MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

Cand folosim „MAKE” si cand folosim „ DO”
Folosirea lui „MAKE” 1. „make” se foloseste atunci cand creem, construim, preparam ceva palapabil, NU se foloseste pentru activitati. • make food - a face mancare • make coffee – a face cafea • make a mess – a face mizerie • make a cup of tea – a face ceai He made a tasty bread. El a facut o paine gustoasa. Folosirea lui „DO” 1. „do” se foloseste cand prestam o activitate zilnica, nepalpabila • do homework – a face temele • do a job – a face o treaba • do the ironing – a calca • do the dishes – a spala vasele First, do your homework, and then you can go out. Mai intai, fa-ti temele, si apoi poti merge afara. 2.„ do” este asociat intodeauna unei idei, teorii I ususally do the cleaning on Saturday Morning. De obicei fac curat sambata dimineata. 3.„ do” este folosit in expresii standard formate din verbul „do” + susbtantiv: • do an activity – a face o activitate • do a course – a face o cursa • do a dance – a face dansuri • do a job – a face un serviciu • do a favour – a face o favoare • do a lesson – a studia o lectie • do a paper – a scrie o hartie • do a problem – a rezova o problema • do a service – a face un serviciu • do the acting – a face teatru • do the cleaning - a face curat • do the dishes – a spala vasele • do the ironing – a calca • do the shopping – a face cumparaturi • do the trick – a faec un truc • do aerobics – a face aerobic • do business – a face afaceri • do drugs – a folosi droguri • do exercises – a face exercitii • do good – a face bine • do housework – a face treburi casnice • do harm – a face rau • do justice – a face dreptate • do your best – a face totul pentru • do your duty – a-ti face datoria • do your hair – a-ti aranja parul • do ( some ) damage– a face paguba • do ( some ) research – a face investigatii • do some work – a face o treaba • do right / do wrong – a face bine / rau
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2. „make” este asociat intotdeauna cu o decizie practica I usually make about 50 sit ups in the morning. De obicei fac 50 flotari dimineata. 3. „make” este folosit in expresii standard formate din verbul „make” + susbtantiv: • make a copy – a face o copie • make a change – a face o schimbare • make a comment– a face un comentariu • make a date with girl / boy – a se intalni cu o fata / baiat • make a demand– a face o cerere • make a decision – a lua o decizie • make a deal – a face o intelegere • make a guess – a face o presupunere • make a mistake – a face o greseala • make a movement – a face o deplasare • make a promise – a face o promisiune • make a remark - a face o remarca • make a request – a face o cerere • make a reservation – a face o rezervare • make a speech – a tine un discurs • make a telephone call – a da un telefon • make an appoiment with – a stabili o intalnire cu • make an accusation – a face o acuzare • make an effort – a face un efort • make an estimate – a face o estimare • make an excuse – a se scuza • make an impression – a face o impresie • make an offer – a face o oferta • make arrangements – a face aranjamente • make friend – a face prieteni • make noise – a face zgomot • make money - a face bani • make plans – a face planuri • make your bed ( aftre you get up ) – a-ti face patul ( dupa ce te trezesti )

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I’ll make an exception this time. Voi face o exceptie de aceasta data.

Could you do me a favor and watch my bags? Poti sa-mi faci o favoare sa te uiti la bagajele mele? 4.„do” se foloseste cand vorbim de lucruri generale, vagi sau activitati nedefinite folosind in acest caz: • something, • nothing, • anything, • everything etc. John does everything by hand – he is amazing! John face totul cu mainile – este uimitor! 5.„do” intareste uneori intelesul verbului pe care-l determina Yes, I do tell you the truth. Da, ti-am spus adevarul.

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Important! Folosirea lui “DO” se face si pentru activitati variate terminate in “ ing” cum ar fi do some gardening, do some thinking, do some painting, etc. Retineti! Pentru a nu mai fi in dificultate si a intelege cat mai bine cand il folosim pe ”MAKE” si cand pe “DO” retineti urmatorul exemplu:
• •

Do the shopping. - A face cumparaturi. – explicatie: noi chiar nu creem nimic, noi doar facem o activitate. Make a cake. - A face o prajitura. – explicatie: noi chiar creem ceva.

