers, or, as we prefer them to be caJled, Senior Marksmen. But there is a require_
ment {or a more adviUlced riOeman whom we sh;a.U call the "specialiu sniper." This man will
reqlrire skilb, traWng, and equipment beyond those of the unit or senior marksman. To meet
this requirement the two functions should be separated with the development and implementation
of a training program for each. TRAlNFIRE lIt wou.Ld develop senior marksmen and TRAlNFIRE
IV wou.ld tr;a.in the specialist sniper.
While the lnfantry Rifle squad now has a sniper, no provision has been made for the true or
speciitlist sniper. The logical place lor this expert IS at battle group level, where he should be
under the operOltional control 01 the SZ or 5l. It is visualized that a smper sectlon. composed oC
four tearns and headed by a master sergeant, could be provided in this unit. Each team would
contain two men, a specialist second class and a speciahst third class.
It is generally desirable to employ snipers in pairs so they can operate effectively lor prolonged petlods 01 time. The observer-shooter learn is a proven and effective means of employment. However. in some cases, where a target must be sought out or stalked. it might be neces_
sary for the individual sniper to work alone.

Snipers, like weapons, must be integrated in the fire plan.


effectiveness is 101t.

1 Ihis does not happen. their

In the auack. snipers shotlld be uaed to engage Ipecific targets which may hold up the advance. By operating in the rear Or flanks of the a.sault platoons, they can position themaelves
to engage such targell.
Snipers can be uled to infiltrate, prior to the attack. to concentrate on automatic or crew.
served weapons. However. when thi. il done, it ia of l,ltmollt importance to effect close coordi.
~tion with the aUllCkIng {orcea.
During the reoraa.nilroAtloo phase of the attack. smpera can be poaltioned on the approaches
leading into the captured objective to provide security and to kill key enemy personnel leading the
COUlite rattack.
In the defens., sniper. normally would occupy prepared. camoullaged positions and open.te
in pairs a. sUtionary observer_shooter teaml. However, I{ obaervahon IS restricted or large
areas 01 responSIbility are assigned, It miaht b. neceSSAry for them to operate as mobile aniper
teams.
Snipers can be employed alao to prevent the removal of obstacles in (ront o( the bAnle poai_
tion. They CAll. de~y the enemy the use of certain areas. ditrl,lpl communicatlona, or act aa ob_
servers. Generally, they would be assigned dellnlte sectors of responsibility, particularly along
dangeroul avenues of Approach.

Sniper. Ciln be profitably employed with the seneral and combat OUIPO'ts where they will
help delay and di.organi:r.e the advance of the enemy. In .tatic .itualion8, they may be placed in
front of Ihe forward edge of the battle position. Employed in depth. they can prolect rear areil
in.til11ation. from infiltrating enemy.
When enemy .niper. are active, our own .niper hould be u.ed in a cOllRter.nipina role,
operating either lingly, in piliI" or in conjunction with piltroil.
In general. the .niper COncentrate. on enemy leader . By eliminating key per.onnel illld
hara8sing troops, he weakens enemy moraie. The sniper i. an expert. U pUI to proper u.e
a weapon he ill eHective in any tactical .ituation.
The .niper'. primary mit.ion i. to: fir.t. Kill key enemy ~r'onnel and by '0 doing, weaken the enemy's morale; second. As.i.t i.nlelligence ilgende. by timely report. of enemy activilie .
The next speilker will be Captain Shelton who will di.cu.. AUTO FIRE.

Sectlon IV. AUTOFlRE


(;APTAIN MARVIN C. SHELTON, JR.

Instructor,

Ri~

Committee

The Browning Automatic Rifle has been u.ed with excellenl eHectivene in both World W.r.
and in the Korean conflict. These rirIe. furni.h the ba'e for all other firepower in the Infantry
Rlne Company.
Therefore, when the United State. Army Infa.ntry School recommended 10 CONARC that
TRA.lNFIRE I be adopted. it wa. pointed out that comparable training with Ihe automatic rifle had
not been con.idered. In January 1957, CONARC directed that the Infantry School .tudy the .itua_
tion and .ubmit a proposed courlle of inUruction, u.inS TRAlNFlRE 1 principle' il, a glUde to replace the pre.ent course for the automiltic riOe a. prescribed in FM 23-15. The cour.e of in.truction that was developed by the Weapons Department i. called AUTOFIRE.
AUTO FIRE is the new concept or trainins the automatic riflemAn u.ing TRAlNFIRE I prind_
pie. with .ome e,..ception . I will cover only the dHference.
Prembe . The first four AUTOFIRE premues are the .ilme a. in TRA.lNFIRE I excepl th.at
combat tilrset. for the automiltlc rUle will Include foxhole and bllRker emplacements.
We do not contradici the premi.e ror TRAJNFIRE I that most combat targets for the rifiem.n
will not exceed 300 meten; however. with the automatic rifle combat targell may be engaged at
greater range. Due to the inherent .tability oC the weapon on bipod, the .ulomatic c.pability,
and di.per.ion or the cone of fire, area type targets m.y be effectively engaged out to SOO meters.
The flilture of the target. terr,;ain on which it appears, and the tactical employment of the
weapon r.vors the u.e of polltion. with the weapon on bipod. such a. the prone or .tanding fall.
hole politiona, and the hip-finng poI'hon in the al.ault.
Combllt target., sao meters or Ie in range. wHI normally be engaged uling. battle .tght
lelting and hold-off. After f1rJng a bural, frequent ob.ervation and adju.tment or (Ire II necel
lary.
Condit,on. of combat complicate the detection and engagement of targeu elilceeding 500

"

meters; therefore, the 'ql.lad leader, or some member of the squad must as.i.t the automatic
nnemlln to detect tlllrgets and adjust fire.
Tie-In With TRAlNFIRE I and n. We have assumed that all personnel have previoufily re
ceived TRAJNFIRE I instruclion. The pre.ent practice ItI ATP Z 1.114 and TRAlNFIRE II of
arming il trainee with the M I nfle and designating him all iill.ltomatac rifleman. III con. ide red to
be extremely lIlIreah.tic. It IS highly desirable Ihat aU basic trainees regardle.s of subseql.lent
branch a,slgnment, receive AUTOFIRE early 'n Ihe Army TrainIng Program. We recommend
the following .equence of Instruction: TRAINFlkE I. AUTOFlRE, and TRAJNFIRE 11. with a
minimum time lapse between TRAL~FIRE I and AUTOFIRE.
ObjeCllve. The objective of AUTOFIRE III to develop in a mln1ml.lm time lin al.ltOmatlc nne.
mlln who can detect and engage ,ingle. multtple, and .uelll comblllt tlllrgets effectively I.lp to 1Il
rlllnge of SOD meters. To accomplish that objective the following course hal been developed:
BREAKDOWN OF HOURS
SUBJECT
Orientation
(Early Firing Period)
Maintenance
Preparatory Marksmanship and 25 ~'Ieter Firing
Battle Sight Zero at 75 Meters
FIeld Firing
Record Finng
TOTAL HOURS
-Includes Early Firing Penod.

--,,
HOURS

('(

,
"

16'
8

The AUTOFIRL program will be allotted 48 houtS. This IS a hme savltlR of II hour. over
Ihe prelent Army Tramtng Program. However, the adoption of the lightwelRht Iyltem ()"1_14
and M15), to replace the M-I and BAR .....,H re.ult in an additional time .avin" of apprOXtmale_
ly'4 hOl.lrl, Ilnce the mechanical tratntng. functioning. and m'llntenance of the IWO ne".. weaponl
is Identlclll!.
Orientllltion. In this two hour period the soldier learns the ICOpe of AUTOFIRE, III tleln
with TRAlNFIRE I and II, and its Importance, so ,Ib to motivate him for further Inltrl.lCllon. He
al.o is taught the history, characterllltic', capabihties and Ilmltations of thc automallC rifle and
is shown how the weapon Operates in preparation for early firlng, when he fires leveral shot
groups. The early firing period will hclp the .oldler reali~e hili Ihortcomlnll.'I, make him more
capable of understanding how the weapon fllllcl1on" and motivate him 10 learn mcch....n.ac.. 1 traming.
M",lntenance. Th..ts four hour period ill presented after the OrlentaHon and the e ... r1y ftrlnW;
period. It i. nOI de.ired th..t the automatic rifleman have ... detailed technical kno,",led/l:e oi hmc_
!Ionlng. but rlllther ~hat he know how to take care of hiS '"'eapon and keep It m open.hon.
Preparatory Mark.mlllnship and 25 Meter Flrmg. All of the prepar..tory marklmanshlp
Ira..anmll in AUTOFIRE can be conducted on 1Il TRAINFIRE I 25 Meter Ran~e (Flgurc 35). The
loldier hllls already received two hours in.tructlon in the early f,nnl; penod. In the fourleen re_
maininR hours, emphalls i' placed upon lIlimin~. po'llions, and trlilj:l!r control which to~elher
make up Ihe Inlegrated ... ct of Ihoollng. rhil i. done largely throul'h the dry flnn~ exercuel.
with aome wet firing in 25 meter >:erolnll and Itroupinll. exerCllel. Si,ll.ht seltlnl:, mallaune
changinll" Ihilt of po.ltlon to enAaRe laqtets in width and depth, trlljectory, olnd hold-olf Will
also be taught. The prone. lJIolnding-folthole, and hip-firll\ll pOlltions lire the only pOlltlOl'l1
tau(l;ht. We are recommendinll the target Ihown in Fi/o:ure oil for "II ~S meter ftrlnK.

AUTO

FIRE

2.5 METER TARGET


'I !oIBF.... TO fit

T"1i
1 I :".

>

:3

~~
,

"

16"-

I I '"

~
I~ I}

i6"

=
,

=
a;

10

~y

It /I"

2.

.,

OI~

I~-

... 2"

"to"

"1(."

~"

I ..

iA\
U
8

Figure 4l.

AurOFIRE l5 Meter Target.

Each pasler on lhis target has a half silhouette for an lumlng point and has a seorlng nng.
Thill aIming point helps the soldier in his transition to field flnng. Numbers I, l, J, and" .....111
be used for zeroing, grouping exerCises, and tngger control exercises. Numbers 5 through 10
WIU be u.ed for an automatic fire exercise for practice In magazIne changing and In engaging
tarselS In WIdth and depth by shiflinjt the body, The IllS! Iwo hours of l5 meter firing are devoted
to a scored automatic fire exercise. The riOemlln's score Will lndlCiHe his relldlness for traln
ing on the Field Flnn~ Range.
Battle Sl~ht Zero At 15 Meters. Thi. zeroing exercise is conducted on 11 Field Flnng Range
(Fliure '13) lind once 11 soldier hlls zeroed a weapon he Will use that same weapon for 1111 firmg
during the remainder of the cou.rse. including record finng. Th.ere IS II battle sigM sethng "A
lor ran~e. up to 300 meters ilnd 11 battle .ight Seltlng "B" for ranges from JOO 10 500 meter
Baltle light sctungs are oblalned 111 15 meter. In the followln, manner;

AUTQFIR...E.
FIELD FIRING RANGE. WI Ttl 7~'''ETE'' ZEROING SUl'E""'''OS(D
_

fI' r.flY[ L.....r

t--------

--------1

-FAft

.:~,..IIr"11,'-'1\"-----------/( ..,
n. \-

-"'-I\II.'I01'-i

"[TIll'

'" '"1\,].,
r

-{

,>--MIO

,"[T[II'

RANGE

,../
15 IIUtll'

,\ 1.\

-CLOSE

. . 1\. .
o

II[UlI,

. . . . . . . IIl[ . . . .

Figure H.

LIOOl!

AUTO FIRE Field R.ange Firing.


58

RaNGE

R"HGE

75 METER BATTLE SIGHT ZEROING


"A~EtB

..... LE s,~
4O11 ...,

a.o '.-

..

...un.

"'-"~ll

SfI._'1

."

~"""l

S"~' a.o -,,'


no ..n ....

.I.
L

","

Fis",re 44.

AUTOFIRE Zeroing Target.

"

The Cirer will aim at the bottom center of the black rectangle (Figure 44) and adjust the
shot group to hit the top center of the rectangle. That will give hIm the battle SIght zero "A"
which is a Z50 meter zero. It i ' used in firing at targets up to a range of )00 meters. To ob.
tain battle sight zero "8," the firer will normally add two clicks of elevation and again aim at the
bottom center of the black rectangle and adjust the shol group to hil the intersection of the eroa.
at the top of the paater. This zero is for 450 meters and il is used in firing at targelll at ranges
from 300 to 500 meters.
Field Firing. AU field firing is conducted on a new range which serves a dual purpose
(Figure 43). It it constructed so that, by extending the range out to 750 meters. It could be
used for training on both the automatlC rine and the machinegun. This is one of lllam~lI. Each
lane is 10 meters wide at the firing line and the fan increases to a width of 50 meters at the far
range of 500 meters. Ln each lane there are 18 automatic pop-up largets and a scoring panel. fOr
an area target. at. 500 meters. There are twO stOlnding foxholes in each lane which is ideal fOr
training under the ROCIO organization with {ire tcams A and B. While one man IS (inng from
foxhole A, another man is dry_CiTing from fodlole B. The company i,. broken down into two
groups of two platoons each and While one group fires. the other group receives concurrent training in a rear area.

AUTOFIRE
PIUS(S OF rl(LO
~ Sf

""

_.

_."' ro" ..

FIllING

<"''''.,.-' .."

,.tt

,.."'

- - - { , "+,~-------,
... '"
".. I-''-l-'--',
r,

...u
"" .. hI..

..
"'_

'1

1-------"r-1

~ ~,.,

)\-j

., :':. , , ,

\'-.-""--1' \
,

'"".~
~.

..

'""

\--

I,V,\

"
0

---:-

, ~'I' 1---;'/

,.... ".. 1----1


,,-p,.- r--'"
o -

tv:::"
~

ngure 45.

Phases of

60

}o~leld

Firlnll'

PHASE

V
..

"A

..

... ....

"

.... ..... . ..

..

"

,.;.:r
~

..
r.
,...
'

-, ".

.....

., . ,..
". J

Figure 46.

AUTOFIR Record Course' I.

Pha.e. of Field Firing. The 14 hours of field firing wUl be conducted In four_hour blocks
and may be lIcheduled wilh a arne lapse between block . In each four-hour block the Boldier
firca a different phase of field firing. Figure 45 show. Ihe dlHerenl pha.u!. of held (iring. each
of which can be rired on any of the twelve lane. by u.lng different combination. of t"rgeU. Dur_
ing Phllse I, Ihe battle sight zeroe!! will be confirmed and largeU will be engajZed at varrlng
rang ell from the prone poeilion in timed exerc:iacl. In Phll'l;! II, the aoldler Will engage surprlle
tarRet. at varying ranges from the prone "od .tandlng foxhole pOUltOnl in timed exercISe. In
Pha.lIIc ill, a leriel o( elole-in .!Iurprile targetl will be enll"Joled In rapid luetellion (rom the
hip_!lring pOlihon a.nd muhip!e targetlll will be engaged In Width llnd depth from the prone POlllItion. in timed cxercilliclII. (n Phallic IV. the 1II0!dier will cnlla,lle dOllie-in titr)lllU from the hip_
trlnR pOllliuon and then move rapidly into the prone poaltion to en,llall,e tarReU at (ar ranlte. In a
umed exerehe. A lIIeoring panel i. hidden at 500 meten and iu location ....,11 be indicaled by
amoke Or lIoue. That area target will be detected and engalled with a lIerlelll o( !onR bUrllU from
lhe prone position.

Record Firing. There itre two record couraes In AUTO FIRE:. Record Courll(': I. (F'gure
olD). or Phalle V can be .uperlmpo!led on a TRAINFIRE I record courlle by exlendlnJl lhe ranll;e out
to 500 meterll. adding t,lrgeu 1.n wIdth and depth. and area t;HlleU with lIICOring pilneh. Two
TRAJNFIRE lanell are utilized for one AUTOFIRE: lane and a lItoilnd'nR foxhole mUlllt be conatructed
In the center of each AUTOFIRE loilne.
There are 8 AUTOFIRl:: liUlea, 60 meterlll In "'Idth, ... Ilh
11 automatic pop_up toilrgetl In each lane. U the terrain doe. not permit a ran~e out to 500
meten, Coune "8" can be fued w!lu;h extend a only to )50 meterlll. All firIng la from the prone
.lod .u.nding foxhole poaiuona.

"

Record Cour.e'Z (Figure 47). or Pha.e VI. I. an a ....ult cour.e r\Ul concurrenL1y wilb
Record Cour.e
II I. de.igned to .imulate the action. of the rillem;a..n in the Auack lllthougb
no tActic. will be laught. There are 4 lii-ne'. 10 meter. wide Uld 400 meter. In range. The
automatic rlfiemUl leave. the uaning point and ildv~ce. (or 6S meter. under the lupervilion of
An allilt;a..nt Lnltructor and engage. elo.e_in .urprile targell from the hip-firing polition. When
he reache. the phale line of control, the al.iltant inltructor .traighteft. the line. If nece.n.ry.
The .oldier then a.laulll the objective And engage. targell thereon. When he reache. the crelt
of the hill. he .....ill .Ight tii-rgell at a r,II.nge of 300 meteu which repre.ent fieeing enemy. The
firer move. quickly into a po.ition oC hi. own choice and eng..ge. tho.e target .

,1.

Scoring. A .Imple .coring .y.tem hal been worked out for both the field firing and record
couue.. &mpha.i. i. on placing a burst on each target but full credit i. given for e ..ch .Uhouette "killed" ..nd no credit for unexpended round.

PHASE
Alii III[COIIID

COUIIIS[

VI

1I1111lllUUIIIAL TUIIIAIIII

u,u,

-"""

_.. .....
.....
.. ... ...
, ,

,,.

.._... _.

........

Fllure 47.

AUTOFlR& Record Courte ,Z.

We hAve recommended that 11Z men In the ROCID riOe company receive AUTOFIRE tr...l1IInl; thtl .....ould be the riOe company Ie the weapon. pl .. toon and the weapon. 'quAd of the rlne
plAtoon. The unit commUider Wl.11 have an opportunity to observe tbe training and .elect the
bell q\U.lihed men for ignment a ...utom.. tlc riOemen: however, ali riOemen in thl': company
wiU be co\pable of Iumlnl th.. t importo\nt role.
In MAy 1957. thh propo.ed courle w ... lubmlUed to CONARC for conlideration.

6Z

CONARC then directed the Inlantry School to submit detailed requiremell.U {or conducting ...
pilot tell. That report wa ubmitted with ... recommendation that a pilot le.t on AUTOFIRE
be conducted \,I.ing two group. o 13~ meR each {rom unit. at Fort Benning. In ]anlary 1958.
CONARC approved our recommendation. lor the pilot course and final detail. are now being
formulated.

Section V. TRAINFlRE

CAPTAIN KARL T. RETISTATT

Instrvctor, Technique of Rifle Fire CommUtee


Eilrlier thi. morning you recei.ved a briefing on TRAJNFlRE I which i. de.igned to teach the
individual .oldier ho.... to lire hi. bade weapon. For the next lew minute .....e will discu TRAlN_
FIRE 11 which i. de.igned to tr&in the individu;u .oldie1'" to become an effective member of the
lire u.nil we call the rifle .quad. TRAINFIRE II reproduce' in training the problems a squad will
encounter in comb.u. TRAINFIRE II replace. the IZ hour. of technique of fire and ZO hours o{
.quad til<:licill training now prelcribed {or the firlt eight week. o{ ballic training. The primiJry
adviJntage o{ tbe TRAlNFUl II program al compared to prelent training, il the integration o{
teclmique of lire and squad tactics culzninating in live firing attack and defense exercises.
The program is further characterized by:
Extensive training in Standing Operating Procedure. (SOP'.).
SOP'. are:

Some examples o{ the.e

An SOP {or o<:cu~tion o{ a defen.ive position


Battle OrilJ
A sqUil.d SOP {or sec.urity
A search.{ire-check SOP
The fire_team .ystem o{ two fire teams, employed within tbe .quad, is IIres.ed in both
tactics and applic;ation o{ firel. This training provide. eUective and flexible control in {ire and
maneuver .1Iu;ation.
well
under conditions reqlliring a division o{ firepower.

;a.

;a.

The progr;am introduces additional hand_and_arm and whillie lIignalll 10 supplement verbil1
communic;ation.
Realillic targelll at combat ranges and under field condition. are used.
get provide. a "Jdllable" indication o{ enemy movement and location.

The "pop-up" tar_

Simulation o{ the .ights and 1I0unds o{ the enemy on the battlefield are reproduced by smotll;arms simulators. demolition moke. na.h, and sou-"\d.
The live firing exercises are .cored objectively 110 tb.u immedi;ate evaluOUion of the .quad'.
per{ormUlce Ciln be obtdned. Hits and fire distribution on camO\l!lilaed pilnel taraeu ;are recorded on an electronic bit-recorder device.
'Throughout the program. conference. and demonstrationl are followed by practical exercise . Rel;ated concurrent .ubjects utilize training time to the maximum. Tactic. o{ the Individ_
ual .oldier Olnd other .ubject. concerned with the movement o{ the individual are IIres.ed and
concu r rent.
'TRAlNPIRE II ranges .tres. the use of realilllic target cues or indication. 10 depict the
location and action. of Ihe enemy in the ;att;ack or defenle. Target. require the trainee to use

6J

TRAINFIRE II
BREAKDOWN OF HOURS

ORIENTATION, FORMA TlONS


2

HOURS

SUBJECT

PERIOD

A~I)

TACTICAL TRAINING fOR SQUAD IN OffENSE;


TECHNIQUE OF RifLE FIRE, PART J

CONTROL

....

TACTICAL TRAINING FOR SQUAD IN ATTACK;


TECHNIQUE Of RIFLE FIRE, PART II . . . .

LIVE-FIRING EXERCISE, SQUAD IN DEFENSE:


TARGET DETECTION; PRACTICAL EXERCISE IN
REORGANIZAliON AND CONSOllDAliON;
TECHNrQUE:A5SAULT FIRE . . . . .

LIVE-FIRING EXERCISE, SQUAD IN ATTACK;


TARGET DET1:CTlON; TACTICAL TRAINING
FOR SQUAD IN SEMHNDEPENDENT ACTION

BLANK-FIRING EXERCISE; SQUAD IN SEMIINDEPENDENT ACTION


.
TOTAL
Figure 48.

30

TRAINFIRE U Instrucllonal Hours.

detection tc,;:hniques. clear designation, and effective application of team fireS. The sequence
and breakdown of instruction in TRAlNFIRE 11 is shown on this chart (Figure 48).
Prior to arrival at the training site the trainees are placed In eight man trainee squads and
the over_aU company divided into Group I and Group II. This organization is maintained through_
out the TRAlNFIRE II program. Cadremen are used as squad leaders and fIre team leaders.
Period I. The entire company receives a brief orientation on the role of the rifle squad, its
organization and concept of employment and a brief outline of the course. The company then
moves out with Group I receiving Formation,and Group II, !.leans of Control. At the end of the
first hour they change over.
Period 11. Group I receives tactical training for squad in the defense. Group II Technique of
Rifle Fire. Part I.
In the tactical training fc-r squad in the defense the tralOee learns the thlO~s
he should know about the defense, i. e . defense terminology, how the squad fits into the defense
picture and formulation of the defense SOP's. In TRF, Part I, the trainee learns how to apply
his tire to the various type.s of targets with emphasis on the linear target. At the end of two
hours the groups change over.
Period 111. Group I receives tactical training for ,quad in the anack. Group 11 receives
Technique of Rifle Fire. Part II.
In the tactical training the trainee learns about t"e attack.
attack terminology, SOP's, and again how his squad fits 10. Technique ot Rifle Fire, Pari 11,
is more advanced training in how to apply and distribute fire on the various types of targets.
Period IV.
Here the squad applies what it has learned by participating in a live fire defensive eKerci.se. Group I receives the defensive training while Group II undergoes traimng in

-=-

CONTROL
8UNI<ER

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P.NELS
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SIMULATOR
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~ DEMOLITION CH
6

reorgani~ation and consolidation and technique of assault fire.


end of four hours.

The groups change over at the

Period V. Group 1 partiCIpates in a live firing attack problem. Group 11 undergoes tactical training for squad in semiindependent action. Again the groups change over at the end of
four hours.
Period VI. All squads participate in a blank firing exercise fOr squad in semiindependent
action. As the result of the troop test thill period may also become a live firing exercise.
To better !amiliari~e you with the program we will discuss in more detail the attack and
defense ranges (Figure 49). After selecl10n of suitable terrain the squads pOllition is selected
and a logical enemy attack is planned against this position. This attack is depicted by simula.
tion. The automatic target is used as target cue and to depict enemy movement. Bush wigglerll
also are used as target indicators. Enemy weapons are simulated by small arms gun [ire simulators o[ this type (Figure 50). This simulator can be fired at a slow rate, Ilimulating rille fire
or a fast rate simulating automatic weapons fire. The device produces nash, sound, smoke and
dus! to aid in target detection. It operates in this manner. This device will fire 21,000 rounds
for an approximate cost o[ $3. 50 [or the oxygen and acetylene to operate it. The latest model o[
this device is now in production.

"

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Gunfire Simulator.

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Scoring on the defense range is accomphshed on a hit recorder device and visually by ob.ervlng the killable targets. Camouflaged .corlng panel. behind the target ,ndlCate automatlc..tly. hit. as well as distribution of fire. This permits unrnediate evalu_uon of the sqll.&d. per_
form_nce.
Like the defense rilnge. selection of tern.in is important for the attack range (Figure 51).
The squ_d alartll in the assembly area. move. (orward through the attack po.ition across the LD
in the _ppropriate (ormatIon, and receives lire lrom the aggre.sor securUy. By f,re and ma_
neuve r the squad reduces the security and move. lorward to the a.s_wt hne. _nd _ ault. the
enemy's position. The squad moves over the objectIVe Into the reorga.rnzatlon ph..1.lIe. Again Sl_
mw_tion indica.tes enemy _ctivity and scoring panels record the hltS.
Troop te.tll lor TRAJNFlRE U h_ve been completed a.t Fort C"rson, Colorado, aDd _re no>w
going on _t Fort Jack.on, South Carolina. In the troop te .. : .. comparison 01 convenuona.J traming in Technique of Rifle Fire and Squad Tactical Trall'lUlg i. being ma.de to TRAlNFIRE U.
Designated traInee Untts, conducting Ine troop test a.re dIVided into convention_l_tra.1..I'Ied Untts ilnd
experimental_trained units. Following their traimng conventlon..t and experImental UlUts lore
te.ted on proficiency ranges deSigned for the troop te'ts to p"ovIde a basIS lor ArmY-WIde f'v..tuation 01 the TRAlNFlRE Il Prog .. a.m.

CONTROL
BUNKER

~16YOS-i
e

B6 yas

AGGRESSOR

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Yas

MAIN

POSITION

55 PANELS

&. &.

III

III

100 yas

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ASSAULT~L~'N~E~?L-_
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50 yas

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DEMOlJTK>N CHARGES - 6

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PUNCHY PETE

PANEL

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OMOlITION PIT

"

Figure 51.

350 yas

LD-L~

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Of
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TRAlNFIR II AlI"ck Range.

"

A comparison of significant factors between TRAlNFIRE 11 and present training can be summarized as:
Squad tactical training and technique of fire training are integrated, and culminate In
live hre attack and defense exercises in TRAlNFIRE n. Th.ese subjects are not integrated in
conventional training.
The trainee in TRAlNFIRE II [ires l56 live rounds.

In present traimng he fires 56 live

rounds.
Realistic actions of the enemy are simulated on all live_firing ranges and require the
squad to look for and find the enemy, to destroy him by application of tearn fires, to maneuver
supported by fire, and to use all techniques and procedures presented to him in the TRAlNFIR
U Program. Field target firing without a tactical application is the 0!11y live-hring used in conventional training.
Standardized techniques and SOP's in TRAlNFIRE Jl minimize the need for leader control on the battlefield. These are not emphasized in conventional training.
Section VI. MODI FlED M2 MOUNT FOR M60 MACHlNEGUN

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN F. IVEY, JR.


I1lstructor, Machineglln CommIttee
The adoption of the Machinegun, 7.62mm, M60, has provided the United States Army with a
lightweight machinegun which will meet the requirements of the alomic battlefield. The new M60
machinegun meets these requirements: however, the mount appears to be too heavy for this role.
The present mount which has been adopted for use with the M60 is the tripod mount M91.

~; flQIi;t~

"1 .

Figure 52.

MbO Machinegun on M91 Tripod.

68

The M91 is made largely of aluminum alloy. incorporates a recoil-i.olatlon .y.tem and
weighs 2:5 pounds. When the Z3-pound M60 i. mounted on the tripod it make. a total weight of
48 pounds (Figure 52:).
The M91 mount was designed solely for the M60 machine gun and is not a "univeual" mount
as we had with the old M74 tripod.
The M91 mount seems to us in the Weapons Department to be excessively heavy and unnecessarily complicated. Our position relative to the M91 mount is that it is more mount than is
needed in the Infantry riOe platoon.
The development of the M91 mount began simultaneously with the M60, shortly after World
War lJ. Initially it was designed to fulfill the requiremenlB of the mount used with both the heavy
and light machinegun found in the triangularly organized units.
When the Army began reorganizing under the ROCIO concept the heavy machinegun was deleted. Today. n'achineguns will be employed well forward with the rifle platoon of the Infantry
battle groups. This means that the gun and itll allied equipment must be light, simple to operate.
simple to maintain, easy to displace,and it must be durable.
In place of the long range. overhead supporting fire role. as we knew it during World War
11, we now have a requirement for a gun and mount which can keep pace with the attacking rine
squad..
The Machinegun. M60, meelS these requirements. but the Tripod Mount. M9l, doee
not.
There still exists a requirement for a mount which will serve us during periods when the ac
tion has become stable such as during the defense. Based on this and guided by the contemplated
use of such a mount, we have established some desirable features which we feel are needed in an
Infantry machinegun mount.
First of all, the mount should be light. The weight of the mount should not exceed lZ pounds.
It must be simple to place into polition and easy to operate and maintain. The mount should aho
present a low ailhouelte. When we take a close look at the M91 mount we aee that it does not
meet these requirementll. It weighs Z5 pounde and is too heavy and bulky for use within the rifle
platoon. The various clamps, mounting pins, diah, scales and knobs makes it toO complicated
and too difficult to place into position and operate. Maintenance of the M9l has proven to be a
problem of no smaU magnitude. The gunner is normally required to use the sitting polilition when
firing which makes camouflage and concealment more difficult.
Based on these considerations we have recommended that research and development agencies
begin an immediate study and provide us with a mount which is more in keeping with the require
ments of the rine platoon.
We submitted the tripod mounl M2:, which is the standard mount for our present caliber. 30
machine gun I, as the "type" mounl that is needed. To support this, we. in conjunctlon with Post
Ordnance personoel, have fabricated some adapters which permit us to mOunt the M60 on the
MZ mount. We refer to this mount as the modified MZ mount (Figure 53).
The modified MZ mount consista of a standard tripod mount M2: complete with traver.ing and
elevating mechanism and pintle with bolt. To thia we must add a mounting platform and a rear
mounting adapter. With the exception of the mounting platform and the rear mouotlng adapter aU
item. are standard item. of issue for the caliber. 30 M 1919A6 machioegun (Figure 54).
The manufacture of the mounting platform and the rear adapter can be done at Po.t Ordnance
level for ao estimated cost of tlX dollars per gun. The total weight of the Modified M2: is 17 3/4

"

pound . We admit this to be more than we deSire, bUI It will .e ..ve ... an mterun mount and
uill it reduce. the weight approxunately 'even pound. when com~red to the M91 mount.

--.
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Figure 5].

MbO Machlnegun on Modilied MZ Mount.

MOUNT
MOUNTING
/PLATFORM

TRAVERSING a
ELEVATING MECHANISM
Figure S4.

PINTLE
BOLT

ModUled MZ MachinesW\ Mount.


10

REAR
MOUNTING ADAPTER

The mounling platform is fixed to the pintle by the pintle bolt. The Ullil is fixed to the mount
by inserting the pintle into the pintle bushing of Ihe tripod head and locking it into position in a
manner identical to the caliber. 30 machinegun.
The rear mounting adapter is positioned on the coarse stud located on the receiver floor
plate. The traversing and elevaling mechanism is then attached in a normal manner except for
the fact that the traversing bar slide must be reversed.
The adapters do not eliminate or interfere with the controlled traverse and elevation of the
mount. The amount does not equal that of the M91 but it does equal that of the present Browning
guns and is considered adequate during the interim period. The modified Ml!: mount permits the
employment of the M60 in the predetermined fire role. The M60 mounted on the modified Ml!: can
deliver accurate, effective fire upon preselected targets which fall within a sector of approxi_
mately 800 mils in width.
The recommendations made were not made in haste. The United States Army Infantry Board
conducted a service test to determine if the modiIied Ml!: mount could serve as an interim mOUllt.
These tests show that with minor changes the modified Ml!: mOUllt can serve as a satisfactory
"interim" mount for the M60 machinegUll.
The lOIst Airborne Division is presently conducting a troop test with the '~f60 machinegun.
This test will include an evaluation of the modified Ml!:. Interim reports from the 10191 Airborne
Division state that the modified mount is serving satisfactorily and because 0: the reduction in
size and weight is generally preferred.
The army has issued a contract
Springfield Armory. We can expect
ler part of Ihis calendar year. It is
this year which will call for a much

for a limited number of M60 machineguns to be produced at


the initial guns to come oU the production line during the lat
anticipated that anolher contract will be issued some time
larger nwnber to be delivered next year.

