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Application

To Principal Asking Permission for Visiting Pakistan Steel Mills and Making
Necessary Arrangement for Transport
The Principal,
X-Y-Z School, Karachi
SUBJECT: PERMISSION TO VISIT PAKISTAN STEEL MILLS.
Dear Sir,
With due respect, I beg to say that the students of our class wanted to visit Pakistan Steel
Mills Karachi. We shall be accompanied by three of our senior teachers. This trip will be
a beneficial trip for us, from which we can make increment in our knowledge by
watching how machines actually work. We can also pick a valuable information for the
forth-coming technical exhibition.
We will be grateful to you if you allow us to visit Pakistan Steel Mills and make
necessary arrangements for transport.
Thanking You.
Yours faithfully,
Students of Class X
4th September, 1998
To the Principal Asking for Character Certificate
The Principal,
X-Y-Z School, Karachi
SUBJECT: NEED FOR CHARACTER CERTIFICATE.
Respected Sir,
I have the honour to inform you that I have passed the Matric with A Grade from your
school. Now for taking admission in the college I shall need a character certificate.
I, therefore, request you to issue me a character certificate. Ill be grateful to your this act
of kindness.
Yours Obediently,
X-Y-Z.
4th September, 1998
To the Principal for Sick Leave

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To,
The Headmistress,
ABC High School,
Clifton,
Karachi.
SUBJECT: APPLICATION FOR SICK LEAVE.
Respected Madam,
I am a student of class IX of your school and has been suffering from cold and fever since
yesterday.
I am under treatment of my family doctor who has advised me bed rest for two more
days.
In the light of my aliment, I would request to grant me sick leave for three days and for
this act of yours I shall remain ever grateful to you.
Thanking you once again for your favour.
Your Obedient Student,
X-Y-Z.
4th September, 1998
To the Principal Asking Him for the Transfer Certificate
To,
The Headmistress,
X-Y-Z School,
Saddar,
Karachi
SUBJECT: NEED FOR TRANSFER CERTIFICATE.
Respected Madam,
I am a student of your school studying in class IX at present, I feel extremely sorry to
inform you that I shall not be able to prolong my studies in your esteemed school as my
father is leaving with all the members of his family to Oman in connection with a job.
Therefore under the above circumstances, I would request you to issue me a Transfer
Certificate which will enable me to seek admission in a school in Oman.
Thanking You for your anticipation in this regard.
Yours Obediently,
X-Y-Z.
4th September, 1998
To the Headmistress Requesting Her to Grant Your Leave of Absence for Six Days
for Attending Marriage Ceremony of Your Cousin.

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To,
The Headmistress,
ABC High School,
Hyderi,
Karachi
SUBJECT: REQUEST TO GRANT LEAVE TO ATTEND MARRIAGE CEREMONY.
Respected Madam,
I am writing to inform you that marriage of my cousin is going to be solemnized on 11th
September 1998 at Hyderabad.
My parents and other relatives are leaving for Hyderabad on 6th September, 1998 to
attend the marriage.
Therefore Madam, I would request you to grant me leave of absence from 6th September,
1998 till 12th September, 1998 of the same month so that I can join the happy
celebrations in traditional style.
Thanking You for act of kindness in this regard.
Yours Obediently,
X-Y-Z.
To Headmistress of Your School Requesting Her to Grant a Concession in School
Fee
To,
The Headmistress,
ABC High School,
Saddar,
Karachi
SUBJECT: REQUEST FOR THE CONCESSION IN FEE.
Respected Madam,
I am a student of your school studying in class IX. I am very keen to continue with my
study but the financial condition of my family is very poor and it is becoming a
hinderance.
My father is a school teacher and earns a very little amount from his work. More over due
to inflation it has become difficult for my father to afford my education.
Madam, from the school record you will find that I have obtained excellent marks in
S.S.C part 1 and hope to pass in grade A-1 in final part of same examination.
In the light of the above circumstances, I would request you to grant me concession in my
school fee.
Thanking You for your anticipation in this regard.
Your Obedient Student,
X-Y-Z.

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The Wise Caliph

CHAPTER 1
Question and Answers
Q.1 What was caliph Haroon-ur-Rashid known and respected for?
Ans. Caliph Haroon-ur-Rashid was famous for his wisdom and justice. The Caliph was
wise in that manner as he used to disguise himself to know the problems and difficulties
of the subject more freely and equality.
Q.2 Why did he go through the streets of Baghdad?
Ans. He would go through the streets of Baghdad to mingle with the common people in
order to gain first-hand knowledge of their difficulties. He believed that by adopting the
common life style, he experienced the problems in true sense.
Q.3 What did the Qazi say to the Caliph?
Ans. Firstly Qazi approached to the Caliph saluted him and presented a puzzled case,
which the Qazi could not solve. The mystery was disturbing the Qazi because the two
men were claiming the ownership of the same horse.
Q.4 What was the dispute between the rich man and beggar?
Ans. The dispute between the rich man and the beggar because of a horse. Both of them
were claiming the ownership of horse plus accusing each other of robbery.
Q.5 What did the rich man tell the Caliph?
Ans. The rich man told the Caliph that he was riding towards the city. On this way he saw
a beggar, who asked for a ride up to city gate. Afterwards the beggar refused to get down
from the horse and claimed that the horse ws his.
Q.6 What did the beggar tell the Caliph?
The beggar told the Caliph that he had spent all his money on the horse. That morning the
beggar was riding to the city and saw the rich man walking along the road. He asked for a
lift because he was in hurry but afterwards refused to discount claiming that the horse
belonged to him.
Q.7 Why did the beggar refuse to go down the horse?
Ans. The beggar refused to get down the horse because he wanted to rob the rich man of
his horse. He also fabricated a false story to claim his ownership.

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Q.8 What did the horse do when the beggar touched it?
Ans. When the beggar touched the horse it winced as if it did not like the touch of his
hand. This reaction of the animals show that it was not owned by the beggar.
Q.9 What did the horse do when the rich man touched it?
Ans. When the rich man touched the horse it neighed and snorted with pleasure. This
reaction of the horse proved the true ownership of the rich man.
Q.10 What did the Caliph say to the beggar?
Ans. The Caliph pronounced the beggar that he was a lair and wicked man. And by
forgiving him asked him to beg the pardon of the rich man. Afterwards the rich man
forgave him.
Sentences
1. Afford I cant afford such a heavy expense.
2. Puzzled Ali was puzzled with the sum.
3. Disguise .. The magician disguised himself as a woman in a second.
4. Dispute The Kashmir dispute is a bone of contention between India
and Pakistan.
5. Lend .. Please lend me your physics book.
Synonyms
1. shiver tremble
2. astonish amaze
3. cling stick
4. request beg
5. stiffen harden
6. severe stern
7. utterly completely
8. disguise hide
9. obvious clear
10. puzzled confused
11. mingle mix
Complete the Sentences
1. A large crowd had gathered outside the court.
2. The courtiers crowed round the Caliph.
3. The Caliph disguised himself as a common man.
4. The people recognized the Caliph inspite of his disguise.
5. His right leg is shorter than the left leg, so he has a limp in his walk.
6. The rich man saw the lame beggar limping along the road.
7. The beggar motioned to him to stop.
8. He stood still and made no motion.

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9. He uttered a few words and then lost consciousness.


10. To his utter disappointment he failed in the examination.
11. The rich man went galloping along the road.
12. The horse was running at a gallop.
13. The rich man and the beggar both claimed the horse.
14. Whose claim was found to be true?
Verbs and Nouns
1. Beg Beggary
2. Live Life
3. Lend Loan
4. Believe Belief
5. Please Pleasant
6. Give Gift
7. Speak Speech
Composition
1. Describe the dispute between the rich man and the poor beggar and how did the
Caliph prove that the beggar was a liar?
The dispute between the rich man and the beggar was because of a white horse. Both of
them were claiming the ownership of the horse plus accusing each other of the robbery.
Firstly, rich man riding to the city, he saw the beggar limping along the road. He felt
sorry for him and gave him a ride up city gate. Afterwards, the beggar refused to
dismount claiming that horse belonged to him. The beggar also told the same story with
few amendments.
The Caliph, being wise, settled the dispute in a minute. He ordered both the men to touch
the horse. When the beggar touched the horse, it showed the displeasure by wincing. But
when the rich man touched the horse, It neighed and snorted with pleasure. The reaction
of the animal proved the true ownership of the rich man. In this manner the case was
decided and the Caliph was able to prove that the beggar was a liar and wicked man.
2. What is the moral of the lesson The Wise Caliph?
The lesson The Wise Caliph teaches us that if someone is dishonest to you and treats
you in the bad manner, you should not treat him in the smae manner in which her
behaved. The best revenge for a bad deed is a good deed.

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Professions

CHAPTER 3
Question and Answers
Q.1 What does Akhund mean?
Ans. Akhund is a Sindhi word derived from a Persian word Khandan which means
to read. It is the best word to express the teachers dignity and status.
Q.2 How does a teacher fulfill, Gods command?
Ans. The teacher fulfills Gods command by acting upon the first relation i.e. to read
(IQRA). Teacher observe Gods Law by reading from the human heart, the nature and the
Holy book.
Q.3 What are the qualities of a teacher?
Ans. Teacher must possess some personal and professionals Gaits. Personal qualities
include interest for knowledge, reverence for all sorts knowledge, preference for students
welfare. The other qualities are love to learn from every source and also to apply
practically what he preaches.
Q.4 Why is fish important for us?
Ans. Fish is important, for us because it is a source of food and several by-products are
obtained from fish i.e. glue, manure, liver oil. Catching fish is one of the most ancient
and common profession of the world due to which a large number of people are engaged
with this profession. It is also a flourishing trade.
Q.5 What are the different modes of fishing?
Ans. Freshment fishing or fishing inland and sea or marine fishing are the two different
modes of fishing. Freshwater fishing is done in rivers, Lakes, streams, ponds etc while
marine fishing is done in oceans, sea, coastal areas etc.
Q.6 Why do people like freshment fish?
Ans. People like freshment fish because of its delicious taste. They are of very small size
and easier to catch rather than marine fishing. It is usually caught from rivers, lakes,
ponds, canals etc.
Q.7 Where is marine fishing done in Pakistan?
Ans. In Pakistan, marine fishing is done in the Arabian sea long the coast. The hazards of
marine fishing include prolong stay o the fisherman in deep sea. The other danger is
sudden change of weather, which can result in the loss of many lives.

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Composition
Explain any one quality of a teacher.
The most elegant quality of a teacher is that he takes keen interest in learning from every
source. He does not hesitate in capturing knowledge from every point in life. He does not
keep himself committed to the books only. But tries to gain knowledge from any and
everyone. even those younger or less gifted than himself. It means that he remains student
forever. So, the good teacher is one who is enthusiastic for gaining knowledge from every
source of life.
Unseen Passage
Before railways were made the cultivator derived little benefit on abundant harvest. He
could not send his product to distant places to be sold; and if the land produced more than
it was required in any particular district, as would happen in a good season. Prices fell
and the cultivator was deprived of the profit which he might have expected, indeed, he
often found it more economical to leave apart of his crop circuit. Railway has altered
these conditions equalized has enabled agricultural, produce the improvements in
communication to be sent to any distance with the result that prices have been in all
places, within reasonable distance from the railway. When harvest are abundant,
foodstuffs no longer not for want of buyers, since the farmer now has access to all the
markets of the world.
Questions
1. Write down to main problems the farmer had to face before railways were made?
Ans. The main hazards the farmer had to face were that he could not send his produce to
the far-flung areas. The other problem was that if more crop is harvested, the prices fell
and he deprived of the profit.
2. Why did the prices of agricultural produce fall in good season?
Ans. the prices of agricultural products fell in good season because of abundant quantity
of produce.
3. Why did the cultivators sometimes leave a part of his crop uncut?
Ans The farmers sometimes left a part of their crop uncut because it was found more
economical for them other than getting low prices for the produce.
4. How has the improvement in communication helped to equalize the prices of
agriculture produce?
Ans. The improvement in communication has helped to equalize the prices of agricultural
products because after the establishment to transport link, the products can be taken to ay
part of the world.
5. Change the bold verbs into Present Tense.
Ans. were made are made, derived derive

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Fill in the Blanks


1. The teacher examined each student carefully.
2. River Indus is an important reservoir of water for irrigtion.
3. Stamp collecting is a good hobby.
4. The lunch was very tasty.
5. They are modernizing their mill by importing new machinery.
6. Manara is an off-shore island.
7. Coal Car is a by-product of petrol.
Grammar
Put the verb in correct tense.
1. I shall stay(stay) here until he comes (come) back.
2. If you speak(speak) the truth, i shall not punish (not punish) you.
3. When he reached (reach) the station the train had arrived (arrive).
4. I found (find) the book which i had lost (lose).
5. If you do not hurry (not hurry) you will miss (miss) the train.
6. If it does not rain (not rain) we shall go (go) out for a walk in the evening.
7. If he studies (study) regularly he will pass (pass) the examination.
8. He went (go) to the market and bought (buy) two exercise books yesterday.
9. I go (go) abroad for higher studies as soon as my result is announced (announce).
10. The teacher punished (punish) the boys who hadnt done (not done) the homework.
Use of Since or For.
1. It has been raining since morning.
2. They have been playing foot ball for an hour.
3. I have been living in this house since January.
4. She has been suffering from fever for two days.
5. I have been preparing for the examination since Sunday last.
6. He has been building a house for six months.
7. The girl has been making a doll since noon.
8. He has been studying in this school since 1984.
Idioms
1. To back out of something.
Meaning: To withdraw from an agreement.
Sentence: You gave you word that you should help. Dont back out of it.
2. To beat about the bush .
Meaning: To go around the topic in order to avoid the point.
Sentence: Say exactly what you mean and stop beating about the bush.

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3. Bone to pick with someone.


Meaning: grievance about something.
Sentence: I have a bone to pick with you.
Synonyms
1. Reflection Image
2. Enshrined preserved carefully
3. Divine of God
4. Dignity honour
5. Par excellence the best
6. cultivating developing
7. professional concerning ones job
8. regard opinion
Choose the Right Meaning
1. reverencing (reversing, paying respect to, referring)
2. appreciates (thinks, pays money to values)
3. inscribed (demand, written, described)
4. decree (certificate, command, temperature)
5. ponders (thinks about, wanders about, swims about)
6. gifted (rewarded, talented, indobted)
7. sources (influences, wounds, fountains)
8. strives (groups, tries hard, sleeps)
9. incorporation (put an end to, make part of , make a role of )
10. status (a country, position, property

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Little Things

CHAPTER 4
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Julia Carney. The poem emphasis upon the importance of little
things.
Central Idea
Nothing in this material world is unimportant. Even little things, which fail to claim and
importance and fail to invite our attention, have their importance which cannot be
ignored. Same as short, brief an soft spoken words create an everlasting impression in the
hearts of others. Thus help to establish a harmonies society.
Theme
If a great thing is simple to explain and easy to understand then the little things demand
elaboration of details.
Question and Answers
Q.1 Write five lines about a little out of kindness done by you, and the result of it?
Ans. Once a poor woman came to my house. She asked us about some money because
her only son was in the hospital and she needed the money to buy medicines for him. My
mother did not believe on her story but I offered my whole collection of the year which
was about 800 to 900 rupees. In return, the woman gave me so much prays that I felt very
happy on my act.
Sentences
1. To make fun of We should not make fun of poor because they are also human beings
like us.
2. To make room The conductor was trying to make room for incoming passengers
inside the bus.
3. To make money Most of the people spend their lives in making money other than
doing good deed.
4. To make a mistake Aslam is making a mistake by choosing Qurban as his partner.
5. To make up Ive made up my mind to go to England for higher studies after the
matriculation exams.

