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The Debate between a Man and His Soul

Culture and History of the


Ancient Near East
Founding Editor

M. H. E. Weippert
Editor-in-Chief

Thomas Schneider
Editors

Eckart Frahm, W. Randall Garr, B. Halpern,


Theo P. J. van den Hout, Irene J. Winter

VOLUME 44

The Debate between a


Man and His Soul
A Masterpiece of Ancient Egyptian Literature

By

James P. Allen

LEIDEN BOSTON
2011

pBerlin 3024, cols. 151155 (scale 3:4)

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

ISSN 1566-2055
ISBN 978 90 04 19303 1
Copyright 2011 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing,
IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP.
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Fees are subject to change.

CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

vii

PREFACE

..........................................................
.................................................................................

ix

CHAPTER ONE. Introduction

......................................................
1. Previous Studies ............................................................
2. The Characters .............................................................

1
1
3

CHAPTER TWO. Epigraphic Analysis

............................................ 9
1. Scribal Practice ........................................................... 11
2. Corrections ................................................................. 13
3. Uncorrected Errors and Omissions .............................. 17

CHAPTER THREE. Philological Analysis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

.....................................
Introduction and the Souls First Speech (cols. *1*12)
The Mans First Speech (cols. *12y) ...........................
The Souls Second Speech (cols. y3) ...........................
The Mans Second Speech (cols. 355) ........................
The Souls Rebuttal (cols. 5568) ................................
The Souls First Parable (cols. 6880) ...........................
The Souls Second Parable (cols. 8085) .......................
The Mans First Litany (cols. 85103) ..........................
The Mans Second Litany (cols. 10330) ......................
The Mans Third Litany (cols. 13042) .......................
The Mans Fourth Litany (cols. 14247) .....................
The Souls Fourth Speech (cols. 14754) ....................
The Colophon (cols. 15455) ....................................

CHAPTER FOUR. Grammatical Analysis

1.
2.
3.
4.

..................................
The Lexicon ............................................................
Verb Forms ..............................................................
Synthetic and Analytic Prospectives
..........................
Synthetic and Analytic Imperfectives .........................

19
20
21
22
25
62
67
75
78
90
100
106
108
112
113
113
114
116
118

viii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER FIVE. Stylistic Analysis

.............................................
1. Versification in the Litanies .......................................
2. Versification in the Text ............................................
3. Other Stylistic Devices .............................................

123
123
129
132

CHAPTER SIX. Textual Analysis

137
137
138
139
140
146
151
157
158

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

...............................................
Introduction and the Souls First Speech ...................
The Mans First Speech ............................................
The Souls Second Speech ........................................
The Mans Second Speech ........................................
The Souls Third Speech ...........................................
The Mans Third Speech ...........................................
The Souls Final Speech ............................................
Conclusion ..............................................................

APPENDIX ONE. The Text

.......................................................

APPENDIX TWO.Versification
APPENDIX THREE. oGardiner

..................................................
369

162
180

..........................................

199

APPENDIX FOUR. Sign

List .....................................................
1. Individual Signs .........................................................
2. Ligatures ...................................................................

203
203
220

APPENDIX FIVE. Lexicon

and Grammar ..................................


1. Lexicon ....................................................................
2. Grammatical Forms and Constructions .....................

223
223
239

.....................................................................
1. Translations and Studies .............................................
2. Other Works .............................................................

245
245
249

...................................................................................
1. General Index ...........................................................
2. Other Texts ...............................................................

255
255
256

.........

260

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHS AND HIEROGLYPHIC TRANSCRIPTION

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
pBerlin 3024, cols. 151155
Photograph by Lisa Baylis, British Museum

.........

Frontispiece

Fig. 1. The Final Judgment (Papyrus of Ani, BM EA 10470)


Trustees of the British Museum ........................................

Fig. 2. The Ba Returning to the Burial Chamber (Papyrus of Nebqed)


T. Devria, Le papyrus de Neb-qed (exemplaire hiroglyphique du
Livre des Morts) (Paris, 1872), pl. 3 ........................................ 5
Fig. 3. The Deceased Drinking from the Inundation
Tomb of Pashed (TT 33): authors photograph
..................

58

Fig. 4. oGardiner 369


ern and Gardiner 1957, pl. 91, 2

..................................

199

Fig. 5. oGardiner 369, hieratic of line 3


ern and Gardiner 1957, pl. 91, 2

..................................