The modified Ml!: moun I is only a recommenc!ed interim mount for the M60; however, Ihe
final result should be similar in performance.
We in Ihe Infantry are proud of Ihe M60, bUI we need a mount that is compatible with the
M60 in simplicity, ease of operation and weight.

Section VIl. M56 AS A MULTlPLE CARRIER


CAPTAIN RAYMOND J. GROVE

Instructor, Tank-llecoilless Weapons Committee


The present concept of the battlefield envisions hard.hitting, mobile units capable of rapid
concentration and dispersion in all types of terrain. In order to do this, the Infantry units must
be equipped with vehicles with a high degree of cross-country mobility.
At the present time there is only one standard Infantry weapons carrier that meets the re
quirements _ The Ms6 Scorpion (Figure 55).
The Scorpion is a highly maneuverable antitank weapon which can be air_lifted and dropped
by parachute. It mountS the 'JOmm gun which is basically the same as the M48 medium tank
weapon and u.e. the same types of ammunition. This vehicle weighs 15.600 pounds and has a
ground pressure of" III pound. per square inch. This low ground pressure allow. it to traverse
areas which wheeled or armored vehicles cannot negotiate.
The Ms6 chassi. pre'ents a low
battlefield silhOuette and can be adapted to many tasks beside. mounting the 90mm gun. By removing the weapon and its mount. the ground pressure is reduced to l lIZ pounds per square
inch, and the total weight to 8, Z50 pounds.
Testll have been conducted here at ForI Benning using the M56 chaSlli. in a variety or roles.
71

The M56 may be used to mount the quad. 50 cal machinegun. This is an unsurpassed ground sup_
port weapon which in the past hall been tied to a clumsy, unreliable haU-tracked carrier. On the
M56 it presents Callt moving firepower to go where the InCantry needs it.
We have the M56 with 106mrn rille (Figure 55). This weapon has been handicapped by an unsatisCactory wheeled carrier Cor live years. On the M56, the 106mm rille is provided with great
cross_country capabilities and, for the liret time, an adequate supply oC ammunition on the vehi.cleo These are obtained without modification oC the weapon and with only minor modifications to
the venicle. The weight of this combination is 10,000 pounds with crew and ammunition which is
within the lilt capabilities of the H-37 Helicopter. It has a ground pressure oC l. 7 psi which
allows operation in mud, snow, and sand without modilication.
The principal indirect fire support weapon of the Battle Group is the 4. Z-inch mortar. It ill
presently transported in a 3/4~ton truck to which must be attached a heavily loaded 3/4-ton trailer. This does not meet the current requirements for fast emplacement and displacement and
rapid cross_country movement.
To emphasize the versatility of the M56 as a general purpose weapons carrier we can re_
move the 106mm recoilless rifle adaptation kit, mount the 4. Z_inch mortar (Figure 56).
There is an experimental model of a perllonnel carrier which has been tested for amphibious
capabilities. Thill vehicle carries nine men and attains a IIpeed of four mph in water. This vehicle weighs 13,500 pounds and ulles a standard M56 chassis.
The M56 Scorpion hall undergone considerable testing. Each of three test vehicles operated
17,000, 9,000 and 4. 000 miles respectively without majoT difficulty. Maintenance has been lellll
than for a 1/4_ton truck and only minor correctionll have beeo made all a rellult of the tesU .

Figure 55.

"j'-'---'~--

"Scorpion" (Leftl and M5b Carrier with 10bmm Recoilless RiOe (Right).

In January, 1958, the fiTst pToduction models were pToduced and additional vehicles, using
this challsis, can be integrated intO tMs pToduction schedule with the following advantilges:
The production rate can be greatly increased without fUTtheT tooling COllt because this
hall been paid fOT i.n the price of the first production contract vehiclell.
Increased production will result in a lower unit COllt.
Provide a dependable, fast moving carrier for a.ll type, of heavy Infantry weapons.

"

If ~dopted, there wo~d be one vehu:le for the 90mm gun, qu~d cal. 50 maclunegun,
106mm recoilless rule. 4.l_lnch mortar and infantry personnel CiJ,rru:r, where we now hiJ,ve
M56, hiJ,Utrack. 1/4_lon, 3/4_ton truck and the M59 personnel CiJ,rner. ThIS ....ould Simplify
the battle group commander's job of support and maintenance.
A vehIcle such as this would be of great viilue In rniJ,ny olher roles such as resupply, casualty
removal, reconnaissance. command, and mIssile and rocllet launcher carner.
All thal is needed to make the Wantryman as mobile as h .. dOCtrine IS to adapt the Ms6 to
h .. need

,.

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Figure 56.

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4.l-inch Mortar Mounted on M56 CarruH.

7J

CHAPTER 5
INFANTRY MAGAZINE
COLONEL GUS S. PETERS
Chief. EdiJorial and Pictorial Office
Good morning gentlemen, I am the Chief of the Editorial and Pictorial Office, an academIC
staff ofHce of the lnfantry School. 1 am here this morning for a two-fold purpose - 10 acquaint
you with Infantry, the journal for Infantrymen _ and to solicit your a ittance a' key representa_
tive. and .ale.men for the InI"antry.
To begin with, how many of you are sub.craber. to Infantry? ThOle of you who are sub.
scriber. will attett to what I have to .ay [hi, morning, and for those of you who are nOI, it i.
my plea.ure to tell you about Infantry.

Infantry magazine is an official, nonpror.t, quarterly publication of the Infantry School..


Since the Iran,fer and union of the Infantry Aocialion, along ....i1h the a ociation'. publication
- Tbe lnfantTy Journal, to the Army A,.oClation, Infantry hal undertaken the additional role of
.poke.man for tbe Infantry and for tbose ....ho work ....ith Infantry, Thi. magazine is your profe .sional journal - written by, for and about Infantrymen.
The purpo'e of Infantry, as with any profe ional journal, i. to keep InIanlrymen up to dale
on the late.t trend., developmenls and thinking in Infantry organization, tactic., ... eapon., com_
munication., tran.portation and .taff procedure., includ.ng Airborne and RangeT. Itli art.cleli
bddge the gap bet....een the development of new doctrine OT technique' for atomic OT nonatomlc
....arfaTe and theiT publication in field manual. OT otheT tTammg literature fOT Army- ....ide d"tTi_
bution. Infantry magazine bridge. thil gap of time, which average' 12-18 monthl, and pre.ents
four time. each year the late.st official inIormation and ne.... concepts for Infantrymen.
As an example, .ince April of lall year, encompa.sing five i ue. of the publication, over
200 page' of material on the I'll' .... ROCIO divi.ion have been publi.hed in Infanlry a. contra.led
to only one manual, FM 7_21, Headquarter. and Headquarter. Company, lnfanlry D,vllion Battle
Group, having been publi.hed and dilitribuled over the same period. FM 7_40, InlanlTY Divi.ion
Battle Group, and FM 7-10, Airborne and Inlanlry Rifle Company, are 'cheduled to be completed
and distributed by the end of lhe year.
Infantry has allo ellamined the new M60 machinegun and the new rifle, covering pertinent
detaiLs of mechanical training. functioning, maintenance and mark.man.hlp wlln. Ihese new weap_
ons. In addition, Infantry has publi.hed informative aTtlcle. on Ru ian "eapon' and lactic.,
evasion and escape traming, leader.sh,p technique', hf!'1lcopler-borne Operations. parachuting
from ATmy aircrafl and many other area. of intere.t and importance to Infanlrymen. I must
repeat that Ih" material appeared In InfantTy maga:une far In advance of held manuals and other
training hlerature.
Bear in mind gentlemen, that Infantry can help Ihe InfantTyman further hll professional
competence. In th" day of .electivlty among offIcer and noncommi ion"d offlceT rank., It "
\ncumbent on all of u. - officeT' and NCO'. alike - to expand our kno....ledge and to keep "'breast
and even ahead of change. and new vlewpolnu in our profe.slon if ....e are to ach,eve "Best
Qualified" stat\1s, profic.ency pay and promOllon to higher grade.,
We receive many letter. from ,"lIruclor. throughout the aclive Army and the c ....ihan com_
ponents ....ho write Ihat Infantry magazine i 1'1 e enllal aid In pre.enting Inllruction .nd that
they have u.ed .Ttiele. In Infantry a. complele le on plan. In their In'!ruchonal duties.

INFANTRY IMGAZINE
The Infantryman In the Atomic:: Age

LT General Powell

Tips for the Newly Commissioned ROTC Officers

Lt Agnelli

New Basic Weapon for

lne

Infantry (M14 &. Mlj Rifle)

Moj Oestreich

The M60 Mochinegun

Maj Landis

The Creating of Superior Units

Lt Gen Clarke

Noncommissioned Officer

MSgt Nicolas

Easing the L()gd on the Infantryman's Bock (New Pock)

Moj

Invitation to Think

Gen Wyman

Helicopterborne Operations

Copt Wintersteen

Ride to Work (M59 Carrier)

Copt Mueller

More About Trainfirel

Infantry Stoff

Evosion & Escape

MSgt Quinn

Survival

Mr Gause & Copt Koyner

Hud~on

SERIALS:
Checkl ish for Infantry Leaders
Small Unit Task Forces (PI, Co& Bn Size)
Pentamic Todics (Co & BG)
ROCIO Package:
Organization Tadics Firepower ..
Communications" Mobility"
Logistic::ol Support Medic::al Support
Stoff Procedures Brigade' Pentamic::
Terminology

6 issues
3 issues
4 issues
Over 200 pages in 5 issues

Figure 57. Typic::al INFANTRY Mogazine Articles.


Let UII examine the makeup of this journal. This chart (F"igure 57) will gIve you an idea of
the type arliclell as well as indicate the profellSional caliber and reputation ol some of the au.
Ihcrs, This does not mean Ihat only high ranking officers or accomplillhed authors can write lor
Infantry. You, or any Infantryman, can write. Don't worry too much about format and gram_
matical construction; our editors can take care of that. [t'll the meat of th.. article we are after,
and the field of articles can be as diversified as the assignments and duties in our service, rang.ng from the flfle squad through division and higher levels. H you have something to say, put it
In writing and send it to us,
We pay a nominal sum of l-l cents a word lor arllcle. we print and
return thoBc we can't use Or develop.
This next chart (Figure 58) IiIHII additional features of the maga7.ine to induc "Letters to the
E:d,tor," the "Quarterly Quiz," "What's New for Infantrymen," and a llmall seclion which hilts
the current lI\atUI of new field manual. and training film . It also lisa published inll/ructlonal
material available for purchase through the Book Department ol the In(anlry School.
75

INFANTRY MAGAZINE

l.tllm 10 Ih. Editor


Ouorlerly Ovil.
Whol's N
fOf Infonlrymen
Ne developments in Ofgonil.otion, Wt!lQpons, equipmeol
Ne...,....Oflhy ilems
Stotvs of Field Monuols, Troining Films, etc;.
lnstruc;tionol motedoh oV<riloble
Spec;iol Feotures
Esprit items
PfQtIlClie Infonlry ilems
QUOIes
Figvre 58. INFANTRY

~;ne

hoMes.

Beginning ....Ith the next quarter's pubHc;ation. to be i ued In July, the .ue of Infantry .... 111
be lnc;reased to permit the publlc;ahon of more article. and allo.... more flexibility In the u.e of
photo., maps, illustration. and general makeup of the magazine. Thi. i. being done ....ithout an
inc;rea.e in subsc;ription rates. inc;identally, ....e have al.o modernized our clrculallon methods to
indude guaranteed delivery through the maH., both in the Zl and over.ea.; remmder and lalla.....
up letters on renewal sub.c;riptions and a "subsc;nbe now _ pay later" policy in keeping .... uh
.tandard ciVilian prac;t1c;es. We also have establi.hed a permanent sub.c;rlpllon plan whereby the
.ub.c;riber may cancel at any time but other .... i.e is billed annually at the rate of $2.25.
Now, gentlemen. I've told you about the magazine and have arrived at my second purpo.e.
Each of you i. in a key and respon.ible as.ignment a. an Infantry instructor. As such, you are
not only selected repre.entatives of our branch but function as the field exten'lon of the (nfantry
School. I propo.e that each of you take the time and expend some effort to promote, publicize,
and encourage the sale of Infantry to all officer. and NCO's ....ith whom you come In contact,
whether they be Infantrymen or of the branches that work with Infantry.
The Inlantry School needs your assiatance to further the publication of ill official magazine.
Infantry is not publi.hed from appropriated funds but reHes solely on subscription .ales for lis
continuance. The sum of $2. ZS per year " surely a .mall price to pay for a first.class profes.ional journal.
In the envelope I before you we have is.ued one copy of the currenl Infantry and have inclUded
a number of .ublcrlptlon blank I and fact sheets ""hlch will serve to refre.h your memory or help
you in your .alel endeavor The cople. are gratt which 1ft illelf hal never been done before.
but we believe will be returned a hundred fold through your efforll. When you run out of '\1'0.
scription blank., we ....111 mall you more.
In conclusion, gentlemen, Infantry II your profel'IOnal journal. It hOI. tremendous value for
all Inlantrymen. It will keep you abrea" of the rllpld change. in doctnne, UI.CI1C. and technique.
lind it ....ill bring to you four time. a year the latell. most complete. factUAl Informatlon of the
Infantry School and about Infantry.
Remember. a lublcriplion to Inlantry IS a mea'ure of yOUr profe'lional intereat!
Thank you.

"

CHAPTER 6
SPECIAL SUBJECTS
Section I. TRAlNLEAD FILM PROORAM
L1ElIT'ENANT COLONEL LEONARD LOWRY

Instructor, Leadership Committee


The fiut fifteen minutes thil morning will be an orientation on the Trainlead Film Program,
Phase II. Tralnlead is a series of short .ituational type films of about three to eight minutes
duration. The purpose of these film., i. to afford leadership inltructor. additional mean. of
presenting practical exercise., and provoke student discussion. Each of the films develop. a
problem which conhonu a central ligure. The nudent will be able to Identify him.ell with thi.
figure and will be required to present hi. perlonal 801utlon to the problem. during a discus,ion
period.. which follow. the viewing of the film. The advantages of using the two pbylical .el'l'e.,
.Ight and hearing, will .timulate .tudent interest and free di.cuion.
The US Army Infantry School has been charged with the re.pon.ibility of prodUcing this
particular .erie. The initial requirement i. for ZS film., which will be .uitable forleader_
.hip in.truction throughout the Army, Of the.e ZS film'. 14 are designed for Instruction 011 the
pre commissioned level and the remaining 11 will focus attention on problems ariung at a hIgher level. Thu. far we have developed the 11 precommi ioned film. to the an.wer prll'lt .tage,
which mean. lhey have been boarded here at the US Army Inb.ntry School and have been forwarded to the US Continental Army Command for approval. The remainll'lg lpo.tcommi ionedJ
film. have been produced and are being edited. We expect 10 have the.e an.wer prinn .ometime next month.
During the review we discovered that many of the precommi ioned film. are appropriate
for pre.entatlon to the commis.ioned level. Also, while each Him I. de.igned to develop a
.pecific teaching point, it may well bring out leadership problem. in other area For example;
a film in the proper senior-.ubordinate relationships may well involve other areas. such a.
assumption o! command, and developing II. positive attitude In subordinate', The.e film. emphasi:r.e the fact that many leadership problems are Interrelated and difficult to Isolate. We
feel this I. advantageous, becaute it will afford the instructor greater flexibility and latitude
In hi. instruction.
To;) a ist the instructor in hi. pre. entation of the film., there will be al'l Instructor'. Film
Reference. Thi. wUI Include the purpou of the film, il 'ynopti. of the problem and additional
referel'lce. lll'ld recommended question., which he may use to initiate di.cu ion.
The initial .erie. consist. of problem. In .uch ,ueil. a.:
A umption of command
Senior-.ubordinate relation. hip.
Developing a po.itive llttilude in .ubordinate.
Chain of command
Phy.lca.1 leadership in combat
There wUI be three (Urn' in ellch area. Thi. will give the in.tructor .ome .election in
[I will preclude repetition and give greater empha.i. to 'pecific teachIng poinn.

hi. chOice of .ituation.

Sinc. the.e him. are {or army wide con.umption in leader.hip instruction, ..e have attempted to avoid branch di.tincllon wherever polble. In connection with this we held a conference
here last July, prior to writing the .hootlng .cripts. Thi. conference .... attended by repre-

77

sentstives from most of the other army schools and other interested parties. The purpose of
the conference wal to explain the Trainlead Program, indicate our progress, obtain their concur rene .. , recommendations and comments. The conference was successful and the project was
Indor.ed one hundred percent.
At this lOme we will show one of these films, dealing with the proper lenior.subordlnate
relahol'lshlp"
As the problem develops, determine for yourseU whether or not the film is
thought provoking.
IShow Senior-Subordinate Relations Film '2)
As you see, this film could be used in such other areas as assumption of command and in.
snlhl'lg a pollltive attitude in subordinates. I might add, that the question to start the discusILOn has already been posed in the film.
USCONARC waf 50 impre.sed by the initial film treatmentll that they have directed all
major service schools to .ubmit 15 additional treatments on decision-making in combal situations. This we have done and OUr situations are appropriate to Infantry. They deal in such
areas as:
Utilizing firepower
Maintaining momentum In the attack
Controlling fear, rumor and panic
Restoration of combat effectiveness
Conduct of an isolated unit
And other combat situations.
The latest information indicates that there are SOme eighty odd such situations awaiting
production approval at CONARC. So you see this program wil1 be a continuing thing.
It is believed that the first 14 films will be available 10 the instructors sometime during
this coming fall. We feel that these films are going to prove beneficial and will greatly assist
all in.tructors in the vital field of teaching military leadership.

Section U. NEW DEVELOPMENTS iN NUCLEAR WEAPONS


LIEUTeNANT COLONEL IUCIIARD W. HEALY
Chfliymml. Atomics Committee
The purpose of this presentation is to acquaint you with some of the most significant new
developments in the field of nuclear weapons and their employment as they aHect 1,11 Infantry
instructors. We have chosen to emphasize not only new weapons themselves, but also instruc
tional material and training devices.
First - in the area of instructional material - it is significant that beginning in January of
this year, the USAlS has been providing a course of instruction to qualify selected officers of
the advanced and aSllociate advanced cL.slles ar. nuclear weapons employment officers with an
MOS Prefut Digit 5. As Col Edwards, the Director of Instruction, told you in his introductory
remarks, experience to date Indicates that we will qualify approximately 65'110 of the students
in regular advanced classes and between 30 and 50% of those in aSllociate advanced classes.
A logical queshon in this regard IS, "How many nuclear weapons employment officers are
reqUired and where are they normally assigned?" USCONARC published a Memorandum 16 on
7 April 1958 that ill a ?olicy directIve on this matter and specifies a m.nimum of 17 in vaTlOUS
lltaC( a.slgnments at Army, II at Corps, 9 at Division and 3 at Battle Group. The recommended
number at battle group wall Increased to three on the recommendation of USA IS. The three pre_
fix 5 officers III battle group are located In the S3 section. the S2 section and the mortar battery.

78

USAIS nuclear weapons instruction to advanced classes consists of 133 hours. In addition,
twO hours are provided for "in and out" processing of classified material. It is of importance
to note that although the Atomic Damage Template System for damage estimation is empha8ized,
we do devote IZ hours to the numerical system of damage estimation. All U. S. students in the
regular advanced classes receive this entire block of instruction.
We were directed by USCQNARC to parallel the Leavenworth nuclear weapons officer employment course where students in the regular course at USCGSC stay to complete a 3 lIZ week
supplemental course for Prefix 5 designates.
Our associate advanced course differs [rom the regular advanced course as shown here.
The USA IS associate advanced students receive 71 hours of nuclear weapons Instruction during
their normal IS-week course. Then certain selected studentli attend a 60 hour supplemental
course at the conclusion of their normal course of instruction. Satisfactory completion of this
supplemental course qualifies these students for a pre[uc 5 to their MOS.
We feel tllat the quality o[ the nuclear weapons employment officers produced at USA IS will
compete well with those produced ac other service schools - particularly if commanders will
use them in this capacity in order to complete their training with experience.
Secondly - in the area of instructional material it is significant that almost aU of our basic
reference material has either been rewritten during the past year or is in the process of being
rewritten. The causes for thb rewrite are primarily threefold:
The development of new weapons whose effects are somewhat different than older type
weapons.
Continued tesU in Nevada and the Pacific have shown a requirement for revision of
previous data.
Continued efforts to reduce the time required to detect a target and deliver a weapon
over the target have resulted in a few time saving analyslll techmques.
The following revised manuals have been or will be dIStributed as follows:
TM Z3-Z00 - The AFSWP atomic weapons manual has recently been distributed. It IS
important to note that its classification has been changed from Secret to Confidenllal and the
Atomic Energy Act Restricted Data protective marking has been removed.
DA Pamphlet 39-1 _ Unclassified employment manual is SCheduled for pllblicatlOn
early in 1959. This manual is being extensively revised to as nearly as pOSSible duplicate the
procedures, techniques and format of the classified Army employment manual FM 101-31 and
FM 101-31A which will be repllblished by September 1959. Pending revision of FM 10131, a
Change 3 to the current manual is currently in the process of being printed and distributed.
USCGSC has recently completed a draft TC 101_( ) which is scheduled to be pubhshed by
DA on an "as soon as possible" baSIS. This manual contains Army dOclrtne for a new Army
system for predicting radIological fallout. As you will recall, the current AFSWP system for
fallout prediction is based on idealized intensity contours around an average of wind speeds existing In 5000 ft. layers o( atmosphere between Rround ~ero and the top of the mushroom cloud.
This averaj:te wind is called the scallOg wlOd. The plot that results represents a pattern on the
ground of intensille. at H 1.
DeficienCies associated with the system have always been rec::ogl'li~ed. fwo major deflcien.
cies are that It IS Ideall?ed from an average scahng Wind and secondly, that lactical command.
ers have started to accept thIS ilross estimate ,u ,l fiUrly precise predlc(\on. fhe new synem
overcomes these tWO deficienCies.

"

The new Army system is based on a plot ot wind speeds at 6000 ft levels of atmosphere
from ground zero to the top of the cloud. Wind heights are adjusted by appropriate factors; the
size of the cloud is considered and a plot called a final envelope is produced. This plot is ro_
tated through a dellired angle to conllider previoUS average wind variations. The intersecting
blue lines indicate earliellt arrival time of falloul. This plot covers an area in which militarily
Ilignificant fallout can be expected to be encountered. There is no attempt in this sylltem to predict intenllities. Specific intensities mullt be determined by radiological survey.
During the past year the Signal Corps, in conjunction with the Chemical Corps, has produced
a valuable training device for training units in radiological Ilurvey procedures. The device ill
called a Radiation Survey Training Set _ Device 48EIA. Each set conllilllB of one transmitter
and ten receivers. The tranllmitterll of Ileveral sen can be used in Ileries. Tranllmitters oper_
ate between 3155 and 3400 KC'Il at low wattage. If they are used in Ileries, they can be arranged
to reinforce the tranllmissionll of other lIets and thereby represent by intensity of radio Ilignal a
variety of intenllitiell o{ fallout or induced radiation. By revilling the procedure fallout decay can
be played. The radio receivers are shaped exactly like ironization chamber II. They register the
radio lIignalll all radiation intenSities on dialll which register {rom 0 to 5001'. Radiological survey
personnel use thelle receivers as they would radiation counters and report intensities o{ located
radiation.
This device was to be tested in Exercise Indian River by the 4th Infantry Division last May.
A partial test was conducted. However, the setS were not received by the 4th Division in time
to properly train the perllonnel in their use and therefore. the equipment test was somewhat
hampered. The test wall successful in isolating certain deficiencies in the training seU which
will be corrected prior to this year's production.

CHAPTER 7
RESUL TS OF INTELLIGENCE SEMINAR
L1ElIfENANT COLONEL HAROLD R. KENT

Execu.tive Officer, Fundamentals, Research and DevelOpment Section,


Command and Staff Department
The purpose of thl' pre. entation u to mform you of the re.ulu of the Intelligence SemHur
which Wil' conducted by the infantry School last month.

Fir.t. the result. of the seminar h.a.ve 001 yet been reviewed and evaluated by lhe Wantry
School. The recommendattons which Will be presented are .oldy those which th... vanoul ~nel
composed of {rom 8 to IZ officers each. arnved at In their .tudy of the problem" an.... hence do
no! necessarily rellect the views of all conferees or the polition or teaching' of the Wantry
School. The Infantry School is, of couue atudying each recommendation for po.sible 'ncorpora
tlon into existing teaching and will make appropriate recommendation to higher headquarterl, if
indicated.

Second, the diltribution of the complete written report of the lemmar will mclude lervice
Icho01.l and it will not be necelsary to Ulke notel here. II ",ill ~ aval..1able to you for further
reference at your home Itation.
A queltlOn may arlle m your mind at this tune al to .... hy thlS prelentatlon h4t.1 been duded
m the agenda for the conference thiS year. There are two good reasons why In1antry :ins ...uctors
should have thil Information;
First, 11 InIorml you what the In1antry School considers as Ihe principal . 'elhgence prob
lem areal :in the ROCIO battle group. Knowmg that ~roblem areas do eXllt and what they aTe
glVel us a bToadeT understanding of Intelhgence and It I role In InfantTy taCllcal opeTatlOns.
Second, It givel you the tTend ot thulking in thele problem areal. The t'I"C.'Dd is the 'I"l~sult
basically of experience with the ROCIO organIzation in the field and I I an mdlcatoT of what the
future changes and Improvements In the battle gTOUp intelligence system may be.
Thil pTesentatlOn will coveT the hiahlights of the lem1l'lar, to Include:
Re...on fOT the SemlnaT. Th.s will be expressed In the form of an analylll of the
prelent battle gTOUp intelhgence capablhty visavII the requlTemenl.
Purpole and ICOpe of the semll'lar
Commands and agenciel thaI were repTelented
QTganlzation
Panel recommend<t.l1ons. These recrmmendatlonl are the baul of thll pTelentatlOn,
although I relteTate that they do not neo:-ellarlly reflect the pollhon of the InIantTy School.
REASON FOR THE SEMINAR
The reason why the InfantTy. chool conducted the seminar IS very ch'arly explall'led by a
compaTlson of the battle group commander'l requirement tor Intelligence on the atomic ballif'
field whh the capability of the battle /l:roup to obtain that lI'ltelh/l:cnce. ReqUirement-wise, beCluae of greater d.lperSlon. larjl;er lactlcal zones, Tt'duced troop del'Slty, and Ule of atomiC
weaponl, one of the battle group comman<lf'r's major nel'ds 1B for tlmt'ly and thorough rccon-

81

ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL


INFANTRY INSTRUCTORS'
19S8

UNCLASSIFIED
200'2

t8-e

23-27 JUNE
NL

1.0

W Ll.i

... 122
u:;

111111.1
11111

125

MICROCOPY

.::
14
11111

RlSOlUrl()~

11111~
Tl~t

(H~1I1

nail.ance urveiUanc:e. and w.rget ac:qui.ition. Caplobility-wi.e. the organic mean. of the
battle group to 'ati.cy the't! major requirement. are limited.
The two principal mean. that the battle group commander hal lor accompli.hing hi' tactical
mb .. ionhie rifle unin and hi upporting lire., particularly atomic fire.depend to a very
great extent on knowing where the enemy i. at the very moment or even before the enemy get.
there. Converu,ly. the battle group commander mll,t keep such information. a. pertain. to hi'
own b.attle group. Irom the enemy. With the advent of tactical atomic weapon. and the charlleover to ROClD. the following intelligence Tequirement. and activities of the ROCID battle group
lut.ve i. . . . umed gre"ter .igDiIicanc:e and importance:

1'1

RadiologiCAl monitoring and .urvey.


a.nd i. a .taU rupon.ibUity of the SZ.

Thi. i. a relatively ne.... ta.k facing the battle group

U.e of .urveillance equipment. Greater reliance i. being placed on the u.e of electronic
and other .en.ory device. for .urveillance and detection. Ho....ever. much of thi. equipment i.
not fully developed and. hal not been i ued to unitll.

ReconDaIl.ance and ob.ervation.


and 360 0 ob.ervation.

Thi. include. the nece ity for deeper reconnai"ance

Deception planning. Greater empha.i. is being placed on deceptive operations in the


battle group to give it flexibility for it. own operation. and protecti.on and ucurity &gain.t the
enemy'. atomic capability.
Company level intelligence. Companie.....ill need intelligence to a greater degree a.nd
will be able to contribute more in the collection and reporting ph&se'.

I '
I

Now. what ill the cap!bility of the battle group to .atidy the.e increa.ed requirementl for
intelligence and counterintelligence? For ea.e of undeUta.nding, and not for implying .imil.arily
of organi%ation. let'. compare the organic intelligence capability of the ROClD batUe ,roup with
that of the regiment.
The battle group doe. not have the intelligence and reconn.ai a.nce platoon, three 8man
battalion intelligence 'ection., the three counterfire .quad., and the organic air .ection ....hich
were in the regiment. The battle group gained a reconnai'.ance platoon and an SZ Air which
were not in the regiment and retained one counterfire .quad. New surveillance device when
made available, will increa.e the collection capability of the battle group, but a' yet they have
not been i ued. A. partial compen.ation, the ROCID divi.ion with it. cavalry .quadron and
aviation company h&. an increa.ed reconnai.lance and .urveil1ance capability over that of the
triangular divi.ion which will help fill the gap' in the battle group" intelligence e[fort.
The net re.ult il that the organic battle group intelligence capability h.a. not kept pace with
the increa.ed intelligence req.uin:ment. of the atomic battlefield. Th" deficiency i. the root of
the problem area. which formed the ba.i. for the .eminar.

PURPOSE ANOSCOPE
The Commandant, United State' Army InCantry School. in recognition of the.e problem area.
and the neces.ity to do .omething about them, directed that the .eminar be held. The purpo.e
wa. to examine and recommend on the problem area.. The .cope pertained to the ROCtO battle
group level-the .emimu limited iUelf to the current organization and did not become involved
in the "Army of the Future."

I'

PRESENTATION

The command. which were repre.ented were Army-wide and included Infantry and airborne
divi.ion.; A"iltant Chief of Staff. lrllelligence; US Continental Army Command; Combat Surveillance Agency; Electronic Proving Ground.; Army Intelligence Center; and the lervice .chooh,

82

-,

A total of 75 conferee. were prelent. wh.ich inclu.ded 25 USAIS conteree . Thi. Army-wide reprelent.tioD permitted. pooling of experience and knowledge which covered aU pec;:l' of the
.ubject. under dilcuion. The .eminar it believed to be the lint Army-wide .emin.r on battle
group intelligence that hal been held.

ORGANIZATION
The .eminar con.i.ted primarily of erie. of formal presentation. followed by pand di.
cu ionl. The formal pre.entationl provided the conferee. with the late It Wormation on intelligence developmentl and 'fIt the .tage for the panel dileua.ion
The .eminar WI' organized into one .leering committee and .even panell. The .teerinll
The .even })Anell. each compoled of 8 to 12 confeu:el, diBCUlled aldgned problem areal and made recommendationl. Thele
~nel dilCUlBionl were the heart of the leminar,
During the.e dilcullionl. there wa' a free
exprellion of opinion no one attempted to direct the commentl toward any preconceived 1011,1tion. Thi. mean. o{ diBcunion made it po'lible to come up wUn realiltic and unprejudiced recommendationl and idea.,

committee monitored and coordinated the .eminar proceeding .