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Use of made of
1. That house is made of bricks.
2. This cushion is made of foam rubber.
3. These machines are made of steel.
Idioms
1. To make the most of
Meaning: To take the fullest advantage of the circumstances
Sentence: he led me use his bicycle for a month so Im going to make the most of it.
2. To make the both ends meet
Meaning: To be able to live within ones income.
Sentence: I had to take up a part time job to be able to make the both ends meet.
3. To make ones mouth water
Meaning: To cause someone to desire something intensely, especially food.
Sentence: As soon as we got the smell of food, it made our mouth water.

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A Visit

CHAPTER 5
Question and Answers
Q.1 Why were Mr. Ahmeds pupil excited?
Ans. Mr. Ahmeds pupils were excited because they were given a day off to visit a Model
Agricultural Farm. They were naturally very excited.
Q.2 What surprised the boys when they reached the model farm?
Ans. When the boys reached the farm, they were surprised to see such a vast area of farm.
They were also astonished to see mechanized farm.
Q.3 What is the name of the machine working in the wheat field?
Ans. The name of the machine working in the wheat field is Combine. Its function is to
harvest the crop and tied it into sheaves.
Q.4 What does a thresher do?
Ans. A Thresher chaff from the grain. From one side of the machine, a golden rain of
sweet smelling machine comes out while from other end the chaff comes out.
Q.5 How are ploughing, seeding and harvesting done on the model farm?
Ans. On the model farm, ploughing is done by tractors. The sowing machine is used for
the purpose of seeding where as harvesting is done by Combine.
Q.6 How much work can one man do on the machine?
Ans. Machines have made the work easy for the farmer. Thats why a man can do the
work of almost hundred men with the help of machines.
Q.7 What is an average produce from and ordinary farm? What is the produce per
hectare on the model farm?
Ans. The average produce from na ordinary farm is 13 to 20 quintals. Where as average
produce per hectare on the model farm is 60 to 70 quintals.
Q.8 Why is thee is difference in the output of the two?
Ans. There is a difference in the output of the two because of the machines used in model
farm. The use of modern machinery and chemical, fertilizers in model farm has made
work feasible for farmers. Moreover, spray of pesticides / insecticides and continuous
supply of water has helped to increase the work output.

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Q.9 What do they do to kill germs and insects?


Ans. They spray pesticides and insecticides for the prevention of germs and insects. This
process includes washing of tree trunks with lime water and removal of wild grass and
weeds.
Q.10 What do they grow on the model farm?
Ans. They grow wheat, maize, cotton, sugarcane and grant. Moreover, they also grow
vegetables and they also have a large orchard, where they grow mangoes and oranges.
Q.11 Why were the boys surprised on the vegetable form?
Ans. The boys were surprised on the vegetable farm to see the vegetable growing out of
the season on the vegetable form. They do it by the usage of chemical fertilizers; plentiful
supply of water and by the help modern machine.
Sentences
1. Planning I am planning to take computer classes in the summer vacations.
2. Model The engineer presented a new model of car in the seminar.
3. Irrigate The farmer has dug the canals to irrigate his land.
4. Plentiful Ive got plentiful amount of money to spent on you.
5. Harmful Pollution is a very harmful disease for this world.
Complete the following Sentences
1. The Headmaster had allowed them a days outing.
2. Mr. Haroon received them at the gate and showed them around.
3. With one sweep it seemed to eat up a large area.
4. The pupils watched the working of the machine with keen interest.
5. No, certainly not.
6. The sowing machine sows, the seed well.
7. No seed goes waste.
8. We use chemical fertilizers to enrich the soil.
9. The visitors were surprised to see growing there such vegetables as were out of
season.
10. He offered the boys fresh tomatoes and cucumbers.
Composition
1. Narrate in your own words how they get so much produce per rectare on the model
farm.
The farmers are able to grow an abundant produce on the model farm because of the
modern techniques. They use modern machines, which can perform the work of hundred
men. Along with, fertilizers are being used on a vast scale in the farm, so that better and
finer crops can be grown. Moreover, spray of pesticides/insecticides and non-stop supply
of water has helped to increase the work output.

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2. Write the sentences to show whether modern methods of farming are better nor the
old ones.
Machines and techniques have made the profession farming easy for the farmers. Modern
methods are better than the old ones because they are more easy to operate than the old
methods.
They have increase the feasibility of work, because of mechanized means. In this way,
one machine can do the work of hundred men. The old methods worked very slow and
took a long time of the farmer. But today, the time is also saved and good crops can be
grown. Today chemical fertilizers are being used in crops on vast scale, along with
pesticides. These salts provide extra enrichment to the crops and protect them from
diseases. In this manner better crops could be grown.
Dialogues
Instructor: Hello! I m from the department of Agriculture. Ive come here to guide
you.
Farmer : How can I increase the production?
Instructor : You can do it by using chemical fertilizers in your crops.
Farmer: But how these artificial compounds can increase the growth?
Instructor: Actually these fertilizers are salts, which provide extra nourishment to the
crops. In this manner you can grow better crops.
Farmer: OK! Now tell me any other advantage of these fertilizers.
Instructor: By using these salts you can also grow the crops that are out of season.
Farmer: Well Ive another problem to discuss.
Instructor: What is it?
Farmer: Last year my whole crop was destroyed due to some insects. Tell me any cure
for it?
Instructor: Dont worry Look! These are the begs of pesticides or you can call it
insecticides.
Farmer: Please make it more clear.
Instructor: Sure, actually these pesticides serve as medicines which will kill the insects
and prevent destruction of crops.
Farmer: Oh its very easy. youve provided me a useful knowledge. Thank You.
Instructor: No matter, its my job.
Grammar
Use Adjectives in your sentences.
1. Pleasant This perfume gives a very pleasant smell.
2. Interesting Physics is an interesting subject.
3. Huge- Sun is very huge as compared to our earth.
4. Vast Arrangement have been made on vast scale for the prevention of crimes in the
country.
5. Large This exercise is very large.
Convert the following into Direct Speech.

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Mr. Hasan told the visitors that the farm had been doing so well that they had decided to
add a dairy to it. There, Finest cows and buffaloes would be kept. The farm would use an
electric milker to milk the animals Modern Machinery would make cream and butter.
Mr. Hasan said to the visitors The farm has been doing so well that we have decided to
add a dairy to it. Here, finest cows and buffaloes will be kept. The farm, will use an
electric milker to milk the animals. Modern machinery will make cream and butter.
Idioms
1. Get rid of I got rid of problem by my father.
2. Get at He get at the point after listening the mystery.

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King Faisal

CHAPTER 6
Question and Answers
Q.1 When was King Faisal born?
Ans. The Late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was born in 1907. He was the second son of
King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud.
Q.2 From whom did he receive his religious education?
Ans. King Faisal belonged to a noble and religious family so the received his religious
education from his maternal grand father Sheikh Abdullah Bin Latif.
Q.3 When was Faisal made the King?
Ans. Faisal was made King after the illness of his elder brother King saud in 1964. The
council of Ministers chose him as a king because of his wisdom and intelligence.
Q.4 How did Faisal rule Saudi Arabia?
Ans. Being an able ruler and possessing great qualities of Leadership. Faisal ruled Saudi
Arabia wisely and justly Saudi Arabia was polished under his rule because of his sincere
leadership and love for his country. He did his best for the development of the country.
Q.5 How did he developed his country?
Ans. Keeping a vast governing experience, Fisal took all necessary steps to develop his
country. He spend a lot of money to promote his people and provided the basic amenities
of life to the people at their footsteps. He setup new industries and milk, provided the
education with stipends compulsory and took every step to increase mineral oils
production, which is the main source of income. Vast areas deserts were irrigated and
brought under cultivation.
Q.6 What were the feelings of King FAisal about Pakistan?
Ans. King Faisal was a sincere friend and well-wisher of the people of Pakistan. He
showed his sincerely on several ocasions by providing all-out metal and material support.
He felt deeply on the separation of Pakistan. He was the one who gave the Castle of
Islam to Pakistan and his name shall live foreever in the hearts of Pakistan.
Q.7 Why was King Faisal against the State of Israel?
Ans. King Faisal was against the state of Israel, because of its enmity towards the ARabs.
Infact, he was arare of the aggressive designs of European block, that why he condemned
the illegal occupation of israel. He demanded that the previous state of Jerusalem should
be restored i.e. to be given under the control of Muslims as a holy Islamic city.

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Q.8 What did FAisal do for the Arabs in their war against Israel?
Ans. Faisal made every possible effort to get back the ARab territories and provided full
financial support to Arabs. He never recognized the state of Israel and did not establish
any kind of relation with it at any level. He was the one who introduce the Arabs as a
community.
Q.9 When was King Faisal killed?
Ans. King Faisal was killed by a wicked nephew of his on 25th March, 1975. Actually
hee was murdered by a skillful fabricated plan.
Q.10 How did the muslims feel over his death?
Ans. The Muslims felt deep sorrow over his death. Pakistan now in his death as one of
their family members had died. His name shall be written in the letters of gold and will be
remembered forever.
Sentences
1. Education Islam makes it compulsory for all humans to acquire education.
2. Govern The President governs the country with an iron hand.
3. Gain Aslam gained a good profit in his joint venture.
4. Spread Newspaper are the best media to spread the messages of Government.
5. Affair This affair is keeping him occupied.
Complete the Following Sentences
1. Faisal started taking interest in the affairs of the state.
2. He received religious education from his maternal grandfather.
3. He was made governor of Hijaz when he was only twenty.
4. He helped his father in governing the country.
Composition
1. King Faisal
King Faisal had a royal background thats why from the very beginning he was aware
from the art of governing. Due to his intelligence, he was made P.M. in early age. He was
a very sincere and true leader. He made the correct usage of all sources of income. He
used mineral oil as a weapon for Arab to fight with the European block. he was aware of
the aggressive plans of non-Muslims, thats why he openly declared it to the Muslim
World. He also gave the solution by awaking the need of unity among the Muslims. he
was only leader who recognized the Arabs as a community in the World. Now, he is no
more but his efforts shall be remembered forever.
2. King Faisals Efforts to Unite the Muslims

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To create unity among Muslims and to unite them on one platform, was the main aim of
King Faisal. He realized that only solution to the problems which the Muslims world is
currently facing lies in the unity among the Muslims. He provoke the need of
brotherhood among the Muslims. He gave the idea and practically hold the Islamic
Summit conferences in which all the problems were discussed at Length. he always
supported the Muslims at their hard times which created an examplary effect on the
Muslims. The best best example is his continuous struggle against the Israeli occupation
of the Arab Territories. Infact, he chose the right path to save the Muslims from
devastation.
Idioms
1. go into He goes into trouble through his foolishness.
2. go through Have you gone through my report card?
3. go together My opinion about this matter does not go together with yours.
Grammar
Nouns
1. Born Birth
2. Educate Education
3. Resign Resignation
4. Move Movement
5. Rule Ruler
6. Govern Government
7. Serve Service
8. Visit A Visit
9. Die Death
10. Develop Development

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From a Railway Carriage

CHAPTER 7
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Robert Louis Stevenson, a Scottish poet. In this poem, he shows
both the sides of picture i.e. good and evil. He loved the children and understood them.
Central Idea
This poem tells that one decides upon on objectives suiting ones natural aptitudes and
capacities, one should not waste time and should use all the energies in the effort to attain
it and not to be distracted by anything, however beautiful it may be.
Theme
We are not here to pay, to dream, to drill we have hard work to do and lots to lift. Shun
not the struggle, Its God gift.
Question and Answers
Q.1 What does the poet see from a railway carriage?
Ans. He sees the beauty of the area. He also sees a boy who is collecting services hardly,
a homeless person who is doing nothing but to stare and a man who is lifting the
overloaded cart.
Q.2 What pleasures does the railway journey give to the poet?
Ans. The railway journey gives an immeasurable pleasure to the post. Natural beauty
provides him an everlasting joy which includes the sights of meadows, daisies, mill,
river, hill plain etc. He is pleased because a thing of beauty is a joy forever.
Idioms
1. In all There are four eggs in all in the basket.
2. All at once All at once the rain started to fall.
3. All the same This matter is all the same to me.
4. All alone A soldier destroyed the enemys for all alone in the war.
5. All about Its all about the corruption spreading in the country.

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Dignity of Work

CHAPTER 8
Question and Answers
Q.1 What did Akhter not answer his mother?
Ans. Akhter, being stubborn did not answer his mother. He was feeling cross and angry
because he was made to do the work of servants and gardeners with his own hands.
Q.2 What did Mr. Inayat tell the children?
Ans. Mr. Inayat usually used to tell interesting stories of different parts of the world. But
on that particular day, he told the children about the dignity of doing work with our own
hands.
Q.3 What reason did Akhter give his under for being cross?
Ans. The reason for Akhtars anger was that he was forced to do the mean would. He
believed that by doing out cast his greatness is decreased and was feeling ashame on his
act.
Q.4 What did the teacher do himself?
Ans. The teacher swept the room and emptied the dustbin. The head master also took part
in the activities by cleaning bathroom.
Q.5 What did the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) love?
Ans. Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) loved to do the work for himself and for others with his
own hands. He never felt shy in repairing and mending his shoes, washing clothes and
sweeping room. He proudly joined his companions in digging ditch during the Khandaq
Battle.
Q.6 Were the companions of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) like him?
Ans. Yes, the companions of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) like him. They were the complete
sketch of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) personality and loved doing work with their hands.
Hazrat Abu Bakr not did his own work but also helped others.
Q.7 What did Hazrat Abu Bakr do?
Ans. Hazrat Abu Bakr was the orthodox Caliph of Muslims. Following of footsteps of
Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), he did every kind of work, his own as well as of others. He
fetched water far widows and neighbours who were very old and had no one to work for
them.

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Q.8 What did Hazrat Fatima do?


Ans. Hazrat Fatima was the beloved and dearest daughter of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).
She could have servants being the daughter of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), but like her father
she fetched water, ground corn and swept the house.
Q.9 How did Sultan Nasir uddin earned his living?
Ans. Sultan Nasir-uddin was a very pious Emperor of Muslims. He earned his living by
making caps, although he could take money from the emperors treasury.
Q.10 What does everyone do in China?
Ans. People at China believe that all ought to work. Everyone has to spend sometime
each year working in the fields or in a factor. Even the Prime Minister and his wife do the
work.
Word Meanings
1. cross angry
2. reason cause
3. pleasant friendly
4. surprised astonished
5. favourite specially liked
6. treat behave towards somebody
7. noble showing high character
8. feteree went for an brought back
9. advanced developed
Composition
Dignity of Work
Greatness of work or significance of work stand in the meanings of dignity of work .It
means that every kind of work is great. No matter how small or how trivial it is. By doing
work with our own hands, our greatness is not curtailed and we should, not feel shy or
disgrace in doing chores of daily life. Dignity of work is very importance because it
produces the spirit of doing hard work which enables us to face the hardship of life. It
creates modesty on our personality and helps in the modification of ourselves. It also
makes us ethical and social. So, we should realize that by doing work with our own hands
make us honourable and great.

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A Nations Strength

CHAPTER 9
Central Idea
Reference
Raph Waldo Emerson is the writer of this beautiful poem. His philosophy is everlasting,
because it arose from a desire to make all things new, to seize life freshly.
Central Idea
The vigorous growth of any nation does not depend on wealth. But majority the result of
hard work, high moral character and virtues of great people. A nations strength is a fruit
of which labour is seed.
Theme
The heights by great men reached and kept were nor attained by sudden light, But they,
while their companions left, were toiling upward in the night. (Henry Longfellow)
people do not lack strength they lack will.
Character
Character means moral qualities which constitute personal or national individuality. A
nations strength rest upon the character of its people. Men of character achieve greatness
for their nation through sacrifices and hones deeds. They build their nation on foundation
of lasting virtue. So character is a parameter which can be used to measure the depth of a
mans personality. When wealth is lost, nothing is lost. When health is lost, something is
lost. When Character is lost, everything is lost.
Idioms
1. With Heart and Soul
Meaning: All ones energies and interest.
Sentence
1.That teacher is very popular because she works with heart and soul.
2. We should love our country with heart and soul.