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Axa timpurilor
Perfect Past Present Past simple Present simple Future 1 - 2

continuous

Prezentul perfect simplu ( The Present Perfect Simple )
Prezentul perfect simplu se refera la o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana in prezent sau savarsita in trecut si legata intr-un fel sau altul de momentul vorbirii.

I. Prezentul perfect simplu se formeaza astfel: 1. Afirmativ:

• Subiect + Have / Has + Verb – col III ( participiu trecut ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.
 You have heard a noise. - Tu ai auzit un zgomot.

2. Interogativ:

Have / Has + Subiect + Verb – col III ( participiu trecut ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 Have you heard a noise? - Ai auzit un zgomot?

3. Negativ:

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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

• Subiect + Have / Has + Not + Verb – col III ( participiu trecut ) + restul propozitiei neschimbata.
 You haven’t heard a noise. - Tu nu ai auzit un zgomot.

II. Prezentul perfect exprima: 1. O actiune care a avut loc in trecutul recent si care are rezultate in prezent  I’m afraid I have lost my wallet. I can’t find it anywhere.– Mi-e teama ca mi-am pierdut portofelul. Nu-l pot
gasi nicaieri..

2. O actiune din trecut care se poate repeta si in prezent sau chiar in viitor  My brother has written a book of poems. – Fratele meu a scris o carte de poezii. 3. O actiune care tocmai s-a incheiat si este legata de momentul prezent.
In acest caz se folosesc adverbe si expresii precum: just, already, yet, lately, recently, till now, so far, the last few hours / days etc.

 I’m worried because I haven’t received any letter from my sister so far.

R:
Atentie !

Sunt ingrijorat pentru ca nu am primit pana acum nici o scrisoare de la sora mea.

a. Just – se foloseste numai in propozitii afirmative.
The postman has just come. – Postasul tocmai a venit.

b. Yet – se foloseste in:
 propozitii interogative pentru a afla daca actiunea a avut loc, fara a ne interesa timpul in care
s-a petrecut actiune si nu se traduce in romana.

 Has the postman come yet? – A venit postasul? • propozitii negative – traducandu-se prin “inca“
The postman hasn’t come yet. – Postasul nu a venit inca. Already – se foloseste in: propozitii afirmative accentuandu-se idea ca actiunea a avut loc.

The postman has already come. – Postasul a venit déjà.

 propozitii interogative exprimand mirarea ca a avut loc actiunea.

Has the postman already come? – A venit déjà postasul?
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O activitate care a avut loc in mod frecvent in trecut pana in prezent, cu rezultate in prezent. In acest caz se folosesc adverbele de timp nehotarat: never, ever, sometimes, often, seldom, always, usually. Have you ever met George? – L-ai intalnit vreodata pe George?

Atentie ! Adverbele de timp nehotarat: never, ever, sometimes, often, seldom, always, usually – pot fi folosite si la trecutul simplu, daca se refera la situatii fara nici o legatura cu prezentul. We always got on well together when we were young. – Intotdeauna ne impacam bine cand eram tineri.

O actiune desfasurata intr-o perioada de timp bine definita, terminata sau continuand in momentul vorbirii, poate chiar si-n viitor In acest caz se folosesc adverbe si expresii precum: since, for, how long, Atentie !

a. Since – introduce fie un complement sau o propozitie circumstantiala de timp, care se refera la momentul
inceperii actiunii ( trecut ). I have known George since last month. – Il cunosc pe George de luna trecuta.

b. For – introduce fie un complement circumstantial de timp si arata durata perioadei de timp, terminate sau
continuand si in prezent, in care se desfasoara actiunea. I have known George for a few weeks. – Il cunosc pe George de cateva saptamani.

O actiune savarsita intr-o perioada incompleta de timp. In acest caz se folosesc adverbe de timp precum: today, this morning, this afternoon, this evening, this week, this month etc. I have met George this morning. – L-am intalnit pe George in aceasta dimineata.

Atentie ! This morning – se foloseste cu verbul la prezentul perfect numai pana la ora 12. This afternoon – se foloseste cu verbul la prezentul perfect pana la asfintit.

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Prezentul perfect continuu ( The Present Perfect Continuous )
Prezentul perfect continuu se refera la o actiune inceputa in trecut si a caror consecinte se vad si pot continua in prezent.