The problem areal exaznined were:


SZ'I major relponlibilitiel
Staff organization
Collection and lurveillance
Sourcel and agenciel
Reconnaillance and oblervation
Techniquel
Counterintelligence. tra1ning
Each of thele areal wal a.dgned to one of the leven paneh. Each area wal further broken
down into lpedfic queetion. on which the panell were required to lubmit recommendationl. For
example. under Panel S. one of the queltionl Wal, "II the reconnaillance platoon adequate {or
can'ying out itl reconnaillance mi.lion? U not, what changel are i.ndicated 1"
PANEL RECOMMENDATIONS
I will lIwnmarh:e the principal recommendationl reached at tne leminar. a.long with highlights of the dilcul.ion which led to the recommendationl. I will add a comment after each recommendation to lummarize pointl brought out during the open forum and to indicate oppoling
vie~1 or pollible alternate 10lutiOnl.
Problem: Radiological Survey
AI you know, tn.e SZ hal Itali relponlibility for coordination of radiological monitoring and
.urvey operationl, Thil relponlibility involvel the mealuring, polting, and dilleminating of
i.nformation pertaining to radiation or contazninated areal. In a war involving extenlive u.e of
atomic weapon. and deliberate faHout, the accompH.hment of thil function it extremely important. Accurate fallout information il vital both to maneuver and for protection of our own
troopl. There i. no chemical officer in the battle group, al there il in divilion, althou8h thl
Executive Officer, Headquarterl and Headquarterl Comp&ny. iI a CBR oflicer i.n addition to hil
other duUe.. He il expected to be of little aniltance to the SZ. Survey teaznl will collect and
report the information to the battle group SZ. Battle group will aho receive al.iltance from
divilion in thil Held, in the nature of predicted fallout from enemy weaponl and reportl from
lurvey teaml, The SZ record I and Itudie. the inlormation. and di eminate. it to higher head
quarterl and within hil own battle group. The location and amount of radiation in the fallout area
will affect the dedi ion of the commander(or example. Do I bypa.1 it '/' Can I cron it? How
much protection i. required?
8)

Concllllion: The p&nel which Itlldied thil problem concluded that the SZ is presently ~
capable of carrying out his radioloaical monitoring and survey functions under conditions of ex
tensive use of atomic weapons and deliberate (..llout, because of inadequate communications and
buuHic::ient person.nel to record and disseminate the data.
Recommend..tion: That the m ..tter be .tudied further to determine additional personnel and
cornmunication (..cilitiel requiJ"ed for the SZ to perloJ"1n this function adequately.
Comment: Other conferees expressed an opinion during the open forwn that this problem
could pos"bly be solved by proper reportina dilcipline so ... not to overload the communications;
adequate SOP's and pubUlhed teclmiques; and trainina per.onnel in proper methods of surveying.
recol'din, and dissemm-tina this information.
Problem: Reconnais'ance PI..toon
The principal around reconnaissance meiln. in the battle aroup is the reconn..i.sance pia
toon, con.i.tina of one officer and )8 enlilted men, organized with two t..nks. two Infantry per
.onnel c ..rrierl ...nd live I/.ton vehicles. It repl..ced the old intellilence and reconnais.ance
platoon. which wa' mounted in l/.-ton vehicle ...nd prim.. rily de.igned for mi ions of reconnai'.ance by Ite ..lth. The prim..ry mis.ion. of the reconnai ....nce pl..toon .. re reconnai....nce
and s.curity. It i. c"pable of operating on one flank or axil of advance. of oper..ting batUe
,roup ob.ervation posu, and of providinl rear .ecurity, but not dmultaneoul1y. It is designed
to be operated a. a platoon.

Conclu.ion.: The panel which .tudied this problem concluded that the reconnai ance pia
toon can operate, tingularly. on one axis of advance, one Clank, or one rear security :ni.sion,
and that on offense, the battle group commilnder need. a reconnai ance capability oC operating
on two flank. or axe. 01 advance .imultaneou.ly. and that. on defen.e. an OP capability .imul
t&rleou. with a rear .ecurity capability i. required.
Recommendation: That one surveillance .ection oC IZ men mounted in I/.ton vehicle. and
eqllipped principally with tele.cope' and rildios, be added to the current reconnaissance platoon.
This additional section would permit the platoon to operate over two axe. of advance or on two
nankl durinl the advance to contact and aCter contact hal been made; in defen.e. the pl.. toon
would 0. capable o{ operaUnl OP's and lurveillance equipment .imultaneously with rear security
or lpecLsI reconnaissance t...kl.
Comment: Alternate lolution. pointed out durinl the open Corum which would not require an
incr..... 01 TOE perlonnel ..re: to lupplement the pre'ent reconnaissance pl..toon effort with
mount.d per.onnel from the rUle companiel Cor flank .ecurity ilnd route reconnal'.ance, and
allO TO use per.onn.1 from the rifle companies to operate OP'

Problem: Surveillance and Ob.ervation


The pan.1 conlidered that the battle Iroup should h..ve an intelliaence collection cap;t.bility
commensurate with its area of Wluencethe ,"one or s.ctor which the battle Iroup commilnder
influence. by maneuver or t1repower, organic or UJ'l,der hi. control. The panel further con.idered a 10, 000 meter range al beinC the battle croup area oC influence. Survel.l1ance, of cour.e.
can be accomplilhed by the human eye, for u;..mple, observation poets, or by equipment such as
r ..dar .etl, It is in the field ol .urveillance equipment that the panel felt the battle group w ..
w.ak, einc. none of thil equipment, except the counter(lre Iquad equipment. hal been iSlued to
unit.
Conclueion: The panel concluded that the surveillance and collection capability of the ROCIO
battle Iroup al currently organized and eqwpped ..... 11 not .atilly the requirements of the battle
Iroup on a widely dilpened atomic baUlefteld. In other wordl. it \s inadequate

..

Recommendation: The panel recommended that an interim capability be provided tbe baule
group without delay. baaed on the following plan:
Item

Echelon

Quantity

ShortRange Gl'ound
Radar (AN/PPS41

Ri!le Co
Recon Plat

Medium.Range Gl'ound
Radu IAN/TPS-Z I)

Hqlr.HqCo

Added peraonnel

each
each

Z each
None

Z each

Z each

To be pooled at higher headqual'ten includea:


Long-Range Gl'ound R"dar Set tAN/Tps.Z5)
Ail'borne Radal' Set (AN/APS851 .
Airborne Radu Set (AN/APQ55) . .
Ai.rborne Wrared Detecting Set (AN/AAS5)

Z
1
I
1

Manned airCl'ait day and night photo aysteml per aircraft:

,,,

Drone photo. . .
Airborne Target Location Syatem .
Tracking Radan
Photo Laboratoriea

Comment: Thia ia a very dUHcult problem. Obtaining i.nterim equipment which ia auitable
ia princi.pally a reaearch and development problem. but the unit repreaent&tivea at the aeminar
agreed that the battle group and diviaionl need thil aurveillance equipment without delay. One
knowledgeable conferee did Itate that the Army il lerioul1y conaidering obtainina and ilauing
interim equipment.
Problem; Company Intelligence NCO
It ia expected that the rUle company, under atomic wadare. will be a primary collection
agency of intelligence information. due to dilperlion. rapidly changina lituationl. and areater
need for aeU-reliance within .maller unlta. The company will alia be a areater uaer of intelligence. due to the aame factor Some of the pdndpallntelliaence functiona to be carried out
at company level include intelligence indoctrination and training. brleHng and debrleHng patroll.
procelaing POW'I. procelling Cilptured documenta and materilil. counterintelligence matte".
Cell. actlvitie lupervilton of the operation oC lurveUllInce devicea and OP'a. and proceaaing
ilnd dl eminating intelligence information.

Conclu.lon; The panel concluded that the aforementioned intelligence taaka jUltUied the
additi.on of an intelligence NCO to the rUle company, appropriately trained for the.e apedfic
dutle
Recommendiltlon: The panel recommended that an Intelligence NCO. Sergeant Firat Claa'.
be added to the rille comp&ny. There waa a minority report rendered which recommended that
a combined intelligence/operationl NCO be added.
Comment: Several unofficial comrnenll (rom unitl in the field have been received here at
the Infantry School on whether the rUle company Ihould have an intelligence NCO. The.e field
commentl are about evenly divided between thOle for and thOle againat the need for an intelligence NCO in the company.

os

Problem: Deception Pla.JlDing

Empha.i. i. b.iDg placed on deception planllinl, to deceive or midead the eDemy a. to the
,:ver-all tactical oper.tio.... The 53 pre.ently hal .t.a!f re.pon.ibility for the deception plan
upported by the 5Z who provide. the intelligence and counteri...telligence ....pect
The que.tion con. ide red ..t the .eminar wa' whether the 52 or the 53 .hould have the re.pon.ibility. The que.tion wa' inc:luded merely to obtain ide... ; the Wantry School was not .ugge.tin,g that the re.pon.ibility be transferred to the 52. Many 52 '. Ceel that the 52 .hould take over
the ta.k. .ince deceptive oper.tion. in the battle ,group con.ist principally o( counterintellige...ce
activities rather than tactic.l mi ion
Co...c:lu.io...: The panel conc:luded that the 5Z, not the 53, .hould h.ve the over-aU .tal( re.po.... ibility and ,that pertinent Held manual. be changed ..ccordingly.
Recommendation: The panel recommended that the S2 be a igned this re.p.>....ibility and.
that pertinent Held manu..ls be changed accordingly.
ConuneDt: During the ope... forwn which followed tbe pre.eDtation of this p.anel recommell.d&tion. the di.cuion (rom the floor indicated a strong di.aBreement with this recomme...dation
by the p.anel. that i., many confereu .aw no ju.tification (or cb.anging the .taI( re.pon.ibility
for deception planniDg,
The live problem. liven above are only a portioll. of tho.e di.cu ed at the .emin.. r. Wtule
all problem. considered are important. the preceding live .. re po ibly the more critical ODe.

and. perhap. are tbe mo.t COll.trover.i.al.


J will now indicate other probJem. con. ide red by giving you the panel recommendation. Collowed by a brie! .tatement to point out oppo.ing view. or the basi. (or the recommendation.
Tho.e recommendatioll.' involVing no change. to organization or doctrine will be given Hr.t. Collowed by tbo'e involvinS change . Tho.e involving ...o e:hange. are:
C-O-C-O-A remain. valid a. a mean. (or the 52 to analyze the Wlue...ce oC weather and
terrain on operation amplified to inc:lude the ellect on .urveillance mean. a.nd the u.e oC .. tomie:
weapon Thi. que.tion .tem. (rom the Ceeling of ma.ny ollicer. that terrain i. no longer critical dnce the de.tructivene of atomic we.pon. render. the holding o( terrain unnece ....ry a.nd
di.advantageou

The battle sroup 5Z will have the normal bisher-lower he..dquarteu relation.hip with
the brigade 52. when the battle group i. attached to or under the operational control oC brigade.
The ba.iI for this problem here was whether brigade 52 would be in the "inlorrnation" or "action"
channel between divi.ion and battle group. e:onsiderinl the need for communication the de.irability 01 continuous .taff relation.hip-. and tbe intelli.ence mean. whicb are controlled at
division level.
The S2 .ection not be combined into the S) see:tion but remain a .eparate .taff .ee:tion a.
at p ....ent. The fea.ibility of combining the two .ectioll.' _a. trillered by the accepted idea that
the S2 and SJ mu.t be a team. aod. at battle Iroup level. are prepared to perform each other"
dutie
The S2 continue to be charled with .taff "e.ponsibility for target acqui.ition. This ree:ommellClation. in eUect tate. that target acqui.Ht'oll. i. a command re.pon.ibility. delegated
.t&u-wi.e to the SZ a. a facet of collection of intellilenc. inlormation; and that all e:ombat a"m.
have .. primarY' intere.t in all.d must partie:tpate in development. o( tarset acqui.ition device

The Sl UI. overlay. to exilting litu&tion rnapll to poll atomic Wormatinn. aDd that the
Autonur.tie Oala Proce.aing 5y.tam be integrated into battle.group at lhe earll.lt practicable
ute. This recommendation may anlwer the que.tioD.' to whether the preseot mean. the 52
UI.I to record intelligence information i. outdated.
That increa.ed emphasis be placed on:
Training individual loldien to collect &.lid report WonnatioD
Trainina unit. to proce'l and evacuate POW',
Ule of diSmounted pat rob
Thi' involved ... ~.ic question to whether Itandard I JUI'<:'I and ageode. --Coot pah'ol.,
POW'., and the individu.&l loldier--will ItiU be e{(lctive in the fa.t-moving lituat1Oft' of atomic
warfar.. The panel recommendation an.....er in ellecl. "yel."
EEl (E.unlial Elements of Information) continue to be uled at batUe group level. A
minority report .uted that EEl Ihould be replaced by a more accurate term luch al 'Com.m&nder'. Intelligence Prioritiel."
The ''ule'' Itep in the intelligence cycle remain in the intelligence cycle. "Ule" i. DOW
included in the cycle for the production of intelligence but wal eXAmined to lee if it Ihould be
placed in the lequence of command and ltU! action. where intelliaence il primarily~.
Thoee involving changel are:
The 52. lection be increaled by one clerk-typilt, but not with oUicer or NCO personnel.
Thie recommendation mUlt be reconciled with the reportl of other panell. which could pollibly
require additional per.onnel. for eX&Jnple. the radiological lurvey talk. It wa' que.Uoned during the open lorum whether the addition of one clerk-typilt to the 52. leclion would be of much
help to the intelligence capability 01 the battle group.
The 52., in coordination with the 53, prepare I graphicaUy a Patrol and Surveil1&nce Plan,
to in.ure proper coverage of the area and eIfeclive employment of all lurveillance meal'll. Thil
lubject wal examined to find out an eIfeclive method of lying in all of the lurveiUance eIfortl of
the battle group to in.ure 3600 coverage and no gap
Add addition..l IPW (Interrogation of Pri.oner of War) and counterintelligence .pedali.u
to divhioft, 10 th..1 each battle group will habitually have an IPW team and two counterintelligence
lpectalhtl in lupport. Time and lpace factorl Oft the atomtc battlefield. plul the expected number. of POW'I to be captured and the expected infiltration of enemy agentl. inltigated .. queltion
al to whether the present MI Detachment of divilion could adequately lupport each battle group.
Hellcopterborne patrols be coniide red '1 normal, nOI lpedal. palrob by battle Iroup.
However, there wal a divergent feeling during Ihe open forWTI al to whether at b...tUe group level
heUcopterborne reconnailsance patroll are fe .. sible in view of the training. equipment, and planninl time requi red.
The battle aroup 52. receive all of the nece .... ry we..ther forecaltl required for use of
aton\ic we..pon. There has been .ome doubt al 10 whether battle group need. the detailed weather Wormalion required for u.e of ... tomic we..ponl. or whether battle aroup could get by with the
Itandard ''Weather forecalt."
Better meanl be dillveloped for IIlxch&ftllll of tarlet inform..tion betweilln battle aroup and
the arUUery. The prelent method for the battle .roup and lupportina artillery to exchanalll inlormation ia throuah the morUr baUery. Thi. method wal not c.onlidered by the p&Ileito be rap
id enou.h lor the quick reaction time required on the battlefield.

17

The reconnai'.ance platoon include ranger-trained per.onne!. In view oj the current


thinking that deeper patrolling wUI be required. the bade que.tion Wil. wbether & .pedal ranger
and airborne unit be included in the battle aroup. The panel concluded that no 'lIeh unit i. required but that ranser training i. sufHcient.
In con.idering enemy Itrength., the term "uniU in contact" be replat:ed by the term
"force. avaHable", which would include &ny enemy unitt whieb can be employed againlt the battle group without delay. The "fofce' locaUy avai1able--reWorcemenl" method included in
pre.ent textbook. did not appear lull.ble lor a flexible battle iiLreA where liluatlon. will change
quite rapidly.
The current me age Iorm be replaced by one more IUltable for intelligence purposes,
alter proper field trials. This was an effort to devise some form which would automatically include the "What-When-Where" es.entials of reporting by the individual soldier.
SUMMARY

You can readily recognize that many of the recommendations confirm existing doctrine and
procedure. while others involve new ideal or extensive study. Those recommendations which
will require major Itudy include increaling the .iite of the reconnaislance platoon, increaling
the lurveillance capability. inluring the required radiological lurvey capability and adding an
intelligence NCO to the rUle company. Principal areal of dilaareement amona the leminar conferees included whether SZ or Sl Ihould have stall relponsibility for combat deception planning.
whether longra~ge heHcopterborne reconnai.lance patrols are fealible, and whether EEl are
luitable for lue at battle group level in that they do, or do not, Itate specific priorities.
The relults of the leminar have given us a fit'st-hand knowledge of how our Wantry unitl
feel about thele intelligence problem areal, and will conlequently be more uleful in improving
our inteUigence doctrine and teaching. We a::'e studying all recommendations with that purpole
in mind. The final report representl a source of Wormalion which will not be overlooked by
the faculty here when studying the battle group intelligence syltem .

..

CHAPTER 8
AIRMOBILITY
Section:l. INTRODUCTION
COLONEL WILLIAM E. EKMAN

Director, Airbome-Air Mobility Department


During the ~.t decade, .cienet! hall developed a family of military weapon. which, in turn,
have required the development of entirely new conceptI of land warfare. Military definition.
01 firepower. flexibility, disper.ion and mobility have taken on new meaning.
While superior mobility hal alway. been one of the primary requisite. for 'UCCIU. in baltle,
under the new concepti, the mobility factor becomes even mOTe important than ever before. It
directly influence. the achievement of flexibility. dispersion and speedy concentration of firepower which will be required for victory on the battlefields of the future.
The e ence of military mobility is the ability to shift combat power rapidly without lOIS oC
eCCectiveneaa or control and still retain the capability oC logistically supporting the com~t ele
menta. This applies whether it be in tactical applicOi.tion to the local battle Oi.reOi. or in worldwide srand strategy.
As you alre..dy know. the Department of the Army has taken positive stepl to change the
organiz..tion. weapons. tactics and training oC all oC its com~t units. Thil program il pointed
toward the development of powerful Corces which are truly air mobile and ready to react swiftly
to supprell aggrelsion anywhere in the world in support oC our national objectivel. In support
oC this program we. here at USAlS, are conltantly Itudying. testing and evaluating the impact
of new developmenu on Army organization, tactics and doctrine. and submitting appropriate
recommend..tionl to USCONARC.
The presentiltion which will be given this aCternoon by the Airborne-Ail MobUity Department wUI give you a brief resume oC lome oC the air-mobility aspects taught and being developed
here at the US Army Infantry School.
Lt Colonel Allen wiU discuss organizational Itudies being conducted in the ah'_mobility
fields. Captain Whitelaw will then conduct a demonstration and dilcullion of Army Pathfinders.
Section II. AIR MOBILITY

L1ElITENANT COLONEL RICHARD J. ALLEN

ClIIef. Air MobiUty GTOfI/J.

Airborne~Air

MobilUy De/JDrlmenl

Air-mobility in the Army today has lomething in common with the weather in the famOUl
laying by Mark Twain, in that everybody il talking about air mobility. Certiltnly the lecond
half oC the laying il not applicable becaun, in fact, a great de ..1 il being done about air mobUity
throughout the Army. Comm..nderl and staff officer I alike right down the line are aware of the
prelsing need Cor the development oC air mobility which 11 commenlurate with the tremendOUl
firepower that il now available.
The Air Mobility Group oC the AirborneAir Mobility Department. which I . "TI. reprelenHng
thil afternoon, wal organi:ted ..I a Itudy group to explore the problems "-nd pOlsibilitlel of air
mobility. In your previoul vllitl here, we have dhculled the new air vehicle I which are coming off the drawing boards. The over_all picture on alrcraCt II relatively unchanged since 1alt

"
,

year we have great hopeI fOr .ome of the new propo.,ala - and we are aware of the .hortcoming. of the helicopter.
Today I would like to devote tM. period to .ome di.cu ion and even .peculation on organizational problems pertaining to air mobility. I am sure that you have heard of moat of the or
ganizational concepts under such name. as Sky Cavalry, Aero-Infantry. Aerial Infantry. and
Airphibious Infantry. Mo.t of these concepts. however. have been set forth in the very broade.t of terms and there hal been little exploration of the fundamental problem. of organization.
There i. probably a very good rea. on for this - it i. much more intere.ting to speculate on
exotic air vehicle uch a' the aerial jeep than it is to plo"'; through the many detail. of the 01'ganiiational a.pect. Neverthele organization for air mobility i. just as important a require_
ment
the development of new aircraft if we are to be ready to properly utilize new aircraft.
al well a. the aircraft now in the Army inventory.

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Figure 59.

Component. of the Air Mobile Unit.

On thi. chArt (Figure 59) we have .ome of the possible components of an integrated air
tran.ported ground combat force. On the left are the possible air elements and on the right
are lome of the po ible ground elementa. Our attention at thi. time il focu.ed on the integrated air-around unit becau.e thi. ia the area in which there i. the greatesl void in kno.....ledge
and experience. For example. on Ihe aircraft .ide of the chari we know that medium tran'port
aircraft can be organized Into unit. and u.ed to perform a primary function of logl.tlcal .upport
at the Held Army level and higher. There will be no particular orianizatlonal problem inalmuch

90

al the function would be essentially pure transpOrt. Next, we know that light transport aircraft
could be organized into units for use at corps and divi.ion level to perlorm the primary function
oC combat support. While there is still a great deal oC work to be done on techniques lor the
support of tactical movements by this type aircraft, the organizational problems are not a prim
ary consideration. Next. in the area of reconnaissance aircraft we know that aircraft can be
organiz;ed into reconnaissance units and that there would be little difficulty in exploiting well
developed visual and photo reconnaissance techniques and operational procedures which have
been uled lor a number of years by the Air Force. Finally. we COme to the question of armed
aircraft. This, of course, is a highly speculative area at present - involving Army and Air
FOrce roles and missions. However, we could utilille aircralt specifically designed lor close
support and interdiction in the Army combat zone organized into units similar to and employing
the same general techniques o[ the Air Force lighter or light bomber squadron. In addition.
Army transport and reconnaissance aircraft can be armed to provide limited supporting or
suppressive fires. You are probably familiar with the experiments that have been conducted
in arming these aircraft with machineguns and rockets.
The major organizational problem, then, is not in the area of the employment of each of
these types of aircraft in the role for which it was designed - the problem is to determine what
organizations are needed. if any, which would combine aircraft with ground elements.
in examining the possibilities of the integrated unit, we have come up. at this point of our
study, with a few considerations which we believe to be fundamental:
First. the area of reconnaissance as you know. a great many of the new organizational
concepts have proposed the development of an integrated reconnaissance unit. We find, however. in our investigation that there are very few deep reconnaissance missions 5 to 25 miles
on which a commandet would want to send in a ground element. Here I am talking about pure
reconnaissance, the collection of information. The reason fot this is that a gtound element.
either on foot or motorized. cannot possibly compete with reconnaissance aircraft. Excellent
photo and visual air reconnaissance coverage can be made of 50 sql,Jtlre miles in less time than
it would take an Infantry platoon to fly to a target area. dismount, a'Ad get oriented on the terrain. Certainly there will be reconnaissance type missions for ground elements such as scteen
ing and blocking but these missions are essentially combat missions. In other words, as we
see it now. the primary mission of air transported ground units wiJl be to get out On the ground
and fight or be ready to light.
Second. the question of armed aircralt - Ihis point may seem too obvious 10 mention but we
feel that it is impottaflt to keep in mind that aU experience with aitcraft haa shown that the only
way to get maximum elliciency in an aircraft is to design it ftom scratch to perfotm a particular mission. OC course we may be able to get some fire lIUpport [tom armed transport and
reconnaissance aircraft but we will have to acknowledge in advance that this kind oC fire support
will be fat less eHicient than it would be if deliveted by aitcralt lIpecilically designed for the
purpolle. It should allo be noted that the arming of transpott and teconnaisaance aircraft re
duces the capability for performing their primary mislion.

Third, the queltionoCthe organization of the gtoundelementl oCan integrated unit - inthis
area. many new and unusual units have been proposed. At the moment. however, we are looking at the problem from this standpoint. U the Inlantty component of such an integrated unit is
to have the primary mission of fighting on the gtound. why not use one of OUt Itandard Infantty
units which are designed to light on the ground?
Based on the foregoing analYlis. we decided to take the ROCID rifle company and convert II
into an integrated air transported unit. using ptesently available equipment only. the idea being
that by developing such a unit we could explore the organizational problems as they appear in a
known frame of reference. namely, the squad, platoon and company organization of the ROCle
rifle company.

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Figv.re 60.

infantry Air A....ult Company.

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Oil thil chart (Figure 60) we have an OUtline oC the relulu oC our work (0 date. AI a premlie Cor the development of this study organization we stated that thil company would be designed
to perform oIny million performll!d by the IUlndard ROCIO rifle compolny when provided equivalent fire lupport and loginical sup~rt.
Here are lome 01 the :nings we have found:
Firlt, we have added tothe organization a serVice platoon and the air reconnaissance plaThe reconnai.lance platoon wal con.idered nece.lary to provide this unit with all-around
recon~illance during any movement of the air column 011 weU 011 continuous air reconnal ance
during the elltecution of iu ground combat m'llion. The lervice platoon wal required to provide
necel.ary.upply, milintenance. mesling and medical lupport.
toon.

In de.igninglhil unit a. an .ntegratedeU sustained organiZation we, of course, added


aircrilft, pilou, crew chiefs, and aircraft maintenilnce per.onnel a. well ilS a minimum number
of additional ground personnel to meet es.ential needl. What we came up with IS an organ.r.atlon of SSO perlonnel including 8S officerl wilb a lotal of 43 aircrart. A. you Ciln see, the unit
Include. the equivillent of a rifle company plu' about two tran.port aviation companle.. Therefore, il appears logical that this unit .hould be comm;t.nded by a field officer. probably a lieutenant colonel with captain. as platoon leaders .ince there would be 8 to 10 ofhcers lJl each platoon when the aircraft are integratll!d at pl;t.toon level. In further exploring the question of command relationships. we ran into the problem of deciding which officers would have to be qual!tied ilviatorl. At the moment it appears to u. that the only way to handle th.s problem is to
have every officer in the company qualified 011 an avi.1tor with the polluble exception of the ser"ice platoon commander. The reason for this is that under any other arrangement it is difficult
and clumsy to provide for proper command succel.ion.
To take care of ground transportation requirements eqUIValent to the ROCIO organization we provided each platoon with Army Mules in subltltution for all other transpartalion.
In the communications field we nadto increalethe capability to take Into consideration the
distance- and dispersion that might be involved and also to provide for the easy attachment of
the plato(,.1s of thil organization to a battle group when requIred.
In the field of weapons, the only change made was to provide the company with a total of
four 106mm recoilless riIles and four 81mm mortars in order Ihat one of each could be available to each rine platoon in dispersed lituations. Thil is an increase of two 106s and one 81mm
mortar.
Gentlemen. this was a very brief resume of our study. We expect to continue along tllese
line. to include consideration of artillery and engineer lupport. Based on the work done so fllr.
I Clln summarize with the follOWing tentative conclulion. - and I emphaSl7.e "tentatlve" because
we have not finilhed exploring:
The groulld element of an integrated unit should be de.igned along the hnes of the standard ground unit hilving a comparable million.
The concept of combining air reconnai'lance aircraft With ground elements mto an
Integrated reconnil i"llnce unit Ihould be cllrefully evaluated becaule of the w.de dilpa r1ty In CIlp;1bihty of the two elements, IlS well as thtl limited utility of Ihe ground element 'n a deep reconnall'llnce role.
Integrated unns capable of performing lignlficant operation. will be very large.

The utility of armed tr&llaport and reconnai.sance aircr~t mullt be c.rdully evall.lated. U
we expect Oil. high order of fiTt! .upport from Army aircraft, we mUlt have aire-rut designed (or
th,u purpose.

J would like to conclude by laying that the field i, wide open for idea. Inthl. problem of air
mobility and we would very much like to hear anything you have 10 oller on the problem either
while you are bere or by means of a note after you return to your home Itation.
I will be followed by Captain Whitelaw of the Airborne Training Group.

Section 111. PATHFINDERS


CAPTAIN ROBERT E. WHITELAW

Instructor, Air Movement and Aerial Delivery Committee,


Airborne-Air Mobility Department
Mobility. by foot, horle, or vehicle, hal alway. been one of the primary factOI'I (or IUCThe combat elements of an army must be able to concentrate ...nd disperse qu.ickly, oand be resupplied rapidly.
celis on the b.l.ttlelield.

The expilnsion of Army aviation with its low performance fixed-wing aircrflt and its transport helicopters gives a commander on the battlefield greater mobility and flexibility than ever
before,
Our current tactical concept of battlefield mobility calls for the employment of Army airplane. in belicopterborne assault operation., pa.rachute and airl...nded resupply mi.sions, and
in the rapid movement of troops and supplies to the widely dispersed positions in the battle are....
Army pa.thfinderl are employed to insure these operations can be succe .cully conducted
under all conditions of weather and visibility. Pathfinders are specially trained parachutists
who furni.h navigational assilllance to Army aircraft.
They were first employed in 1943 during the Allied invasion of Italy. Pathfinders landed
by parachute near Salerno and furnished navigational assistance to 90 Air Force planes carrying
the American parachuti.u in that invasion. This was the first time that specially trained personnel preceded an airborne assault to mark. drop zones and to give navigational as.istance to
troop carriers. This ....a. the beginning of Army pathfinders.
During the ye.. rl follo....ing World War II, the Army continued to develop pathfinder techniquel for Ule with Air Force troop carrierl. Each airborne division in the Army wal author
ized a pilthfinder platoon, aSligned the mislion of furnilhing navigational aSlist... nce to these
troop carrier aircraft.
In 19SI, .11 a Telult of a joint agreement ....ith the Air Force, the pa.thfindeT relponsibility
wal relinqu.ilhed by the Army and allumed by the Air Force.
The science of pathfinding. until 1954. w .. s concentrated on Air FOTce tTOOp car riel's.
Planl for Teorganization of ATmy unitl. new concepts of bll.ttlelield mobility ...nd increaled
numbers of airpl..ne. in ATmy u.nitl pre.enled .. need faT Army pathfinders within these units
to assist Army aircr... f1 in t ... ctical employment. In 19S4. the Army diTected the tnlanlrySchool
to once .. gain Irain pathHnders.
Two distinct are.. 1 of pathrinder Tesponsibility have thu.s evolved since the beginning in
1943.

,.

The Air Force has pathfinder., which they call combat controllen, to a,dst Air Force
troop carrh,rll in tactical operations, and the Army now has its own pathfinders who give the
same al.htance to Army aircraft.

CAPABILITIS

RECONNAISSANCE
NAVIGATOJ AIDS
aJMMUNICATKJNS
ASSEMBLY
Figure 61.

Pathfinder Capabilities.

Specifically, Army pathfinders support tactical operations by performing the following


functions: (Figure 61)
Reconnaissance of the dro;>p or landing zones and the proposed assembly areal. Thi. reconnaissance will include a radiological surveyor the area if atomic weapons have been used.

Euablishment of navigational aids to direct Army aircraft to the proper areas.


Establishment of ground-ta-air communications to control the inbound nights and all
air traffic within the drop or landing zone.
AS8ist troop assembly by marking troop assembly area8.
A pathfinder team consists of 2 officers and lO enlisted men.
thorized for each aviation battalion within a field Army.

One team is currently au-

Demonstration; Approaching from your left is a IZ-man team carrying typical items of
equipment pathfinder8 employ in tactical operations. Keep in mind that the number of each item
nece8sary for an operation depends on the specific mission assigned the team.
The first two men in the team are carrying individual item8 of equipment common to most
Infantry units. Pathfinders are armed with either the MI rille or the carbine. The team is
equipped with binoculars, grenade launchers, and each man i, equipped with a compass.
The next two men carry the pathfinder radio equipment. AN/PRC-IO radi08 are used for
ground-toair communication and lor communication within a landing zone. AN/PRC-b radios

are uled for Ihort range ground communication between inltallationl of a landing ~one. U a
requirement e"iltl for communication between the landing ~one and the loading area. the ANI
GRC9 radio is employed.
These two men are carrying visual aidl. PaDeh are used to identify landing ~ones and
mark obstaclel. The manner of displaying thele pands and the color uled must be coordinated
during planning by the supported unit and the aviation unit prior to an operation. Smoke gren
ades. which come in a variety of colon. are the belt long range visual navigational aids available to a pathfinder team. Again the color used mUlt be prearranged. To determine the wind
velocity and direction a pathfinder employs an anomometer.
For night operationl. each team has rotating beacons with a range of approximately 10
miles. These beacon I can be coded by arrangement of the beacon head' and can emit clear,
colored. or infrared light.
The next two men aho carry equipment uled (or night operations. Lanterns replace the
panels used in daylight and identify landing tOnel. mark individual landing positions for aircraft.
mark runwayI, and obstacles. These lanternl have interchangeable lenles giving a variety of
colon that can be used.

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UNOT ..

of

' ~AHI:~
~ItHOT ..

..0

.. 'OHT ~N'"
~

t
DlItU'TION

Tn

"ANI:~

~_O"'I:

"t:5'

A'fIC""""

~A"""

...a", .. ANOI: 0"000 ItAO'O

~O_

"AHOI: 0 .... 0 " ... DlO

A'''O''NO ..... 010

Figure 6Z.

..