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The Clever Wife

CHAPTER 10
Question and Answers
Q.1 What was the farmer doing in his field?
Ans. The farmer was ploughing in his field with a team of bullocks. Suddenly, a tiger
appeared from the bushes, which terrified the farmer.
Q.2 What did the tiger say to him?
Ans. Tiger greeted the farmer and said that the God had commanded him to eat farmers
bullocks. He ordered farmer to obey Gods command then and deliver them to him.
Q.3 Why was the tiger angry?
Ans. The tiger was angry because first of all the farmer argued that God had commanded
him to plough the fields and then refused to handover the bullocks to him. This argument
and refusal of farmer made the tiger angry.
Q.4 What did the farmer offer to the tiger?
Ans. When the tiger became angry, the farmer tried to lesser his anger by offering his fat
cow. He did so to save his dear live.
Q.5 What did farmer tell his wife?
Ans. The farmer entered the house in a panting position and introduced his wife with the
terrifying condition. He told her that the tiger is awaiting for cow and asked her the cure
for his feared condition.
Q.6 Why did the wife of the farmer refuse to give the cow?
Ans. The wife of the farmer refused to give the cow because it was the only source of
butter and ghee for them. Moreover she also used to get milk from the animal.
Q.7 What did the farmers wife do?
Ans. She returned the farmer to the field and decided to solve the problem. She dressed
herself as a blood-thirsty hunter and rode to the field.
Q.8 What did she say when she saw the tiger?
Ans. She said when she saw the tiger that she was really in need of a tiger because of its
delicious flesh. She further said that she was habitual of eating three tigers a day in order
to frighten the tiger.

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Q.9 What did the tiger do when the farmers wife said that she would eat a tiger?
Ans. Actually the tiger was coward at heart. Thats why when he listened the terrifying
dialogues from the farmers wife. He run away to save his dear life.
Q.10 What did the jackal say to the running tiger?
Ans. The jackal revealed the fact that the blood-thirsty killer was actually the farmers
wife. He also promised to show the real identity of the killer.
Q.11 What did the farmers wife say to the Jackal?
Ans. The farmers wife thanked Jackal for bringing such a fine tiger to her. She also
asked for two more tigers because she wanted to show the character of a blood-thirsty
killer to afraid the tiger.
Sentences
1. Command: The major commanded his soldiers to attack the enemys fort.
2. Coward: To sing a song behind ones back is a very coward act.
3. Deliver: Newspaper are the best media to deliver the messages of Government.
4. Tender: We should deal everyone in a tender and delicate manner.
5. Trick: We should not play tricks with others.
Composition
Q.1 Why did the farmer offer the tiger his cow?
Ans. Firstly the tiger demanded the farmers bullocks in a dramatic style. The demand of
the tiger terrified the farmer. He thought that if he had no bullocks to plough the field,
there would be no wheat to make bread. He thought that if he gives his fat cow instead of
bullocks, this would be profitable for him. Thats why the farmer offered the tiger, his
cow.
Q.2 How did farmers wife frighten the tiger?
Ans. The farmers wife frighted the tiger by cladding herself as a blood-thirsty killer. She
put on her husbands best clothes, lied a fine turban round her head. Then she saddled the
horse and rode to the field. When she reached there, said in loud and bold voice that she
was really in need of a tiger. She also added that she was habitual of eating three tigers a
day. The tiger was coward at heart, thats why when he listened such dialogues, he ran to
same his dear life?
Q.3 How did the Jackal encourage the tiger?
Ans. The Jackal firstly flattered the tiger. Then he encouraged him by revealing the fact
that the bloodthirsty killer, who was terrifying the tiger, was the farmers wife. He also
promised to show the real identity of farmers wife i.e. her long hair in order to proved
his claim. He did so because he thought that he might also have a piece from the tigers
hunt.

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Q.4 What is the moral of the lesson The Clever Wife?


Ans. The lesson The Clever Wife teaches us that we can erase tireny from the society
by showing boldness in our character. We should not be panic, while facing tribulations
of life and we must keep our units along us.
Grammar
1.Direct to Indirect Speech
Direct: Tiger said to the farmer, Good morning, farmed of God has commanded me to
eat your bullocks. Now obey Gods command and deliver them to me.
Indirect: Tiger greeted the farmer that God had commanded him to eat farmers bullocks.
He ordered farmer to obey Gods command then and deliver them to him.
Direct: Farmer said to the tiger, God has commanded me to plough the fields and i
Cannot do so without my bullocks. Perhaps, Sir, you have made a mistake.
Indirect: Farmer told tiger that God had commanded him to plough the fields and he
would not do so without his bullocks. Might the tiger had made a mistake.
Direct: Tiger said, I know better what God wishes me to do so hurry up and hand over
the bullocks to me.
Indirect: Tiger said that he knew better what God wished him to do; he ordered the
farmer to hurry up and handover the bullocks to me.
Direct: Farmer said to the Tiger, Please, Sir, Ive a fat cow at home. Ill fetch it for you
in a few moments.
Indirect: Farmer requested the tiger that he had a fat cow at home. He would fetch it fo
you in a few moments.
Direct: The tiger said, All right, go and bring the cow but leave, the bullocks here. I
promise Ill not hurt them.
Indirect: The tiger commanded the farmer to go and bring the cow but leave the bullocks
there. He promised he would not hurt them.
Direct: The wife said to the farmer, You are already home, I havent yet started my
household work.
Indirect: The wife asked the farmer that he was already home and that she hadnt yet
started her house hold work.
Direct: The farmer said to his wife, Please, hurry up! Tell me what to do. The tiger is
waiting for the cow. If I am late, the tiger will eat up the bullocks.
Indirect: The farmer begged his wife to hurry up and tell him what to do. The tiger was
waiting for the co. If he was late, the tiger would eat up the bullocks.
Direct: The farmers wife said, Where shall and get the milk from? How shall I make
butter and ghee if you give away the cow?

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Indirect: The farmers wife questioned where they would get the milk from. How she
would make butter and ghee if he gave away the cow.
Direct: The farmer said, I know but bread is more important than butter. If Ive no
bullocks to plough the field with, therell be no wheat to make bread.
Indirect: The farmer said that he knew but bread was more important than butter. If he
had no bullocks to plough the field with there would be no wheat to make bread.
Direct: The farmers wife said, No, I wont let you take the cow.
Indirect: The farmers wife refused she would not let him took the cow.
Direct: the farmer said, Then find some way out.
Indirect: The farmer ordered to find some way out then.
Direct: The farmers wife said, Very well, I shall think of a way. Leave it to me. No go
back to the tiger and tell him that your wife is bringing the cow.
Indirect: The farmers wife exclaimed that she would think of a way. Leave it to her. She
ordered the farmer to go back to the tiger and tell him that his wife was bringing the cow.
Direct: The farmers wife said, How I would like to eat a live tiger! Its flesh is so
tender and tasty. Yesterday, I ate three tigers, bones and all. I hope I shall find at least one
delicious little tiger today.
Indirect: The farmers wife said that how she would like to eat a live tiger. Its flesh was
so tender and tasty. The day before, she had eaten three tigers, bones and all. She hoped
she would find at least one delicious little tiger that day.
Direct: The jackal said to the tiger, What is the matter, my lord? Where are you off to?
Indirect: The jackal asked the tiger what was the matter. Where he was off to?
Direct: The tiger said to the jackal, Run for your life. Theres a blood thirsty
horseman, who goes about eating tigers.
Indirect: The tiger said to the jackal to run for his life. There was a blood-thirsty
horseman, who went about eating tigers.
Direct: The jackal said to the tigers, Oh that was only the farmers wife. She has played
a trick on you. Come with me, my lord, and I shall you her long hair.
Indirect: The jackal told the tiger that, she had been the farmers wife only. She had
played a trick on tiger. He said to the tiger to go with him, and he would show him her
long hair.
Direct: The tiger said to the jackal, Are you sure its only a woman.
Indirect: The tiger asked the jackal if he was sure it was only a woman.
Direct: The jackal said to the tiger, Dont you trust your old friend.
Indirect: The jackal asked the tiger if he not trusted his old friend.

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Direct: The farmer said to his wife, Now we are lost.


Indirect: The farmer told his wife that they were lost them.
Direct:The farmers wife said to the farmer, Dont you worry. I shall deal with them.
Indirect:The farmers wife told the farmer not to worry. She would deal with them.
Direct: The farmers wife said to the jackal, Ah, thank you so much, dear Mr. Jackal,
for bringing me such a fine gift of a tiger. I was really looking for such a one. Have you
any more because I must eat three tigers a day.
Indirect: The farmers wife thanked jackal for bringing her such a fine gift for a tiger.
She had been really looking for such a one. If he had any more because she must ate three
tigers a day.
2. Preposition
1. The tiger was angry with the jackal.
2. The farmers wife laughed at her husband.
3. The farmers wife was not afraid from the tiger.
4. Ill fetch the cow for you in a few moments.
3. Sentences As a Noun and Verb
1. Command We should obey the command of our elders. (N)
1. Commanded The teacher commanded the students to take a surprise test. (V)
2. Growl The panthers growl made the hunter terrified. (N)
2. Growled The tiger growled at the fox because he was scrabbing his catch. (V)
3. Plough Tractor is better tool than bullocks to plough the fields. (N)
3. Ploughed The farmer ploughed the field to earn his bread. (V)
4. Anger Anger is prohibited in Islam. (N)
4. Angered Aslam angered when he listened the news of his failure in exams. (V)
5. Trick The audience were very excited with the funny tricks of joker. (N)
5. Tricked He tricked me by telling wrong exercise to me for the test. (V)
6. Surprise There is a strange surprise for you in the store room. (N)
6. Surprised Fahad was surprised with the slims. (V)
7. Milk Milk is a balanced and complete diet. (N)
7. Milked The cow milked her calf. (V)
8. Despair We should not be despair while facing hardships of life. (N)
8. Despair Ahmed was greatly despair because he failed in the annual exams. (V)

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4. Synonyms
1. Bold Brave
2. Firm Strong
3. Delicious Tasty
4. Despair Hopelessness
5. Solute Great
6. Eager Desirous
7. Tender Soft

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Beautiful Hands

CHAPTER 11
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by an American poetess Ellen M.H.Gates. She wrote religious
songs. Collection of her poems were published in 1987 and 1910.
Central Idea
Mothers hands are the symbol of Love. A mother is a pivot, around which the whole
family revolves. She relieves the tedium of life, sheds the divine light in the darkness,
alleviates distress, does her duties by her children makes them happy, healthy and
intelligent citizens of tomorrow. The progress of a nation depends upon the care and skill
with which mothers rear up their children.
Theme
The theme of this poem can be expressed in the words of Napoleon that:
Give me good mothers, Ill Give you good nation.
or
The hands that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the world.
Question and Answers
Q.1 What words or phrases tell us that they are not pretty in the physical sense?
Ans. The words ages and wrinkled tell us that the hands are not beautiful in their
physical appearance. It means that these hands are old and full of wrinkles. They are
neither fair not small but rough and big.
Q.2 Why does the poetess praise the hands in the second stanza?
Ans. The poetess praises the hands in the second stanza because these hands carelessly
worked hard inspite of exhaustion and utter fatigue in order to provide happiness of her
children. The poetess is showing repentance because when she was young, she couldve
helped her mother in doing chars of daily life but she did not.
Q.3 In the third stanza, what does These hands must folded be mean?
Ans. The words, These hands must folded be mean that the death time of the poetess
mother was near to come. The poetess is showing her grief because soon her mother
would be under the layers of wild flowers in a folding manner.

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Q.4 Who does the poetess praise in this poem?


Ans. In this poem, the poetess pays a high tribute to her mothers hands for their spiritual
beauty. She further defined these hands that they worked restlessly inspite of facing
tribulations of life, so that her family might enjoys a happy life.
Idioms
With a high hand Disregarding the feeling of other
Sentence He is most unpopular because he decides matter with a high hand.

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A Village Fair

CHAPTER 12
Question and Answers
Q.1 Why was the village decorated?
Ans. When Bilal reached his cousins village he saw that the village was beautifully
decorated with colourful buntings and flags unusually. The reason behind that decoration
was that the annual village fair was being celebrated.
Q.2 Why was it the best time to visit the village?
Ans. Bilal visited the village in his summer vacations. It would be best time for him to
visit the village because the villagers were celebrating annual fair which is held only once
in year. Bilal luckily experienced the amazing sights of this fair.
Q.3 How did the juggler entertain the people?
Ans. The juggler entertained the people through his funny and amazing tricks. He juggled
with seven balls at a time without dropping any of them. It was a great game of practice
and skill.
Q.4 How did the conjurer perform his tricks?
Ans.The conjurer performed several unbelievable tricks through his clever skill. He took
Bilals handkerchief and tore it into pieces. Later on he astonished the audience by
returning the handkerchief in just one piece.
Q.5 What is tent-pegging?
Ans. Tent -Pegging is a typical feature of Pakistani fair and a popular country game. In
this game, the horse rider has to pull up the wooden pegs fixed in the ground. They do
this with the help of lances.
Q.6 What made the dogs run in the dog race?
Ans. Dog race is a kind of fascinating entertainment for the villagers in which the skill of
hound dongs is examined. In the fair, a rabbit was brought in the field and was let loose
inform of the dogs, which made the dogs run.
Q.7 What was the special announcement?
Ans. The special announcement was about the horse race. s it is the general feature of a
fair, thats why most of the people rushed to view their favourite segment of the fair.
Q.8 What kinds of shops had been setup for the fair?
Ans. Mostly the temporary shops had been set up for the fair. All kinds of goods from

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handkerchiefs to framing tools were available in these shops. They were the special
faculty for this fair.
Q.9 What was the use of these shops for the villagers?
Ans. The temporary shops set up for the fair provided feasibility to both buyers and
seller. People from far off places easily bought essential commodities of life. Where as, it
was a good time for the sellers to avail business opportunity.
Q.10 What were the different entertainments in the fair for the children?
Ans. Thee were different entertainments for the children in the fair. These entertainments
include swings, the monkey man show and the show performed by the circus people.
Children enjoyed it a lot.
Sentences
1. Decorated Our school was beautifully decorated on the occasion of Eid Milad-unNabi.
2. Competition A soldier was badly wounded during the shooting competition.
3. Performance A Major was awarded medal because of his performance during the
war.
4. Temporary Temporary arrangements have been made for the prevention of crimes.
5. Damaged The car was badly damaged after a small accident.
Grammar
1.Complete the following sentences
1. The drummer who could beat the longest work get a prize.
2. The two friends moved towards a crowd which had gathered in a big circle.
3. The food that we ate was delicious.
4. The man whom we saw climbing the pole had been walking on the tight rope.
5. The rider whose horse had won the race was very happy.
6. I went to the village where my cousin was living.
7. I visited him when the village fair was in full swing.
2. Tense Changing into Past.
1. We do our homework.
Ans. We did our homework at night.
2. The pupils write a composition.
Ans. The pupils wrote a composition in the half-time.
3. My friend walks to school.
Ans. My friend walked to school in the morning.

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4. The Headmaster teaches us English.