I. Prezentul perfect continuu se formeaza astfel:
1. Afirmativ:

• Subiect + Have / Has + Been + Verb infinitiv + terminatia “ing” + restul propozitiei neschimbata.
 I have been taking driving lesson for a month. – Iau lectii de condus de o luna.

2. Interogativ:

Have / Has + Subiect + Been + Verb infinitiv + terminatia “ing” + restul propozitiei neschimbata

 How long have you been taking driving lesson? – De cat timp iei lectii de condus? 3. Negativ:

• Subiect + Have / Has + Not + Been + Verb infinitiv + terminatia “ing” + restul propozitiei neschimbata
 You haven’t been taking driving lesson lately. – In ultima vreme nu ai m-ai luat lectii de condus.

II. Prezentul perfect continuu se foloseste pentru:
1. A accentua continuitatea unei actiuni pentru o perioada mai lunga de timp pana in momentul vorbirii:  Please excuse my dirty hands. I have been digging the garden. – Te rog sa ma ierti ca am mainile
murdare. Am sapat in gradina.

2. O actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata neintrerupt in prezent:  We have been talking since the meeting started. – Stam de vorba de cand a inceput sedinta..

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Cuvinte si sinonimele acestora
Cuvant
to cope to wonder to wander to fail nowadays to fulfil conducive the appropriate average to hang out to use to to rent yard to concern folks kid block flat to nurture to cherish to clear up bond whether anxious date data short look make an excuse carefully lately briefly find out look into look for loot at look after look over hear about hear from glance through to pay a visit to pay attention to pay back to pay off to pay off to persuate

Sinonim
to manage to ask to walk not to succeed thesedays to achive the proper for the proper for the middle part to relax to do usually to hire garden to worry people child street apartment to bring up to appreciate to bring home link if eager meeting information glance make apologize simpathetically a long time ago shorthly to discover to investigate to search to pay attention take care to check to know to have news about have a look to go on a visit to be atendive to revenge to finish to come to an end to convince

Traducere
a se descurca, a administra a se intreba, a se minuna a se plimba a esua acum, in zile noastre a duce la indeplinire propice, potrivit propice, potrivit medie a se relaxa, a pierde timpul a obisnui sa a inchiria, a se angaja gradina a se ingrijora oameni copil strada apartament a creste, a educa a aprecia a lamuri legatura daca, in orice caz nerabdator intalnire informatii ocheada, privire scurta a se scuza cu atentie in ultima vreme pe scurt a afla a investiga a cauta a fi atent a avea grija a verifica a auzi a sti despre a se uita peste a face o vizita a fi atent a plati cuiva ( o polita ) a finaliza a finaliza a convinge

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MODULUL II – Engleza mediu

Expresii si sinonimele acestora
Expresie
as far as I know meanwhile in a while as soons as we’ll get a new brand in a blue moon to be blue waste of time the time is right for me i’ll cross the stream both as .... and as holiday open house to make to talk to make an excuse to make an appoitment to be looking forward to there is no use to strike a deal to take a seat in the day many happy returns of the day looke here! not at all i beg your pardon to get on well here you are do you mind? to make up one’s mind above all to have a touch of on one’s way to to lose one’s way to have a rest on the one hand in spite of tanks awfully is good enough for me if you ask me to bear out what’s the matter? to bear out glance through

Sinonim
------------------------------------------------immediately shortly -----------------------never homesickness -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to have a talk with to apologize to arrangement ----------------------------------------------come to agreement sit down ----------------------happy birthday --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to decide on the first time ----------------------------------to get lost -------------------------------------------------------------------sufficient my opinion to confirm happened to confirm have a look

Traducere
din cate stiu eu intre timp imediat imediat a lua de la capat niciodata a fi nostalgic pierdere de vreme este timpul meu voi trece peste probleme atat .... cat si cu usile deschise a face conversatie a-si cere scuze a face un aranjamnet nu are sens sa a ajunge la o intelegere a lua loc in timpul zilei la multi ani asculta! de loc, nicidecum scuzati-ma a se impaca bine poftim te superi? a se hotara in primul rand a fi atins de in drum spre a se rataci a se odihni pe de o parte in ciuda multumesc foarte mult imi este suficient dupa mine, dupa parerea mea a confirma ce s-a intamplat? a confirma a arunca o privire peste

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