Day Drop Zone .

o~

A~IOOA<;"

Baton na.blight. are employed to give hand and arm lignal .....hen a i.ting heHcopter. to
land .and tue orr. or when ~dun8 Army aircraft.
The lau three p.;athIinder. Citrry .peei.1 item. of equipment. U there i ' danger of r.ldial.on
in an area, the tellm will conduct in radiological .urvey using Ii'll. radiac detector. The ,ul'"vey
may be made in night or on the ground. Demolition kits are available {or minor demolition work
within a landing zone. Landing lite. may have to be cleared or ob.tade. removed. U .. team
i ' to continue operation of a landing zone for long periods of time 'ound-powered telephone. and
wire equipment are available to supplement the radiOll in the communication .y.tern.

Duplication of personnel and equipment within this team i. a balic principle 01 organin,tion.
The team can operate aa one unit or it can be divided into two teama, be reinlorced with peraonnel from a aupported unit, and operate aa two independent pathfinder teama.
Pathfinder a are trained in three typea 01 operationa, ilnd can conduct each type during daylight or at night.
A drop zone i. iln area on the grOUDd to which personnel or equipment are delivered by
parachute (Figure 6Z). A pathfinder team will ellablish a drop zone by poaihoning paneh to
form a letter T. The p.1rpoae of thi. T i. to properly align aircraft approaching for the drop
and to .how the pilota the point over which the pathfinder deairea the drop to be madll!:.
Flank panela are poaitloned ZOO yard. on eilch nank 01 the T to further ilaaill pilou In ma.ntaining ilHgnment and to ahow when lI!:ach plane II directly over the junction of the atem and
croa.bilr.
U more than one drop :r.one ill to be establi.hed in the immediate vicinity, a code letter is
employed to identify eilch :r.one.

A. a night reachea a predetermined check point, communication. are e.tilbli.hed between


the team on the ground ilnd the night leilder of the inbound flight. Any necea.ary navigational
in lit ruction. are tran.mitted at thi. time. Smoke i. employed at the T ilnd on the flank. of the
T all a long-range Ilavigational aid. The pathfinder controle the directiOIl of night by giving the
night leader the command. to "Steer left" or "right," and "on cour.e." A. the night approachea
the T. the command "Stalld by" i. given. and a. the lead aircralt niea over the junction of the
litem and croaabar of the T. the command" Execute" ill given.
Pathfinder. are al80 trained to ealabli.h and operate landing ....one. for fixed-wing crall
(Figure 63).
For thia operation, the team il divided into two partie . One will ope rate the landing zone
control center and the other the landing Ilrip, taxiways, alld parking areas.

The Landing Zone Control Center II ellabh.hed on the be.t availilble terrain whIch allo....
milximum ob.ervation of the landing .trap and the air above it. The ground-to-air radio II
ellabliahed at the Landing Zone Control Center and all communication with aircraft u.ing the
lil.nding zone is handled over thi. radio. Communlciltion With the landing IlrlP party I' al.o
maintained u.inl AN/PRC-6 or AN/PRC-IO radio. U there la a communicatiOn requirement
between the landing zone and lOilding area, the AN/GRC-'il radio is al.o po.itioned at the Landing
Zone Control Center.
At the me time the control center party ia e.tabli.hing the lAnding Zone Control Center.
the parking party ia reconnoitering the area to be used for the Isnding strap and parking areaa.
The direction of wind, slope of the ground. condition of the soil, and obstacles to landin,
are factorl thal mull be taken into con.ideration prior to selection or the landing s!rip. When

"

th~

parking party commOind~r determine. the direction oC


Panel. are po.itioned 'lIang both .ide., 100 yard. apart.
indiCilte the total length of the .trip. The approach end b
perpendicular to the tide panel. in an open po.ition. The
ine two paneh in ... cloled polition.

the "rip. he
The number
indicated by
take-of! end

moark. it uling panell.


of p4lneh 'laked OUI will
po.itioning two pane"
i. indicated by po.ition-

.,,, q;J-o _..

,
,,,
,

o
o

._-

[P

O~

lJ
(5

c_ _ _

cfJ

---

..---------~
CI

'"'
III

'-

'tl'

-.0<...._

...,_ .....

_o~_,,-

Figure 6).

_ t . - . _ ..._
' - 0_ _ -

....... ......-.

- . - .... . . -

.._ _ ... 0d00..... .....-.c>o

Fixed-Wing L.anding Zone.

A parking area i. then .elected and individu;ll aircralt p.. rking poinU art! marked WIth
colored parking panel.. If the taxiways from the strip to the parking area need to be m,luked,
panels are u.ed [or that purpo.e aho.

a.

A code letter It formed and .moke I, employed neilr the .trip in Ihe .ilme manner
on il
drop zone. Care mullt be exerched to inture that tmoke doe. not cover any ollhe pilneh em
ployed.
A. each inbound night reilchet a predetermined check point, communication. are ettablithed
between the pathfinder team and the terial leader. Inlormiltion COl'lcernil'lg the direction and
velocity 01 the wind, and landing Inttructlont are tran.milled at thl. lime.
The night will break Into trail lormatiol'l and land In trail uting a normal leCt hand traJlic
paUerl'l, unle otherwi.e Inatruc:ted. AI each plal'le touche. dowl'l a member 01 the parking
party take. over c:ontrol of the alrc:raft, ilnd any necellary taxi and parking InlltruC:llon. are
given, u.ing hand-and-ilrm lignall.

..

Currenl 1.c1ic.1 concepU oC ~t11efi.ld mobility envi.ion lreq...ent helicopter ulu (Fi,ure 641. Thi. i. the third Iype 01 Ut.e:ticaJ mi,.,on IhOilI pOilthfinderi m ....t be .ble 10 .upport. In
e..cabli.hing hellcopttlr 1000ndins zone palhfinder te.m i. divided into three partie.. E.ch
party will oper.te ill re.pective inll.lI.tion within Ihe landing ZOlle.
The control ceoler parly eltabli.he. the 1000ndina zone control cenler where it C~1Il belt control the .ir tr.Hic which will u.e Ihe zone. At the Landina Zone Conlro) Cenler. we lind the
around-to-air r.dio Cor communication with .11 Inbound .eraal leaderl. the pathtinder net control Itallon. and the lona- ranse sround r.dlo.

The night rele e point party mark. the l1ight relea.e point with vi ..... 1 n.vig.tional aidl
and the idenlllication code letler. 8y requirlnl all Inboulld lerlal. to pa'l over the nitht rele.ue point. the pathfinder learn leOilder c.n control.1I .ir tr.Hic wilhin the zone. Comm...nicahOll II elU,bhlhed between the fillhl releale POUlI ilnd the control center by u.in, a PRC-6 or
a PRC-IQ rildio.
WINO

._i ._<'5

-~

-~

Figure 64.

Helicopter Landini Zone.

The third bOil.IC party II the landing lite party. There may be more than one lilnding lite
In a landing zone. The number of lite. il determined by the Ulllt commander and dependl on
the available terrOilIl'l and number of hellCOptere he delirel to land .lm...ltOilneou,ly. Each lite
oper.tor m.rkl the landll'lll pOlition with colored pOilneh .

..

A. in both the drop zone and fixed-wing operation. a lerialleader initiate. communicationl
with the Landina Zone Control Center a. he pal.e. over the predetermined check point. lolormatiOll concerning the enemy. terrain. and weather i. aiven to tbe lerial leader at thil time.
The i.Jlbound lerial continuel to the fliaht releale point. Smoke may be employed to alliet
in ideotUication. M tbe lerial pallel over the night releale point. each flight within the lerial
vedor. directly to iu relpective landing lite. There mull not be more flighU within a lerial
than landing litel within tbe laDdina zone lince it il delirable to land all aircraft at the lame
time.
At each landina lite. a pathIiDder i. ready to receive the flight. allilt aircraft landing by
haDd-and-arm lignaIe and aleiet in troop allembly.
Pathlinderl may be delivered to an objective area by fixed-wing aircraft or helicopter. they
ClUl parachute into tbe area, or they can ioliltrate by foot or motorized patrol. Each method
hae obvioUI advantagel and di.advantalel whicb mUlt be conlidered by the ground commander
employing tbe pathlinder team.
A unit comma.nder mull 1.110 cotllider whether or not he deeiree the pathfinder team to
precede the firlt allault echelotl or accompany it. A pathfinder team can eetabli.h a drop or
I_ding zone in approximately 15 minutee.
Demon.tration: In route to thil area i. a Il-man pathfinder team. Thil te41m hal been
given the million of eltabUlking a helicopter landing :zone to your front. Thie team il 1041ded
in one H)4 helicopter. The helicopter will land fiut to your right front where the flight releale
pomt party will eatabHeh the fligbt rdeale point. The lecond toucbdown will be made to your
immediate front where the control center party will eltabUlh the Lil.nding Zone Control Center.
and the third landing will be to your left front where three landing litel will be . . tabUlhed.

It .hould be kept in mind that the terrain in a tadical operation would not be 10 lpacioUI 1.1
that to your frOnt. Landing lite. would be reltrided. obltade. would be prelent, radiation
might exiet. and enemy troopl may be in the vicinity. A unit commander would alt41ch pereonnel
to the pathfinder team to al.iet in an adual operation. Thil reinforced team would be delivered
in more than one belicopter to help inlure the Iil.fe delivery of at lea.t part of the teil.m to il.Ccomplilh the mil, ion. The technique. the pathfinder team Ulel. however, are the Iil.me 1.1 in
thi' demonllrati.ofl,.
Oblerve the helicopter a. il lil.ndl il.nd the landing zone i. e.tabli.hed.

chan,.

Tbil pathfinder team preceded the main element by three minutel. By thie time. an ex01 me".le. it talunl place between the control center il.nd the .eri41lleil.der of the lit
lerlal.
In bit meage to the lediLl leader. the p41thfinder team leader will delcribe the enemy
lituation. Tbi. information il received by all pilou and relayed to the troop commanderl in the
helicopter troop compartment . The helicopter pilou are adviled 1.1 to the direction and velocity 01 the wind. and the direction of l&nding. Smoke il dilplayed at the flisht release point to
.u.iat navigation.

Notice that each helicopter flisht. reprelented today by one Hl7 helicopter. palles over
the flilbt releale paint and then move. directly to ita allilned landing .ite. Troopi unload al
quickly 1.1 pOllibl' and move to their aSligned aalembly areal.
The hdicopter fliilhu are rdealed from the landinil litel a. loon 1.1 po'lible in order to
dear the landial I.one for lucceedina helicopter leriall. 10 deparhna. the flighu will rollow
predelianated tHebe routea.

100

You Mye jUllt wltneed the landing of one Infantry platoon. H auclE.edina niahu of 10 heli
copt.ra each ware to continue into thia area at 3minute intervab, ove. lODO troopa could be
delivered wttb!r.,a 30.minute period.

We have'ahown you how. Army. ,...thfindera eat.bii.ah drop zone. ilnd randina zone. and bow
they [urniah naviaation.al il.ai.unce to Army aircraft. We have dltcu.ted the capability of a
pathfinder team to conduct reconnai::etance. which 'trill include a radiological turvey, ellablith
nav(gational aids on drop zones andllandinj zonea, maintain communh:atlont with Army aircraft.
and aaailt troop aaaembly. The demonatrationa ya..a bave jUIl aeen ahow how Army ai.rplanea
increaae mobility in helicopter a ault operationa.
Within aecured areaa, navigational aaaiatance la liven both fbed &DCl rotary wing Rlanea by
terminal guidance peraonnel.
Termlnal guidance personnel are t:rained to aelect and mark individu.al landing aite. for
hailcoptera illld landing atripa lor lbe&wing craft. They mUll be .ble totr_amit inatructiona
by radio and be able to give h.nd-and-p'm aignall.
The tralnln, in these Beida parallel' that 01 a pathfinder team. It i. l.a. eKtensive, however, 1Iince termlna.1 guidance peTaonneJlwill nOTmulY'be working with individual 01" a amall
number 01 aircraft within a aecured are~
su.pply ilnd medical peraonnel will be principally involved with terminal guidance. However,
all per.onnel in t ..... Army ahould be traiAed in markin,landin, aitea, communlcationa, and
hand-and-arm ai,o.ala. Thu., every .nldier in the Army would bave the capability o[ giving
limited navigational a.sl.tance to Army planes anywhere In a combat zone.
The u.e 01 cargo aHnga attached to helicopter. olfers an excellent means 01 trOI...sporting
equipment rapidly by air. Vehides caD be transported from one loc.tion to another over terrain imp,as.able to ground movement.
The HJ4 helicopter called the "Choctaw" can carry 4000 lb. of cargo either internally or by
cargo .ling. There are 60 HJ4 helicopter. In an aviation tran.port ~ttalion giving a a Ingle
urgo lift capability of IlO ton. of auppll.e .
The H34 approaching from your right will deliver a.1/4_ton truck to landing aite Yellow.
Terminal guidance peraonnel are uaed for the rdeaae o( thla type load. A aignalman on the
ground will uae hand-and-arm aignala to direct the helicopter to the deal red poaltion on the
grou.nd. [)uring "I,ht operatlona, tl1e.e hallld~and-arm alg"a1l would be Siven uainS baton fia.hI;ghta.

Vehicle a may be loaded internally into heHcopten lor delivery to a landing aite. The K37
helicopter or "Mojave" haa a cargo compartment compa, \e to that o( the C41 aircran, but
hal the ildvantage of clam .hdl door. allowing veh.iclea t ... oe driven atraight into the cargo compartment. Tbia helicopter can carry a 3/4ton truck. a IOSmm howitzer, or 6000 lb. 0{ carlO.
There aTe 16 HJ7 helicopterll in an aviaUon hanaport battalion givin. a aingle IUt capability of
48 ton. 01 .uppliea.
The H37 helicopter approaching from your rillht it carrying a 3/4ton truck in it. carlO
compartment. Again, terminal Iluidance per.onnel will be ~mployed to a.al.t the helicopter in
arriving at the correct landing .ite and In landlnll aa[ely.
Medical eVilcuatlon may be accompliahed by helicopter by l~dlnllltter patienu either ea
ternally or internilUy. The HI9 hallcopter ia capable of carryinl aUt litt.r patl.nt. Thia h.lI

101

copter ....a. u.ed exten.ively during the Korean conflict for medical evacu,Uion.
....i11 be loaded into the H19 apprOOlching from your riahl.

T ....o liUer

Supplie. may be loaded both Internally and externally in Army filled ....ina aircraft for pitrachute delivery to a drop 1&one. Both the L19 and LZO have .hackle. on each wing for p<lrachute
or free fall ddlvery.
The L19'. approaching the drop ..one are each carrying t ....o Z50 lb. aerial delivery con
tainer., one fallened to each wlna. The L19 aircraft in a divi.ion aviation compAny can carry
a total of 4000 lb. In a lingle hft. To In.ure accurate delivery both vi'uitJ and electronic n.;avi.
gallonaJ aid. are employed by the terminaJ guidance per.onDel. Smoke and pitoell ....ilJ IdeotiIy
the drop 1&one to tbe pilou .nc! .how tbem the deSIred point over ....hicb tbey are to relea.e their
contAiner.. By u.inl a ground-to-air radlO, the night CAn be controlled and the pilou told wheD
to relea.e their container.
The LZO or "Beaver" tI a n.ed ....Ulg airplane CApable of carrying 500 lb. of cargo attached
to each wlna or noo lb. oJ. cargo internally.
The LZO urcraft now approaching ha. t ....o container. attached to each wing and in addition
ha. three containers In. ide the cargo compartment. The.e container..... ill be dropped from an
altilud.. of )00 feel at a .peed of 85 knou.
During the first demon.tration, you .a.... a pathfinder team delivered by helicopter. Thi.
team al.o ha. the capability of being able to be delivered by parachute. The UIA or "Otter"
apprOOlching i. carrying five paraChuti.lI. Notlcethe fir.t jumper who i. cilrrying a leDeraJ.
purpo.e equipment container. He wilJ relea.e the container approximately ZOO feet above the
ground. The advaneage of this type container over the wing bu.Ddle or container ejected from
lII.ide the cargo compartment i. dlat ie remain' atuached to the man and recovery i. a ured.
It i omet.me. diIhcult, e.peclaJ.ly at night, to rapidly recover equipment contilinerl dropped
by paracbute.
During thll demonllralion, we have .hown you the role of Army pitthhnderl In tactical
operlltlon.. They lire trained to e.tabli.h drop 1Ione. and landing 1Ione., and to furntlh nllvlgational ll illance to Army ai~craft.
Within .ecured rea. termin" guidance personneltfurni.h .imilllr i.tance to .mal1 numbers of llirplane principally In logistical and medical evacuation mil.ions. Each .oldler in
the Army .hould have .ome training in terminal guidance.
We have allo .hown you .ome of the ...apabiUtie. of Army aircraft ....hlch IRcrea.e the battleheld moblhty of the Army. Thi. mobility permits the rapid concentration and di.per.al or com
bat element. which are .0 ne(:e ary for .ucce on the battlefield or tomorro.....

'0'

CHAPTER 9
GROUND MOBILITY
Section t. INTRODUCTION
COLONEL JOHN J. PAVICK

Director, Ground Mobility Department


Good aIternoon. gendemen. Welcome to the Gro\lnd Mobility Department. We have a twohO\lr presentation for YO\l thill afternoon which will incl\lde a dillc\lllllion of tbe factorl involved
in the attainment - or as we call it. production oC mechanical ground mobility. We will also
IIhow you and disc\lss with you two of tbe lalest Infantry vehicles. and lanly. we will present 10
you the problem of vehicle navigation - and a means by which it may be overcome.
But in aU this, we will cOl\til\\atly IItress one point. and that ia, Mobility il a relponlibility
oC the Commander. To have that ill-important element - Ground Mobility _ every Waotry commander from the squad. platoon. comp;lny. battle group, and higher. mUlt know the essentials
of mobility, the equipment, the personnel, the organi~ation. and most important of all. he must
understand and be prepared to accept hil responlibilities in att.aining true mobility. On the com_
m.ander's uowledge oC thil lubject will hinge the Cate oC his men a.nd his unit in battie.

Section D. ESSENTIALS OF GROUND MOBILITY


MAJOR BEN F. MARSHALL

Chairman, Command SupBnJision. Committee


Throughout the long history of warfare a seriel of principles. axioml or formulas have
developed which when applied at the; right time. at the right pla.ce, wO\,lld enh.ance succesll in
battle. One such formula that will apply on the battlefield of the future, as it has in the past is:

M+FP+C-

Figure 65.

THE SUPERIOR
FORCE AT
THE POINT
OF DECISION

Mobility and Firepower and Communications'" The Superior Force at The


Point of Decision.

MOBILITY, plus FIREPOWER, plul COMMUNICATIONS equals the Superior Force at the Point
of Decision (Figure 65). But like any formula it is j\lat so many words unle.s the leader has an
intimate knowledge of the ingredients and how to apply them. The leader must be the catalyl1
who produ<:ea the desired reaUion when thi. formula is applied in b.attle. The key ingredient in
this formula is MOBILITY, for mObility allows the <:ommander to exploit his firepower to the
utmost, to move his <:ombat power on the battlefield to the point of decision. without mobility,
re.a<:tion to our commands would not be auJfidently r.apid to e((edively influence the b.attle in a
war of movement. For our purpose we <:a11 it GROUND MOBILITY.
What is GROUND MOBILITY.as it applies to the battlefield? It may be defined in many
way., but for .impll<:lly we define It as the ability to move rapidly on the battlerield. from dispeued to concentrated formalion., so as 10 be at the fo<:al point of ded.ion. yet capable of dispersing again to redu<:e vulnerability to enemy <:oW\tera<:t;'on.

10'

The .ubject of GJ:'ound Mobility i. being di.cu ed in military circle ll all leveh oU&d e&\lI
ing lome anxiety; the problem i. what to do about it? We in the Ground Mobility Oe~rtmept
have given the .ubject much conaideraticm <a.nd tbougbl.,e would like to present our view. OD tbe
.ubject as Lbi. tUDe.
The advent of D'1il'1 de.truction we..pon. with their iaherent requirement for great diaperlion and rapid movement lead_ to tbe further requirement lor a higher and more dependable degree of ground mobUity than ever before. How can it be achieved? By leader., at allleveJI,
thoroughly under.t~ing the " enUiLl. involved in the production of ground mobility under all
condition._ confronting the Inlantrymao in the lield.
The Wantry le;t.der has long known that foot-marching ~one will not produce the high degree
of ground mobility th~t is so necessary for succeul on the bAttlefield. This is not to say that the
Infantryman's dassic role of fighting on foot, of seizing and b.olding ground is a thing of the past;
it simply means that the. Infantryman mual be able to move lone distances rapidly to the point of
l.atlIe and alill be in condition to dose with the enemy, to seize and hold ground. In the past,
supply vehicles - truciul. within their capabilities. have been u~d to provide the Infantryman
with mObility other than foot-Iocomotion--in the truer senile, they provided him with transportation to the vicinity of the b&ttlefieid without any protection from sr:na.lI arms fire. Today we
have the combat Infantry carrier to provide that protection. However, mobility must not be confused with transportability; it is more than vehicular equipment and organization. II is also a
state of mind and will be reflected by the commander's ability to motivate hill subordinates and
to extract the maximum from what he hall at hill dillposal. There are some commanders who
have considered mobility as a relative thing and have summed it up by saying, that under a given
set of circumlltancell the mobility of the Infantry is only all good all the mindll of the commanders.
That is true and more the reasoa that our Infantry leaders of today must think mobile; they must
use a11 of their imagination, initiative and aggressiveness, together with strong leadership, to
gain and maintain a high degree of gTound mobility.
We say the InfantTy leadeT must think mobile: then how are we going to teach our future
leaders to think mobile? Should there be a formula: a lIet of rules? Today our Infantry leadeTs
are well schooled in the estimate of the tactical situation and the estimate of the 108illlical situation. . Why not teach him the estimate of the mobility situation, an estimate that would apply to
commanders at a11 leveill. The 'Ht of being mobile is not confined to the top commanderll: even
the squad leader mulll be concerned with the mobility of his squad, although he is not capable of
pToviding anything mOTe than foot-locomotion. He should be prepared to use any mechanical
means of mobility to its maximum capability in leading his .quad to assisl In accomplishing the
platoon miluion. The same thing mUllt be true with each echelon of command. The degTee of
battlefield ground mObility attainable by any given combat organization is in diTect ratio to the
ability of the smallest unit of that organization to gain and maintain ground mobility. That 18 to
eay that an Infantry battle group is ae mobile as its riOe companies that comprille the as.ault
elements. And how is it attained? By the battle gTOUp commander makillg a eound estimate of
the mobility sUuation and employing to the maximum the es.entials that produce ground mobility.

THE ESSENTIALS OF GROUND MOBILITY


MEANS AVAILABLE
CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE MEANS
OPERATION OF THE MEANS
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS
Figure 66.

Euentials of Ground Mobility.

104

What Oi.U the essential. involved in the production of ground mobility? (Figure 66.) The
fir.t i. the Means Available. The me.n. avail,ble include not only tho.e organic to the battle
group but also the mean. that will be provided by the divi.ion or higher headquarter.. The second e.senti..1 is a knowledge of the Capabilities and Limitations of the Mean.. Thil'"dly, the
OperOi.tion of the Means, which range. (rom the proper selection and training of drivers through
control and navigation over unknown terrain at night and under periods of poor visibility. The
fout"th e.sential in the production of ground mObility h the Maintenance of the Mean .
The.e aTe the e entjab. Now Jet'. see how they lit into the production of around mobility.
In making an eUimate 01 the mobility lituation, the commander, knowing his mission, must
lirlt consider his Means Available what organic me..ns he has and what supporting means will
be pr~vided by higher headquarters. He knows what organic vehicles he has and, in the case 01
the Inlantry battle group, it is 122 wheel vehicles, 8 track vehicles and 99 trailers. A quick
analysis of the vehicles a . . igned to the ROCIO battle group will tell you that they are all identi
fied with a specific purpose. such as command, ammunition, utility, and the like. There are
only two combat Infantry catriers in the lot. Of the 14Z1 ollicers and men in the battle group,
S83 ride on organic transportation and 844 walk. U the battle group must be 100'" mobile to ac
complish i18 mission and assuming that all organic vehicles are available. it will require that
the divisiOn transportation battalion provide 76 MS9 combat Inlantry cartiers, or 4Z 2 112ton
trucks. The commander mUlt know his requirements and be prepared to gain his mobility with
either track or wheel vehicles or a combination of both.

Just knowing the means of ground mobility available is not enough. The commander must
have thorO\lgh knowledge of the capabilities and limitations 01 those means. The best vehicles
available will mean little or nothing if the leader is not aware 01 what they can do and what they
cannot do. No commander would enter combat not knowing the capabilities and limitations 01
his weapons. for he knows the results would be disastrous. No commander ehould enter combat
without infinite knowledge and faith in his vehicles. He must know the capabilities and lim ita
ti .... ns of the means available to him under all conditions of weather and terrain. Unfortun<Uely.
aU 01 the vehicles that become available to the commander do not have the same characteristics.
some are tracklaying. some are wheeled, some are large. some are small and each type has
a dilierent load carrying capacity. thus compounding the problem. Still, il the leader is to
make a eound eetimate and is to fight and win with thelle combinations. he must be intimately
familiar with them all.

Alter the commander knows what means are available and has considered the capabilities
and limitations of the mean in all combinations. he then applies the estimate to the Operation
of the Means. Thi. es.ential in the production 01 Ilround mobility begins long berore the battle
is joined. It begins with the selection and training of drivers. Thi. respon.ibility of the com
mander here cannot be over emphasized. lor the driver is the base upon which the Army IYs
tern of maintenance i. buill. The leader who takes the soldier with two lert feet and tries to
make a tactical driver out 01 him is working against his own interests; likewise. if he faill to
provide time for the driver training program to be accompli'hed. The manner in which driver
maintenance is performed will determine the effectivene 01 organizational maintenance. The
degree 01 battlefield ground mobility and. in turn, the accomplishment 01 the mis.ion may well
depend upon ,kilUul driving and dUigent driver maintenance.
When the commander estimates the mobility .ituation, he has to consider more than driving
and controiling hi. vehicle' in the Operations of lhe Means he has to consider the navigational
aspec18, or vehicle navigation. He must be .ure that he knows how to get where he wants to go.
The eubject of vehicle navigation will be given detailed coverage by Capt Willi.. ms in the
following period. It il: <nentioned in this period only tor the purpose of bringing out that vehicle

,os

navigation will be a factor in the Operation of the Means a. it applies to the production of ground
mobility. No matter how good the mobility i. it i. useless if you cannot get to the right place al
the right time.
So far we have dealt with the essentials of gaining ground mobility. We mUll now con.ider
the e ential involved in keeping or maintaining ground mobility - the Maintenance of the Mean .
The commander. in making his estimate of the mObility situation. must be famihar with the
m .. intenance .ystem and appraise his capabilities of maintaining his mean. of mobility. In ap
praising the organic capability 10 perform maintenance. the time required to make inC'peratlVe
vehicle. operational must be weighed against the requiremenu of the tactical mil. ion. Then,
the maintenance support available at the time must be con.idered. The commander must View
hi. maintenance from Ihe proper perspective. There i. a tendency on the part of .ome COM
manders to think of mainlenance a omething apart from the training and leadership of men.
This i. not '0. We must adjust our thinking to perceive the .oldier and this equipment. the vehicle. a. one integrated whole: the man the machine the team. The key. tone to our maintenance .y.tem i. preventIVe maintenance. and commander!l cannot expect vehicle. to remain
operational without .ystematic preventive maintenance. Vehicle los. through enemy action is
a calculated loss which we expect and for which we prepare. but the loss of a vehicle because
of failure to perform preventive maintenance i. an in ex cu. able tragedy. If the commander is
to maintain this high degree of ground mobility which he will need on the balliefieid of the future.
he must take p.Hsonal command action to see thai maintenance of the mean. of mobility is performed to the highest degree.
A change 10 the prevenlive maintenance system that will aid the commander in the Mamten
ance of the Means and will go a long way. toward as.istlng the commander In hili eHort to get
maximum utili>:ation from hi' vehicle. will become eHective early In fiscal ye;t.r t959. Thi.
new .yltem will reduce the required m;t.inten;t.nce in half, !'t;t.vUlg only the driver maIntenance
.ervice ;t.nd the quarterly .ervice. The only Icheduled lervice. the quarterly .ervice. will be
performed each J month. or 1000 mdel on wheeled ve!'tlcle. or 750 mllel on tr;t.ck vehicle .
The "0" .ervice will consilii of;t. rQ,;ld tell If the vehicle check" out on the r();ld test. a fe ...
inspection. are made and the vehicle il returned to the u.er. No adjustmenU or repairs made
unlel' required. No longer will we have maintenance ju.t for maintenance', sak.... but In,t ...ad
maintenance as required.
Through Ihe sound application of the essential, of ground mobdity. the production of a high
degree of battlefield ground mobility i, within the capability of all commanders today. But. before the commander can make a sound ellimate. he must know the means available. organic and
supporting: have an infinite knowledge of the cap",bililies and limitatIons of ",II mean. avail",ble.
show the courage of his convictions and establish lItrong driver .election procedure. and elfec
live training program. for the operation of the means: and keep hIS tools of mobility .h"'rp
through a .ound and well supervi'ed preventive mainten;t.nce program. WI/! must never forget
that ground mobiUty is more than vehicle. and org"'nll';;t.llon. It I' also a state of mind. In ord... r
to be mobile. we must think mobtIe!
The remainder of th,. period will be .pent 1n a d,sC\I.uon and demonstration of two of the
newest means of mobihly found in the Infantry the MZ74. J/Zton Infantry Light Weapons Colr
rier, which wl.ll aid u. m gaming ground moblhty, and the M56, Assauh Gun Carrier, ...hlch
will aid the mobility of our firepower.

106

Section m. lNFANTRY LIGHT WEAPONS CARRIER


FIRST LJI::.lJrENt\NT 1....It\D!SON L. MAIWE
II/slnlclor, Commal/Il Supervision COII/mittee
Thls.s tn" 1/2-ton lnfanlry Light Weapons Carri"r. M2:74. appropnal<.'ly nlcknamt>d Ih('
Mul~.
It III dc.ugned prImarily as a CrOlls_country vehicle, The carner IS essenllally a 1'1.11form mounl"d on t",o axl"", and {our ",h.'els with a four cyhnder, four cyde. a'r-cc. ...... d, oppObed~type, ~asollll("
11 HP ,'ngine. The carrier ha" a constant four-wheel dr,v, \
1 threl"
"peeds for"' .. rd and one In rev,'rll,' in the transml""ion, and a high and low sp, ...d tran",ft'r ,a'H'
A qu,ck change d,,\'1( c allows ellher twO Or four whed steer. The four "h('d SI.,,,r perm'I"
tllrnll o{ a smaller radiull but mak,'s the vehide mOr(' vulnerable to Ilpp.n,:: O\','r on lUrnll,
(F,gure 61)

II w,'i}:hs qOo poumlll and HI (,asily air Ir.ln"porl,lble


Thl~ l,ght w(",Ilht b ad'H'\'.'d by the
lllle of magne,"lnl dnd "IUmlnUlll rhrou,Ilhollt til" ",hid., s c"n~ln"llon, Th,' plalforn and "'heel'!
,1 ..., ",ad.' of ma,lln.'lIlufll wh,],' th,' motor "nd ,l"k hOUblll)ol ar.' rr,a<'.' t'lf "a~t alun'lll"tl
Th.' 1l",H
and fnot
1 <;an b.. qUH kly ,11"I.\II1('d ,lnd ~to'" d .",d.'f th,' pi'lthlrm for ,omp,lt tl\l"bS 1Il IIhlPplllll
fll,' IIt("'flllJ,t "h,.,1 (.\n ,.I~o b,' r.'mov.'tt allo"lll~ on" nll.l" I,' h ... In,,,rt..d ,I"'! 1'1<1", d on lOp or
,lnothl'r, Tlul'l IMI' .. ,1\", rl"lur,' ""h.Il\{'c" tll,IIl'I!. "aIr Ir,lI1sporl,lbilllr
Jnl" s,lme f",)-

r. ..

/07

ture enables us to turn the Mule on its side or completely over for the purpolle of lubrication
and maintenance, thus eliminating the need for grease racks. However. the oil in the air cleaner mUllt be drained before hand.
It is capable of ascending grades of 600/. and traversing slopes of 40'\ sideways with a 1000
pound payload. Incidently. the driver's weight counts as part of the payload. The steering wheel
can be moved forward so that the Mule can be operated by a driver following on foot either in a
crouched or upright position. When operating this vehicle on foot, caution must be exercised
in the selection of gears; if a forward gear is selected through error. the operator will discover
that this Mule has a kick every bit as bad as its namesake.