Ans. The Headmaster taught us English in the last period.
5. The peon rings the bell.
Ans. The peon rang the bell at 1'O clock.
6. My mother does not sleep well.
Ans. My mother did not sleep well.
7. His brother loses his book.
Ans. His brother lost his book in the assembly.
8. The eagle flies very high.
Ans. The eagle flew very high in the sky.
9. The cobbler sits under a tree.
Ans. The cobbler sat under a tree at noon.
10. They grow rice on this farm.
Ans. They grow rice on this farm in the winter season.
3. Degrees of Adjectives
1. old older- oldest
2. young younger- youngest
3. great greater greatest
4. big bigger biggest
5. far more far most far
6. famous more famous most famous
7. beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
8. popular more popular most popular
9. intelligent more intelligent most intelligent
10. delicious more delicious most delicious
4. Forms of Verbs
1. know knew known
2. heat heated heated
3. learn learnt learnt
4. sing sang snag
5. read read read
6. listen listened listened
7. go went gone
8. write wrote written
9. make made made

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10. wear wore worn


11. live lived lived
Composition
1. A Village Fair
Last month, we visited a village fair. The fair was representing the festive mood of the
rusic people. The village was specially decorated with colourful buntings and flags and
was crowded with a lrge number of people. Many temporary shops had been set up which
were the special faculty for the fair. These shops were providing feasibility for the
visitors as well as for the shopkeepers. There was a lot of entertainment for different age
groups especially children like swings, monkey man show, drum beating competition,
horse race etc. The circus people were also presenting their funny and amazing tricks to
fascinate people. Tent pegging and the dog race were two very popular games of the
fair. In tent-pegging the training and skill to horse and the rider is examined skill of dogs
is examined through the dog race. We were very enchanted to see the beautiful sights of
the fair.
2. Tent-Pegging
Tent-pegging is one of the most popular and famous sport of Pakistan. It is an important
heritage of our culture. In this game wooden pegs are fixed in the ground. The riders have
to pull these pegs out of the ground with the help of their spear, as they ride by at a
gallop. Tent-pegging is a exhibit of skill in which the training invested on the horse and
the skill of trainee and the rider is tested. It is great game of joy in addition to practice
and skill.

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Shopping

CHAPTER 14
Question and Answers
Q.1 Why did mother ask Najma and Ajmal to go with her for shopping?
Ans. Mother asked Najma and Ajmal to go with her for shopping because their father was
not at home. He was on tour and in his absence the mother had to do shopping. Moreover,
they also have run out of groceries and provisions.
Q.2 How much fare did the taxi driver demanded?
Ans. Mother hired a taxi to reach the market and asked the driver about the fare. The taxi
driver demanded twenty rupees before hand s the meter was out of order.
Q.3 What did mother tell the taxi-driver?
Ans. The mother was shocked by the demand of taxi driver because the fare was too
much as the distance was hardly a kilometer. She further threatened that she would take
him to traffic constable if he insisted on charging 20 rupees
Q.4 Where did mother and children go first for shopping?
Ans. Mother and children firstly went to the mutton market. Najma and Ajmal were
astonished to see the Halal animals hanging in the market.
Q.5 What is the difference between beef and mutton?
Ans. The meat of cows, calves and buffaloes is called beef. Whereas mutton is the flesh
of goats and sheep.
Q.6 What did mother buy at the butchers shop?
Ans. Firstly mother bargained with the butcher and settled the price at ninety rupees a
kilo according to the price-list. Then she demands one kilo of leg and one kilo minced
meat.
Q.7 Where did mother go after making purchases at the butcher?
Ans. After making purchases at the butchers mother headed towards the vegetables and
fruit. She wanted to buy fresh and tasty vegetables for the incoming month.
Q.8 How did the mother buy bananas and apples?
Ans. Monthly firstly inquired the fruit sever about the price. Then she bought ten bananas
at a rte of fifteen rupees and one kg apples at a cost of twenty rupees.

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Q.9 What did mother buy last of all?


Ans. After making all purchases mother went to a poultry shop. She bought eggs and one
kilo of dressed chicken at a rate of twenty and ninety rupees respectively.
Q.10 How far is the market from the house of Najma and Ajmal?
Ans. The market was not so far from the house of Najma and Ajmal. It was about a
distance of one thousands metres.
Q.11 What did mother ask the children to do when they reached back home?
Ans. When they had reached back home, mother asked Ajmal to polish his own and
Najmas shoes. She order ordered Najma to iron the clothes.
Q.12 When do we use Metre, Kilometre, Kilo and Litre?
Ans. These are all measuring units of different quantities. Metre is used for measuring
Length, Kilometre for distance, Kilo for weightsand Litre to measure liquids except with
those of high viscosity.
Q.13 Give the reason why polythene bags are not being used all over the world? or
What is / are the harmful effects of polythene bags?
Ans. Polythene bags are not being used all over the world because they are major source
of water pollution. They lock the severage pipes and when the drains are chocked, the
dirty water spills all over. There is no suitable way of disposing these bags.
Q.14 How can we call the mother a vigilant customer? or How did mother bargain for
the price at the butchers shop?
Ans. We can call the mother a vigilant customer because before buying anything she
seemed to be very conscious the price and quality of goods. At the butchers shop, she
firstly inquired about the price. When she knew the price, she insisted on charging less
rupees because the prices were exceeding the price list. The butcher started telling stories
but finally he agreed on the low rate which shows the vigilance of mother.
Q.15 Why were Najma and Ajmal excited?
Ans. Najma and Ajmal were excited because the first time they were going for shopping.
The idea of learning new and interesting things was making them excited.
Q.16 Why did Taxi driver demand 20 rupees for fare?
Ans. Taxi driver demanded 20 rupees for the fare because he wanted to make more
money than the fare. As the meter of taxi was also our of order, so taking the advantage
of this situation he wanted to charge 20 rupees.
Sentences
1. Beef: Beef is the flesh of cows, calves and buffaloes.
2. Calves: Calve beef is more tasty than cows and buffaloes.
3. Carton: This carton of soap contains 100 cakes of soap.
4. Cabbage: We grow fresh cabbages in the garden.

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5. Hire: Aslam hired a taxi to reach the station.


6. Spices: Spices add delicious taste to the food.
7. Meter: We should not harm our gas and electric meter.
8. Unit: The unit of time in M.K.s system is second.
9. Provisions: We buy provisions every month from the Sunday Bazar.
10. Mutton: Mutton is the flesh of goats and sheep.
Synonyms
1. Frightened Afraid
2. Hail Greet
3. Buy Purchase
4. Carton Box
5. Provisions Supplies
6. Pointing Hinting
7. Threaten Warn
Opposites
1. Swim Drown
2. Alive Dead
3. Float Sink
4. Front Rear
5. Start Stop
6. Boil Freeze
7. Part Whole
8. Buy Sell
9. Agree Differ
10. Reject Accept
Grammar
1. Complete with Kilogram, Litre, Metres and Kilometres
1. My house is three kilometre from the railway.
2. This jar contains one kilogram of honey.
3. He measured out ten metres of rope.
4. The price of kerosene oil is five rupees a litre.
5. Sugar cane is usually two to three metres long.
6. The speed of this aeroplane is seven hundreds kilometres and hour.
7. This car does twelve kilometres to a litre of petrol.
2.Complete with the following
out of order, out of date, enforce, in order, up-to-date, to date
1. The old system of weights and measures is no longer enforce.

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2. You must revise your book and bring to up-to-date.


3. The Shopkeeper told him that their weighing machine was out of order.
4. I have received no letter from him to-date.
5. This rule is enforce, we must follow it.
6. That book was published ten years ago, it is completely out of date.
3. Complete with the following
with cake, bar, jar, packet, carton, bag, roll
1. A carton of soap contains 144 soap cakes.
2. Please bring a jar of Swat honey for me.
3. What is the price of one bag of flour?
4. The price of a cake of soap has increased by one rupee.
5. The shopkeeper charged me ninety rupees for this roll of cloth.
6. This chocolate is cheap at three rupees a bar.
7. This packet contains 25 biscuits.
4. Prepositions
1. The driver brought the taxi to a sudden halt.
2. He took off his old coat and put on the new one.
3. Please turn off the radio and turn on the T.V.
4. Before leaving the kitchen she put off the fire.
5. She turned out the cat and shut the door.
6. My friend turned up late from the cinema.
7. The watchman turned out to be thief.
8. The plane took off at 10'O Clock.
5. Change into Active Voice
1. He was robbed and beaten by some unknown persons.
Ans. Some unknown persons robbed and beat him.
2. The field was ploughed, the seed was sown and the crop was harvested by the farmer
himself.
Ans. The farmer himself ploughed the field, sowed the seed nd harvested the crop.
6. Change into Passive Voice
1. She brushed, cleaned and ironed her coat.
Ans. The coat was brushed, cleaned and ironed by her.
2. I brought this news to him.
Ans. That news was brought to him by me.
Composition

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You go shopping to buy a cloth for your School uniform Write a dialogue with the
shopkeeper.
Me: Hello sir, may I have a cloth for the school uniform?
Shopkeeper: Sure, wait a second.
Me: Is this purely cotton?
Shopkeeper: No, it is paper cotton. But assure you that it will last longer?
Me: Ok! But how can you say that the colour of trouser will not fade?
Shopkeeper:It is my guarantee that the colour will not fade otherwise you can have your
money back.
Me: Alright, how much it costs?
Shopkeeper: First tell me how much do you want?
Me: I need about 6 meters of the cloth.
Shopkeeper: Actually, the real price is 200 rupees but as you are our regular customer,
you can have it at a cost of 18 rupees.
Me: Its too expensive. Cant you be more flexible?
Shopkeeper: No my son, because if I do so I will deprived of my profit.
Me: Ok, take these 180 rupees and pack the cloth.
Shopkeeper: No problem.
Idioms
1. To have the lions share: To take the biggest share of something.
Example: Divide the cake into equal slices and dont have the lions share for yourself.
Sentence: Divide the profit share equally and dont have the lions share.
2. To same something for rainy day: To keep for some future security.
Example: He wanted all his savings and has save nothing for a rainy day.
Sentence: He lost all his money in gamble and didnt save anything for a rainy day.
3. To cry over spilt milk: To grieve over something uselessly.
Example: The damage has been done, but instead of crying over spilt milk, do something
to repair.
Sentence: It is useless crying over spilt milk.
4. Its high time: The moment has already come.
Example: The exams begin next month as its high time by now.
Sentence: The cricket match will start in twenty minutes so its high time we should
leave for the stadium.

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Speak Gently

CHAPTER 13
Central Idea
Reference
The writer of this poem is anonymous. But the tone of the poetry represents the peome is
a part of Moorish poetry.
Central Idea
Speaking gently to everyone is a good trait in our character. By being gentle we are likely
to loose nothing and gain much in terms of friendship. Good will and even material
rewards. It places our character and personality in a very good light and creates an
everlasting impression in the minds of others.
Theme
Kindness is more important than wisdom and recognition of it is the beginning of
wisdom.
Summary
This Moorish poem is written by an anonymous poet. This poem emphasis upon speaking
gently.
By speaking gently we can attain the spiritual power of rule. Treating someone harshly is
a kind of moral sin which can devastate our good deeds.
Speak gently is the best way to train a child and win over his love and trust. If you dont
adopt the mild attitude your teachings will not persist for a prolong period.
Our attitude should be soft to the aged and old people in order to create such an
atmosphere in which they can pass their remaining days peacefully.
Speak mildly does not cause and burden to you. These soft words create a forever
impression on the others hearts. The reward of adopting this habit is that in this mortal
world is the good deeds and the everlasting pleasure. It also brings reward in the eternal
life.
Question and Answers
Q.1 What is the result of adopting harsh attitude?
Ans. To speak harshly is a kind of ethical and social sin which can devastate our good
deeds we should produce mildness in our character. This is the only way through which
we can provide security to our good deeds which we have done in this mortal world.

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Q.2 What resemblance does he find between hearts and the deep well?
Ans. The poet finds resemblance between and deep well because like deep well we
cannot assume what is deeply within human heart. One thing is sure that the soft words
go deeply in the heart and we cannot assume these words out of the hearts.

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That Rules The World

CHAPTER 15
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by William Ross Wallace, (1819-1881). He was born in Dexington,
Kentucky. HiBs first poem appeared in 1837. He was lawyer by profession, but spent
more time on literature. He composed patriotic songs during the civil wr which became
popular. He possessed a splendid imagination as well as poetic diction.
Central Idea
The Central idea of this poem is that the first, noblest and most sacred mission of the
mother is to bring up children. Mothers are the real builders of our nation, in the sense
that the character of a children made or marred by the mother. It is said that:
Educate women or mothers and the Nation will take charge of itself.
Theme
A French idealogist Charles force said:
One could judge the degree of civilization of a country by the social and political
possession of its mother.
Summary
This poem is written by famous American poet William Ross Wallace.
The poet is paying his homage to the mothers because of their holy and sacred task. The
mothers bless the palace, cottage and poormans equally and make them colourful.
Mothers carry out a great sacred responsibility of bringing up the children. In this world,
which is full of evils and vices, a mother is a mark of guidance and protection.
Mothers are the actual trainee of the children. Her affection enables the children to
recognize divinity and obey command of Allah. A childs character depends directly
upon the mothers.
Behind every success of accomplishment of the great people is the hand of their mother.
Due to the caring guidance which is given in a dedicated and caring manner, a mother
can mold the character of a child in good shape.
Mothers words are so sanctimonious that they are sure to accepted because they are
strengthened by the worship of angles. So it is true that a mothers hand that brings up a
child is the same that governs every sphere of life.
Question and Answers

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Q.1 Why does the poet compare mothers hands to a rainbow?


Ans. The poet find resemblance between the mothers hands and a rainbow because
rainbow is symbol of peace, pleasure and happiness. It indicates that the storm has
passed and difficulties have gone. Similarly a mother is a symbol of pity and pleasure
who creates a peaceful and coming atmosphere for the whole family.
Q.2 What is guided by angles and how?
Ans. The chestity and grace of mothers is guided by angles. No one can destroy the spirit
of the true mothers because it is protected by the holy angles. They bring divine blessings
to the mothers which help the mothers to struggle with the tediums of life.
Q.3 Explain how the poet gives the credit for all great achievements of people to their
mothers?
Ans. The poet gives the credit for all great accomplishment of people to their mothers
because all the great personalities are prominent in the world due to the careful bringing
up to their mothers. Its only the result of mothers caring guidance and training that the
world is passing with the periods of humanstary and great successes.
Q.4 Describe the role of a mother?
Ans. The role of a mother is to bring up and train the children. Mother is an actual
guiding force for the children because due to her training a child can instigate a high
moral character. Mother also infest in the children the spirit to know the difference
between good and evil. A child is virtuous or his bad character depends upon the
guidance of mother.
Q.5 Why does the poet compare infancy (childhood) with the tender fountain?
Ans. The poet compares infancy (childhood) with the tender fountain because childhood
is just like a sophisticated and delicated fountain which can be led to any stage of life i.e.
good or bad. It is only a mother who can guide a very young soil to his destination
success it or failure.
Q.6 What does it mean by Sunshine streamed or evil hurled.
Ans. Sunshine is a symbol of goodness and virtue. This phrase means that the structure of
a mans character depends mainly upon the mothers. If the training of mother is goo it
mean that she has infested a high moral character in her children. But if the guidance is
not good and childs character will prevail by evilness.
Q.7 Why does the poet say that the prayers of mothers on earth mingles with that said
in heaven?
Ans. The poet says so because the prayers of a mothers are so sacred and holy that they
are accompanied by the holy prayers of angle. So that, these prayers are enforced and
strengthened. The words of mother keep a sanctimonious status to God, which cannot be
neglected because they are also strengthened by the worship of angles.
Q.8 Describe the poetic diction of William Ross Wallace?
Ans.William Rose Wallace composed patriotic songs during the civil war which became

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popular. He was a friend of Edgar Allen Roe whom he resembled both in temperament
and habits. He possessed a splendid imagination as well as poetic diction.
Q.9 How can the mother keep the young heart open and for what?
Ans. Mother has a very divine task to complete which starts right from the beginning of
the childs life and continues till the end. She keeps the young heart open in such a way
that the child can understand and accept the divine commands of Allah.

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An African Village

CHAPTER 16
Question and Answers
Q.1 How many independent countries are there in Africa and where is Nigeria?
Ans. Africa is the second largest continent which consists of more than twenty five
independent countries. Nigeria is one of the largest countries of Africa. It is in West
Africa.
Q.2 What is the bush area made up of and where do most Nigeria farmers live?
Ans. The bush area is consisted of scattered trees with heavy undergrowth in the form of
thick bush and grass. Most of the Nigerian farmers live in the villages and farm
settlements in the bush area. They construct huts and live in those huts.
Q.3 What is the centre of activities?
Ans. The main centre of activities is the courtyard of house. Women cook food and work
over there and children play there. They only use rooms for resting purposes.
Q.4 What are their food crops and cash crops?
Ans. The crop, which is edible and we use as food are called food crops. The main food
crops of Nigeria are plantains, potatoes, yarns, ground nuts and pepper. The crop which is
sold to other countries are called cash crops and the Nigerias cash crops include palm oil
and cocoa.
Q.5 Who tends the food crops and the cash crops?
Ans. Food crops are usually tended by the women. Whereas, the cash crops are tended by
men.
Q.6 What is made from cocoa beans and yield from palm trees?
Ans. From the fruit of cocoa tree, yield beans which are grounded into powder which
forms chocolate. From the palm trees, palm oil is yield. When the oil from the trees is
passed through the chemical processors, the palm oil is obtained in pure form.
Q.7 Why was continent Africa called Dark Continent once?
Ans. Continent Africa was called Dark Continent once because the habitats and
civilizations of the people of this continent was not known to the world. Due to their
backward living styles and old fashioned traits, this continent seems to be the dull part of
this world.

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Q.8 Give a brief account of Nigeria?


Ans. Nigeria is situated in West Africa and is one of the largest countries of Africa.
Nigeria is basically an agricultural country. It is also a thickly populated country which
comprises majority of farmers. A great part of Nigeria is covered with a dense forest.
Q.9 How is the life of Nigerian farmer differ from Pakistani farmer?
Ans. The life of Nigerian farmer differ from Pakistani farmer in many ways. Their
agricultural style is quite different from ours. They are not in the favour of keeping
cattles because of the disease which unables them to use cattles in farming. Their daily
routine of life also differs from Pakistani farmer.
Q.10 Describe the changes that are coming or likely to come soon in the life of the
bush dwellers in Nigeria.
Ans. Many favourable changes are coming in the life of bush dwellers, which include the
availability of transport and communication, health and education, food and water etc.
Soon their life style will more develope because many more modern facilities are making
their way in these villages.
Q.11 Describe the life of a Nigerian farmer and his wife?
Ans. The life a Nigerian villager is a model of hard work. From the rising of sun to the
dark, they work in the fields and houses. Farmer usually does all the work related to
agriculture and women do the household jobs including looking after the food crops.
Q.12 Describe the building style of Nigerian farm.
Ans. The building style of Nigerian farms consists of three styles. First style is a single
roomed and simple but which is made from thick branches of trees. Other style is the
cone shaped huts made from straw and whose roof is thatched grass, needs or palm trees.
Last style is the two or three roomed huts made of wood or are plastered with mud.
Q.13 Why can Nigerian farmer not rear cattle?
Ans. Nigerian farmers are not interested in rearing cattles because of the major hazards
for the cattles. Tse-Tse fly is the sign of dangers for them. On the other hand, it is also
dangerous for human beings because it causes unconsciousness state which most of the
time ends in death.
Sentences
1. Century: Computer is the most amazing invention of this century.
2. Cultivate: Modern methods of agriculture are being used to cultivate the fields.
3. Dense: Amazon forest is mainly covered with dense vegetation.
4. Export: Rice is the major export of Pakistan.
5. Scatter: The shelling of the police scatter the crowd.
6. Things out: The market is thickly, crowded at the beginning but it things out at the
end.
Idioms

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1. To shed crocodile tears: to weep insincerely, or hypocritically


Example: They were not all sorry when he died. They just sheded crocodile tears.
Sentence: From the attitude of UN towards Kashmir issue, it seems that it is just shedding
crocodile tears.
2. To feel like first out of water: To feel out of place
Example: Being the only educated man in that village, I feel like a fish out of water there.
Sentence: Aslam was the only member of Women rights association and felt like a fish
out of water.
3. To nip in the bud: To stop evil in the early stages
Example: The plot to overthrow the government was detected nd nipped in the bud.
Sentence: he should not prevail the bad atmosphere in the society and try, to nip in the
bud of crimes.
4. To turn over a new leaf: To reform, to behave better
Example: The teacher pardoned the boy on the condition that he promised to turn over a
new leaf.
Sentence: The death of his parents turned over a new leaf in his life.
Synonyms
1. Coartyard Compound
2. Link Join
3. Dense Thick
4. Explore Search
5. Introduce Acquaint
6. Century One Hundred
7. Majority More than half
8. Cultivate to grow
9. Facility Convenience
Antonyms
1. Dense Thin
2. Majority Minority
3. Remote Near
4. Major Minor
5. Independent Dependent
6. Interior Exterior
7. Export Import
Grammar
1. Complete the Following Sentences with Shall, Will, Should, Would:

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1. I think I shall go to the Karachi next week.


2. You should not tell a lie.
3. We shall fight to the last men.
4. This office will remain open till midnight.
5. I shall be grateful if you kindly grant me a pass.
6. The train would have arrived now.
7. Should our motherland need it, we will lay down our lives for it.
8. You should respect your elders.
9. Had you been there, it would never have happened.
10. They should not violate any condition of this contract.
2. Prepositions
1. Please introduce me to your father.
2. He is not acquainted with my parents.
3. This machine is fitted with automatic control.
4. You are not fit for this job.
5. A round nail does not for into a square hole.
6. He has passed the examination and is not looking for a job.
7. The police are on the look out for the robbers.
8. Look for the meaning of this world in the dictionary.
9. He promised to look into this matter.
10. We look up at you to solve our problems.
3. Change into Passive Voice
1. A road links his village to the town.
Ans. His village is linked to the town by a road.
2. A snake in the grass stung his barefoot.
Ans. His barefoot was stung by a snake in the grass.
3. He cannot rear any cattle on his farm.
Ans. No cattle can be reared by him on his farm.
4. Their father settled the dispute between the brothers.
Ans. The dispute between the brothers was settled by their father.
4. Change into Active Voice
1.This lamp was lit by the servant.
Ans. The servant lit this lamp.
2. The soldier was ordered by the officer to report to him.
Ans. The officer ordered the soldier to report to him.

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3. By whom was this blanket patched?


Ans. Who patched this blanket?
4. Was this land cultivated by the land owner himself?
Ans. Did the Land owner cultivated the land himself?

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King Bruce and the Spider

CHAPTER 17
Central Idea
Reference
this poem is written by Eliza cook (1818-1889). Born in London, she was the youngest of
seven children. She was entirely self-educated and wrote verses from the age of fourteen.
Her first volume being published at seventeen. In 1849, she edited and published, Eliza
Cooks Journal. Her work is simple and highly moral. In this poem, she teaches the
reader what she always practiced in her own life to keep on trying and never to be
discouraged.
Theme
Where there is a will, there is a way.
or
The world is his who her patients and industry.
Central Idea
The central idea of this poem is that we should cultivate a strong will power and a
hopeful attitude to life, be bold through thick and thin, counting no labour loss and our
heart within than. Almighty creator will surely help us if we adopt such a coarse. As it is
also said, The world is his who has patience and industry.
Summary
The poetess has expressed the true sense of life in this poem. Solution to the problems of
life and key to the success are being preached in this poem in a dramatic style.
This poem tells the story of the king Bruce of Scotland. Once he was defeated by the
English men. He took refuge in a cave. Due to his repeated failures, he was very grieve.
King Bruce mentally accepted his defeat from the English men.
One day, he was pondering at the point of his defeat, he watched a spider who was try8ng
to reach to her cobweb. Thread was the only pathway for the spider to reach her
destination. Spider started her voyage with great anxiety and force. But the spider come
down to the initial stage where it had started her journey. King Bruce was showing
issurity on the foolish attempts to reach the destination that spider will not try again.
However the spider succeeded in the 10th attempt to reach its cobweb. Afte the success to
spider the King Bruce sounded in a optimistic order. All honour to those who tries
persistently. King Bruce resoluted in heart to try once more in order to get the win over
on his enemies. At last he succeeded.

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Question and Answers


Q.1 What lesson did the King learn from the spider?
Ans. The persistent tries of spider gave a positive spin to the thoughts of King Bruce and
taught him that we are to be persistent and bold to achieve our aim of life. Continuous
struggle to the main aim always produces a favourable result. We should try hard without
caring for the resistance and circumstances of life.
Q.2. What do you know about King Bruce of Scotland?
Ans. King Bruce of Scotland was a very generous and patriotic Emperor. Once he fight
with the British Army who wants to make a British colony in Scotland, but he was
defeated. As he wanted to defeat his enemy, thats why he made several attempts to get
back his domain but he failed.
Q.3 What do you know about King Bruce of Scotland?
Ans. Eliza cook (1818-1889) was born in London. In 1849 she edited and published
Eliza cooks Journal. Her work is simple and highly moral and she teaches the readers
what she always practiced in her life; to keep on trying and never to be discouraged.
Q.4 What is meant by poetess when she says that a great deed?
Ans. The poetess has used the words a great hard for the King Bruce. He had been
trying hard to protect his domain from the contaminated hands of enemy. As the
protection of country keeps a very high rank among the mans priorities of life, thats
why the poetess called it a great deed.
Q.5 What resemblance, does the poetess find between the King Bruce and the Spider?
Ans. The points of similarity between the King Bruce and the spider were that the aim
was quite far away from both of them. Both of them were having a very slightest hope to
achieve success i.e. the spider had a single thread to reach the cobweb and the King
Bruce also had a very tiny hope to win over his enemies.
Q.6 Why did the King Bruce or poetess call the spider Brave.
Ans. The poetess call the spider brave because it was very persistent and tried hard to
complete her task. Although she suffered several failures, but she did not show any
grieverence on the disportual of its fate. It went on making attempt and at last its
persistent tries put it into the cobweb.
Idioms
1. To put into practice: to carry out in deeds.
Example: The soldiers put into practice the training they got in military school.
Sentence: We should put into practice the spirit of patriotism for our country.
2. A wild goose chose: An enterprise which will not succeed.
Example: The old man ran after the boy but a wild goose chase him.
Sentence: The coast guards ran after the criminals in their boats on a wild goose chase.

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3. To end in smoke: To have no result, to come to nothing.


Example: Unless you preserve, your work will end in smoke.
Sentence: The soldiers struggled hard to destroy the foes base but it ended in smoke.
4. At a lost: Puzzled, not knowing what to do.
Example: I misplaced the book and I was at a loss: how to manage it.
Sentence: Someone stole by Physics book and I was at a loss ho to prepare for the
Physics test.
5. With flying colours: To emerge successfully from some difficult task.
Example: Our team returned from the match with flying colours.
Sentence: Pakistan succeeded in the 1965 war with flying colours.

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Inheritors

CHAPTER 18
Question and Answers
Q.1 What property did the two brothers inherit from their father and what was the
suggestions of Azam about the division of property?
Ans. After the death of their father, their father inherited a cow, a date-palm, tree and a
blanket equally. Azam, the elder brother suggested that the front part of cow, the upper
part of the date-palm tree and the blanket from sunset till morning would belong to him.
Where as Moazzam was alloted with the rear part of cow, the lower part of the tree and
the blanket for the day time.
Q.2 Why did Moazzam agree to the division?
Ans. Moazzam was innocent and simple boy and agreed to the division because Azam
had cunningly presented the useless part of the property as the better ones. Furthermore
he believed that whatever his brother will divide, it will beneficial for both of them.
Q.3 Who fed the cow and who got the milk? and why did Azam not give dates to
Moazzam?
Ans. According to the agreement between Azam and Moazzam, Moazzam was to feed
the cow as the front part belonged to him and Azam got the milk as the rear part was his.
Azam did not give the dates to Moazzam because the fruitful part of the tree belong to
Azam.
Q.4 How did Moazzam teach the lesson to his elder brother?
Ans. After advising by an old man, Moazzam wisely foiled Azams tricks. When Azam
was milking the cow he started hitting the cows head with a stick, when Azam was
picking dates from the tree he started cutting the tree with an axe and when Azam took up
blanket, he found it wet which was done by Moazzam. In this manner, Moazzam was
able to teach the lesson to his brother.
Q.5 What is the moral of the lesseon The Inheritors?
Ans. The moral of the lesson is that falsehood have no ground bases to stand. We should
be pragmatic in our dealings and we can answer cleverness by wisdom. We must obey
our elders advice because their advice is as good as gold.
Q.6 Give the character sketch of Moazzam?
Ans. Moazzam was a very simple and trusting boy. He never hesitated in doing hard
work. Obedience and innocence was also the part of Moazzams nature.

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Q.7 Give the character sketch of Azam?


Ans.Azam was agreedy and selfish person. Being an elder, he had an ordering style. He
was always in the favour of cunning and false hood. Laziness was also their in his
character.
Q.8 How did Azam cheat Moazzam?
Ans. being selfish and clever, Azam took advantage of Moazzams simpliciity by taking
every beneficial part of the inheritance. He fleeted milk of cow, fruit of the tree and
blanket during night for himself and awarded Moazzam with useless and work needed
parts of inheritance.
Q.9 What was the effect of the old mans advice on Moazzam?
Ans. The oldmans advice revealed the fact on Moazzam that he was being cheated by
the cleverness of his elder brother. The old man made him realized that Azam was taking
benefit of the inheritance. Being obedient, Azam accepted the advice of old man and
answered the cleverness of his brother with his wisdom.
Sentences
1. Cheat: Aslam was cheated by Ikhlaq through his foolishness.
2. Division: The plan for the division of sub-continent on 14th August 47 is known as 3rd
June PLan.
3. Guess: Ahmed could not guessed the mystery.
4. Property: The property of former PM was captured by the Government because he was
found indulge in crimes.
5. Milk: I bought 5 litres of milk from the shop to make the milk shake.
Fill in the Blanks
1. Their mother had died in their childhood.
2. His younger brother. Moazzam was simple and trusting.
3. Azam the elder brother was very greedy and clever.
4. Azam suggested that they should divide the propery left by their father.
5. We shall just divide it verbally.
6. Moazzam was delighted with the generosity of this elder brother.
7. It shall be mine only from sunset to sunrise.
8. Now moazzam would feed the cow and Azam would milk it.
9. He did not offer even a single date to his younger brother.
10. Moazzam was quite content with it.
11. Azam enjoyed a deep sleep under the warm blanket.
Grammar
1. Nouns in Sentence

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1. Die : Death
He has lost his balance of mind due to the death of his father.
2. Advise : Advice
We must obey our elders advice
3. Divide: Division
The plan for the division of sub-continent on 14th August 1947 was presented by Lord
Mountt Batten.
4. Suggest: Suggestion
He did not accept any suggestion about his matter and suffered a heavy loss.
5. Agree: Agreement
An agreement of undertaking was signed between Pakistan and America on the basis of
Kashmir.
6. Feed : Food
Proper food is not available in our remote villages .
2.Nouns
1. Clever Cleverness
2. Greedy Greedy
3. Generous Generosity
4. Stupid Stupidity
5. Innocent Innocence
6. Simple Simplicity
7. Young Youth
3. Prepositions
1. He is fond of reading books.
2. Najma is not interested in games.
3. Ajmal is good at mathematics.
4. He is not fit for this job.
5. The baby is crying for its mother.
6. The nurse looks after the patient.
7. The patient has been cured of his disease.
8. He has given up smoking.
9. I am used to taking tea without sugar.
10. We should be proud of our country.
4. Change into Passive Voice

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1. The old man advised Moazzam.