The vehicle can be forded up to a depth of 18 inches. This depth is limited by the vehicle's
air intake. Avoid all lording operations involving salt water; the magnesium ill affected by salt
and when subjected to salt water will corrode and cause to deteriorate those paru made of
magnesium.
These large tires are designed to absorb shock; however, do not expect an air cushioned
ride since the vehicle has no suspension system. Because of this factof it will operate on three
wheels; however. a shifting of the load may be necessary.
The pressurized fuel tank holds 8 gallons of gas, and at a speed of 5 mph on a highway the
vehicle gets approximately 17 miles per gallon. When traveling at its maximum speed of l5
mph the gas mileage is cut to 12 miles per gallon. We don't have available the cross-country
figures on gas mileage.
Many of OUr other vehicles have a large variety of QVM tools.
the Ml74; this is a combination crank and wrench.

Only one tool is issued with

The Mule iii limited in some respects by its lack of an electrical system. Since a magneto
provides the n<'lcessary electrical impulses for engine operation, the Mule is hindered in tactical
and nontactical operations by a lack of lights. horn and blackout markers. In addition to this
there is no pintle hook on tht' rear of the Mule. This is m08t essential for recovery purposes.
Another possible limitatIon III that exhaust gases are directed toward the ground and when the
Mule is operated in dusty terrain thiS may stir up additional dust. The Mule has nO compartment ;n which manuals, accident reports, and trip tickets can be carried. This will really be
a bonanza for the spot check inspection boy... Since the Mule has all wheel-drive. with a constant delivery of torque to all wheels, it is possible to wear out a 8et of tires very quickly driving It under its own power on hard surface roads. Thill characteristic very definitely limilll
its value in convoy operatIOns and in garrison. However, the Ml74 is equipp<'ld with a tow bar
enabling it to be towed, fully loaded, behind anoth<'lr type vehicl<'l for IIhort distancell and crosscountry. ThUll. a load<'ld Mule could be tow<'ld to the banl<'l area and when released from its
prime mover it pos8esses the capability or delivering th<'l supplie8 to a forward position under
its own power.
At prescnt the Mute i8 not organic to the Infantry division; they are authorlz<'ld to airborne
divisions on th<'l basis of 16 per riOe company. This is the first v<'lhiele of thi8 type to b<'l
adopted by the Army and we In The Infantry School feel that there is a great potential In Ihe
future dev<'llopmenl of vehicles of th18 design.

lOS

SecUon IV. MS6 ASSAULT GUN CARRIAGE


FIRST LIEUTENANT ANDREW E. PALENCHAR
Inst7'UCUw, Vehicle CtJpabiliHes Committee
The MS6 Assault Gun Carriage was developed to fulfill a need for a highly mobile, airtransportable, and air-droppable carriage. It is organic to the Infantry division and airborne
dIVision. /FilZure 68\

Figure 68.

MS6 Auault Gun Carriage With 106mm Recoilless Rifle.

The MS6 is highly maneuverable. capable of traversing muddy. marshy terrain. snow or
sand. lu lightweight permits it to be air_lifted in assault cargo aircraft, and It is capable of
being air-dropped.
The hull of the MS6 is constructed of aluminum. The total weight of the carriage without
weapons is 4 tons. It is capable of climbing a 60% slope; a vertical step of Z I/Z-fect; and can
cross a 4-00t ditch.
It can ford 3 lIz feet of water.

With a deep water fording kit, It can negotiate 5 feet of

water.
The minimum turning radius is 9 feet, and the ground pressure of the carriage is a low Z. 2
pounds per square inch as compared to II. 2 pounds per square inch on the M48 QOmm Gun Tank.

10'

The M56 can be utilized to carry the 90mm Gun, as you see it here. or it can carry lhe
106mm Recoilless Rifle, 4. lo-inch mortar, or quad. 50 cal machinegun; with mo<h(,callons It
could be uSed a.!'i a cargo carrier, or as a 910 II man perllonnel carrier. {FIgure 69~

Figure 69.

M56 Carrier with 90mm Gun.

Used as a cargo carrier. it is capable of transporting 10,000 pounds of fuel Or an equiva


lent "weight of ammunition or other ground support equipment. In addItion. the cargo and personnel carrier versions arc amphibious and able to navigate on any inland waterways while
carrying a full payload.
It carries 50 gallons of gasoline which provides a cruising range of between 50 to 100 miles.
It is capable of speeds up to 30 mph.

Th. MS6 is powered by a loOS horsepower, six-cylinder. opposed. air-cooled. fuel injected
engine. At the present time the M56 is the only vehicle in the batlle group utilizing fuel injec
tion.

The cross-drive transmission is bolted 10 the engine to form the power package.
tire unit can be removed for maintenance Or replacement.

The en-

Quick disconnect couplingII' are provided to facilitate rapid removal or installation of the
power package. The power package can be lifled vertically out of its compartment in the hull.
The electrical system is the standard lo4 volt with waterproof features.
Organizational maintenance is of the same general type as with other tracklaying vehicles.
Track life expectancy ill in eXCClIS of 4, 000 miles as compared to lo, 000 miles on the MS9 Infantry perllonnel carrier.
All componentll o( the suspenllion system are of lIu{nc;ently lightweight 10 lessen the re
quircments (or heavy maintenance equipment. The present scope o( organi;r;ational maintenance
can be performed by vehicle crews and wheeled vehicle mechanics without further Ipeciali'l..cd
training.
110

In low vibration IS due 10 the use of pneum..tic tires a. roadwheeh and the bandtraek.
These tires reduce vibration and consequently minimize the possibility of damage to sensitive
equipment. The lire side walls are rigid enough to bring the vehicle home i! the tires become
punctured.

The reaponslbllitles of e .. eh crew member have Increased enormously. Engineering has


endeavored to reduce the .. mounl of check points required In lubrication and maintenance 10
facaluat" s"rvlcPonI reql,uremenn. However. It c"nnot elimlnale the necesuty for continuous
and complete d .. liy crew maintenance .
The versalliny of thiS vehicle will add tremendousl)' to the mobility of the Infantry.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
QUESTION;

What IS the adva .tage of magneuum over aluminum


)"1ule1

A"l"SWER:

Strength.

QUESTION:

Who does turret malnlenance on M48 tanks of the bailie group?

ANSWER:

The direct support platoon of ordrance forward support comp;any which has one
turret artillery rep;alrman (MOO 424. I) asugned to do this work.

QUESTION:

What are some of Ihe advantagel of the Mule over the Jeep?

ANSWER:

Increased terrain negotiability. lower silhouette and less weight are lome of the
advantages.

QUESTION:

Will trucks be furnished to carry the Mules during highway operations?

ANSWER:

Tbey can be towed for Ihort distances. There are no vehicles assigned to the
aITborne division for the specific pllrpole of carrYing the M274 M ....le.

In

the construct.on of tbe M274

Secuon V. VEHICLE NAVIGATION


CAPTAIN DAVANT T. WILLIAMS
Chairman, Movements Committs.:
The ability to NAVIGATE is an essenllal element of MOBILITY! Navigation in .11 most
ba.lic definition simply means "to direct one's course." This may be done In the air. On the
sea. or upon the land lurfaces of the "arth. HutoTically. the art of navigation goes ba.ck to the
earliest times. Ancient man is said to have dITected his courle across barren land surfaces
by reference to the staTII. The early Greeks are said to have theorilled thai the earth was
round and that a person could determine his position in terms of liltilude ~d longitude. HoweVt!r, navigation 0101 a modern science did not have in true beginning until the invention of the
compass in about 1000 A. D. Before this time the seafaring man had limited himself mainly
to operating along the coast w,thin ught of land. However. with the invention of the compass
the milriller WilS then able to began hil lOng voyages of exploriltion which led to the development
of Ihe western hemisphere. In faci. the de\l'elopment of nav'gation as a modern science paral_
leled the exploration of the weltern hemisphere. In a limilar fa,hion. the development of the
sclence of navigation hall paralleled the evolution of warfare. Il ill difficult to think of a modern
navy operaling without equally modern navigational equipment. The AIT Force h long put a

III

premi~m

on the science of air naviRilUon. The effectivene" of the Strategic Air Command i '
largely due to itl navigational capabilities. The Air Force hal (or years ,tre ed the training
of officer' navig.uors _ Ipecialilu in their field. In {;let, grad\l.i.tes of the Air Force Academy are commill8ioned all navigator. and are then given a chance to go into pilot training. You
might almost say that the Air Force trains its regul'ar officers to be navigilton lirst and pilots
second. Now. think of the science of navigation in relationship to the development of the Army,
and one almost draWl a blank! Navigation just hasn't played the part in the evolution of the
Army that it hal In the other 'ervices. The rea.onl {or this are filirly obviou. wben 101.1 think
about it. Our pioneer soldiers had no great navigational diHicultiel. They followed IQdian
traile:, rivers, streams, and uled mountainl for reference. The Army of the early welt even
hired Indian IcoutS to do its navigating. We probably didn't realize the lignificance of naviga
tion until we came face to face with the problem in North Africa during World War U. when In.
lantry battalions had to borrow naval officerl to do their navigating for them. But at the same
time we found captured German tanks with gyro compallel mounted in them. Even tod.." we
don't have a direction-finding device in a combat vehfcle. Our navigation leeml to be limited to
pilot training and specialized training at the arctic and jungle Ichoot., plul limple map r_ding.
And so the basic que It ion is "What do we as Infantrymen know about the science of na_viga_
tion? What do we know about naVigating an MS9 Infantry personnel carrier great diltancee,
croes-country over poorly-defined terrain under condition I 01 reduced vieibUity?" The ane....er
il that we don't know nearly enough I But the eudden requirement for this knowledge and Ikill
does ell;iu, resulting from new concepts of mobility, organization, and operatIon over the wide
and deep battlefield.
During thil period we will discuss the requirement for a sylltem of vehicle navigation,
techniques 01 land navigation, and developmental trends of navigational aids.
In analyzing jUlt what il required in a ,ystem of vehicle navigation, there are many things
that mUlt be considered. We must firlt of aU consider the million and inlure that our syllem
of vehicle navigation will lup?Ort present and future mi,"ions. We must keep in mind that organizational concepU of the 1960's visualize mobile Infantry in highly mobile vehiclel. EmpMsie will be on cross country operationl, deep objectives. and broad reconnaillance. Wide
front. and dispersion will be normal. We must be able to navigate under any condition of viei.
bUity. Darknesl, smoke, fog, or beillg "buttoned-Up" must not limit our ability to navigate.
We must be able to navigate under any condition of weather. The Air Force hal traditionally
been hampered by bad weather. However, our system of Infantry navigation mUll be an a11weather one. Another consideration is the availability of mapl. Many area. of the world are
even today poorly mapped and in some case. not mapped at all. We must. therefore. have a
navigational system that doe a not depend upon the availability of accurate mapl. Road. have
played a classic role in warfare, but modern techniques of surveillance may preclude their Ule
in future operations. We must be prepared to navigate cross-country without reference to
road neU. A final consideration is the capability of navigating in areas of poorly defined terrain features. The possibilities of operating in such areas as delert. jungle or arctic are by
no means remote.
It can, therefore, be concluded that our system of vehicle navigation must give us the capability of directing the course of our vehicle under any condition of visibility, under any condition of weather, with or without maps, with or without roads, and with or without reference to
natural terrain features.

Ground Navigation

Land Navigation'" Vehicle Navigation

This sound I like a pretty big order, but, a. 11'1 many aspects of modern warfare the solution
lies in a formula. In this cale the formula is GN t LN "VN. GN stal'lds for ground navigation

112

and is a technique of directing one'. coune a. taught by the Map Readinl Committee of USAlS.
It i ' b<iued on otientation by con.tanl reference to ~turaJ ten".in lealuTe.. It ia often described
by .tudtmtt a. "reading the contour linea on the ground." On the other hand LN or b.nd navigation i. the technique of directing one" CDurle through the u.e of direction-linding and control
i"lOtrumenh. A combination of both technique. i. required in order to accurately navigate a
vehicle.

Ground navigation i. Nile to any 'yltem of vehicle navigation. It i, ideal for cro.a-country
operation. linee it doe. not depend upon orientation in felatlon to man-made features. However,
it doe. have certain limitation. which mUll be recogni2t.ed. Jt talte. time. it requires accurate
maps, it requires reference to natural feature., and it require. visual contact with the terrilin.
Land navigiltional techniques become increil.ingly important when speed is e.sential, when
adequate maps are not av;t.Uable, when terr;t.in i. poorly defined, when vi.ibitity is limited, and
when the vehicle commander muU have conUant nucle;t.r orient;t.tion. Thi. simply me;t.ns thilt
the vehicle comm;t.nder mun know his ex;t.ct location at all times in rOll at ion to the use of tactical
;t.lomic weapons. If we ;t.re to use a special weapon, the vehicle commander must be able to report his ex;t.ct position so that the ;t.nalyu can plot it in relation to buffer I'ones ;t.nd .afety arcs.
On the other hand, if the vehicle commander observes the use of an enemy we;t.pon, he rnuu
know his own po. it ion in order to accurately report the location of that weilpon.
There are .ever;t.1 concept. of how land navigational technique. might be employed. One
concept i. that of attaching a navigational 'peciaJin to the Infantry unit, but this i. not appropriate. Another concept is that of attaching a navigational team. but neither i. thi. appropriate
;t.t Infantry leveL The Infantry concept i. based on the individual vehicle command'n knowing
his exact po.ition at all timet, and of having an easy method of reaching a given objective. And
jult who i. this vehicle commander? He might be a company commander, the reconnai ance
platoon leader, the leader of an Infantry .quad being tran.ported in an M59, or if operating
alone, it wO\lld be the driver himtelf.
Wtlat technique. of land navig;t.tion will we employ? One po ibility i. celettial naVigation,
but it doe. not have ;t.n aU-weather capability. Another po ibility is radio navig;t.tion, but it
it .ubject to detection and to jamming by the enemy or the weather. Dead_ reckoning n-avigation
Is the solution .ince it never completely falh or temporarily fail.. Deadreckonmg i. the determination of pre.ent po.itlon by ;t.ppllcation of distance and direction travelled to the lout
known position. Vehicular dead reckoning involve. the determination of di.tance by u.e of
odometer, and azimuth by u.e of .ome type of compass. Plotting can be accomplished by u'e
ot a protractor with map, graph, or blank paper'. Even the MIO Pl'otting Board can be used;t.s
an expedient plouing de-vice.
O>etermination or direction from inaide a coml)at vehicle and the plotting of data while
boune-ing along cro -country are definite problemll, but fortunately there is a naVigational
.yUem under development which c"," tolve these problems. The Engineer Re.earch ;t.nd Development LaboratOries at Fort Belvoir have for several years been working on a navigational
aids developmental program. The rceult of thill program to date hOle been the development of
a navig;t.tional 'ystem ca.l.led a Vehicle Direction and POlition Indicator. Ba,ie componenu of
this lIyttem are a gyro comp.;t.s. and a position indicat1ng computer.
The gyro compa.' i, called a Subminiature Gyroscopic Compass and ia de.igned to be
mounted in a combat vehicle, either tracked or wheeled (Figure 70). Weight is about ]] pounds
and its dimensions do not exceed 10 III Inches in any direction. It is a northlIeeking gyro and
is completely divorced from the effectl of magnelic fieldS. Thill compalll is currently being
.ervice telted. The firlt pOlition indicating computer te.ted wa. the RTheta developed by

113

Figure 70.

Arma Subminiature Gyro Compass,

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
Il8

COMI'VTUl

\ItIGKT

laS (AI'I'!ICJ{I
...lAI'PfOl)
100.000 ""'-'ll'looIO.ool
II

~'62:5.12

SIZE
RANG(

~y

'"' MPtATEIl

WlGHl"
SIZE

st.
'LaS IM'l'l'lOllI

4~ $'4 .. W'l'flC/II,')

;:z,.

\: "I,

OATA INFOR
I UHG( AHO

TlON AVAILABLE

CANADIAN R- THETA
COMPUTER AND
REPEATER

Z....,TIl TO &lSI:

srATIOfoI

z.

COMN.S$ 1I[.\OlMG

Jl"(AIU

J, liANG( oUlD AlJlllJnt OF ALr(""'An

lAS( ,1tOM P"(SOfT iI'OSITlO/II

Figure 7 L

RTheta.

the C_nadian Air Force. It is an automatic: dead- reckoning computer, and It operate' on the
principle of the right triangle (Figure 71). By aligning III heading .mrl dellmation pointer. the
vehicle could be maintained on cours", for a preu:lected objectlve. It prOVided str"ightlll''U! dislance to the objective al any given moment. By providin.ll. In fOB.ence, pollir coordinates, present pollllion could be easily calculated. However, two more advanced type comput~n are currently being lervice tClIted. The Arma computer, In add,tlo" to proYld,ng the data that the

"'

Gy'O Com;lO'"

",:>1.11'1 eoMt~ral
Ind.l;OlOi

(nqr lUI

V.GT l4\'tlS60.
SIZt 610 It'. 12'

WGT

3~l.b)

ModoIj

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G,d COrreCl 0I'l


'ltGT 14LM Z 0:
S,It.14.16',17"

Figure 72.

Vehicle Di.rection and Position Lndicator.

R-Theta provided. alao gives pre.ent pOlition at any time in rectangular coordin.Uel 10 the
neare.t 100 meters (Figure 72). The Ford computer provide. the lame data in .lightly different

0..';>.' 24\10.1.3,
W.,q~l

4()')Cj<"
~4L!l.'

S,,, 9,6,ll

vono:" Pol ,,,,,, Cotnc><o*

flf~\'iu

;>;>.... 54(, y
'Cl'" 2<;'/ll,'!>C

1301

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, , .-

IFord 1~1"_t4\

v."~ 3d;l~

'Naotjl'll 4~LM.

$,:* IC 12

S". h

~.lla

.. 1=.
--

- ~ 'rj~i~
Figure 73.

0cl0t'r4'.,
1_...."..
\fj qr..

3ltll1,O O.

Sr.l']'

Ford Computer

form. The system aho provides lor the use of a correction factor to compens'lIe for erron
resulting from track wear. tire slippage. and different types of terram (Figure 7)). The use
of equipment luch ""I thill givel the vehicle commander the c"p<t.bility of knowing exactly where
he ill at any given time. and of directing hil coune to a given objective by a simple technique dmply line up the pointen (Figure 74).
And so vehicle navigation il the capability of directing the coune of a vehicle under any
condition of vilibility, under any condition of weather. with or without mapl. with or without
roads, and with or without reference to natural terrain featurel (Figure 74). It involves the
ulle of lJtandard techniques of ground navigation lupplemented by the technique of land navigation
through the use of direction-finding and control instrumenllJ. The naVIgational aids developmental program is dcsigned to provide us with these instrumenU.

'IS

1
_.. _.
-..

-BASIC COMPONENTS

PERFORMANCE

I. QY"O COIWAIS

THE SYSTEM PROVIDES

Pf'O\IIDfS TltU NORTH AZIMUTH


1tI[lt'UDlCE.

I VEHICLE HEADING ATALL TIMES(lll2}

2 PRESENT POSITION OF VEHICLE IN MAP


COORDINATES AT ALL TIMES

2. V(H!eL( ()()()MtUIt - PftOVlOS OtSTANCI:

3 DIRECTION AND

DATA,

r'~TANCE

TO t1OME8AS(

ON DEMAND
4 DIRECTION AND DISTANCE TO o'STlNATlON

3. COMPUT(1t - COM'UTI:S AHD DISPt..AYS

ON DEMAND

V(H,elE POSITtOH WORMATlON.

5 OVERALL ACCURACY -ONE PART IN 200


(1I2,.)

... POWIIt SUfIPlY - CON't'EItT5 VEHICLE D.C.


POWI:It INTO A.C. POWEIt.

"'Igure 14.

6 COMPUTER RANGE-IOO I(M (62 MILES)

..ITHOUT AlSETTING

Vehicular Nllvigalion.

116

Our purpo.e today hal been to familiari;r;e YOI.l with the requirement that doe. eIi.t for a
.y.tem of vehicle navigation, and to acquaint you with the current .tatu. of the art ilnd the equip
menl.
In in mo.t basic term., vehicle navigation mean. that Ihe individual Infantry vehicle commander mUll know ",here be i. and where he'. aoing al all time . Only wilh this cilpabilily can
the Infantry commander fully eIploit hi. battlefield grOl.lnd mobility.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

QU'::STION:

How much phy,ical 'pace will the COmpuler and compa" take up in the jeep?

ANSWER:

Computer Compa"

QUESTION:

Doe' the prediCtion device work effectively?

ANSWER:

Ye,.

lIz cubic feet,


cubic (001.

However,

,t', 'till

in the u:penment.l ,r.ae.

117

CHAPTER 10
INSTRUCTOR TRAINING COURSE
Section 1. INTRODUCTION
LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAY B. MOWBRAY

Chis!. Instnu:tor Training secUon


Tl\h morning we are goiDg to teach you the ,ecret of presenting the quality of instruction
that we maintain at the IJ;l!antry School. The secret i. twofold; first, careful organization of in.
lItructional material, and second, training our inuructor . It il important that you know how
we operate at Fort Benning because you may be able to u.e the same technicl':.Je. in training your
in.truclor. and organizing your leSIon material. Our primary job in the ITS i. operating the
In.tructor Training Cour.e - a 3 liZ week cour.e which i. given to all new in.truclor. at the

Infantry School.
We alia have lome other miion.. We develop and improve instructional aid. and technique. lor use in the Infantry School. We assist instructional departmentll by providing inspection
of instructional procedures a.nd, when necessary, retrain instructors. Of course our primary
job ill operating the Instructor Training Course. In this course we train the officers and selected
NCOs who are assigned as in!lltructors at the Infantry School. What do we teach? Primarily, we
build upon their b"ackground . All of our instructors come to us with miHtary experience and
with civilian schooling expet'ience. They are not new to the in.truction game. Upon this background we add the content of our ITC. We have thorough instruction in speech techniques, instructional methoda, evaluation and teating, and related lubjecta. These related lubjects have
to do with the f"cilitie, "vailable at Fort Benning and the Commandant'a a.nd Aasi'tant Command"nt', policies. Sc...ttered throughout the perioda of formal instruction we have periods of prac_
tice teaching which prepare the student to step onto the pl"tform and take over instructional du_
ties here at the School. Upon graduation he goel back to his committee for further supervilion
and in. service training to learn the problems that he will give at the Infantry School.
Thil morning we are going to give you some of the highlights of the ITC. 1 will be followed
by Captain Burns who will discuss lesson organization and how organization material is presented to the School. Following that, Major Glaser will discuss practice teaching and our
methods of training new instructors.

SecUon U. LESSON PREPARATION AND CONTROL OF INTEREST


CAPTAIN JAMES R. BURNS
lnstructor, instructor Tralntng Section

Let me prec"ce my remarks by saying that the manuall, the references which are used at
the InlantrySchoollor methods of instruction, are the manuals which rnost schools use. We use
FM ZI.6 as our basic reference and we havtl certain civilian texts which we Ule for other areas
luch al evaluation.
But, badcaJly, FM ZI6 il the manual which we use. We have taken
certain ~rtl of FM 'ZI_6 and modified them alightly as you will aee al we go through this discuaaion. Every problem preaented at the Infantry School and aa taught in the ITC is organi1;ed
the same way. Each problem has three diatinct parts cr phase,. These phaaes are the introduction. the body, and the conclusion. Into these three phases or partl we incorporate the
stages ol instruction as outlined in FM ZI-6; we use the five stage I of Instruction and we place
them In our lellon planning and in our presentations at the point where they would 10,llical1y come.

118

Within thele three part. we wUl have preparation. preeentation, application, examination
(when appropriate) and the dilcussion or critiq.ue.
The first parI, a. I menlioned, i. the introduction. We havll two dhtinCl reaeone and req.uirements for giving the introduction, and in our lesson planning. in our leeson preparation,
each in.tructor organh.ee hie leeeon or hh introduction In the following manner: He organizel
hie le.eon in euch a way as to have a dietinct attention gaining I(ep. &nd lecondly, he hal ll.JI
orient&t1on. These two parte of the introduction are alwaye preeent. We h&ve recognized the
fact thAI we cannot hope to orient our Itudent. unle.e fir.a we are' lure thaI what we are goin.
to lAy in the orientation il being he&rd. For thil reAlon. we gain attention. We CAn do lhie
in anyone of a number of waye, from the inetructor moving out &nd juet beginning hie talk, or
by welcoming the cIae. once in the morning, &nd once in the alcernoon, or by baving a .aarting
.aatement pertAining to tbeir lellone. By telling a .aory related to the lellon which hae not al
itl purpoee to teach but hal lolely al ite purpoee to gain &ttention. Rhetorical q.ue.aion. can
be u.ed to gain attention. The use of teltimony. skit., and illultrAtione _ hiltorical or other_
wise. Thele Are lome of the WAy' by which we gain attention &t the Infanlry School. The point
h at the beginning of every problem (not the beginning of every period but the beginning of every
problem) we do eomething to gain attention. And we at the Wantry School plan this. put it in
the lee.on plan and It become. a part of the vault file.
The lecond part of the introduction i. the orientation. In the pre.entation .aage of in.aruction in the introduction of the presentaeion tnere are normally two requirements; i. e le&eing
your objective. and your rea.on. or motivation. We hAve gone ju.a a bit beyond that and in our
orientation we have three mandatory requirements and two bonu. requirements which we u.e
when they are applicable. The first pare of the orientation i. the le oo tie-in. We organize our
in.truction and preeent it '0 that lhe Itudentl understand where. in realion to the over-all bIoc.k
of inetruction or the over-all program of inltruction. ehil p.articular material lill. Tbie ie ,ood
because etudente can be informed &.nd will know at the beginning of a problem that thil ie the
[ir.t of IZ or that thie it the last of 4 problem . They al.o know !.hat this instruction. e. g . 10gillieal in.truction, fill illeo the over-aU block of eubjecCi prelenled by the Command And Stafl
Depa.rtrnent. Many of our committee. have adopted a. a lee.on tie-in lhe proceee of preparing
A big chart. On thil chart lhey Ii.a the total hour. or problem. that each cIa II will receive from
thil committee and iU each ela or problem ie elarted they place a red .potter by the problem
being prelented eo that the studente know that they have three or four to go.
Our eecond mandatory seep in the orienlalion _ by lhe way these do not nece.earily come in
the order we have li.ted them but in the order ehae i. mosl logical - is the motivation. Wh" ill
thil important? This i. the lame ae FM zl-6 - they mention reaeons; w" lay motivation. Not
why it this important a. far ae their future ie concerned, that i., "if you don't know thi. you'll
not do your job well in combat." bUl why iI it nece ary now? Why do they need to know thi.
and why are they receiving it at the Wantry School? At the InIantry School. ae in other .chonls,
a cia Is not preeented unlee. there ie ... need [or ie. But wh...1 is the need? Here we leU them
wh.at that need il. Why they need to know thie .....hy they ... re receiving it at thie time. and we
.pend .... much time in motiv&ting or explaining why the mate ria.1 it being taught ... e we do with
lll1y other step in the orientation.

In the third requirement. the .cope or the lcalemenl of the objective - whal will be dilcu ed
or accomplished during thie period - the leelon "objective . " Thl. i. ditferent from lhe over-dl
Ie.son objective. ae found in the POI. Here we ttate epeclfica.1ly what we are going to cover during thil period, not Just thaI during thi. period we are going to discuss leelon organization ae
preeented.n the Infantry School, but that during this period we are going 10 di.cus. leeson org&niz... tlon a. pre.ented llt the Infantry School to include Ihe preparation of the Introduction, the
body. the conclusion, and the use of leaching points. Our etudente receive in Lhe fiUl week of
training here. a cia which shows them how Infantry School in.truction h organized. and they
are encouraged to t...ke notes on what the instructor ....y. in the orientation. In ta.king notes on
the ICOpe, ehe student can make a meneal check on hie nOlel saying, "Thie hae been done."

'19

The.e three Olre m&.l1d...tory requirement. for the orient...tlon. In addition to the.e, when it is
... ppropriOlte. the instructor will plAn to pre.ent the method. u.ed to leU the students WhOlI type
of i.ll.str...ction they will he receiving for Ibe re.t of the morning or the rest of the problem. This
I. especially beneHci;al when we Olre presenlU\g multiple melhod., i. e., when you are going to
have a di.c.....ion or conference now And W. afternoon yo are going to move out inlo the Held
And actually do It. or we are goU\g to have a one bo... r lect re now and then we w111 have a demon_
.tn,tJo.ll.later. And finally we .ay we Ca.D point o ... t application. When will thu malerial be used?
Not "Yo... 'lI need this as f...tu ...e battle group commander. and stOl!! officer .... but when specuical_
Iy will Ihey need it? Three day. from now we will go to Ihe field and conduCl llu. all" land~d operation, or four day. from now we will have a CPX on thl. material. So the.e five requirements
Ihen are de.igned .olely to orient, lolely to let the student know what i. coming. why It IS coming. and where it HIS in. This then i. the orientation, the .econd part of the inlroducnon. Gain
attentiotl outd orient the student_
After WI hal been accomplilhed U\ the plOllUl.ing of our problems, we next prepare and prelent the body. In planning the expl...natiotl. or the prelenlation ,tage of U\Slruchon lJ> the pa.t,
we have reOld, heard, <LIld perhaps ulled m ... in ideal, main elemenlS of dilcullion, prim ... ryarea.
of dilcu'lion, .tudent outcome of le... rning, and principal poinlS of the lel.on. All of thele ",e've
he"rd. We do the .une thing, and we put thele in the body, only we call them leaching point .
AIter the preparing instructOr h.... determined his lel.on objecllve, which come. from either the
POI or the le'lotI directive written by CONARC or by the Wantry School, he SUII doW!!. ill.Dd .ay.,
"0. K. how mAny main or principal "rea. of di.cuion do I have in lhi. problem ' And for
each One of the.e m ...in element., or .tatements of fact, we prepare what we c&l1 a leaching point.
A teachU\g point i. a principal part of a le on. It'. a logical bit of mformation that the stUdent
ClLD IInderltand, and when aU of thele leaching pcmall are taught or u.nder.tood, the over.all lelson objective wUl be accomplished. Specifically and technicaUy, the defullllon for a teaching
point it thil: A le...ching point il a .tatement in complele .entence form of a lpecific ... nd signiIi_
cant principle, doc.trine. technique, Ikill, Or element of knOWledge that Slu.denU Ihould IInder
tand andlor apply as a re.ult of Ws period of inSlruclion. That is Ihe definition. Purely <LIld
.imply, it it a principal Olrea of dillcullllion, ...nd we orgOlnir.e o ... r instruction by deciding whether
we have four or Hve main ide.... or main elements or mal.ll. facti. I put Ihese in sentence form
and then I .tart teaching. You came in contact with teaching polnu on Tuelday morning with
Captain Arter from the NRl Department when he showed you the nonre.ldent mOlterial that wenl
out using leaching points. These are the same that we u.e here. Certainly we c .. nnol, just in
our pl~ing in tho body, prepare four or five teaching poinu for II four_hour period, put it
there, and let it ride. We have to do something to teach the.e teaching point. and we do this by
lupportlng materiu. AIter we have decided upon a teaching point, then we go about making Ihe
Itudent IInde"'ltAnd, This is what we cui lupporting material. What is it? 11 can be jUllt what I
am doing now, expl...ining. It can be a dilcu'lion, where the inllructor alII,. que,:ionl and getl
an.werl from the .tudents and guide. the dilCUI.ion to an underllanding of the teaching jloint.
It can bo the u.le of training aidl. It can be a demonllration or a skit. Jt c ... n even be An exami
nation or a practical exercile, a field exerclle, or a map and terrain exerci.e. Anylhing that
il done from a platform in plOllUl.ing, Anything that il done in plalUling to teach the teaching point
it lupporting maleriu. Here iI where we ItOlrt incorpo...atlng the Slagel of inltruction into their
logical place. U ....e find that by applicOltion we can belt teach. then we will have the application
atage of instruction under a lpecific teaching point. If we find we can be.t teach by An eXOlmina.
Uon, and we certainly can, then we'll tu.ve &.11 examination IInder a te ...ching point. So thele are
the typel or aupporting material which we use, teaching point by teaching point, to accomplilh
our lellon objecUve. A. the instructor plans hi. teaching pointl. al the instructor prep;t.rel the
main elementl oC dilcu.llon in the problem, he concerns him sell with the relationlhip or one
leaching point to anothor. He concernl him.ell with how can I most logically arra.nge thele teaching point. ao that one ...uJ follow the other. By known to the unknown and .imple to the complell.
Aa be doel th1l. ho planl th4! ule of tra.nsition.. You and I have been usln& tranlition. for ...
long tims. a method _herehy we move from one point to another. But we have found that tran_
litions, lhat 11 a movement from one teachinJt point to another .howing the rebtionlhip or
aho_ing the logical orga.l1bation of thil problem, Is 10 important that ....e plan it and actu.ally