Ans. Moazzam was advised by the old man.
2. Moazzam fed and looked after the cow.
Ans. The cow was fed and looked after by Moazzam.

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Casabianca

CHAPTER 19
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Felicia Dorethea Hemans (1973-1835). She was born at
Liverpool, but the family moved to Wales where she was brought up. She was quick in
mind and had a fine memory. As a poet, she has been compared to Long fellow. Like
Couper, she loved the pathetic, and there is great enthusiasm for chivalry and heroism in
her work. She also stressed moral values.
Theme
A man of courage is full of faith.
or
Patriotism is a great virtue that makes people forgive their selfness.
Central Idea
The central idea of this poem is the the noble characteristics like chivalirism, obedience
and morality demand the impossible, the obsolite and the death which itself transfigured
into eternal life. Deep-rooted faithfulness is majestic and unmatched which makes a man
rise above all personal affiliation.
Summary
This poem is written by an English poetess Felicia Dorothea Hemans.
Casabianca is not purely fictitous story. It is a story of brave and innocent boy. The
poetess has depicted a scene of sea battle. Where a ship is own ablaze with casabiance
standing on the deck. During the battle when every part of ship was gutted with fire, most
of the crew members had died and the live ones had runaway to save their lives. But
casabianca kept standing, fearless of fire and enemys shelling where he was in obedience
of his fathers order who was the captain of the ship.
When the ship was burning with fire, Casabiancas impatient nature made him ask the
permission to leave the battle field but there was no reply as his father was dead.
In the last three stanzas, the poetess has described the scene of casabiancas death when
the flames of fire engulfed him, the ship was also blasted and his body blown to bites.
But in reality his spirit and moral was not defeated. Till his last breath, he stood like rock
facing death and danger.
Question and Answers

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Q.1 Write a short note on Casabianca?


Ans. Casabianca was a young and brave soldier of his country. He was a born hero and
has a very strong, composed and pleasant personality. Dutifulness and obedience were his
making characteristics and he was proud of fighting for his country.
Q.2 What do you know about a battleship from this poem?
Ans. As the poem was written in the 19th century, in these days ships made from wood.
There were different parts like most, helm, pennon fair etc. Moreover they also used,
cannon balls for destruction purposes.
Q.3 How has the Felicia Dorothea Hemans been compared to other poets?
Ans. Felicia Dorothea Hemans has been compared to Henry Long Fellow and Couper.
She had the same pathetic and there is a great enthusiasm for chivalry and heroism in her
work like the other poets. She also stressed moral values.
Q.4 What does the poetess mean by saying that Lone Post of Death?
Ans. The poetess is describing the death scene of Casabianca through the phrase. It
means that when the fire was near to engulf him and his death time had arrived, than he
was all alone on the battleship. He had a desperation about his father, future i.e. about
winning over the battle.
Q.5 Why does the poetess call the Casabianca A Gallant Child?
Ans. The poetess calls the Casabianca a gallant child because he stood like a rock,
fairless of the fire, the enemys shelling and his despair in the moments of death and
danger. When his body blown into bites i.e. he was defeated by the death, but actually his
spirit was not overpowered and he remained as a brave and valiant soldier.

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The Khyber Pass

CHAPTER 20
Question and Answers
Q.1 What is the Khyber Pass? How long it is ? Where do we go through the Pass?
Ans. Khyber Pass is one of the most famous pass which is a narrow mountain valley. It is
about fifty kilometres long. From Khyber Pass we can go to Afghanistan and on the other
side is the famous city of Peshawar.
Q.2 When did Aryans cross it and how many times did Mahmood Ghaznavi cross it and
why?
Ans. Aryans crossed nearly four thousand years ago the Khyber Pass to enter Pakistan.
Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi crossed the Khyber Pass seventimes. He crossed this passage
in order to invade the sub-continent.
Q.3 What is the economical importance of Khyber Pass? Or Why it had been a famous
trade in history?
Ans. The economical importance of Khyber Pass is that it is used a trading route between
the different regions. It is the most favourable and best connection of East Asian
countries with Central Asian countries for trading purposes. The important goods which
are transferred through this pass into different regions include mirrors, furs, skins and
fruits.
Q.4 What did the camel caravans carry? By what have the camels caravans been
replaced?
Ans. The camel caravans carried mirrors, furs, skins, fruits, spices, silk, carpet etc to
different parts of the region. The camels caravans have now been replaced by trains,
trucks and lorries which are the most advanced and fastest means of transportation.
Q.5 Who lives in the mountains of the Khyber Pass?
Ans. The brave tribal people and Pathans live in the mountains of the Khyber Pass, who
fought with the mighty British Empire for hundred years and defended their freedom.
They are war like people among which keeping fire alarms is a common feature. But after
joining Pakistan they are now the defenders of North-Western frontier of Pakistan.
Q.6 Why Landi Kotal is the famous place along the Pass?
Ans. Landi Kotal is the famous place along the Pass because it is the highest place about
thirty km away from Jamrod Check post along the pass. It is also a market place where
most of the people enjoy eating Tikkas and Chapli Kabab. Landi Kotal is a beautiful spot
from where the road goes down winding through beautiful scenery.

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Q.7 What is the historical importance of Khyber Pass?


Ans. The historical importance of Khyber Pass cannot be neglected because many
Muslim conquerors like Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi, Shahabuddin Ghouri, Babur and
Ahmed Shah Abdli made their way through this Pass. Mostly this pass had been used in
the history for attacking nd conquering South Asia.
Q.8 Describe briefly the route from Peshawar to Khyber Pass.
Ans. The route for reaching Khyber Pass starts from the central city of Peshawar. About
fourteen Kilometers from Peshawar is the Jamrod Check Post from where the permits are
issued and which is surrounded by mountains. The road then runs is a haphazard manner
to Landi Kotal, 30 km away from Jamrod Check Post and finally after a journey of ten
km is the frontier post between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Sentences
1. Famous: Kentucky fried chicken has become very famous in Karachi.
2. Spices: Spices give a delicious taste to vegetables.
3. Conqueror: The conqueror Halaku Khan was the sign of terror for the whole world.
4. Defended: The borders of Pakistan were successfully defended by the soldier during
1965 war.
5. Stretched: He stretched his arms to hold the pile of books.
Fill in the Blanks
1. There are many who have traveled through some part of it.
2. Khyber Pass has been famous in history.
3. It has also been a famous trade route.
4. These brave tribes men fought the mighty British Empire.
5. They are the defenders of the North-Westen frontier of Pakistan.
6. They ate some Tikkas and Chapli Kabab.
7. The road goes down winding through beautiful scenery.
8. It has to run through many tunnels in the mountains.
9. They were welcomed by the soldiers guarding the frontier.
Compound Words
1. Pakistan Flag
2. Camel Caravan
3. Class Fellows
4. Check Post
5. Railway Line
6. Mule Trains
Idioms

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1. Dont go out alone in the Dark


Meaning: Dont be out of doors at night alone.
Sentence: My parents always guide me not to go out in the dark.
2. There is such a strong breeze, the candle may go out
Meaning: There is such a strong breeze that the candle may be extinguished.
Sentence: Yesterday there was strong wind blowing that I said to my friends that their is
such a strong breeze, the candle may go out.
3. Clothes go out of Fashion too fast
Meaning: Fashions of clothes last only for short periods of time.
Sentence: As it is a modern method so clothes go out of fashion too fast.
4. You can see more the land when the tides goes out
Meaning: When the water receds more the sea-shore is visible.
Sentence: When I went to the sea-side the tide was not very high so I said to my friend
that you can see more the land when the tide goes out.
5. The party went all out to win the elections
Meaning: The party made strenuous efforts to win the election.
Sentence: My uncle is in politics so his party went all out to win the elections.
6. He goes out of his way to help
Meaning: He makes extra ordinary efforts to help
Sentence: My friend is very generous and kind so he always goes out of his way to help
any body.
7. Im going off to my friends house
Meaning: I am leaving for my friends house.
Sentence: Yesterday there was my friends birthday so I went off at 7'O clock to my
friends house.
8. How did your interview go off?
Meaning: How did you fail in your interview?
Sentence: Yesterday my friend went to an organization in order to give his interview
when he was returning him how did his interview go off?
9. England has gone off the gold standard
Meaning: Englands currency is no longer solidly backed by gold.
Sentence: The quality of Pakistani rice has not yet gone off beyond the standards.
10. I hope the bomb squad reaches before the bomb explodes
Meaning: I hope the bomb squad reaches before the bomb goes off.
Sentence: When some guys fitted the bomb in a school, the principal of a school was
saying again and again that I hope the bomb squad reaches before the bomb goes off.

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The Minstrel Boy

CHAPTER - 21
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Thomas Moore (1779-1852) an Irish poet. He was born in Dublin
where he studied at the best school. He was admitted to Trinity College at the age of 15
years. He became an enthusiastic Irish Poet. In imitation of Lord Byron, who was his
friend, he wrote poem on an oriental theme called Lalla Rookh. His patriotic feelings is
well expressed in this poem.
Theme
Patriotism is not a short out burst of emotions but the tranquil and steady dedication of
lifetime.
or
Only passions, great passions can elevate the soul into great things.
Summary
The poem The Minstrel Boy has been written by a famous Irish poet Thomas Moore.
He has expressed his patriotic feelings in this poem.
The poem is in the praise of a minstrel boy. He was a great singer who used to sing songs
on the time of his harp in the peacetime. But when the wartime came on his country, he
joined the army of flight for his country. Actually he was continuing the legacy of his
fore fathers i.e. to fight for their country.
He fought bravely, with his sward and sacrificed his life for the protection of his
motherland. When he was near to death, he tore off all his belonging because he wanted
the enemy to realize that people like him would never allow him to touch their beloved
homeland.
In the end the poet has show his patriotic feelings in a convincing way. He says that the
enemy might defeat the minstrel boy physically but they could not conquer his spirits.
The minstrel boys harp was destroyed by the minstrel boy himself because it was meant
to sing in peace not in slavery. The extreme limit of patriotism is exhibited by their
action.
Question and Answers
Q.1 What do you know about Thomas Moore?
Ans. Thomas Moore was an enthusiastic Irish poet. In the imitation of his friend Lord

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Byron, he wrote poem on an oriental theme called Lalla Rookh. He has expressed his
patriotic feelings in this poem.
Q.2 What does Thomas Moore mean when he says as thought all the world betray
thee?
Ans. Thomas Moore has tried to convey a message by these words to his nation that if
youve got three things, no matter the whole world turns against you, you are not to afraid
of it. Loyal and faithful companions, a beloved motherland and power to protect the
privilege.
Q.3 Why did he destroy his harp?
Ans. Before the minstrel boy was dead he destroyed his harp because he wanted the
enemy to realize that every single child of his nation would not allow them to touch their
homeland with impure hands. Moreover his harp was meant to play in peace and if the
harp had survived it would have chained into the atmosphere of slavery. The extreme
limit of patriotism is exhibited by the action of minstrel boy.
Q.4 For whom the poet was the words warrior bard and proud soul?
Ans. Thomas Moore has paid a homage to the minstrel boy by alloting him the bites of
warrior bard and the proud soul. Thomas Moore has used these words to exhibit the
spirit of chamisism in the minstrel boy. He was a great and brave fighter and was proud
of fighting for his homeland.
Q.5 For whom were the songs of harp made?
Ans. The songs sung on the tune of harp were the marks of peace and carried out
detention against slavery. these songs were made to please the patriots of minstrel boys
nation. Only faithfully and Loyal companions and the men who were got freedom of their
homeland could hear these songs.

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How To Do Things

CHAPTER 22
Question and Answers
Q.1 What games were arranged for the guests?
Ans. To make the party colourful and fascinating, Shahnawaz also arranged some games.
These games include Passing the Parcel, Treasure Hunt and Musical Chair. These
games provided fun and laughter to the guests.
Q.2 When is a bicycle-rider a joy? When does this joy vanish?
Ans. Bicycle ride is a joy when one is young, it is also a pleasant experience when you
are riding a bicycle. This joy suddenly vanishes when the cycle gets punctured. You feel
while the riding that the tyre has lost its lightness and is pressing flat against the ground.
Q.3 What does the kit for mending the puncture contain?
Ans. The kit for mending the puncture is needed when the tyre last its lightness. The kit
contains a wrench, a pair of small scissors, a piece of an old cycle tube, sand paper, a
coloured pencil and the sticking solution.
Q.4 How is the Parcel prepared for the Parcel Game?
Ans.The parcel game is to be very interesting and exciting. A piece of Toffee is put in a
small carton which was wrapped with many layers of coloured papers.
Q.5 How is the game Treasure Hunt played?
Ans. Treasure hunt is an interesting game. In treasure hunt small things wrapped in paper
are to be hidden at different places in the room. The guest are to look for every where till
all the treasures are found.
Q.6 Describe the process of mending a puncture?
Ans. In order to make a puncture, first of all we take out tube from the wheel and inflate
it. Then we dip it in water and find out the puncture, mark it with the coloured pencil and
dry it and rub it with sand paper and then apply sticking solution and press it. The tube is
then put into tyre and pumped. The puncture has been mended.
Q.7 Describe the process of mending a puncture in a repair shop?
Ans. The purpose of mending a puncture at a bicycle repair shop is different one. A kind
of half solid rubber solution is applied to the puncture part of the tube. It is heated at a
certain temperature for some time in a machine which is a sort of press. The solution
melts and sticks to the tube so that both are inseparable.

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Q.8 What are the amusing aspects of parcel game?


Ans. The amusing aspects of parcel game are the punishment given during the games
These punishments are the mixture of commands like sing a song, crow like a cock,
bleat like a goat, bray like a donkey. Everyone has to obey the command that fell to
it his lot.
Q.9 How can a successful party be arranged?
Ans. A successful party can be arranged through the following steps. A party should be
well-planned and decorative to attract the people. The menu setting and serving counts
very munch in a coourful party and there should be some entertainment for the guests.
Q.10 How decoration is necessary for arranging a party?
Ans. Decoration is the best way to make a party fascinating. If the decoration is not
attractive the party has no effect. The party place should be adorn in such a manner that it
could capture the attention of the guests and add beautiful colours to the party.
Sentences
1. Honour: It is an honou for us that Shahid Afridi has broken the world record.
2. Serve: We should serve our country with heart and soul.
3. Frighten: My sister is frightened of going into dark.
4. Riding: Riding a bicycle is a great fun.
5. Puncture: Puncture can easily be mended if you have the puncture kit with you.
Fill in the Blanks
1. Shahnaz was very happy because it was her birthday.
2. She had invited her friends to a party.
3. The two friends talked about the menu.
4. Now they got busy int he kitchen.
5. Riding a bicycle is joy when one is young.
6. They decided to buy the rest of the things from the market.
7. You are riding back home merrily.
8. You lay you bicycle on the ground.
9. You take out your kit for the puncture.
10. This emergency should not worry you if you are prepared on it.
Idioms
1. Odds and ends: A collection of obhects not belonging to any group of order, left over
and discarded.
Example: That shop does not still anything in particular. It has only odds and ends.
Sentence: He claims that he is very fond of collecting precious stones, but his collection
contains only odds and ends.

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2. Under ones nose: immediately with reach.


Example: You dont have to go far. Its under your nose.
Sentence: I looked for my English copy everywhere and it was under my nose all the
time.
3. To poke ones nose into: To meddle or interfere
Example: She has the bad habit of poking her nose into the matters that are not her
concern.
Sentence: According to the charter of U.N. no country is allowed to poke her nose into
the personal affairs of any country.
4. To kick up a row: To make a disturbance or noise
Example: If you dont kick up a row, you will not be paid attention to
Sentence: The young boys started kicking up a row, when Micheal Jackson began to sing.
5. To wind up: To bring to an end
Example: Im using my last week in the country to wind up by business here.
Sentence: The director winded up the set due to late arrival of the artist.
Grammar
1.Noun
1. Invite Invitation
2. Busy Business
3. Prepare Preparation
4. Discuss Discussion
5. Decorate Decoration
6. Punish Punishment
7. Collect Collection
8. Sing Song
9. Decide Decision
2. Idiomatic Structures
1. To pour in: When I was passed in 9th class examination a number of phone calls of
congratulations poured in.
2. To pour out: In winter season when I am feelings too cold. I asked my mother to pour
out some hot tea for me.
3. To pour over: In the war, the nurse were pouring medicine over the wounded soldiers.
4. To put on: At the day of Eid festival, I put on my new clothes.

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The Uses of Adversity

CHAPTER 23
Question and Answers
Q.1 Write the message of this poem?
Ans. Adversity is the mother of our noblest virtues that teach us patience, perseverance
fortitude. Self help and sympathy and bring us nearest to Almighty creator. Adversity is a
gift from God. Seeming ugly and dark but actually messengers of sweetness and light. As
Francis Bacon says The virtue of Adversity is fortitude, which is mortal in the more
heroic virtue.
Idioms
1. In black and white: In writing
Example: I cannot accept your oral complaint. It must be in black and white.
Sentence: The teacher rejected the students oral application by saying that it must be in
black and white.
Idiomatic Structures
1. Out of: Only two out of ten people are eduction in our country.
2. Instead of: Instead of writing him a letter you can telegram.
3. Inspite of: Inspite of three warnings, the thief continue his work, thats why Policeman
arrested him.
4. Because of: Because of hardworking, I got 1st position in the class.
5. For the sake of: Captain Rashid Minhas died for the sake of country.
6. Every now and again: Few weeks ago strikes were being called every now and again.
7. All over again: Yesterday he lost his coy, so he rewrite his work all over again.
8. Time and again: He had been warned time and again to quit smoking by his parents.

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Making A Summary

CHAPTER 24
Question and Answers
Q.1 Give the Summary of the Lesson.
Ans. We use summary to express lengthy material in short steps. A good summary is
generally one third of the length. Precise must not look like a collection of disjointed
sentences nor should any important or beautiful idea of the original be left. For making a
precise, we should keep five skills in mind among which generalizing of ideas is an initial
step. Selection of related ideas, compression of lengthy sentences, use of indirect
narration and reference of the author counts very much in Precise-writing.
Q.2 What is the significance of Precise-Writing?
Ans. The significance of Precise-writing is clear from the fact tht in this fast moving
world, one could not pace up with the advancement of the world, so the man of this
century depends mostly upon precise. It is the easiest way to get information at length in
shortest possible time by average reading.
Q.3 What are the steps involved in Precise-Writing?
Ans. Precise-writing is used to express prolong material in short steps. A perfect precise
can be produced by the combination of five steps among which use of indirect narration
and compression of lengthy material are important. The other steps are selection of
related ideas, generalizing of ideas and reference of the author.
Grammar
1. Give One General Word
1. Football, Cricket, Hockey, Volley ball Games/Sports
2. Tables, Chairs, Sofas, Cupboards Furniture
3. Snakes, Crocodiles, Lizards Reptiles
4. Lions, Bears, Tigers Beasts
5. Sheep, Goats, Horses, Camels, Donkeys Cattles
2. Compress into One Word
1. That which cannot be done Impossible
2. That which cannot be eaten Inedible
3. That which cannot be described Indescribable
4. That which cannot be conquered Invincible

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5. That which cannot be read Illegible


6. That which cannot be seen Invisible
7. That which cannot be avoided Inevitable
3. Indirect Speech
1. She is lonely, they say
Indirect: They say that she is lonely.
2. Could it be mended? they asked.
Indirect: They asked if it could have been mended.
3. Open the suit case, he said to him.
Indirect: He ordered him to open the suit-case.
4. I am unwell, he says
Indirect: He tells that he is unwell.
5. I was lying, he confessed.
Indirect: He confessed that he had been lying.

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Theres A Good Time Coming

CHAPTER 25
Summary
Reference
This poem is written by Charles Mackay (1814-1889), a Scottish song writer. He was
born in Perth. His mother died while he was an infant. He went to school in Brussels in
1828 and began writing verses in both English and French in 1880. He returned to
London and worked for the Morning Chronicle till 1884 and then became editor of
Argus. Besides his extremely popular songs, some of which still live, Mackay wrote
books on travel, history and biography and was a good all round journalist.
Theme
Hope Sustains the World.
Summary
This poem is written by an Scottish poet Charles Mackay. This poem exhibits the strong
assurity of the poet, being optimistic and religious that there once will day when
everyone will enjoy the basic rights. The good time will prevail. The whole world
regardless of area. Destructive weapons which are used to prove the truth shall be
replaced by the good thoughts. The power of pen will exceed the power of sward i.e. the
power will be used in positive spin.
Everyone will be free to enjoy his basic rights. The people will be respected on the virtue
of their worth. There will be no extra support to walk over the ladder of life. Moral values
like merit, privileges will hold the ground in that time.
It would be such an ideal time that no body will praise the wars to protect the material
comb. The people will disgust the war because of unfairness and injustice.
In the end the poet has tied the hopes with humanity that by working together we can
revolutionize the whole world and can bring the ideal future closer.
Central Idea
The Central Idea of this poem is that an era is to come with there will be no war because
there will be a radical change in the outlook of people and nations. The poet Charles
Mackay is optimistic that in future nations will agree to code of national behaviour
humanity will emerge from the dark nights of wars and destructions and hail down of a
new better era of peace and prosperity.
Question and Answers

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Q.1 What do you know about the poet Charles Mackay?


Ans. Charles Mackay (1814-1889) was born in Scotland. In London, he worked for the
Morning Charnicle till 1884 and then became editor of Argus. Besides his extremely
popular songs, some of which still alive and he wrote books on travel, history and
biography and was a good all round journalist.
Q.2 Do you agree with the poet that a good time is coming?
Ans. Yes, I agree with the poet that a good time is coming. He rightly said that if we
worked together, we can bring the ideal future closer in which truthfulness, peace, Justice
and merit will prevail all around the World. s poet tries to explain in his poem that even
the lightest deeds dome with sincerity will produce the result naturally.
Q.3 What future does the poet promise for us?
Ans. Charles Mackay being optimistic promises an ideal future for us where there will be
complete peace in the World. Good thoughts will be the most strongest weapon to protect
the privileges and intellectuals will be the fighter instead of sword. Moral values like
merit, worth will hold the ground in that time and people will regard wars as disgusting
because of unfairness.
Q.4 Does poet expect us to make some effort of achievement?
Ans. Yes, Charles Mackay has tied strong hopes to us and by giving an initiative, he has
asked us to bring the ideal future closer to us. According to poet it is our duty to make our
combined efforts to get this goal in a positive and constructive way. In this way we can
revolutionize the whole World.

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The Customs of Various Regions of Pakistan

CHAPTER 26
Question and Answers
Q.1 What sort of people are the Pathans and food of what kind do they like?
Ans. Pathans are enthusiastic warriors and extremities of weather and climate have made
them physically very strong. They are famous for their hospitality and men power is
taken as their pride in the community. Roast Mutton and spicy tongue are specially like
by them.
Q.2 How and why does a tribes man announce the birth of a son?
Ans. A tribes man fires with the rifle to make the birth of son known publicly. He does so
because the birth of son is regarded a blessing for them. Men power is taken as their pride
in the community.
Q.3 Why is the Punjab called the seat of learning?
Ans. The Punjab is called the seat of learning because centuries ago, many educational,
institutions flourished in this region and their import is still continue in the form of
schools, colleges and universities. Taxila University, flourished two thousand and five
hundred years ago gives a healthy proof that Punjab has always been a seat of learning.
Q.4 Where do the Punjabi farmers sit in the evening?
Ans. The Punjabi farmers sit in Chopals in the evening. They discuss about the weather
and crops and also solve their disputes. They also enjoy songs and dances i.e. chopals
gathering provides them recreation.
Q.5 What is the result of extreme weather on the lives of Balochis? Why Balochies lead
simple nomadic life?
Ans. The extremities of weather unable the Balochis to lead their lives in just one place.
They move from place to place in order to escape from the calamities of season. Their
daily life is badly effected by weather.
Q.6 Describe a Balochi wedding?
Ans. A Balochi wedding ceremony is to be very joyous and jubilant which provides a joy
to the guest. Men and women dance to the lively beat of drums which is considered to be
the main heritage of the wedding. The groom feasts his own and brides guests.
Q.7 How old is the civilization of valley of Mehran and name the university existed that
time?
Ans. The Valley of Mehran is one of the ancient civilization of the world which had life

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in 2500 B.C. Its ancient city Moen-jo-Daros ruins speak of the highly developed society
that existed there about 5000 years ago. The University of Taxila existed that time.
Q.8 Who are the famous saints of Sindh?
Ans. Lal Shahbaz Qalander and Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai are the famous saints of Sindh.
These mystic poets and saints preached the message of Allah in a very convincing way.
Their poetry is an important aspect of our culture.
Q.9 What are the famous crafts of Sindh?
Ans. Most of the crafts of Sindh emerged from the embroidery which is praised all over
the country as well as in foreign countries. These handicrafts include dresses embroided
with silk thread, beads and mirror. Mirror work is also done on purses and cushions.
Q.10 How are the marriages arranged and wedding ceremonies performed among
Pathans?
Ans. The Pathans believe in arranged marriages which are done by their elders. Wedding
ceremonies are celebrated with great vehemence in which guests make rhythmical
movement to the beats of drum.
Q.11 Why is the Punjab called Heart of Pakistan?
Ans. Quaid-e-Azam declared Punjab as Heart of Pakistan because of its geographical
and knowledge importance. It is a land of five rivers and seat of learning. The religious
glimpse in the region is cleared from the fact that shrines of saints and holy men the
living glory of Pakistan.
Q.12 What is an Urs and how it is celebrated?
Ans. Urs is the death or birth anniversary of mystic poets which is celebrated in a
religious manner. People gather at the shrines and sing devotional songs. They attend the
fairs connected with these urs.
Q.13 What is the importance of culture?
Ans. This lesson emphasizes upon the importane of culture for any nation. For any
civilization called cultured is an important thing. As it is said that A person without a
heritage is just like a fiddler sitting on an inclined roof.
Q.14 What is sandy and where it is used?
Ans. Sandy is sort of coal store which is used in extreme cold weather. Sandy with a little
burning coal in the middle of the room which provide heat to the people. This instrument
is common in Baluchistan.
Q.15 Write the main theme of this lesson?
Ans. This lesson tells us the fact that Pakistan is very rich in diversities of custom. It
shows us that how people of different regions of our country lead their lives in
connection with their customs. This cultural legacy is the basic identity of Pakistan.

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Q.16 What do you know about Pakistani culture?


Ans. Pakistani culture comprises of different colourful customs which include religious
festivals, lively marriage celebrations, arts and handicrafts. Pakistani culture is also
embroided with the thread of simplicity and hospitality. This collective manifestation of
customs and traditions mostly emerged from history which re the basic identity of
Pakistan.
Fill in the Blanks
1. The birth of a son is therefore, regarded as a great blessing for the family.
2. The Pathans of the north are steady and warlike.
3. People from all over the country participate in the URs and sing devotional songs.
4. They will protect a visitor at the cost of their own lives.
5. The favourite food of the people is meat.
6. Roast mutton and Chapli Kababs are popular dishes.
7. Most festivals in Sindh, as in Punjab are of religious nature.
8. Sheep are bred in large herds on the green slopes of the northern regions.
9. The rock area is mostly barren.
10. The ancient city of Moen-jo-Daro dates back to 2500 BC.
Idioms
1. To see eye to eye with someone: To have the same opinion, or to agree with
Example: Management seldom see eye to eye with Labour.
Sentence: The opposition saw eye to eye when the Government is passing the bill against
8th amendment.
2. To turn a deaf ear to: To pay no attention to
Example: The employee kept pleading his case but the manager turned a deaf ear to it.
Sentence: Paksitan has raised Kashmir issue several times in the United Nations but it
had turned a deaf ear to it.
3. A black sheep: A bad character in an other wise good group
Example: Our school has produced very good citizens but there are black sheep too.
Sentence: We should point at the black sheep of the society.
4. To take to task: To call to account, to blame, to rebuke
Example: Those who are corrupt will have to be taken to task of their doings.
Sentence: The manager was taken to task of his mis-dealings in the accounts of bank.
5. Far and wide: over a large area.
Example: This tour will take you over far and wide of the country.
Sentence: People from far and wide places came to see to newly born baby of the
Kangaroo in the zoo.

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6. At large: at liberty, or free.


Example: The politician is popular at large.
Sentence: People at large condemned the opening of wine shops in their locality.

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The Man Who Wins

CHAPTER 27
Central Idea
Though the poet for this poem is anonymous but it breathes out the moral that we should
produce in us a strong will power, self-confidence and positive attitude towards life.
Once we decides upon an objective and has the will to do something suiting our natural
aptitude and use our energies in attaining it, we can work wonders and will surely achieve
it.
Summary
This poem emphasizes upon the importance of good thoughts and will power. It is written
by an anonymous poet.
It is rightly said that man who thinks can win. Conversely, if your thinking is pasimistic
and less practical than it will give negative impression on your deeds. If you want to do
something but your thinking is negative, than you will left behind in the race of life.
Our way of actions, way of efficiency depends on the thinking. We always find this rule
every where. According to the poet the germs of a personality are the power to get rid of
any kind of complexes, widening of thoughts and complete faith and self-confidence.
Life is a kind of war. You have to fight every time while you are living your life. A man
with strong will and good thoughts can win over this battle. Strengths of mind and
integrity of thoughts are keys of success.
One can never achieve anything lasting in this world by being irresolute.
Question and Answers
Q.1 Express line 3 and 4 of the first stanza in your own sentences?
Ans. The poet has conveyed a very powerful message through these lines that if you have
good facilities to do something but if your thinking is negative, you will fail to do it. If
your thinking is pasimistic and less practical you will get the result in the same way.
Q.2 What according to the poet qualities needed by a person to get success in life?
Ans. The poet has given a good description of the gems of a perfect personality. Power to
overcome any kind of complexes, widening of thoughts and complete faith and selfconfidence are the basic pillars of success. By these qualities men can struggle with the
resistance of life.
Q.3 What are the results according to the poet brought by high thoughts?
Ans. The poet has explained the advantages of high thoughts in a very convincing way

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that widening of thoughts provides spiritual power to us. Strength of mind and integrity
of thoughts are the real rewards of high thoughts. If a person thinks high he can win over
the battle of life.
Q.4 What is the message of the poem The Man who Wins?
Ans. The poem The Man Who Wins discloses the secret of success in life by telling the
importance of good, thoughts and will power. Power to overcome any kind of complexes,
widening of thoughts and complete faith and self-confidence are the gems of perfect
personality. By thinking high a man can winover the battle of life.