"0

put it in the lesson plan, and the questionl that thf' inlllructors ask or the subSUl11mary he use.,
or the teaching vehicle which is used to move froT .. one point to anothe r, is planned and put in
the lesson plan under transitions. So these aho are in the body. That then is the body. What
it contains, teaching points, material supporting teaching points in the way of questions, eJ<planations, discussions, skits, etc., and transitions. And from that the instructor plans and
presents the conclusion.
Our conclusions have four mandatory requirementl. They are, first, to maintain attention.
1 think if we were to be asked, which part of any period of instruction is the lea.t important,
probably you and I would say tht: conclusion is the leallt important, becaule this is the part of
instruction that receivell probably the least concern or the leallt preparation. This .hould not be
so, because irI the conclueion you are going to poinl out the mairl part of the problem. In the
conclusion you are either going to leave the .tudent with a good lallte in his mouth Or you are
going to leave him feeling cold. We have four distinct requirement II in our conchlsion. An attention maintainer, a step designed to insure that we have the IIludent'. attention, so that we can
proceed with our conclusion. This may be a IImooth tranllition from the body into the conclusion.
It may be a demonstration, it may be a skit, it may even be a joke. But something is done 10
that the inlltructor can be sure that the students are still listening as he goes into the conclullion.
Two parts in summary. We relltate the lellsDn objective: "During thill period we have discussed Ie. son planning and preparation as u.ed at the Infantry School." And then we lIUl11marize
teaching points: "Specifically, genr.1emen, we have learned this, this, and this." So that al in
the introduction, as stated in our objective, our .ummary in the conclusion i. specific. We point
out the practical application. We could do this in the orientation, as 1 said, but we must do it at
the conclusion. Show them where this material will be used, when it will be applied here at the
School or in the field. Finally, a strong closing statement. We say that this stimulates the action _ at least it further emphasizes the importance of the problem. These are the four man_
datory parts of the conclullion.
Theile then are the three parts of any lelnon, regardlel' of the type lel.on, regardless of
the class that receive. them. The introduction, the body, and the conclu.ion. This as.ure. the
in.tructor that he had properly organh;ed the les.on.
Speaking of organization of the les.on, I want to tell yOIl a very brief story about what hap_
pened to a friend of mine not too long ago at the Di.mounted Drill Committee here at the School.
This man had been aSSigned to the committee and had been prll.enting dassell on right face,
left faCIl and ItllPS in marching, to BlOC. and OC classes for two year. He had the.e d ..... e.
down pretty well and he wall quite an accomplilhl'ld instructor. Onll day at about 4 o'clock in the
afternoon he happened to look at the nf!J<t aayl schedule and he saw that he wall going to prelent
a dalll in the facing movementll to an OC class. Well, thil wall fine. He goi out hill lesloll
plan, IItarted checking hi. training aids to IIlle that everything wall 'et. And al part of hil In.tructor check, he happened to lee who was going to demonltrate {or him the ne,,;t day. Well,
Sergeant Smith normally demonstrated. HI! turned to the principal enlisted allli.tant in.tructor
and he .aid, "Who is going to demonatrate for me tomorrow?," and the man .aid, "Sir, Sergeant
Smith normally doell, bllt he ill on leave." "Well, how about Sergeant Brown?" "Sir, he hal
athletes foot and il not going to be able to make it." So the man laid, "Sergeant, how about
you?" And h.e .aid, "Sir, I am going to be .ick tomorrow. You're without a demonltrator."
Well, thlt concerned him but he atill had time. So he picked up the phone and he called the
Department and he laid, "Look, I have a cla going tomorrow to an OC clast and I nlled a
demonstrator to demonltrate the facing movementll." They.aid, "You are in luck, young man,
we juat had a very .enlor NCO report tn.
We will .end him right over." The man .aid, "Good,
iI he ill a .enior, he hal been around a while. Whip him down." In the meantime, t.he in.tructor
went on to check out the uniform and to lee that virtually everything wa ound ana the area h.ad
been laid on 110 that hi. instruction would, a. alway., go on Oawlel.ly. After he had done that,
In walkl the NCO. "Sergeant
, my name ill Captain Burn . Look, J've got a cla
in the morning at g o'clock on the {acing movements t.o lIJ\ OC cia.1 ;and 1 need a demonatrator.
IZl

The demonstrators we usually use are gone. Now you know how to do right face, left face, and
Clank, do you not? How long have you been in the Army?" "Fourteen years." "You should know
it well enough.
O. K., now look, the uniform you are in now is the uniform for tomorrow. So
if you will show up at ?:30 in the morning. we will get the class set up and 1 wiU explain what to
do at that time." So the man took oCC and, sure enough, the next morning he appeared bright_
eyed and in his proper uniform. So the instructor, in setting up his class. told him that when it
came time, all he would do would be to demonstrate: he would teU him to come out and post and
he would do the movements as he had explained. Then the NCO agreed. Everything was set. the
class arrived and they got started on time. The instructor went through his presentation explaining each item very carefully {ollo....ing the three parts of the lesson as we use at the Infantry
School: It came time for him, as supporting material {or or-e teaching point. to demonstrate the
facing movements and the steps in marching. So he said, "0. K . gentlemen, I've explained it,
now I am going to demonstrate it." (Demonstrator executes facing commands.) "How long did
you say you have been in the Army?" "Fourteen years." "Where have you been {or 14 years?"
"I was in the post stockade." This actually didn't happen, but it could have. It won't, because
of our lesson planning and preparation as we use it.
You have seen a demonstration. A demonstration is one of four methods of instruction which
are used at the In{antry School today. Only four, or a combination of these {our. are used. The
first method o{ instruction which we teach at the ITS and which is used at the In{antry School is
the lecture. The pure lecture where the instructor stands and for 50 minutes or for two hours
gives the presentation and receives nothing {rom the students. There are very few lectures, as
such, presented at the Infantry School. Why? B6cause we do not feel that this method will accomplish the most learning. So for this reason, normally, we u.e one or a combination o{ two
others.
The second method is the conIerence, the exchange o{ idea., if you will. CaU it a discussion, call it a guided discussion. In a discussion the instructor asks questions, and by his asking of questions and controlling student answers, and by further questioning the students, the
students arrive at certain preestablished objectives, from which they acquire an understanding
of teaching poinu. We familiarize our students or prepare them for this discussion or conference by the use o{ home study assignments, so that when they come to class they are prepared to discuss the lesson. Bya discussion, and by the instructOrs summing up and rurther_
ing of the discussion, they are pr6pared to arrive at these preplanned teaching points or objec_
tives. That is the conference method.
The third method of instruction is the demonstration which can be used any time (or any
subject, normally, as supporting material. The demonstration is primarily employed to teach.
Therefore, if in the planning o{ a problem the instructor says this teaching point can best be
taught c: ~an at least assist in ITC teaching by a demonstration. it is conducted. By combining
a demonstration with discussion in a conference, we do a little better: we have a little more
interest. We accomplish a little rrtore learning.
The fourth method of instruction which is used, and used predominately, ill the problem
method Or the practical exercise _ the situation-requirement whereby the studentS are placed in
a role. They are given a situation and a requirement and. as a result of certain principles which
have been established and understood through the discussion Or conference. they arrive at solu_
tions. The problem method. We feel that the corrtbination of the conrerence Or discussion and
the problem method is the best method to use. Where we can ha.ve a discussion, let them ar_
rive at certain facts, and then apply these facts a.s soon after as possible by the use of problems
we have the best, we have the optimum. These are methods which we teach and which are uled
primarily.
Additionally, in planning our lesson. after understanding the three parts of a lesson _ there
hi one other item that the preparing instructor concerns h1mscU with, and this i.s the lntere.l
and the control o{ interest. Certainly our studenu are. a. at all service schools, captive

tudents. They come here a. part of their profe.donal tralnmg and they are charged then with
the re.pon.lbility of learning. They may be charged with the re.pon.lbility of learning in the
over-all cour.e, but it is up to you and me to in.ure that they want to learn and are intere.ted
in each .pecific problem. We do this by the integration of cert.ain intere.t factor. into every
problem. The interest .pan, th.at time which we can hold the intere.t of the .tudent without it
le ening or waning, hal been wrinen in .ome book. a. three minute., others a. live, and .till
otherIS eight minute . These are eight minute. that you could t.a.Jk u.ing one approach and
have the students li.ten to you and be interested. We do not feel that the intere.t .pan, a uch.
is a distinct time. In preparing our instruction. we have had our in.tructor. go through certain
analy.e. or celtaln e.timate . We consider the very nature of the .ubject that we are pre.enting.
Is thl. normally a dry .ubjec:t? What time of day doe. the da normally receive this problem-the fir.t houT on Mondily. the last houT on Fdday, the CiT.t hour after lunch or dudng the middle of the afteTnoon? CeTtainly this will ilffect the amount of time students will be inteTe.ted In
anyone appTOilch. Wf' consider what the da hal hild belOTe, what they will have afteT thi.;
ilTe they going to be faced with a four houT examination. have they ju.t come from a four hour
e~mination? A. a re.ult of this estimate. we determine that we must integTate interest lactors
into our leon every so many mmute., OT heTe, here. ilnd here. Some of the.e inteTe.t {ilctor.
which we integrate are the same factoTs which we use to gain attention. We teU il StOTy. We
tell a joke. We u.e pTactical exeTcise. we ask a question, Thetodcal or otherwise. But the
point i. that the In.tructor must Teali~e afteT this analysl. thilt there aTe certOlln things he mu.t
do throughout the problem to maintain intere.t. We do thl. by anillyzing eilch Interest span Ol. It
Olpplie. to eOlch da .
Everything that we hilve .Olid up to now deal. with le.son planning and le on pre.entiltion a.
a re.ult of thl. planning. What do we feel need. to go into the per.on who pre.ents this wellplanned les.on? We recognl~e that there are certain factor. which go into the over_all attitude
of a good in.tructoT. These factors are not new. but the.e ilTe the factOT' which we concentrate
on at the ITC. We leel that in order to be a good Instructor theTe are four qualities which must
be poes.ed. First incerity. There are two type. oC sincerity that Instructors will learn to
po.se.s-one I. that they sincerely believe In the .ubject they are teaching; and second, that they
believe In their job of teaching. Thi. can be learned. Thl incedty can be acquired. It can be
acquired by slncedty in the material that I. pre.ented; It can be acquired by knowing that the
material that is pre.ented is the most accurate; the .incerity by knowing it i. the most effective
because oC thorough research. By knowing from experience what the need for this knowledge
means, and what not having thl. knowledge can do. Secondly, by believing that only by good plat
form Inn ruction can etudents learn and learn well; that by presenting material from the platform
you Ciln accomplish so much more than you can Irom the written word. Our instructors are
trained to believe in these. And the beliel in the.e two accompli.h this factor of sincerity.
A second factor is confidence. Confidence again in two things: conCidence in his ability 10
pre.ent instruction because he is prepared; conCidence that he know. all the methods of instruc_
tion and all the Inn ruction'll techniques needed to present good .ound instruction. He gets tMS
confidence by practice; he gets it by having someone hsten to him, by being critiqued. Con.
fidence In lhe material which he is pre.enting. Confidence lhat the Infanlry School instruclion is
the uHlmate, that it Is !lawless, because we have re.earched It. because we studied it, becau.e
we Mve revl.ed it, becau.e we are confident that we have what is the latest word. This is the
.econd factor _ confidence in hi. ability, confidence In hi. material.

And thirdly, enthu.iil.m. This Is not to say we Ieel thilt eveTy .uccessful instructor or
every good in.tructor .hould be the type ol per.on who ra.nts and rilve. and prances over the
platform and Jump. up and down. Enthusla.m can be learned. Enthu.ia.m can be expre.sed
through praclice. Some of the WOlys which we expres. enthu.ia.m Olre by our movements. by the
u.e of our voice. by the rate with which we 'peilk, by the attentivene With which we pre'ent our
in.truction, and by the concern we give our .tudents. Each of the.e through prilctice and through
concern can be acquired. There i. such a thing a. ilcqulred enthusta.m.
IZJ

The lourth lilctor .....hich goel into the over-all attitude il hwnor. Having il lenle 01 humor.
Knowing thilt it takel humor to make a dall react lavorably. You do not have to teU a joke every
five minute I to have humor. hut be alert to humoroUI lituationl. Some 01 the lunnielt thing I
that ever Ju.ppened ill thiB School have Ju.ppened becaule the dasl did lomething. II an inltruc_
tor can take thil lituation a.nd mue it .....ork lor him by recognizing humor and by going along
with humor, he will be tha.t much more ellective. It ta.kel a dass about two leconds to pick up a
lalle inltructor. It take I II dass about that long to pick up an inltructor who has no humor at
all, and an otherwise well planned and .....ell_pr<!lIented dall can lall nat on itl lace becaule the
instructor does not pollesl kumor. Thele lour lauorl then go into the over-all attitude 01 a
good inltructor _ lincerity, confidence, enthusialm, and humor.
Thil, gentlemen, is how we organize and pre lent inltruction at the lnlantry School. We
organize it into three ~ru the introduction, body, and condulion. Into thele three partl we
put lhe live stllgel 01 inltrucdon al they apply. as they come. We recognize tJu.1 there are lour
methodl 01 instruction and that we leet that a combination 01 t .....o 01 these - that is, the confer_
ence and the problem method or practical exerdle _ is the optimum. Interest lpan il lome thing
which is recognized and applied aher a class analysis. Remember, a good instructor possellel
lour factors ..... hich make up a good attitude - lincerity, confidence, enthusialm, and humor.

Section ill. ORIENTATION ON THE INSTRUCTOR TRAINING COURSE


MAJOR ROBERT D. GLASER

Instructor, Instructor Training Section


Gentlemen, now that you have an understanding ollun..amentall 01 proper lellon prepara_
tion al laught by the ITS, it shall be my 80ill to oriel'll you as to ho..... lhe courle is actually conducted. The purpole of the courle is to assist the individual Itudent inltructor in developing
hil ability to preu:nt eUective instruction. Our claelel will normally run lrom SO to 60 indivld_
~s, both oUicerl U1d NCOI. We tue this group and break them down into Imaller groups of
eight, legregating the NCOI lrom the offlcerl. We Ule the figure eight al the optimum, becllule
we feel that this il the maximum nwnber that we can handle effectively in the time allotted during
the practical exercisel which I will dilcuis in II moment. Thil number will vary. Occillion.ally
we have groupi of 9 or 10, llnd thilt, 01 courle, is baled on the Itrength of the clalsel we are
conducting. Normally, we Ule groupl of eight. Each of thele groupi is aSligned an inltructor
from the ITS. This individual is known al "The Group lnuructor." He is relponlible for the
training of thele individuals during tkeir practical exercilel. It il lllrgely lhrougk hil eUort and
the manner in which he conductl him sell throughout the 3 liZ weekI that we are able to guide the
individual in increaling his ability to present effective inltruction. We mue a very limple ap_
proach and progress to the more complex, from the known to the unknown, il you will. We do
this through the method of diltributed pra.ctice.
We Itllrt initially with a l-minute penonU hlltory, i.e., the individual i. ca1led upoo and
he mounts the plillform, and in two minutes prelentl a person.al hillory discussion of the highlighU of hi. particular life. The realon for this prelentation is to ...Uow the individual to get on
the pla.tform and to become lamiliar with it. Thil14 the period in which we break the ice. It
gives us an opportunity to lee. tke peculiaritiel that we are going 10 work with in thiJ given individual.
From the Z_minute .....e move directly ioto the 3-minute presentation. Agilin thl. il on a
subject of hi. own choo.ing. Why1 We feel lMt in this period by allowing the lIudent to brin.
into the clas.room a .ubjecl tnat he i. interested in, .....e will have a very good chance of leeing
whether he haa sincerity, whether he can engender a liule enthuJialm, and whelher he can
speak Duently. This i. why we allow him to speak on a .ubject of his own choice. We make a
tape recording during the l-minute presentillion, and at the conclusion of the presentation we

play it back to the .tudent. This i, designed to allow him to actually hear him.elf. and he ha,
an opporhmity here to conduct a self-anaIy,h. In this light he will have a chance to .ee whether
he i, eflective. whether hi, rate of speech is faIt or lIlow, or whether he spoke in a cohererl.t
manner. These are all cited by Ustening to the tape that we allow him to hear ailer he hal made
his presentation.

From the 3_minute we go into two 5-minute periods, The firlt 5_minute period will be an
expantion of the 3-minute presentation. only in thi, period we ask the .tudent to interject 1I joke
or numorous lituation. He will .peak on the lame subject, but now we have a practical exerci.e
in which he mun work into hill presentation a humoroul lituation; this allow. the student to experience the diHiculty of presenting a humorous situation. Movinll Crom there the second 5minute pf"esentalion will be a demonstration. Here we request the student to bring to the classroom an object, a training aid. iC you will. We now allow him to gain the experience oC presenting a period oC instruction where in a part oC the period is devoted to an object which must be explained. It gives him a practical approach to the difliculties that ari"e when he must maintain
the interest oC the class, but must devote attention to the object and the explanation he i" making.
This is the sole purpOse oC this particular period.
We have progressed Crom l- to 3- to 5-minute periods. and now we go inlo the la_minute
lecture. Here Cor the irst time we will require the "tudent to present, prior to moving up to the
platlorm to conduct his lesson. a lesson outline to his group instructor. Why must he do this?
The purpose is to "ee whether or not the indi.vidual understands the principles oC proper lesson
preparation; and also, it allows 1.1.11 to determine whether or not, once he ha" been able to put it
on paper or plan this leSllon on paper, he has the ability to step up on this platform and prellent
the period elfectively, using the lellson plan as hi:! outline. So we have a two-Cold purpose: to
lIee it he understands the principles and then, once having an understanding, whether he la.s the
capability oC elfective presentation. Beginning with this period we allow the students to critique
one another. Up until this time, Ihe group instructor hall handled all critiques. Why? We have
Cound through experience that initially every individual who is assigned as an instructor needs a
pat on the back to get him started. ThereCore we have curtailed student critiquing until the ten
minute period, allowing 1.1.11, the group instructors, to critique him solely on his attributell.
pointing out tholle things that he does posses" that are outstanding. Through this method we
begin to instill the conlidence that is so vitally necesllary that he have before he can become
potentially as elective as we hope he will be when he graduatell. Beginning with the IO-mi lute
lecture the IItudents begin to critique one another. Now, he gets a chance to listen to seven dilferent people telling him what they think oC the presentation. He c-.n evaluate these remarks all
he goes along.
Now Crom the la-minute lecture we move into a 15- to la_minute conference. The subject
the individual spoke on during the la_minute lecture will now be expanded into a 15 to ZO-minute
conference. i. e., during thill period he will now teach ulling the conference method oC presenta.lion. At the conclusion oC this period. the next practical exercise will be a repeat oC the time,
15- to lO-minutes, but here again we have built in flexibility into the courlle. What do (mean
by thill? For exam.ple, iC we find an individual who has done Cairly well throughout the course,
but has dilliculty in presenting the conference, we may ask him to come back during the next
practical exerche and speak on the same subject, or we may assign him an entirely new subject
on which he will conduct his second 15- to lO_minute approach. Normally, this is the procedure
that we foUow. Why? We do this to give him another opportunity to present a new subject in
15- to la-minutes. This necessitate" additional research, planning. and rehearsal.
At the conclusion oC the second 15 or lO-minute period, we then go into the 30- 10 35minute ex"rcllle. This again ill an expansion oC the same subject. He has spoken on this particular subject Cor 15. to lO_minutes using the conlerence as his method oC presentation. He
will now use this s.me subject and expand it to 30. to 35-minutes, continuing 10 use the con-

ference method of presentation. This is desianed to aive him additional practice in further
reseii.rchina. practice in flexibility of preSentation. in timing. ~d in eHectivenes. for leii.rninJ.
We have proare ed at this time from 2.. 3, 5, iO, is, 2.0. up to 30 ~d 35-minute . Now
we are coming down the stretch. At this time we interject a three minute presentation on an im_
promptu subject. And why do we do this? In order to te.t the flexibility of the individud. h he
eHective when .peaking on a .ubject of which he has no knowledge? Just prior to getting OD the
plii.t1orm we hand the individual hi ubject and we allow him ii. few minute. to coJlect his thoughts
and then he will pre.ent a three minute lecture. At the conclusion of this period or this presen_
tation, we then open the period up to queltions at Which time the individual now mUlt defend his
position by tii.lting questions from the Ooor and anlwering them being as eHective a. he hii.s been
throughout hi. pre. entation and ieaving the .ame objectives in the mind of the .tudent when he
i. finilhed. J would d.o like to mention at thil time that during this three minute impromptu
pre. entation. we UI. subjects which we have given formally from tbe plalform. For example.
what are the principles of proper le on preparation? What are the advantage. of the confer_
ence over the lecture? How do we properly use training aid.? Thing. of 'his kind.
Ba.ed on
the.e ract. we are not only trying to observe bi. ne)dbility. but it ILHords u. an opportunity to
reali:te whether or not he has ~ understanding oC the Cundamentah tbat we have tii.ught on ii.
formii.l basi.. At the conclusion of the three minute. impromptu exerci.e, we will 10 into the
beginning of hi. filal present.Uion.
l..et'. go bii.cll to when the olIieer or NCO was lnitiii.lly a.signed. baving been placed in a
department ~d further ii.1.igned to a committee. The committee cbairman. reali:ting that tbe
individual must go through the ITC before he i. allowed to formally pre.ent instruction from the
platform, will delignate a given problem within that committee that the individual will present
during bis final examination in tbe courle. Throughout tbele practical exercilel, the individual
student instructor reali:tel that when it cornel time for his final examinalion be will give this
particular problem. All during this he has been work.ing on his preparation for hil finii.l. You
notice tbat we bave two appr~ches. One iI the rehearsal, and then. !.he final examination which
is a poorformance exercise. We bave the rehearsal for one reason. 11 allowl us to critique him
in the area. thil being the firlt time we ~ve heard him present (ifty minutes o{ instruction
b.ued on a formal period a. conducted here at the Ichool. We judge him strictly on his effective_
ness Cor learning. Did he communicate? Did be get these things acrOSI to his audience? On
this critique we discus I the Uttle thingl perhaps he ha.sn't c:.on.sidefe.d dufing his pfesentation.
Once armed with these facti, he will replan and modily where neceslary and then the next presentation will be his final. Again there is jUlt one thing we are looking for - the effectivenesl oC
thh individual to present eUeclive instruction.
During each of the practical exercilel that 1 have disculled, we evaluate the individual from
the standpoinl of his eUectlveness, hil lpeech techniquel, his poise, his platform m~ner,
thing I of thil kind all the way along. After having given these nine exercile. he hal had a very
good knowledge of the fundamentals of not only prOper preparation, but proper prelentation as
well. Two-thirdl of the time allolled to this courle _ i. lpent on conducting PE's. The other
third is devoted to formal instruction conducted by an oUic.r or NCO of Ihe ITS to the cl.ss as a
....hole. This time h 10 divided as to immediately precede the practical application by the
student. For example, jUlt before he goel into his ten minute lecture present;ation we will conduct a Cormal period of instruction on lesson planning and procedures uled in planning the leclure
and conduct of the lecture. Once armed with these facti he will then leave the dassroom and
begin to prepare his practical appro;ach armed with those el.entials that he must have in order
to under.tand proper procedure. Thi. is done throughout the course.
Thil course. as l laid initiii.lly. il deligned to increa.e the potential of the individual and to
auist him in developing his abil.ity. However, 1t aho is deligned to inltill in the individual confidence which he must have. Further, it aliowl him to Camiliari.:te himsell with the Itandardl
and the policies of the School and the Allistant Commandant. l..altly. he hal ample opporlunity
throughout these various periods to evaluate himself in the light of his strengthS and his weak_

".

ne . W. teach him to capit~b.e on tbo things that he ba.... e hll .tunllke. TbroU&h in_
divldu&1 c:oUllI.Un. conducted by the group instructor we will cOUllI.I the indivichal on meaOI
and way. by which he can overcome the we,kne ee that h, hal ... tendency to Ihow. All of lhi,
h done to make him effective a. po.aibl, in fonn..t pre.entation.

Sectlon IV. NEW TRENDS IN USAlS INSTRUCTION


LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAY B. MOWBRAY

Chief. Irtstruclor Trail'filw SecHOfi


Since the beilluling DC thi. presentatioD we have been talking about the thing they ilre at
th, Infantry School our method of organbation of mete rial and our ITC. We want to spend lome
tim, now in looking to the future and consider-ina lome of the trend. in Infantry School instruction,
for thit will help you in evaJ.~ting lome of the training literature and material. yOI1 may get
b'om the School from time to time. Let'. look ... t .ome of the trench I ' we .ee them now. They
... re: integration of .ubject ... re..... greater student re.pon.ibility, .horter Ic...demic day
mlUer clall .ize. and better trAining ... idl.
Now let'. con.ider thele one ... t ... time. On April I of this year the Tactical Depa.rtment,
a.nd the Sta!! Department were con.olidated into I Command and Stuf Department. One purpo.e
of thh wa. to provide more integration o( lubject mIttel' area . At one lime, almoll all .ub_
Ject. at the Wantry School were taught a eparate Irea. We taught communication auto_
motive, and .talf .ubjects al .epilrate item I. Now we are trying to teach the b ... dc principle.
in the areal a. leparate .ubjecu but ill application o( thil kno ....ledge i. in the context of a
military lituation. You will lee more ...nd more requirement. for .olving 10gi.tic&1 problem.,
perlonnel problem intelligence problem., etc in the context of an over_all tactical lIitta.tion.
A .econd area is the trend tow... rd greater Itudent relpon.lbillty. At one time it ........ a
policy of the School that a Itudent could not be telted on ...ny lubject that h...d not been covered
from the platIorm. Thh, of cour.e. led to recognition on the part of the .tudent that it ........ not
nece ary (or them to do out.ide ....ork in order to pa the courle. No we require the Itudent
to be re'pon.tble for his home all.ignment. An in.tructor beginl hi. cI
ith the knowledge
th... t the Itudent hal lIudied the (undamental. of the .ubject.
Along ....ith greater .tudent relpon.ibility goes the third area - a .horter academic day. U
we are going to require the .tudent to take more re.pon.ibility for hI. profel.ional development,
to be re.ponlible for .tudy a ignmenl., we mu.t give him more time to do thil. At the pre lent
time. the cia. Ie. at the School are org.nized into eight forty_minute periodl. AI of I July we
intenu to go back to a 50_minute period _ with the idea of having not more than Ilx cla room
periodl a day. Another Irend i. to....ard .maller cia he. We recognize that in order to have
.alilfactory conference ....nd di.cu ion. It iI preferable to have .maUer cla e . We are ex_
perimenting with breaking down our adv"-ftced cla e. into four 50-man group. r.ther than the
ZOO m.n cia for .ome period., ... nd ....e ... re experimenting with holding more leminar type
cI'l.el, ....here the cia 11 broken into dilcu.lion groupl.
Another trend iI toward better training aidl and I want to dilcul. thil at lome length. Thil
vu_graph ....hich ....e have been u.ing il be.t uled where the in.tructor hal control of the vu-graph.
It is waltefuJ of perlonnel to have an al.iltant inltructor litting here aU the time for pollibly a
fe .... minutel ule dUr1ng the period. The Inltructor h better control of hi. clal. if he can flip
hh charts al he wiehe . The.e tranlparencie. will become more and more uled, ....e believe,
and we are experimenting with t ....o wayl in which the In.tructor can operate the vu-gr ... ph. One
iI by a mirror and a tranllucent Icreen. The vu-graph iI placed on the platform, Ihinel onto
the mirror which anllel It onto a tranllucent .creen. Recent development. in .creening ma_
terial make thie a high.1y latialactory method of projecting Iran.parenelel. A lecond ....ay i. by

1Z1

&wu::b.ing the vu_graph to the podiwn ~d havine It projected 10 ~ &naled elevaled .creen &bove
Ih. pl&tform. Thi. is a good method. It require., however, that the podiwn be permanenlly
fixed becau.e the ~gle of projection mu.t be determined by e.permentation. In addition to the
u.e of the vu_graph., there are addition&! development. in the field of Iran.parende . First,
I want to di.cu lome of the projector.. You have .een the automatic .Ude projector u.ed in
thi. con.ference. It i. & 35mm .lide projector which i. eh.&nged by the u.e of a button held by
the in.tructor. This particular one only a<:vance. the .lide.. You can now obt;a.in them with ;a
rem ole control unit which hal two button. _ onll for forw&rd movement and one for bAckward
movement. You can u.ll colored picture. orblack and white charts; ~d you can leave them on a.
longa.youwant. It can be uled as & chart and turned quickly to another .ubject without the u.e
of &n A.sistant Inllructor. Another device in the field of projection i. & rather expensive piece
of equipment called the percepto.cope. By u.e of thi. remote control panel the inllructOr hal
complete control of the machine to project either Itill pictures or moUon at ;any r;ate oC .peed
forward or backward. 11'. a very useful inllrwnClnt, 1 think you can .ee how this device eouId
be u.ed for orientation. or briefing.
Another development h;a. come from the Land camera sy.tem. The old 3 by 4.lnch Illntern
.lide projector i. back in ita own. The Pol&roid Land camer& permit. the immedi;ate prepar;a.
tlon of tran'~rendes. For inll&nce, you can take a picture of a chart and immediately have it
available ;as a tran.parency. Here i. one of the charta we u.e in the ITS, in our orientation
briefing. Al.o, you can u.e this camera .y.tem to take a picture of & group. Remember the
picture we took at the beginning of the ela ? Here it i . These trll.D.parende. ean be m&de in
a malter of minute . All it reqllire. is & IIl1.Ddard Polaroid camera which mOil of you are f&.
mili&r with ~d a new type of film which they have developed called the l1an.parency film. It is
not very e.pensive. It COils Ie., thiln fifty cents per projection. Thi. has tremendous &pplica
tion &. you Cll.D see. Suppo.e, for in.t~ce, you had group. working on solution. to & problem.
You could go &l'"ound the el&'.l'"OOm. and take several picture. of their effort., the .cheme of
m&neuver th&t they have developed, and project them on Ihe bo&rd by the time the ell.... is re&dy
to rea emble. You could point out by example. where they m&de error. or were very effective
in their .olution.
The.e then &re some of the new developments which are coming along a. a re.ult of ~etter
use of transparende.. The field of TV and kinescope recording will produce more ;and more
developments in this field, we believe. With some imagin;ation the.e development. can be
adapted to c!&ssroom use, and it lakes imagination to be a good instructor. This i. one oC th.
attributes th;at we Ust a. desirable for our instructors. They must have imagination. They must
h&ve well integr&ted per.ondities. You cannot teach If you ;are all choked up with your own
problems. You must be able to appro&ch teaching (rom the viewpoint oC the student. You must
know whal you are teaching. You must understand how people learn. You must have skill in in
structional methods the method. Ih&t Captain Burn. wall t&lJcing about. when to ulle lecture and
when to ulle con.ference. You must have a sound philolophy oC education and. fln;ally, you mull
be able to communicate your ide& Thele are Ihe qualitle. of a good inllructor that we teach
in our ITC. Achieving good in.truction il not dilficult. It t;akes good organization of material
and training of your instructor
This morning we have discu.sed the mi.sion of the ITS, the way we ol'"ganize les.ons &t the
Infanlry School, IhCl method. we u.e for training inllructors. and, finally, we dl.cuased .ome of
the trend. in In.truction at the School. We believe Ihat the job of pre.enti .. milit&ry instruction
t. oC .uch imporlance th&t It require. the belt effortl of all of ua.

CHAPTER 11
INF ANTR Y TACTICS
Section 1. BATTLE GROUP TACTICS
MAJOR TIIOMAS II. JONES

Instructor, Fundame,.lals, Research and Development Section, Command and Slaff Deparlme,.t
The Inlantryrnan of today, and even more so in the luture. depends heavily on mechanical
mobility, The use of the Infantry carrier and helicopter allows the batUe group to achu::ve tne
speed, dispersion, lluidity of operations and rapid .eblUre of deep objective. mOlt luitable to
the atomic battleUeld, However, non-availability of carrieI'I 01' helicopter I, the enemy situation. rugged terrain 01' low visibility will cause the battle group to frequently ilttack dismounted.
Control measurel most frequently used by the dismounted battle group are the line of departure, boundaries and Objectives. These measures provide the framework within which the
attacking companies are free to function. Boundarie. may be cro.aed providing coordination is
eUected between units concerned. Intermediate objective. are used to inlure the seizure of cri_
tical terrain needed to control the area as the attack progresses. and provide the degree of control deemed necelsary by the battle group commander. While the dismounted battle group can
disperse to only a limited degree, since it mu.t avoid defeat in detail and in pace is that of the
foot soldier. it Ilrive. for continuous movement. rapid clo.ing with the enemy and low atomic
vulnerability. AI.emblyareaa, attack polition. and intermediate objectives are used aparingly
lince their Ule tend. to .tow theattac::k and create locatable and lucrative atomic largets. The
u.e of two 01' three companiea in the attack, the remainder in reserve, is common.
In mechanized attack, an axis or axes .triking toward a deep objective 11 a frequently uaed
control mea.ure. Atomic and nonatomic Cires are rapidly exploited and momentum maintained.
A. enemy position. are uncovered, units deploy from columnar formation. and a ault (.,Isually
di.mounted), then remount and rapidly di.perse.
Security for the attacking battle group h provided by .peed, disper.ion, the u.e of ail' and
ground aecurity elements, and covel' and concealment. In many situation., feints, demonltn._
tiona. amoke, secondaryattacka, and other deceptive measurea can be uled to great advantage.
Night attack a, ulually dl.amounted, will be frequent. Reserves are used to maintain the momen_
tum of the attack and exploit enemy weakness.
The planning and conduct of the battle group attack ia deaigned to aggrea.ively apply super
ior combat power !including atomic and nonatomic firea) at the decisive poinu by proper selection of approache., formationa and organiO!;ation for combat, and maximum use of .upporting
fires.
DEFENSE

There are two ba.h: types of defense position and mobile. The po.ition defenae i. rela_
tively compact and de.igned to atop the enemy forward of the forward edge of the battle area
(FEBA) and dellroy 01' eject him if he .ucceeds in penetrating the area. The mobile defenae 11
a fluid defen.e with forward areas lightly held while the bulk of the force is retained in reserve
to deatroy the enemy by offen.ive action. The "layer" variation of the mobile defense caBa for
the e.tabli.hment of lineal' po.itions in depth with .witch po.ition. connecting the.e "layers" of
blocking position The "lIrongpoint" variation of mobile defense. u.ed when the defender lack.
mobility (il' compared to the enemy) call. for the withdrawal of forward battle group. into IIrongpoinu when enemy pres.ure force uch action. The battle group 11 too .mall to conduct all a.pects of the mobl.le defen.e. Regardle" of the type of defenae being conducted by higher eche

'"

Ion., the battle group conducu lome Corm of po.ition delen.e, delaying action, or combination
of the two, or participate. at part of the reserve.
Boundariet and limiting poil.u deaignate the defentive area. of the battle group and campanie. Gap. between companies of up to 1,000 yards may sometime. be accepted Ilnee 81mm
mortart and I06mm rine. will provide a degree of mutual lupport at this dittance.
Relponsibility for eltablishment and control of the combat outpou (located I, OOOl. 500 yard.
forward of FEBAl i, ulually delegated to frontline companies. Troop. for the COP are furnilhed
by either these campaniea, or by troops of the battle group re.erve auached 10 forward companiel. Occasionally, relponllibility for providing and controlling the COP may be given a re.erve
company commander.
The frontages as.igned in mobile defen.e (up to 9,000 yard. for battle group) and the de.ire for dispersion u.ually require three companies on line. In po.ition defen.e, the divi.ion
may a.sign frontages which permit the battle group to employ two companies in relerve, either
in columnar depth, facilitating counterattack, or placed laterally acro.s the rear area to in_
crea.e blocking capabilities.
The battle group in defen.e organize. to create a flexible system of Hre., barrier. and
positions which will .top the enemy, or weaken and canalize him for de.truction by the .triking
force and atomic fire. of higher unit .

SecUon II. HELICOPTERBORNE BATTLE GROUP OPERATIONS


MAJOR JACK T. DEMPSEY

Imtnu:tor, FundamentalS, Research and Development Section, Command and Staff Department
Present day military thinkers place a tremendous premium on mobility. Scarcely an article
i. written, a speech made, or for that matter a period of instruction pre.ented without a big todo about mobility. Tactical concepti involve wide frontages and great depth [or battle units.
Reserves move rapidly to the point o[ deci.ion then disperlle with equal rapidHy alter defeat o[
the enemy-and many visionaries .ee jet powered air vehicles flitting about the future battlefield
in great abundance.
Our concern [or mobility i. po.itively ju.tified, and the time when we shall .ee tactical air
vehicle. as the primary means o[ battlefield movement may be nearer than we think. But for
today, and like it or not. we are forced to think of today, we must learn to get the most out of the
means we have. For ground mobility we have developed the tnlantry carrier. It gives us reason_
ably good cros.-country mobility a. well a ome protection from enemy fire . Sometimel,
however, the Infantry carrier i. too Ilow and too much restricted by terrain barriers. The only
tactical vehicle we now have which will provide UI more .peed and greater freedom from terrain
restrictions il the helicopter. De.pite the fact that helicopter. have been with u. for some yearl,
now, there are few units in Ihe Army that can claim the ability to use them and achieve the lactical mobility we require. There il Icarcely one unit that can conduct a helicopterborne operation with the .ame ease and dilpatch that it executes a ground attack. SaIne would con.ume more
time in preparing for and carrying out a helicopterborne move than they would for a fool move.
If we are to get full value [rom our helicopterll, if they are to allisl UI in making our concept
of greater battlefield di.per.ion work, we mUlt be able to make the helicopterborne move a
bread-and-butter operation, lomething we can do every day. If this is to be, we must firlt be
fully aware of the ulel to which they can be put, underltand how to u'e them, then la.t and per_
hap. most important, ~ them whenever the opportunity permitl.
In con.idering variou. helicopterborne operation., first let'. look at tho.e u.ing helicopter.
organic to the Infantry and airborne divi.ionl. The Infantry division hal .uUicient (eight to be

130

exact} utility heUcopteTi of the Hl9 type to IUt a riOe platoon. The airborne divhlon haa enough
lilht tun.port helicopteu of the HH type to Uft il rHle compilny. Due to the limited lift Cilpil
bility, pilrtlcularly in the Inlantry divi.ion. moat of the tilcti(:ill mi'lion. for the.e helicopterl
will be of a recOnnil.ilailnce or lecurity nature. For in.tance, in the faIt-moving ilttack .itua-

Ob['lIfi

.-

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Figure 75.

Flank

__

Protection.

tion. utility helicopter. are attached to the battle grO\lp with an expo.ed flank:. (Figure 75). The
bolu.le group reconnai.sance platoon. reinforced by two helicopterborne rifle squadl hal been
given a nank security mis.ion. As the attack progres.e the helicoptera are uled to move
rille 'quad. to occupy .ucceslive ob.ervation poatl and roadblockl. to conduCf reconoaia.ance
from the air, and to withdraw the riflemen in cil.rryinz out delay of enemy approachinz from the
flanks. U.ed in thil way the helicopter in effect become. a part of the lecurlty element and re
mains with it throughout the misaion. Conduct of lhia type misaion will require a very high atale
of training on the part of Infantry .quad al well a. initiative and relource!ulneSI of thei.r
leadera. II will aho require a high state of proficiency for helicopter pilou in low level contour
flying to take advantage of available cover a.nd conceal.ment.
Oivi.i.onal helicoptera may alao be uled frequently to deliver reconnalalance patrola into
enemy territory (Figure 76). A. with olher reconnai.sance piltrola in enemy territory, theae
piltrola will uau.uJy be conducted at night to take advantage of concealmenl. One of the accom
pilnyinz problema ia to provide diverliona to permit the patrol to be landed undetected. Artil.
lery lirea will probably provide lhe beat covering noiae. Further diveraion may be achieved
by 10000ding al additional aitea either befOre or after landing the patrol. Thi. technique haa func
tioned very well in teau and training exerci.e.. Due to the difficulty of concealing helicopter.
on the ground, they normally ahould nOI remain behind enemy linea to withdraw the palrol, ex
cept in operation. of very ahort duration, lucn al a raid.
Another problem incldenl to thil type operation II the diUiculty or navigation al night. Some
divi.lonal helicopter unlu actually hilve achieved con.iderable ,kill in thia type of night flying.
By thorough map .tudy. by lelection of route. to take "dvant"ge of e"'Uy identHiabte terrain
feature uch al ro"dl and Itream., and wherever pollible by previoul daylight reconnailaance.
efficient flightl can be made under conditionl of one quarter moonlight.
Helicopterborne operationl on a lublt"ntially larger .cale muat depend on aircraft not 01'131

.~.~

--

:~.

Figure 76.

Movement of Reconnail.ance Patroll,

ganic to the division. For efficiency and economy the." helicopter. are now pooled at field
army level and allocated to lower echelon. al required. There are two principal cla es of
helicopter. now in u.e for this purpole. One i, the light transport luch al the H34. The other
is the medium tran.port of the H37 type. This helicopter has a J Ion payload and leau Zl troop"
It may be converted. however, to carry as many a. 34.
Many DC the operatione employing traneport helicopters will be in the nature of tactical
troop movemenU behind our own forward elemenu. In preparation for an attack, unitt may be
moved by helicopter from disperled areas to attack pOlitions (Figure 77). Fire support elementa
may be ahifted to poaitiona from which they can aupport the attack. Once the objective ia secure,
diapersal may be effected by helicopter movea. Similar move a may be carried out in defenaive
situations to commit reserves to blocking positions and to counterattack positions. These moves
have many of the attributes of motor moves and much of the planning is accomplished in the aame
manner. There are some peculiarities that warn.nt special attention. Because of these peculiarities, tactical air moves should be preplanned in considerable detail, at least until the unit
Involved has conducted several and has developed SOP's. Organization for the move, that is,
attachment of unita and order of march, is determined by the anticipated employment and desired disposition in the new area. Tactical Integrity" maintained wherever pos.ible and weapons and crews are loaded together. Headquarters and other critical elements are loaded in two
or more helicopters to reduce the riak of loas. The air column ia organized into aerials and
flight units in much the same manner aa for a motor march.
BaUle group selecta and asalgns loading aites for each aubordinate unll. Theae aubordinate
unita then mark the loading sites for recognition by helicopter pilots. The companies of the
battle group are also reaponsible for preparalion of aling loads aa well aa for hook-up of the
loada 10 helicoptera. Almoat aU movea by helicopler will involve aome loada to be carried
e:lliernally by aling or cargo neta. AI pre-sent, slings and cargo nets are being "sued to heli_
copter unita. Thla meana that they must be delivered to the unit to be lUted prior to arrival of
132

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ell

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Figure 77.

-=~=---)
Tac~ic:al

'
.

.'

Movement of Tl'oop, Behind Friendly Line.

transport helicopters in order to permit riBling of lOOld. Aru.ngementl mUlt .110 be made lor
return of the lilt equipment {ollowinll completion of the move. When we arrive It the ltage of
development in which the.e moves are truly commonplace. it appear. that the external load
carrying equipment Ihould be organic:: to the battl'\! group. Rigging and hookup are reb.rively
.imple mateen which can be taught in a ahort period of time.
Communication between elemenu o{ the battle group prior to loading i. maintained through
normal channel . Once unit. are loaded. control I. maintained through helicopter radio. AU
helicopter units now have ARC 14 radio a which will net with Infantry 'ets.
Landing .ite. in the de.tination area, a. well a. loading .ite. in the departure area. mull
be .elected and marked. It i. de.irable to u.e .ite. which will reduce foot movement at either
end to a minimum. Terrain will most often be the principal limiting factor. Terrain require
menta vary wilh diHerent typea of helicopter.. For tht. reaaon. and for other integrated plan
oing. it h nece.aary lh.at the hehcopter unit eatabluh early liaieon with the unit to be tran.ported.
Some elements of the bailie group will move over land. The compoairion of Iheae elements
Wlll depend upon hehcopter availability. tAChcal requirementa. And time and dialance filctora.
In Addition to the ilaaault gun platoon and nontran.poruble element a or the reconnal'aance plil
tOOl'. aome vehlc:Jea of mortar battery. headquarter. and the rifle companies may be inc:tuded.
The reconn.al'.ance pl.toon may be u.ed to mark lilnding .ite. and route' in the deatination area.
Movement of elements overland mu.t be pl.nned to permit arrival at the de.til\alion in time ror
employment In the projected operation.
Rehear.al. may be carri.d out when time and other condition. permit. They are particularly de.lrabla when the units InVOlved have hAd no prevtou. experience in helicopter movea. Re
hear,al. ahowd include.11 pha'ea or the operation, including mu.ter and reporhng or helicopter a
I3J

to loading site8. Usually helicopters allocated lor movement of reserves are not physically
located with the reUlrvel. They may be kept in separate dispel'llal areas Or they may be committed on other missions liD long as these other missions will permit them to be assembled and
reported to loading .ite. within a specified time.

Several of the items thue covered can and should be reduced to SOP's. Although probably
no one operation will permit U8e of the SOP without changes, considerable savinI! of time can be
effected.

~N-.
Figure 18.

Prellent Situation, 10th Infantry Division.

There I, another type of operation which hall 80me distinctive features and which rna)" be
frequently executed by the battle group. This hal been variously called the vertical cnvelopmen~.
the hellcopterborne assault. and the airphibious operation. It involves the delivery of uniu to
the rear or Clanks of the enemy. from whence ground actIon can be carried out. To illustrale
this type operation, let's look at a divillion attack situation (Figure 78).
The 10th Division has been attacking to the east.
morning to objective IOL

It continues the attack early tomorrow

Late this afternoon, elementl of the 10th Division seb.ed a bridgehead over the Chattahoochee River in the Fort Benning area. Forward elements are as shown. The division has only
a small force ealt of the river. Crossing will continue tonigh~, however, and dispositionl early tomorrow morning should be as shown in Figure 79. The other units of the division remain in
dispersed areas west 01 the Chattahoochee.
The attack will be preceded by an atomic preparation on enemy main defenses and local
reserves. Following dosely behind the preparation the main attack is launched In the south by
Zd BG. 7 th Inf. mechanized with Inlantry carriers and relnlorced with !.aMS. This main at

134

-'. ---...

~I,-=,,=-
-'-~1

.-...,

Figure 79.

Plan of Attack.

tack is to penetrate the enemy position a. rapidly ... po.8lble and continue the attack to the division objecllve.
A secondary altol.ck IS being made in the north by the Znd BG, 10th Inllighting on toot.
Because thIS attack i. being made on foot and because the enemy pOlittan i. In .omewhat great_
er depth here, thill IlIt,'lck in the north will probably move more 8lowly lhan the main attack in
the south.

In addinon to the attacks by theBe two battle groups on the ground, "nother 11 being launched
by helicopter. EnouJoCh lr.lnllporl helicopten have been attached 10 thc divi.ion to !if! a battle
group. US10il those heli<:opterll. 1st BG, 87th Inf. now located welt of the Chattahoochee. will
attack In two area., on objective Y and on obJect.ve X. The hehcopteu arrive to ptck up troops
)IISI before the atomiC preparation. They land for load1l'lg right In the assembly area.
Immediilolely folJoWlng the 3tomic preparation, a two company task farce moves by hehcopler to a sheltered polillon to the rear of objective Y, concealed f'om ene,,,y positions on the
fringe of the iltomlC eHects area (Figure 80). As soon as the task force IS on the grouD.d, It at_
Lacks to complete destruction of the enemy force on objecllve Y. Once Ihis Is accomphshed, it
IS to do one of Iwo thinss. U the auack of the mechanized battle group from the southeast is
progressing satisfaclonly, linkup between the twO WlU be effected very shortly. The hehcop_
ter landed force may then be relifted Out of the area to prepare for another suack. U, however,
the mechanl7.ed attack is not progressing sat,sfactonly, the hdicopter landed lask force may
cont1l'lue ItS attack 10 tbe soulh...,eat to further a,slst the penetratiOn. ThIS t.ak force baa a
purely oHenslve million. It will nOl attempt to le\Ze, then defend terrain. The concept of
these an..cks In the louth IS 10 strike the enemy as IYrd and as rapidly.s pollible with. deci
slve (orce to eHect the penetration quick.1y,
1J5

.'.-..

~N-

Figure 80.

Helicopler Attack 01 a Defended Area.

At the .ame time the task force I, moving in on objective Y, the remainder of lu BG.
87th InIi. helicopterborne On it. way to objective X. There it Wilililnd and prep.ire to block enemy
withdrawals ~d l'einIorc:emenU. and to ,U,I'I in destruction of the enemy troop. to the ""est.
Thh helicopterborne lorce leaves ita a.sembly area {oUoWlnr. along the Ch.i.uahoox.hee, then
along Upatoi Creek to iu objective area. Thi. Toute avoid. enemy positions a. much a. po lble.
It ia ea.y to identify from the air. The hehcopters Oy at treetop level to obt...!n concealment
from the enemy to the flank . It I, recogmzed that theae hehcopter. are VlI1nerllble to grO\lnd
fire.. We ml,lU u.e every meanS available to protect lhC!m. We seek to fly through Lhe g~ps tn
enemy lines. Artillery lires ~re scheduled on known or suspected enemy positions ~Iong the
route. We may use smoke to screen our movement. Taclical Air Force Is c&lled upon to protect us from enemy all' and to suppress ground lires. Escort helicopters armed with machine
guns and rockets accompany the column to attack previously unlocated enemy weapons.

Now take a closer look at objective X IFigure 81). Intelligence indicates Ihat it is not physically occupied by the enemy. We therefore land directly on the objective to permit the greatest
speed In organit;lng the position. Arter unloading, the helicopters take 0(( and return by the
same route. Only about nve minutes should elapse from the time the hrst helicopter .eU down
until the last one is airborne on the way out. Rifle troops move immediately to aSSigned POSItion. on the ground (Figure 8Z). Since the enemy is on all sides, It is nece.sary to set up "n "U
"round defense. Early warning of the enemy's approach IS proV1ded by the reconnaiss"nce "nd
security line compo.ed of outposn, observatlon posu, rQ;ldblocks, "nd patrols operanng out
beyond our defenSive posiuon.
The Circular pattern of the defensive pO'ltion offers the best in security and strength ag"ln'l
ground "nack from "ny directlon. It is quite vulnerable to atomic weapons however. A 50 kilo_
ton at...mlc weapon 'f"ill destroy the defending unit. We mUll, therefore, take step' to reduce the
risk (Figure 83). Unles, an enemy ground att"ck is imminent, elements of the hellcopter landed
force will, as sOOn as they have located their defensive posiuons, move out from these po.ltions
to reinforce the security elements. There they will prepare delaying pOSiliOllS while about a
thlr.!!. of the force remain. to prepare the defen.lve posItions. In the event of enemy attack, far
In.t;J.nce frOm the east, the troops disposed on the outer perimeter fight a del/l.ylng action back
to the prep.lred defen,lve PO'ltlOn. Troop' along unthreatened pOrtlOnS of the outer perimeter
'NtH rem"in there. The "blilty of the hellcopterborne force to perform this type of maneuver
depends In large part upon the mobility of the OPpo'lng force otnd the nature of the terr;J.!n. Thl'

13.

1
I

Figure 81.

Helicopter Landing in iln Undefended Area

Figure ., .

O, .. ni~a.lIon of Oeren..l
137

Figure 83.

Expanlllon of the Defense Posihon.

area is quite wooded except for small dearings such as those where the hehcoplerborne force
landed. In thill kind of terrain. foot troops may be expected to do very well In delay against a
mechanized enemy. tn open terrain. thill maneuver would be Inore difficult.
This heHcopterborne assault on objective X il intended to contain the enemy to the weSI and
permit his early destruction by the advancing ground allack. The mislion il both offensive and
defensive. Once the juncture has been accomplillhed. the helicopter landed forcel revert to reserve and disperse or arc dispatched on other mill.ions.
These heHcopterborne operations which Wf' have illustrated are repre,entaltve of thOle the
battle group may undertake. There are others which we have not shown. For all of them. how.
ever. it can be 'atd that the helicopter. it' limitation' notwithstanding. represenU the fastest
means of tactical mobility now llVaLiable. The key to succe" in their use hes tn understanding
their tachcal value and in pr<actice.

Section

m.

MOBILE TASK FORCE OPERATIONS

CAPTAI

JOliN M. WELCH

1n.slrUClor. Commillee DELTA. Command and Staff Department


Recently the Command and Staff Department has ..dded a new prOblem. a hve Iring demon
lIIratlOn deplcuna a companysh.e mobile task force \Vlth atomic support. ThiS demonstral1on
IS accompllnied ill each level oC Instruchon oC leader type dilsses at the Infantry School by prob
lems in which the studenu form tilsk Corces comrnen,urate with their level of Instruction ilnd In
lOme cases act as the Infilntry members of 'ueh task Corces. Whi.le the demOnStrdllon covers
most of the teAching polnlS appl.C:Able to Ltsk forces. II 4ccentll the techniques involved .n their
otclu.ll operationl ,tnd emphasi7.es the training. teilmwork, dnd prearrdngeJ maneuvers necessary
In a highly mobile ,ltuation.

'38

introduction. The military definilion of a task fOrce is a tempOrary grouping of unit I under
one commander to perform a lIpecilic misllion. Task forces are not new. One of the earliest
ta.sk fOl'Cell of our own army was the Legion Formation of 1793 designed specifically to fight
Indians On the frontier. it was a balanced force of Infantry, mounted rifles, a troop of dragoons,
and a company of artillery. These formations under General Anthony Wayne were lluccessful In
defeating the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Such forces have been used throughout
military history to get a special job done.
The mobile task force of today has taken on added significance for use on the atomic battlefield. It offers a hard hitting unit which can mass quickly, attack, and again dillperse before ,t
becomes a target for enemy atomic fires.
Attention was focused on the ulle and training of task (orces by Continental Army Command
Memorandum Number 13, dated <I June 1956, titled Organization and Training for Mobile Task
Force-Type Operations. This memorandum pointeJ out the necessity for flexibility of organization and the need for widely dispened, highly mobile forces on the atomic banlefield. Field
commanders were directed to experiment with various sizes and combinationll of task forces and
report on those considered most effective. Guidance was furnished on the size forces from pla_
toon to regimental level with appropriate missions for each. While this memorandum was pubHllhed prior to the reorganization of the Infantry Division, the concept and principles are equ<l.lIy
applicable to our present organization.
Mobile tallk forcell may take many forms and be put to varied uses. The forces employed
may move in trucks, i'l full tracked vehicles, by helicopters, or by combinations of these. The
size of the task force and the type units assigned is dependent on the mislion, the enemy situa
tion, the type of terrain over which it must operate, and the troops and equipment available to
the commander respon8ible for Ihe formation of the task force. It may be of ballie group 8ize
with one or aU of the companie8 of the battle group as a nucleus. It may have one or more of the
platoons of the rifle company as a basis while the platoon size force may have rUle squadll as a
nucleus with other elements to support it. The size and composition of the task force will vary
as often as the mission. The commander does not lltereoty~ his tallk forces but retail'll flex,bdity of organization by fitting each ta!k force to its mission and the current situation.
Whatever the !ize force the commander should insure that it contains a headquarters or con
trol clement, one or more maneuver elements, and nrc !Upport elements. Fire support elements may be direct, 'ndirect, or both, dependent On the misSIon. The strength of each element will depend upon the distance the task force will operate from the parent unit, the desired
ratio of fire support to maneuver elements, and how long it must sustain itself independently to
accomplish the mission. These factors may aho cause the commander to add security Or re
connai!sance elements and logistical support.
Since the organization of each task force is dependent upon the missiOn, the enemy, the terrain and weather, and the troops available, it'll necellsary to first depict the tactical situatlon
wh'ch caulled the task force we are concerned With to be formed (rigure 841. Location of the
demonstration area IS on the ridge 400 yards cast of the junction of Lorraine CrOllS and Moor("
Roads.
General S'tuation. The 10th U. S. Infantry Division has been attacking south against suc
ce.sive enemy defensive pollitionll with lltrOng delaYIng forces between them. The position along
Macon Road has been breached and the d,vision commander has ordered the 1st BG, 87th Infan
try to make a reconnaissance in force against a suspected defensive line along Buena VIsta RO,ld
while the remainder of the division is moppIng up. For this mi.ssion the dIviSion commander
'lttachell to the battle group _ a tank company, an engineer company, a platoon of Infantry earTiers and sufficient transportation to motorize the entire battle group.

139

Figure 84.

General Situation, 10th Infantry Di"iluon.


1<0

Since 'peed i ' e ential in this operation, .nd to exploit the breaching of the enemy defenle
and continue the impetus of the attack, the battle group conunander decide. to ulili~e '" u.lk lorce
to lead hi. attack. The tlemenu of hi. ta.k loree have prcVlou.ly rehearsed or taken p;lrl in
.imilar operattnn. and can be prepared to mOve on short notice. Planning will be brief and the
t;. . k lorce commander will rely heaVily on previously developed Standing Operahng Procedures
and previou.ly rehearsed battle dril".

Organir.ation. In forming this ta.k Coree the baltle group commander again considered hll
miion. the enemy. terrain and weather. and the troops available. He de.ignated a company
commander a. ta,k lorce commander. Since mo.t of the uniU oC the talk Co~ce a~e Crom the
battle g~oup and the platoons oC the rille company are uled as a nucleus. the o~ganizalion oC both
oC thue unit. is reviewed b~ielly (Figure gS).

FROM

BATTLE GROUP

FROM DIVISION

Figure 85.

Task Force Organization.

From a rille company we take a portIon OCItI headquarten fo~ the task Co~ce command element. The ta.k force commande~ Will have wilh him his control group 10 include hll weapon.
platoon leader. a mo~tar battery ro~ward observer party. an 8111'111'1 mo~tar forward observer.
the communications .ergeant. radio operator. and messengerl.
The company elCecutive officer. supply le~8e.. nt. armo~er and mechaniC' will comprllol': the
mobilol': command post group and WIll be In the column in another vehicle.
Two oC the nlle platoonl With their ar.enal of Imall arml. W\II proVlde thol': necel'l~y po.... er.
CuJ maneuver ele\ent and give the tal)- COree the c:apabllllY oC holdln, ground once It 11 .ell.ed.

The three 81mm mOrtlr .quadl and two 10011'111'1 Intnank Iquad. oC Ihe
Curnilh part of the indirect and d.reCI Cite IUpport

_eapo~

pl.. toon Wilt

Thil leavel the company WIth two nne plltoon. _h'eh the ba.ttle group commander may Ule
al the nucleul oC other ta.k Corcel or .. nlch to other ,.,f1e companIes.
In addition 10 thele uniU the commander deCides to add from Ihe headquarlen oInd held
qUilrterl company an "mbulance Crom the med.cal platoon for eVo1lcua\lon of woundol':d. and In
engineer squad from the battle group enllnee~ plo1lIO<ln 10 a.llIt In mine delecllOn Ind c1eolr"nce.

'"

and to perform minor engineer tasks.


A platoon of 4. Z inch mortars is added {rom the battle group
mortar battery to Insure the task force of sufficient mdirect fire
supporl for the mission.
Thele units comprise the basic essentiall. for this task force.
To give it the added combal power believed necessary. the banle
group commander adds the follOWIng elements of d,vuJional units
attached to the battle group: fi rst, a tank platoon from the lank
company to provide greater dIrect fire support and maneuver
capabilities. This platoon of one officer and nineteen men provi.des the task force With heavily armoreri firepower and excellent communications. tUl rive 90mm guns, five. 50 caliber and
five. 30 calibe .. machineguns are a welcome asset in any fight.

[8]
w(-)

Second, sufficient Infant .. y ca ....ien a .. e added to mechaniz.e


the task force and to give i! a deg ..ee of armo .. prolection. Each
of these M.59 carriers mounts a .50 cali be .. machine gun and can
ca .. rya squad of men. Radios a ..e interspersed among the carrien to fu ..nish communications fo .. control of the task fo ..ce

(-)

And finally, a reconnaissance helicopter is fu .. nished to ,n_


crease the task fo .. ce's reconnaissance capab.lIty. This helicopte .. may also be used fo ....esupply 0 .. evacuation of wounded.

[8]

[8]

He .. e is a fighting team which possesses !lexibility of o .. gani.


zatlon, a high deg ..ee of c ..oss-count ..y mobility and excellent
communications. ThlS task force can move, ShOOI, and communicate.

('C;""l
~

EB

[8]
Figure 86.
Order of Movemllnl.

O ..der of Movement. The task force commande .. must now


decide hlS o ..der of movement (Figu ..e 86.) This order or movement is adopted for the Initial movement to contact; the locahon
of elements within the task force w,lI change with the situation.
The task fo ..ce commander places units In the column in the 0"de .. in which he expects to use them, and to obtain maximum security and cont ..ol.
The tank platoon will lead to take advantage of ,ts direct fi .. e
weapons and armor p ..otection. This platoon ,s kept intact so
thai it may !ight as a team.
The task fo ..ce commande .. locates himself close behind hi.
lead element so that he can qUIckly take control of any situation
which arl.es. He will retain fo .. his cont ..ol group the carrie ..
with the radio which give. him the ,.reatest !lexlbl1ity of communication and enable. him 10 contact all Units of the task fo ..ce and
the batlle g ..oup commander.
Behind the control group IS the enginee .. squad; ..ead.ly available to keep the ..oad clea .. of obstllcle .
FollOWing thIS will be the fir" nne pllltoon. lIS formallon
will va ..y lIcco ..dlng to the le .. raln over whIch It IS ope ..atlnJt. AI
times the tanks and carriers adopt an integrated forml\tlon.

14l

The 8lmm mortars of the weapons platoon are well forward in the column so that they can
remain within range of thc lead elements at all times.
Next will be the sOlconu rifle platoon minus one squad. a lOa dnhtank squad for antltal,k protechon of the column. the rem:lInder of the CP group to Include the ambulance, the 4.2. ,nch
marta r platoon. and an anlltank squad. and a rifle squad for rear secur,ty.
The hehcopter will be .n radio contact with the task force commander and will reconnoIter
to the front and flanks of the column. This hebcopter may also be used to maintdin contact wIth
other frIendly forces in the area. A trained observer may nde w,th the p1lot as th ... representat.ve of the task force commander, Or the task force commander may use the hehcopter for re_
connaissance and control of the task force.
The tactlcs for the TF's Operaltons are the same as those for any unit of Slllular s,:>,;e. but
to cap,tallze on the mobihty and fIre power inherent to this force the commander 'nust be pre
pared to take qUIck. aggressIve actIon whenever he meets res1stance. His planmng must be a.
delalled a. tune ",ill perm't, There will be habllu... l use of fragmentary orders and reliance'! on
the ,niliallve of .ubordin1l.lCs. The use of prearranged code words and Vlsual signah should
launch baSic maneuvers tn minimum time. The establlshrr.ent of SOP', and dnlls developed 10
combined arms tr'lIning will be of great value ,n ,nsuring qUick actIon by all leaderll. Phase
hnes. check points, and planned concentrations along the aXlll of advance WIll aSS'lll 1n control
and on calling for indirect fires.

Figure 87.

Demon.trallon Terrain and Conlrol .'ealure .

Special Situation. Prtor to tr.. lltan of th,' action the shl<l.. nlll .He or.ented on the 10~'dl ter_
ram dnd the control fe,ltures for th.ll ,ltea (~~Igure 1:17). Bl".u,ht"rl .Ire lcx.,tt<l .u .ho.... n by lh..,
leiter "X" on the map and are facll1g south. Check pomu uu,d al obJectlv" .11'''' md,(;dted 0'\ thc
ground by numbereu panels. AKfolr".sor l,re" dr .. slmuJdt,d by USlnil demolttlon .

141

As we join the task force it has just encountered the strong delaying position along the ndge
extending east from BM 48Z to HILL 477. After reconnaissance by ground and air. the task
force has moved back and caUed for a low yield atomic weapon.
Demonstration. A simulated atomic weapon is detonated near BM i8Z. Shortly thereafter
the lead tank of the task force is seen moving down Moore Road. This tank hin a minefield connecling two heavily forested area, on the sides of the road. An Aggressor AT gun covering the
mine field fires on the tank and disables it.
The ensuing action of the demonstration is covered by the voices of the task force commander
and his leaders. and by Ihe narrator. ~ RAtNBOW KINGPIN. THIS IS RAINBOW ALPHA. MY
LEAD TANK HIT A MINEFIELD JUST SOUTH OF PHASE LINE BLUE AND WAS DISABLED BY
AN ANTITANK GUN OOWN THE ROAD. I AM RETURNING FIRE. OVER.
TF CO: ALPHA THIS 15 KINGPIN. I'M ON MY WA't UP, WHAT CAN YOU SEE? OVER.
TK CO: THIS IS ALPHA. NOT TOO MUCH. THERE'S A LOT OF SMOKE AND DUST. MY RADlAC INSTRUMENTS INDICATE IT'S NOT TOO HOT IN AREA. THE ONL't ENEMY I'VE SEEN
WERE ON THAT AT GUN. OVER.
TF CO: THIS IS KINGPIN, HOLD ON AND I'LL CONTACT THE CHOPPER. BREAK: RAIN
BOWSTAR. THIS IS RAINBOW KINGPIN. OVER.
HELICOPTER: THIS IS RAINBOW STAR, I HEARD YOUR TRANSMISSION. THAT SHOT HIT
NEARLY EVERYONE ON PHASE LINE BLUE. BUT THERE ARE STILL SOME POSITIONS UNTOUCHED ON HILL 477 AND THE RIDGE SOUTHWEST OF IT. TERRAIN EAST OF YOUR
DISABLED TANK APPEARS TRAFFICABLE. TERRAIN TO THE WEST IS HEAVILY WOODED.
OVER.
TF CO: THIS IS RAINBOW KINGPIN. ROGER. MOVE TO THE EAST, KEEP CLEAR OF OUR
FIRES AND WATCH THE LEFT FLANK. BREAK:
RAINBOW ALPHA. THIS IS RAINBOW KINGPIN, BYPASS LEFT, WE WILL JOIN YOU. OUT.
Not knowing the depth of the minefield and having a lorce capable of cross-country move
ment, the task rorce commander takes advantage ol the leeway afforded by an axis or advance
and decides to bypass with the majority of his force. Based on the information transmitted by
the helicopler he determines that the best roule is to the eaSI and begins movement in Ihat o.i.
rection immediately. While his mi'sion i, dominant at all times he take' action to clear the
road for the remainder of the battle group. Here are his aclions.
SAY. COMMO SGT. CONTACT THAT ENGINEER SQUAD BEHIND US AND TELL THEM TO
CLEAR A LANE THROUGH THE MINEFIELD BY THAT DISABLED TANK. THEY CAN USE
THEIR. 50 CALIBER MACHINEGUN ON THE CARRIER TO COVER THEM AND I'LL ADD A
106 AND SOME MORTAR SUPPORT.