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Composition

Unforgettable Moments in My Life


There had been many unforgettable moments in my life. I would like to mention one of
these.
Once I was traveling from Karachi to Lahore by train. I was in first class, so there were
only few passengers, with me. At a particular station, they all got off. Now I was
completely alone in the compartment.
After sometime, a smart lady entered the compartment and sat next to me. She had a very
clever plan to rob me. She said to me that if I did not hand over all the money to her
which I had, she would complain to the railway police that I had robbed her. When I
heard this dreadful speech I was completely and absolutely pass puzzled. I hit a plan to
save myself from the wicked plan of that lady. I therefore pretended that I was a deaf and
a dumb fellow and requested to write in a piece of page what she wanted to say. She
gladly wrote her demand on the piece of paper and handed it to me. I change my seat and
took the piece of writing. The railway police come and asked as what the matter was. The
women as clever as she was burst into admits so she told that I had robber her of a
thousand rupees. At first he seemed to believe in her story, but when I gave the piece of
writing to the police, the women turned pale. She was caught red-handed and this way I
saved from her wicked plan.
Pakistan As You See in the 21st Century
When the Muslims of India demanded a separate homeland for themselves, many people
thought that the establishment of Pakistan was impossible. But Pakistan did come into
being. It has not only survived many difficulties but has also made great progress in every
field. Its survival and development have surprised all.
We would like to see Pakistan at its best in 21st century, in the past years we enabled and
demoralize.
Unfortunately, Pakistan has not been politically very stable. But there is no need for
despair. The people Pakistan agree on fundamental issues and priorities.
In the economic field, hopes must be brighter. In 1947, we were a poor agricultural
country growing a few crops. Very soon our country began to be industrialized. Its
dependence on agriculture would be lessened.
Pakistan has taken a very short period in becoming a semi-industrial country. This fact
gives us the hope that there would be even faster development in the coming years. We
have step in computer world and the other modern technology and expected that in 21st
century the computer will be the part of every department even the advancement is
expected because the new coming generation is comparatively more intelligent than
before. The modern schools and institutions are preparing the staff better than the before.

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We have already entered in manufacturing of many modern electronic equipment in


future like in 21st century Insha Allah Pakistan will send settelite in space. Pakistani
scientist will conquer the space. As the Allama Iqbal saying there is more world after the
stars.
All these hopes are not just wild dreams. They have a solid foundations. They are
founded on the fact that people of Pakistan are intensely devoted to their country. They
want to make it a great country and for this, they are ready to make every effort and
sacrifice. Moreover, they are true Muslims with firm faith in Allah.
Importance of Science As a Subject in Curriculum
The nature has many secrets buried in it. It is the science which has scratched the mask
from the face of nature. Science has always helped the man in every chamber of life. The
importance of science as a subject in school curriculum can be understood from the fact
that science acts as a pillar in the mans knowledge and when the youths are provided
with this pillar from the very beginning, they are sure to be successful. Through this
subject students are able to know the process going on in nature. The understanding of
science gives the students the actual concept of phenomenon that is what is going on
behind a particular process. The students can make a great increment in their knowledge
by having a deep study on science, so that they are able to know the general activities.
Hence the science is a very useful guide which introduces the students with the
techniques of nature.
A Picnic
We were given a special holiday after our annual prize distribution. So me and my friends
made a programme and set out accordingly for the picnic at the beach in the morning. We
reached there at 9'O clock. We unpacked our things in a hut. My friends wanted to go for
boating so we hired a boat to carry us to the island of Manora. We decided to do fishing
so we all started with great hopes but only a small quantity of fish was caught. We
reached the island after enjoying ourselves on the sea. We cooked the fish and enjoyed a
grand lunch. In the evening we had tea and spent a good time till the sunset.
We waded in water. Waves after waves were coming and passing us finally splashing on
land. We also rode the horses and camels, it was very exciting.
The scene of the setting sun was really superb. As the sun sank we packed our things and
after few minutes were back with the memories of the whole day to cur heart desire.
Importance of Trees
Trees and plants are living things. They grow form seed and after a training maturity they
die. Trees are of significant importance for us. We cannot under estimate their value in
our surroundings. Trees adorn our surroundings. They produce oxygen without which we
cannot live. They are source of fruits and cereals for us. Trees provide us wood which we
use in building houses and furniture. Wood of trees is used as fuel. They play vital role in
changing climate of a region. Many useful medicines are prepared from herb and plants

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for removing our ailments. Trees are a bounty for us and we should grow them where
ever we can.
Life in a Big City
God made country Men made the town.
Pakistan is a land of diverse beauty with 70% of her population living in villages spread
all over the land and the rest live in cities and towns.
Life in city is very fast and busy one. Take life of people in big cities like Karachi,
Lahore, Rawal Pindi or Peshawar. It is of course, not free from tension, worries and
problems. The main problems are urbanization, housing, transport, shortage of water and
pollution. People living in big cities do not get pure food like milk, butter, cheese and
curd. They gets stale vegetables to eat. Another deadly and frightening problem that has
recently waled freely into big cities is terrorism. This problem has shaken the mind and
disturbed the peace of every citizen.
People living in big cities are generally selfish and self centered. They do not fellow
feelings in them. The population is divided into classes the rich, middle class and the
poor.
Although there are better opportunities and scope for education, health and jobs in a big
city but as a whole life in a big city is full of hazards, problems, corruption and crimes.
My Favourite Hobby
A hobby can be almost anything a person like to do in his spare time. Because the Idle
Mind is Devils workshop therefore those who have developed a hobby never need to
worry about what to do with their newly founded leisure hours.
Every person in the world has a hobby of his own. There are many kinds of hobbies such
as gardening, stamp collecting, hiking, coin collecting, photography, listening to music
and so forth. Girls to pursue some hobbies. Their hobbies differ from those of the boys.
Girls mostly like hobbies such as cooking, stitching dresses, painting and listening to
music.
Among all the hobbies mentioned above I like painting. It is a subtle hobby. Whenever I
get time I sit down with my paint box, canvas, brushes and paint beautiful landscape. My
hobby does not infringe on the rights of other people. It is not a noisy hobby like music. I
can also earn money by selling my paintings to lover of fine arts. My hobby fills my heart
with joy and colours and there it is my favourite hobby.
Sir Wilham Osler said:
No man is really happy or safe without a hobby.
Health is Wealth
No one can deny the fact that healthy man live happily. Money or wealth cannot give a
person all the happiness of life as health can. A person may have wealth, cars, servants at
his service and a big house to life in cannot enjoy all these blessings without a good
health. Where as a person with small income, with no servant for work and small house
to live in but a healthy body enjoy a fuller life in the world.

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For good health and for looking younger and living longer one must follow few good
principles of life. To remain healthy we should eat balance diet. Take little exercise
everyday. Let not worries crowd our mind and shake our nervous system. We should not
allow ill thoughts bring agony to our mind. We should live in clear and neat surrounding.
We must become early risers and never go to bed very late.
Good health is a precious thing and every step must be taken to guard it. Early to bed
early to rise makes all men healthy, wealthy and wise.
My Aim in Life
Every one has an aim in life but those who do not have are dull souls and they curse their
life for all time. In other words we can say a person without an aim in life is like a car
without a driver. People have different aims in life. Some aspire to become rich, some
like to become doctor, engineers, business men, executives in a big company, banker,
lawyer, musician, artist and so forth.
I desire to lead a life different from others. I dont crave fro wealth not like to serve
people as doctor or like who say that they want to become a teacher and spread light and
knowledge.
My ambition in life may sound odd to you. I like to become a comedian. It is not an easy
task to become a comedian. Only one person out of million can become a good
comedian. People in our country belonging to different class and age live a very
depressed life. All have problems and they give me a gloomy look. I I can become a
comedian and make my people cheerful or bring some happy moments in their sad life. i
think I would have really rendered great service to my nation. After Lehri, we have two
such people like Moen Akhter and Omer Sharif in our country who made sad peoples
life cheerful. I always dream to become a great comedian and pray to God to help me
fulfill my goal in life.
A Street Accident
I read about road accidents in newspaper every day. They bring agony to our mind and
also to the relatives of victims, but till the day I had not seen an accident with my own
eyes. By God what a terrible sight it was!
It was in the short hour of one evening I was going along Burns Road to buy a pen for my
examination which was going to commence next week. At Denso Hall I was waiting for
the traffic to clear off so that I could safely cross the road. A bus was also running along
the road and it was trying to overtake a private car a head of it. All of a sudden driver lost
the control of steering and rammed against a horse carriage. The driver of the hackney
carriage fell down and the bus crushed him. The passengers in the hackney carriage
escaped death with some injuries. The horse was also badly wounded and it was looking
for his master. The injured were rushed immediately to a nearby hospital.
People gathered at the scene of accident. Some showing sympathy for the victim, some
abusing the bus driver and some advising others to be very careful while on a road.
I left the scene with a sorrowful heart for the driver of the carriage who unfortunately lost
his life in that accident.

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Responsibilities of a Good Student


Students are the future hopes of any country. Much development and progress of the
country depends upon them. Students are the backbone of a nation.
There are many responsibilities of a good student. The major one is that he/she should
take keen interest in his/her studies. Moreover good student should also take part in
games as All work and no paly make Jack a dull boy. Besides this student should also
take part in the scout activities so as to help other fellow students.
A good student should also make effort to develop the sense of responsibility in other
fellow mates. He/She should also try to keep his/her locality clean.
A good student should be loyal and obedient to the teachers because Obedience is the
key to the door of success.
A good student must know the true meaning of trust, self esteem, obedience and
confidence. MOreover a good student should always keep away from the politics of big
power.
Computer a Curse or Blessing
Computer is a modern and best invention in the world. As the time goes on computer
goes on developing. computer is used in industries, offices, schools and research work.
We can get all information through the Internet. Today computers are found every where.
Here are the few examples of areas in which computers are used. computer helps in
offices to store all kind of information and we take back information from its memory as
we require. Computer makes calculations of all sorts, prepare business letters and books.
Computer is used in billing departments. Airlines and Railways use computer
Technology in making tickets for the passenger, keeping and updating the departure and
arrival timings of planes and trains.
Computers are being used to conduct lessons for all subject, students are learning through
computers by reading as well as seeing diagrams on screen. Computer are helping the
doctors to detect disease and keep information about patient.
Everything has its advantages as well as disadvantages. The workers which works in
factories and industries are no more needed because of automatic processing and work in
these factories and industries thus creating deficiencies in job opportunities.

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Letters

To Uncle Thanking Him for the Birthday Present


Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Uncle,
I received your telegram full of blessings and a parcel delivered to me by a postman
containing a beautiful Omega watch.
Your present reminds me of your deep affection that you have in your heart for me. I
liked the watch you has sent for me. I really needed a watch this time. How nice of you
that you have fulfilled my need. I shall consider it a precious thing like a diamond. It will
also make me punctual.
Uncle I missed you very much in the happy occasion of my birthday. I have taken many
photographs and will send some of the prints to you.
My letter is getting long. Allow me to close my letter here.
With regards an good wishes to you.
Yours affectionately
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Requesting Him To Lend Camera To You
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear friend,
I hope you will be fine and by the grace of Almighty God I am also in good health and
spirit.
I am accompanying my parents to some sight seeing places in Thatta, Hyderabad and
Khairpur. I need a good camera for taking photograph while on tour.
I know that you own a Maya Camera. So could you please lend me your camera for few
days.
I will take at most care of it while it will be in my custody and shall return you to its
original condition.
I hope you will not turn down my request when I will come in a day or two to collect it
from you.
With regards an good wishes to you.

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Your Sincere Friend,


X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Requesting Her/Him To Spend Summer Vacations With You
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Friend,
For a long time we did not correspond with each other. I hope you are in good health and
by the grace of Almighty God I am also hale and hearty here.
I am especially writing this letter to you for a particular purpose. My parents have
planned to visit some historical places in Sindh. In middle of this month. I am ware of the
fact that your school has closed down for summer vacations so how about visiting us in
Karachi and accompanying me with my parents on all excursion. We shall have a topping
time visiting places in Sindh and going out for shooting birds.
I hope you will like my suggestion and let me know of your programme by return of
mail.
Allow me to close my letter here with good wishes and good luck to you.
Yours affectionately
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Inviting Her/Him On Your Birthday Party
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Friend,
I heard that you have returned from States recently. How was your stay there. Your sister
wrote to me several letters and I promptly replied to her.
Any how let me come to the point of my letter. I am celebrating my fourteenth birthday
on 28th of December. I have invited almost all friend whom you know very well. The
venue of the party is my residence and time is 5 pm.
May I take this opportunity to informally invite you to attend my birthday party on date
and time mentioned as above.
We shall have a topping time and it will be a great pleasure for me to feel your presence
at the party.
I shall eagerly be looking forward to your attending my birthday party.
With good wishes and good luck to you.
Yours affectionately
X-Y-Z

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To Your Friend Telling Him Your Inability to Join Him On A Picnic


Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
Dear Friend,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Hope you are enjoying the best of health. I am also enjoining the life by the grace of
Almighty Allah.
Last week you dropped me a letter in which youve invited me to join you on a picnic
point. Truly I am very much in the favour of this invitation but due to an appointment
with my family physician I cannot give my time to you. I do believe that we will have a
joyous time but as my health is not so progressive thats why I am not in a state to join
you on the picnic. Sorry for refusing and hurting your feelings.
I do hope that you will forgive me. Give my regards to your parents.
Your Loving Friend,
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Telling Him About Your Hobby
Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My dear Nomee,
I am well here and hopping the same for you.
Last week you dropped me a letter in which you asked me about my hobby. My hobby is
making models of aircraft. Aero-modeling is an interesting hobby to me because when
you think over new techniques during modeling, your mind is pushed towards the
creative work and new ideas re developed. Aero-modeling can also be a paying hobby.
We can send some of our best models for competition and not only get prizes but also get
a good name.
I think this is enough. Now I will finish my letter. Give my regards to your parents.
Your Loving Friend,
X-Y-Z
To Your Father Asking for Money To Buy New Uniform and Books
Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,

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Karachi.
4th September, 1998
Dear Father,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Hope you will be fine. I am well too by the grace of Almighty Allah.
Ive written this letter because I urgently need a sum of money. As you know that Ive
passed my S.S.C part I Exams and now I am in class X. I shall have to may my admission
fees and also buy necessary books and uniform. I shall need about one thousand rupees. I
hope you will not mind sending me this amount of money.
I hope you are enjoying the best of health.
Your Loving Friend,
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Inviting Him to Spend Summer Vacations With You
Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
Dear Friend,
I am well here and hopping the same for you.
As you know that our vacations has started. Ive written this letter to invite you to spend
your vacations with me in Karachi. It will be a great pleasure for me. We shall be visiting
different places in Karachi in which includes Clifton, Aladdin Park, Sindbad and many
other such places. I assure you that this will be an enjoyable experience for you.
I hope you will think over my request. Give my wishes to your parents.
Your Loving Friend,
X-Y-Z
To Your Father Asking Him To Send Some Money For Buying Books
Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Father,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Many thanks for your kind letter which I received sometimes back. I was very much
please to read it. My result was declared one week ago. You will be glad to know that I
have come out successful. I have stood third in my class. I am now in class IX in which
news books have been prescribed. These are very costly and I have to buy them all. As

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classes will start from the next month I would need some money immediately for the
purchase of books.
Kindly, therefore send Rs.1000/- by money order as soon as possible. So that I may buy
these articles with out delay.
All is Ok. Please convey my compliments to all the members of the family and love to
Mummy.
With best wishes.
Your Loving Daughter,
X-Y-Z
To Younger Brother, Advising Him to Take Part In Games
Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Brother,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Hope you are in the midst of good health and everyone at home is hale an hearty. I was
pained to hear from your friend that you do not take part in games in your school. Oh!
dear brother do not forget that all work and no play makes you a dull boy. For achieving
good results in your studies you must also developed good body besides a brilliant mind.
Games will keep you fit and help you too in your studies. So please do take part in sports
arranged at your school.
I hope you will follow my good advice and act upon it.
Allow me to close my letter here with best wishes to you.
Your affectionately,
X-Y-Z
To Editor Complaining About Load-Shedding
Examination Hall,
A-B-C Road,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
The Editor,
X-Y-Z News,
Karachi.
Subject: Complaint for Load-Shedding
Venerable Sir,
Will you please oblige me by allowing some space for my letter in the columns of your
Daily .

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I live in one of the commercial area of F.B.Area. The most pressing problem which the
resident of my area are facing is load shedding. Electricity does not come seven hours in
a day. This whole locality is emersed in darkness soon after sunset. Students cant read
and thieves take advantage from this situation.
Hoping for a positive anticipation by the concerned authorities in the crying need of my
area.
Yours sincerely,
X-Y-Z,
Resident of F.B.Area.