81 FO, DISMOUNT THE MORTARS. HAVE ONE MORTAR PUT SOME WHITE PHOSPHOR
OUS ON THAT ANTITANK GUN AND THE OTHER MORTARS BE PREPARED TO FIRE ON
CHECK POINT 8.
WEAPONS PLATOON LEADER, CONTACT THE L.EAD 106 AND TELL HIM TO MOVE UP
TO SUPPORT THE ENGINEERS.
MOR,TAR BATTERY FO,. PREPARE TO FIRE ON THOSE POSITIONS ON CHECK POINT 6
WHEN I ASK FOR IT.
OK. DRIVER, MOVE OUT AND TAKE THE FIRST TRAIL TO THE LEFT.
In effect, a small task force has been left to deal with the minefield and the enemy on the

...

road. Becau.e ot the remaining enemy po.ltiona niH intact on the terrain to be covered, the
mortan are alerted to be prepared to fire on them to a i.t the movement ol the taak force.

In moving through the bypa area the tank. move a 'ection at a time while t'le other aectlon
cover.. They are fi red on by the enemy a. they move.
TK: !tAl NBOW KINGPIN, THIS IS RAINBOW ALPHA. I AM RECEIVING FIRE FROM VICINITY
OF CHECK POINTS SIX AND EIGHT. AM RETURNING FIRE. OVER.
TF CO: THIS 15 KINGPIN, ROGER, I CAN SEE THEM. CONTINUE YOUR FIRES AND BE PRE
PARED TO ATTACK BOTH OBJECTIVES ON MY SIGNAL. YOU WlLL LEAD EACH RIFLE PLATOON WITH A SECTION OF YOUR TANKS. OVER.
TK: THIS IS ALPHA, ROGER, OUT.
The t;J,nk. have taken up hull defilade po.ition. and are returning the fire when the ta.k force
commander arrive . Since the enemy ia .till occupying the area. he must attack to facilitate
the accompli.hment of hi. mis.ion. Hia atuck order. are .Imple and ba.ed on prearranged
maneuver. and control features.

TF CO: KINGPIN ONE AND TWO, THIS IS KINGPIN ALPHA. MOVE TO MY FLANKS AND PLAN
TO ATTACK CHECK POINTS SIX AND EIGHT. KINGPIN ONE WILL BE ON THE LEFT AND
ATTACK CP 6. KINGPIN TWO WILL BE ON THE RIGHT AND ATTACK CP 8.
FOLLOW THE TANKS TO THE OBJECTIVES ON MY SIGNAL. OVER.
1ST PLAT: THIS IS KINGPIN ONE. ROGER. OUT.
ZD PLAT: THIS IS KINGPIN TWO. ROGER.. OUT.
TF CO: MORTAR BATTERY FO. GIVE ME TIME FIRE ON CHECK POINT 6 AND SHIFT TO THE
EAST AFTER THE CARRJERS HALT ON THE OBJECTIVE.
EIGHTY-ONE FO. GIVE ME SOME VT ON CHECK POINT 8 AND SHIFT TO THE SOUTH
AFTER THE CARRJERS MOVE ON THE OBJECTIVE.
MORTAR BATTERY FO, GET ME SOME SMOKE ON THAT RIDGE ALONG AMERICO TRAIL.
TOO. PUT THE ARTILLERY ON IT.
The direct lire. of the tanks are joined by those of the 106 .quad. while the carriers of the
rifle platoon. are moved into position. Time or VT lires are requested to keep the enemy down
while the tanks and Inlantry carriers attack the objectives. Smoke is placed on the next terrain
feature to screen the operation.

TF

co:

THERE COME OUR MORTARS. MESSENGER, FIRE THAT GRENADE.


ALL RAINBOW STATIONS, THIS IS RAINBOW KINGPIN. MOVE OUT.

Once the indirect lire. begin the tank. lead the way to the objective. The tank. and carrier.
move a. far a. po ible under the time fire. A. the.e (ire' are .hifted the Infantry platoon.
di.mount under cover of the u,nk weapon. and the. 50 caliber machinegun. of the carrier. for the
a ault. Once the objectivea are .ecured the Inf",ntry will again mount on the carriers and continue the mi ion of the ta.k Corce. Thi. conclude. the demon.tration.

While'" company.ize type ta.k force was u.ed for the demonatralion, the principle' of organization, the type. of mil.ions, and the technique. of operation are the .ame for any .ize
force. To the Infantry maneuver elements, capable of moving on foot, by ground vehicle Or
through the air, we add the proper balance of command, direct and indirect Cire elemenu to fit
each mi ion. Future tactical organiz"'tion. may well be made up of .uch highly mobile group.
ing moving quickly from widely dispeued area. to concentrate, strike at a deciaive point and
rapidly dl'per.e before the enemy can react with ma.s destruction weapon.. The flexibility oC
organization of ta.k COrce', the variety of ml..sions whl.ch they can perform, the speed with which
they can be organlzoed, make the'e Independent force. valuable to the field commander.

SecUon IV. WEAPONS AND ASSAULT GUN PLATOONS IN THE ATTACK

CAPTAIN DONALD B. CARMICHAEL

Instructor, Committee DELTA, Command and Slafl Departme"t


A dilltingui.hed General once concluded a briefing relative to an impending attack with thelle
weHchosen and Inspiring word., "God favors the bold and strong of heart". History reminds UI
that this initial encou ..agement, coupled with a IOUI'd maneuver and lire support plan were in
.trumental in gaining an American division a foothold on Guadalcanal in the early campaigns of
WW II. There are many variables In (:ombat. euclt al leadenhip, enemy. weather and lerrain.
Today. however, we will be concerned with one of the "Old Reliablell" of battle -- tire power and
iu corollary. fire support. Specifically, we will cover the weapons platoon of a rifle company,
the assault gun platoon or battle group headquarters company and their fire power and employment. Before the demonstration begins. let us discuss the weapons of these platoons briefly.
Combat experience, improvements in weapons and techniques along with the advent o[ atomic
weapons ilnd the resulting requirement [or mobility ilnd dispersion brought about a reorganization o[ the Infantry divilion. For example, the weapon. platoon of a rifle company pack. the
lolid high explosive punch of the 81mm mortar and the effective antitilnk protection of the IOomm
recoille.s rifle. The battle group headquarter. compilny now hal an as.ault gun platoon. Thi.
platoon i. organized with four a.sault guns. (M.48 Patton Yonk. with 90mm gun). Ultimately a
guided mis.ile wiU replace this interim weapon. This missile wiU be cilpable of minimum and
maximum range killing ability. and will be controlled by Infantry personnel on the ground. Such
mis.iles are under development.
Today, gentlemen. we will be concerned wit... a demonstration which wtU portray the tactical employment of the weapons platoon and the a.sault gun platoon in .upport or a rifle company
in its seizure of an objective.
In previous problems in this area students have conducted a terrain exercise involving the
planning. troop leading and coordination coincl.dent to the employmenl of the a.s.ault gun a.nd
weapons platoon. in the atta.ck. Emphasi. is placed on the method of utilization, .election of
tiring position and timely displacement of the.e weapon. to support the attack. the consolidation of an objective, and the preparation for the continuance or the attack. So that you may follow the lequence of action. thil is the general and .pecial situation (Figure 88) .

\...

.,: to

...

...

.../

. ,.

~.

-.L

t
-.

0
1\

Figure 88.

Generd Situation.

146

The I.! 8illlJe Group, 87th InSilntry i. aUaclung we.t, elemenU oC tU reconnau .... nc:e Corce.

Mve encountered .tubborn re.i.tance and hollye been Ilopped 1000 y... rd.... e.t of J....."e.towlI

R~d.

Friendly unin on our nank. h... ve been held up aho. The Zd Butle Group, 7th Infanlry u on our
left "'-nd generaUy ilbreil.t, whereat the l.d Battle Group. 10th lnb.ntry, on our niht Iua been
held up ea.t of Jame.town Ro..d. Thi. expo.e. the right flank of I.t BG, 87th InC. The battle
group comm"nder h". been directed to continue the .Huck and ..llZe prominent lerr.. i" feature.
In hi. zone. The.e terrain feature. are objectlve. II and IZ and are ..... llned to Comp...nie. A
and B re.pectively. For the demonltration, we will be concerned with CO A'. sone of action
and the .eill.ure of it. intermediate objective (Figure 89) .

Figure 89.

Spectal Situation.

The I.t Battle Group, 87th InSantry do.ed into a embly area. ea.t oC J",-,ne.townROOld at
07}0 houu. At 0800, the BG commander i ued hi. warning order for the continuation of the
attack; Hhour I. at 1100 houu today.
Captain Company A and Lt Firepower, hi. weapon. platoon leader. received the battle group
warning order and have now returned to the company. While the company executive officer takes
the nece ary action to alert the company for the attack. the company commander and hi. platoon
leaders go forward to conduct a reconnai ance.
Durins the reconnal ance. the company commander provides Suldallce using map and
sround reference"
He determine. that an hltermediate objective, marked AI mu.t be .eized
before hi' compllny can continue the attack to Objective II. He ba.e. hi. ded.ion upon reported
enemy .tren8th in thh area.
In hll concept of the au..ck the company commander indicate. he will 'eiz.eAI with the fiut
platOOn, employing the balance oC the company in a column of platoon. The other platoon. will
follow on order and be prepared to a ut or .....ume the firll platoon'. m.i ion. The riOe platoon leaden le.ve to conduct their own reconf\3i,.ilnce.
The Comp.ny Commander direcU Lt Firepower. weapoll' platoon leader. to prepare recom
mendation. for the employment of the weapon. with par:icular attention to Ihe expo.ed right nank
.. nd the comp1lny'. left flank; Ihe lert flank i. nearer the objec.tive, and provide. good firing 10c ...tton .
In the meilntime, the baule sroup S.] I"UII. In.truction. 10 the a ault gun platoon leader.
The.e In.truc.tion. indude the BG commander'. gUidance rel..tivil to antitank protection on the
right nank And fire .upport for the Co A Attack. Con.equently. Lt A ault, a ault gun platoon
leader. coordinate. whh Capt .. in Company A ina.much a. hi. plilloon Will be operating in Com
p;any A'. sone of action.

,<7

The rifle company commander and battle group 53 hav~ issued instructions so that the
weilpons ilnd ilSSilult gun platoon leaders may accomplish their respective reconnaissance. After
both officers completed their reconnaissance they returned to their commanders. At battle group,
l.t Assilu" recommended to the 5J that the ilssilmt guns be utiliz.ed i.n gel.eral support, since
the right nilnk of the b'lItie group is expose::! and constitutes a dangerous armor approach. In
addlrion, the ilrea dong the proposed LD provides suitable locations for firing posilion. and
there II il good laleral and trafficable road net available. The battle group 5-J accepted the'e
recommendauons and directed the a.s.ult gun platoon leader to work clo.ely with the comm.nder
of Company A.
Upon returning to the Company A command poSt, Lt Assault inlorms CO Co A that he has
effected necessary coordination with Lt Firepower on the employment of their weapons. So
that there is a mutual understanding of the recommended employment of these weapons, the
three officen move to a vantage point to discuss it.
The t.ctic.l employment was resolved in that all the .uppOrtlng weapons would be in gener.l
support and Initial firing po.ition. would be near the propo.ed line of departure. Thi. deci.ion
was based on the.e con.ider.t,ons: prOlOmity of the objective from the LD, good field. of fire
ilvililable from the LD, cenlr.lized control of the weapons, nexiblhty of fire. to Include ma.llng
of available fires upon a target. and facilitation of ilmmunition resupply and d,spi.cement.
CO Co A placed his weapons in this manner. (See Figure 90). The AT weapons (106 RRJ
were placed along the finger leading towards Objective AI in the left .ector. These weapons were
positioned leI. than IZOO yardl from the Intermediate objective. In addition, the mortars were
placed ZOO yard. to the rear of the line of contact. In defilade, so they could effectively cover
the entire z.one and yet be within close lupport distance for Co A's attack. The assault gun.
were positioned by lectlon. One section covered the exposed right nank of the BG and the other
was located to effect close .nd continuoul fire .Llppert for company A.
At 0930. the platoon leaders joined CO Co A at a vantage poinl overlooking the battle .rea.
CO Co A then issued the att.ck order, to Include the method. of utlJiz.lng the 81mm mortar.
and antitank squads. initial firing poll lion targets or seClon of fire, fire cOntrOllnstrUc;:tlon.,
dhplacem ,t direction. and inlnrmation relative to coordination with other uniu. After receipt
of their orders. the platoon leaders departed to conduct additional troop leading steps.
In addition to the earlier Instructions and the order given to him by CO Co A. Lt Firepower
effects coordination with the right platoon leader of Company C since the nachineguns of this
platoon will support the atlack of Company A. Moreover, communi calion mu.t be effected
between the assault guns and Lt Firepower's AT weapons which will be firing from the LD. As
L.t FirepoweT wHi remain along the LD near Ihese weapons, he will control .11 supporung dl.
rect fire weapons in the au.ck. He will have communlc.tton with hll company commander on
the company comm.nd nel and use. ,n an emergency, a secondary mean. through the FO and
the fire control nel.
The time Is now 1045 hours. The 81mm mort.rs have moved into polltion .nd reglltrahon
has been completed. CO Co A reali:tes that the Aggressor on objectlve AI not only can observe
the antllank .quads .and assault gun platoon mOVlng Inlo position, but also can observe hll le.dIng rifle platoon moving to the line of departure. In order to conceal this movement, the CO
Co A directs Lt Firepower to fire smoke with the mOrlAn on objecllve AI al 1-1_10 minute .
While the smoke covers Ihe objective. the antitank squad, beg"n their mOve from ddiladed
positions to their firing po.itions in the left sector. The sault guns began their move IOward
predetermined positions in the right sector. 5Imulu.neously, the ...e.pon. squad of the lit pl._
toon, Company C. moves a pair of mac;:}uneguns Into p.rhal dehlade to give fire support for Ole

.. 8

(No' '0 Seol.)

I I
I I
I

'"
Figure 90.

Placement of weaponll.

attack of Company A. Ammunition bearers run forward and deliver ammunition to thelle ma_
chinegunners. To provide additional ammunition on posilion, the M Z74 light weapons carrier
larmy mechanical mule) - attached for this operation _ moves forward and supplemenu the am_
munition supply. Once the supporting weapons are in position the signal i. given to commence
the lIcheduled Hrell.
At H-hour. Co A cro.sell the line of departure. Scheduled firell of all the supporting weap_
onll have begun to fire to neutralize the enemy and cover the movement of the attacking rinemen.
Theile firell. previou81y ploltfld by map or obllervation are firell on all known or ,ullpected enemy
positione. The mortarll lIeek out defiladed areae and po ible troop concentratione. The direct
fire weapone fire on point target. and targete of opportunity. In order that you may understand
how effectively the.e [irell as.illtfld Co A in attaining its objflctive, the following action occurs.
The lead rifle platoon come. under lire soon after it cro es the line of departure. The
platoon leader locates the enemy weapon which III holding up hi. unit, and reque.ts [ire lIupport
from CO Co A. Nolifif'd of thlll lIituation Lt F'irepower lthe weapon. platoon leader) took prompt
action. One of the machinegul'ls located along the line of departure i. placed into action. Thil
weapon pinpointe the target, al'ld firell of the antitank rifle. are ma.sed to neutralh;e thh enemy
po.ition. When this action i. completed, the aSIl1\ult gun section begin. to fire.
This aSlIault gun eection obllerves an enemy vehicle, presumably a tank. and places nre
upon it. Thl. information and the rellult of the aCIiO" are given to the CO Co A and the battie
group commander. Each of thflse perllona is informed of all action., especially Information

149

relahve to the po.tlbility Ihat the enemy is using armor. As the assault gun.. are in general
.upporl oC Co A, Ihere i. no requirement to receive permission to Cire. While the enemy vehicle
burned, the Corward rIlle platoon report.. firing Cram a bunker.
The nne elemenu .eek cover, and appropriate action to neutralize this enemy po..hion ill
tuetl. FHe. are ma ed by Clre commands originating with the weapons plaloon leader. He
order. tbe AT ...upon. 10 miirk lhe target by a spotting round Crom the co-axial. SO caliber riOe.
then m ....... the hre' oC the AT gun .quads and the assault gun section. Firing Crom the enemy
bu.n1l..r
danced, and the Infantry platoon continues its assault.

l'

The .....u.lhn. pl..toon leader requests scheduled fires to shift to other area.; at thi. time
CO Co A re(el'o'I!' word th.it a new Aggressor Corc:e is moving through the woods 10 the rear oC
the ObJec:tlVe. A. the CO Co A mu.t shih the mortar Cires anyway, he instruc:U hi. FO to get
HE and WP Ire on th.. new threat lmmediately. Mortar fires are plac:ed on the reinforc:ing
Algre.aor Corc:e a. the rUle platoon beglns ilB aSlault up the leh slope of AI. CO Co A c:ontrols
hll .uppornng Clre. by radio. All Cire. are then shifted to new target areas. In thiS situation,
fire. are .hltted when rna. ked by the assaulting troops.
A. the rlfle umtt move quic:kly to the .ummit oC AI, mortar lire c:ontinued to neutralize
po'lible enemy troop c:onc:entration area., and the AT weapons and alaault guns hred on targets
oC opportumty. Dunng thia period, the aasault guns fired ric:ochet fire; a fuse aetting of delay
wal u.e'!, .0 that when the projec:tile wa. Cired it bounced and exploded a Cew Ceet in the air,
In addition, the.e gun. fired time lire on enemy troopl withdrawing to the rear. This fire wal
timed to explode in the air to the rear of objective AI. During the c:onsolidation, the machinegun.
along the line of departure c:ontinued their firel, 10 that lome of the lupporting fire would be
c:onlinuoul. At the direc:tion of the weapons platoon leader, a fire element from eac:h supporting
unit displaced to the objec:tive. At this time the mac:hineguns oC Company C reverted to c:ompany
:ontrol.
A. Al i. c:onsolidated and CO Co A reloc:atea his platoons to prepare for the continuance of
the attac:k, he notifies the battle group c:ommander of the situation. This ia a c:ontinuous proceu.
Reorganization, Ole appropriate, is conc:urrently accompli.hed during the actlon. Ammunition
il repleniahed and evacuation of casualtie. i. achieved by vehicle and litter carry.
A. indicated earlier, displac:ement wal timely. This displacement included one squad from
the AT squadl and one lection of the assault guns. In addition, two mortar .quads displac:ed.
The other lire element or eac:h unit continued to fire on targetl of opportunity. Thia displace
ment was on or adjac:ent to objective A1. Adju.tment of the.e positions was made to fac:ilitate
preparation for the next mission,
Although .ucc:e.s of this c:ompany operation depended on many variables, leaderlhip, the
exigencies of the mis.ion, weather and terrain, the enemy's ability to contain our movement
and protec:t hi. terrain, c:ertainly Ihe available fire support represented by the mortar., AT
weapon. oC the att3cking company, the a ault gun platoon and machinegun. of other units were
a vltal and dependable contribution. Only the proper employment of these weapon. to ine!\lde
efiic.ent method. of utilization, c:once.. led !iring politions and timely displacement could have
mad.e this attack .ucce.sful. This !ire support covered movement, .aved time, provided pro.
tection and minimh;ed casualties (or the attac:king rifle company.

ISO

CHAPTER 12
ASSISTA T COMMANDANT'S CLOSING FORUM
BRIGADIER GENERAL Sf AN LEY R. LARSEN
General Laraen:

We hope you have had a constructive and enjoyable live day. here al Fort Benning. and that
you have receIved approprialf! and satisfactory aui.lance. At thi. time, a. a conelu.ion to our
annual conference, we will have a short forum to an'''''lH any que'liona you may uill have; and
to offer you further opportunity to expre yO\1r opinion We have appreciated your participa
lion in the elCchange of ideas. and we alway. welcome commenU. I have invited the Department
Directors and appropriate uaff agent Ie. to offer replies to your que.tiona.
QUESTION: Will you briefly disc"n the .tatu. of the MS6 and the M48 in.ab.r a. interim
....eapon. for the as.ault gun platoon?
ANSWER: The main armament of the allault gun platoon of the battle group. Infantry dlvi_
lioo preu~otly cOOliltl of (our 90mm gun tankl (M4S). Thele are an interim weapon; the ulti_
mate malO armament will he an eUective antitank guided millHe. The main arma.ment of the
allault gun platoon of the battle group, airborne dividon. preu!ntly conliUI of lix 90mm gunl.
lelf propelled. full tracked (M5&). Thele are aho an interim weapon; the ultimate main annament will be all. effective antitank guided milsile.

QUESTION: Wh.... il being done hy the lnfantry School to communicate thei.r thinking of the
Infantry in the future and the combat developmenu with unitl In the Held and other u:rvice
Ichooh?
ANSWER, We try to accomplilh thil in varioul wayl:
We lend out monthly. over the ligoature of the Commandant, a letter to the field to all Infan_
try divillon commanderl. training.commandl. and leparate battle groupl. We allo began lalt
month to lend letterl to aU dlvilion commander I , and leparate regimenu of the National Guard
and Reserve. We lend out new ideal to people we feel have primary inlerelt in the Infantry; in
addition, ",e requeu their ideal and thinking. We ,l.IIO give thele comm,l.oderl advance warning
on new doctrine which we believe will be accepted by USCONARC. They in turn give UI ideal
which auilt UI In submitting opinion I and ideal to USCONARC.
We lend 1Iailon people to other lervice Ichooll to give them our latelt thinking on Infantry
and alia obtain their thinking on whatever branch of lervlce they reprelen!. Ill. addition, we invite other lervice Ichooll to come here and dilcull iteml of interelt to both Ichooll.
We a110 trade information by commenhng on propoled doctrine. propoled field manuall,
etc., lent do.... n from one Ichool to the other for commentl .

By publtlhlOg Infantry magaZIne. Thu publication h.1 been revued and it will put out doctrlOal InJormallon, Ideal, and artlclel Ilgned by Indlviduab al individual contrlbutlonl. We
hope that /1111 of you Will have an opportunity to get thil magazine /lind leh,e upon it al a method of
exchange of Ideal, We 110 hope that In thil method we don't have to look to the Infantry School
only al the contribullna r.. ctor to the magazine. Thil way we invited other people with good ideal
to contribute to the In(antry.

I' -

We conducted an intelhaence Seminar here


Z4 May at which were reprelented commandl
from all over the world _ ZZ comma.ndl, 45 reprelenlal!vel. During Ihil lemina.r we exchaft.ed
Idf!aa a. ,",ould be deelrable 1ft lhe Intdllience held.
We 1110 conducted. phyllcal trainl.ng leminar which wal the (lrlt o( ,tl kind in the Army.

15'

We are pre.ently planning to conduct a world_wide Inf.ntry Conference here at ForI Benning
the lir.t week in December of thi. year Thi. will be the lir.t world_wide Infantry Conference
ince 194b.
We .ent a tea.m of .ill officer. Including the Commanding General. General Po.....ell. to the
7th Army Infantry Conference in January 1958. Repre.entative. 10 thi. conference were aU the
battle group commander. of the Infantry and Airborne Divilion. in 7th Army ome 4l general
officer. repre.enting not only the United State' but the French Army. the Briti.h Army. and the
We.t German Army. After thi. conference. thil team vilited two Infantry divi.ion. and the airborne divi.ion to di.cu idea. and problem. encountered with the ROCID organization.
We feel that progre ha. been made in getting our idea. out. however. there I' .till a lot of
room for improvement.
QUESTION: What M. the Infantry School done about the undellrable lime lag in the oppor_
tunity for an Infantryman to command between company and battle group?
ANSWER: The Infantry School hal .tudied thi. queltion and we have propo.ed that the com_
pany commander. and the mortar battery commander. in the battl .. group be rai.ed to the grade
of major. Thi. would give u. a command 1I0t in thi. long period between captain and colonel.
We al.o .tudied the problem of giving the battle group command to a lieutenant colonel. We have
forwarded that thought to USCONARC, ho.....ever. there hal be;en no direct prope.al on it.
General Lar.en:
Gentlemen. it hal been a very .ucce.lful conference a. far a. we are concerned here at the
Infantry School. In dhcu ion. with per.onnel of the School. I gather that we have gained a lot
from your comment., and I hope that your .tay hal been prolitable. Gentlemen. I want to pre_
lIent to you now the Commandant of the Infantry School. Major General Freeman.

CHAPTER 13
COMMANDANT'S CLOSING REMARKS
MAJOR GENERAL PAUL L. FREEMAN, JR.

I am sorry that 1 haven't been able to spend more time with this group, particularly because
there are a lot of old friends in it, and I am curious also to see what your reaction. aTe to .ome
of the thinge that you have seen and heard during the past week. I am sure you found many of
them interesting, and many of them must have evoked some new thought on your pari.
I hope, abo, that you had an enjoyable time while you were here at Fort Benning. We feel
that the medium of getting you here and using you to carry the me.sage and work of the School
back to the people you are teaching i, one of the greatest accomplishments we can make.

May I expre for all of U8 here at the School


conference. Thank you

Ollr

appreciation for your attendance at thi.

APPENDIX I
CONFEREES ATTENDiNG 1958
INFANTR Y INSTRUCTORS' CONFERENCE
Z]-Z7 JUNE 1958

INSTALLATION

NAME

RANK

SVc NR

US Air Force Academy


Denver 8. Colorado

John W. Cadey

Major

OZ6511

Office of tbe Deputy Chief


or Sta(f lor Mil Opn.

Jame. H. MOOre
O.ear A. Mall
Reginald J. Hinton

Lt Col
LI Col
Major

034135

John I. Pray
H. S. Cunningham
Frank O. Knoeller
Robert M. Brambila, J.

Lt Col
Lt Col
Major
Captain

OZZZl4
080946
09Z886,

us Army Chemical Corp.


School, Ft McClellan, Ala

Michael Barn;c~
H. R. Jacob.
John A. Callanan

Major
Major
Captain

013019Z6
01170786
078749

USARCAR.1B, Ft Amador, CZ

Franci. M. Rooney
Harold I. Jonel
William L. DeVane

Lt Col
Major
Captain

OZ3147
080913
061887

US Army Commilnd It General


Staff College. Ft L.eavenworth.

Lee Wallace
Aaron U. Trimble
Neal G. Stewart

Colonel
Lt Col
Lt Col

03Z06,
043675
033670

US Naval Amphiblou. Ba.e,


Little Creek., Va

William J. Ankley

Captain

065Z59

Hq USCONARC, Ft Monroe, Va

Morgan A. Whitfield
Lawrence E. Spellman
Richard A. Beyer

Lt Col
Major
Major

036389
050Z67
038Z63

US Army Engineer School,


Ft Belvoir. Va

Lester K. Ol.on
Robert r. Gallagher
Delbert J. Hammock

Lt Col
Captain
Captain

030640
013Z8686
OZZ6Z936

U'> Marine Corp. School.,


Quantico, Va

Martin J. Sexton
Earl F. Roth, Jr

Lt Col
Captain

0llZI5
051363

Adjutant General'. School,


US Army. Ft Benjamin
Harrllon, Indiana

Elmer B. Scovill
Verlie G. Knoy
Sigurd 01.01'1
William J. VerHey

Major
Captain
Captain
Captain

035851
02037993
OZ046)Z4
OI69Q7Z5

United State. Military


Academy. We.1 Point. N. Y.

John H. Spearl
George T. Larkin

Lt Col
Lt Col

0460Z7
OZ3l9J

W..-b Z5, DC
Qu."TtermaUer School.
US Army. Ft Lee. Va

Kan.

1S4

031196
079853

INSTALLATION

NAME

RANK

$VC NR

us Army War College

Walter M. Higg!n.

Colonel

OZ1987

US Army Ordnance School,


Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Maryland

Conrad R. Underdahl
William R. Hambrick.
Henry E. LeFebvre
Jame, A. Curti'

Lt Col
Major
Major
Captain

0]]52:]
01315059
036358
0&Z6Z4

Finance School, US Army,


Ft Benjamin Harri'Dn, Ind

Robert Reeu:
John E. $trever. Jr.
E. C. O'$teen

Lt Col
Major
Captain

081Z64
OZOZ8351

US Army Transportation
School. Ft Eustis, Va

Wyndham H. Bamme r
Guy A. Eberhardt

Major
Captain

036903
069&39

US Army Intelligence

Louil L. Toth
Ralph E. DeKemper
Thorburn B. Broaddus

Lt Col
Lt Col
Major

0lZ88468
0]]Z40
01310054

us Army Security Agency


Training Center and School,
Ft Devens, Mas.

Thomas K. Galleher
Norman L. Ove rton
Clifford C. Nunn, Jr
Dr. William R. Tracey

Major
Captain
Captain
Civilian

0lZ95195

us Army Air Defense School,

Joel T. Wa1k.er
Edward H. Cope
William C. Heard

Lt Col
Major
Captain

OZZ007

us Army Chaplain School,


Ft SloclUll, NY

Joseph R. Andrewl

Major

070Z50

The Signal School,


Ft Monmouth, N. J.

Orwin C. Talbott
John F. Sullivan
Kart H. Borcheller

Lt Col
Major
Captain

081Z&6

us Army AdVisory Group


Air Command and Staff
CoUege, Maxwell AFB, Ala

George C. Morton

Lt Col

039010

us Army Armor School.


Ft Knox, Kentucky

Juliu, W. Levy
Walter H. Williams
Richard G. Shank

Colonel
Lt Col
Captain

05Z446

us Army Artillery and


MillUe School, FI Sill,
Okla

John C. Barney. Jr.


Lawrence S. Fawcett
Gerald G. Burch

Colonel
Lt Col
Major

OZ3963

The Army Aviation School,

Fort Rucker, Ala

Paul C. Swink, Jr.


William E. Hornilh

Captain
1st Lt

02001124
077458

USAt~ Air Ground Operation.


School, Keeder AF'B. Mill

Robert R. Summers
Robert P. Armstrong

Colonel
Lt Col

042841
0129Z635

Carliele Barrack., Pa

Sch.ool, Ft Holabird, Md

Ft Bli , Tex

is'

01Z95937

070461
060465

065037

06967Z

OZ4617
057038

038967
069790

045319
063Z83

Armed Force. Stall College,


Norfolk II, Va

Colonel

0])981

The Judge Advocate General'.


School. Charlotte.ville, Va.

John G. Lo.... nd.

Major

OJ8ZII

US Army Special Wadare


School, Ft Bragg, N. C.

George N. Jone.
Laurence T. Ayres

Colonel
Lt Col

019965
041115

Army Medical Service School,


Brooke Army Medical Center,
Ft Sam Houllon, Tex

Robert C. Aycock
Melecto J. Monte.elaroll

Lt Col
Lt Col

046664
01305Z89

ProvOIl Mar.hal General'.


School, US Army, Ft
Gordon, Ga

Curti. W. Markla.nd
John Synow.ky
Richard C. Lever.

Lt Col
Major
Major

0308374
OI3IZI7Z
01314503

US Army Electronic Proving


Ground, Ft Huachuca, Ariz

Fred R. Ulrich
Carl E. Lundquiat

Lt Col
Col (Ret)

US Army Signal Training Center,


Fort Gordon, Georgia

Joaeph A. Brunner
Huaton E. M~well
Paul G. Stuckart

U Col

'56

Lt Col
Major

OZ9ZZ75
03ZZ468
016386J9

APPENDIX II
DISTRIBUTION
DISTRIBUTION;
Headqu..rter., United State. Continental Army Command

100

Conferee. Ihted ill. Appell.dlx I

leach

Conferee.' Headquarter. HUed in Appendix I

4 each

Senior Army Advi.or., National Guard

each

Senior Army Advl.ort, USAR

each

Commanding GeneraI-, Airborne Infantry or Infantry Dlvl.lon'

S each

Chler.. Military A.tiuance Advhory Groupt It Military Mlttiont

S each

The United State. Army Maintenance Board

The United Statet Army Infantry Center

.0

The United Statet Army Infantry School

'00