201

pBerlin 3024, photographs and hieroglyphic transcription


photographs Morgan Library and Museum, New York,
and Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, gyptisches Museum
und Papyrussmmlung ............................................. 260311

PREFACE
The subject of this book is one of the most intriguing, and difficult,
works of ancient Egyptian literature. Since 1859, when its sole surviving
copy was first published, it has been transliterated, discussed, and debated possibly more than any other Egyptian literary text. Attempts to
understand its conundrums and meaning have been hampered in part
by the fact that the papyrus has been published only in an early facsimile (Lepsius 1859) and three sets of black and white photographs
(Erman 1896, Barta 1969, and Goedicke 1970), none of which is clear
enough to allow detailed examination of damaged or obscure sections
of the papyrus.
Although I have wrestled with the text myself over several decades, the present study owes its existence to the recent collaboration of
several colleagues. Thanks to Dietrich Wildung, former director of the
Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection in Berlin, I was able to examine the original papyrus briefly a few years ago. I was also allowed
to study the fragments in the Morgan Library and Museum, New
York, identified by Richard Parkinson (2003) as belonging to the lost
beginning of the papyrus, through the courtesy of their keeper, William Voelkle. In 2009, a request by my graduate student, Emily Russo,
to read the text with her led me to think about the composition once
again. I have also been inspired by Richard Parkinsons recent study of
the papyrus (2009) and have benefited greatly from his generous
comments on an early draft of my manuscript.
In addition to first-hand observation, I have also made use of
high-resolution digital images in studying the papyrus, which have
made possible a number of new readings and interpretations. For
permission to publish the new images included here, I am grateful to
the current director of the Berlin Museum, Friederike Seyfried; to
Verena Lepper, Curator and Collection Keeper of the Berlin Museum;

xii

PREFACE

and to William Voelkle, Curator of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, the Morgan Library. The excellent black and white images of
the Berlin papyrus published here were made by the Museums photographer, Sandra Steiss. A full-color photographic record of the
papyrus was made by the British Museum photographer, Lisa Baylis,
in 2007; these images will shortly be published in CD format by her
and Richard Parkinson.
Finally, I am grateful to Brills editors, and especially to Thomas
Schneider, editor of the series in which this book appears, for their
acceptance and rapid publication of my manuscript.
This study can hardly be regarded as definitive. Debate about the
translation and larger meaning of the text will undoubtedly continue
into the future. It is my hope that I have been able to contribute in
some measure to a better understanding of this monument of ancient
Egyptian thought.
Providence, 2010

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
The ancient Egyptian literary work that is the subject of this study was
first entitled by Adolf Erman (1896) Gesprch eines Lebensmden mit
seiner Seele and is often referred to as the Lebensmde, or in French, Le
dsespr. English speakers have had to make do with more cumbersome
titles such as The Man Who Was Tired of Life and The Dialogue of a Man
and His Ba. The present work has adopted a slightly revised title, The
Debate between a Man and His Soul, because it accurately reflects the
theme of the work, which is an inner debate about death versus life.
Previous Studies

The Debate is universally regarded as one of the masterpieces of Middle


Kingdom literature. It appears in every anthology of ancient Egyptian
literature, with at least twenty-six full translations, and a number of partial ones, available to scholars and the general public. It is also perhaps
the most widely discussed and debated of all Egyptian literary works,
the subject of six books and more than seventy articles and translations
(see the Bibliography, Section 1, below). No other work of Egyptian
literature has inspired as many diverse and antithetical opinions, not all
of which have been equally well informed or considered.
Erman, who first published a transcription, translation, and commentary to the Debate (1896), understood it as partly autobiographical.
This line of thought was developed by Alfred Hermann (1939), who
postulated that the man was dying of an illness, and Joachim Spiegel
(1950), who saw the work as the post-suicide memoir of a leader of a
failed uprising, written by a disciple.
Other scholars acknowledge the poems fictionality but disagree
equally in their interpretation of it. mile Suys (1932) saw it as a dis-

CHAPTER ONE

pute about the value of traditional funeral arrangements, a view


adopted by a number of subsequent scholars, most notably Alexander
Scharff (1937) and Adriaan de Buck (1947). Richard Parkinson (1997)
and Katherina Lohmann (1998) have understood the debate in more
general terms, as a discussion of the value or concept of death, while
Jan Assmann (1998) analyzed the poem as an encomium of death, in
contrast to traditional Egyptian values. For Raymond Weill (1947), it
was a more fundamental debate about the reality of an afterlife, and
Sylvie Donnat (2004) has argued that it concerns the relationship between the living and the dead. I. M. Lurie (1939) pointed out the
absence of any mention of Osiris and used this as a criterion for proposing that the poem was composed before the first appearance of that god
in non-royal funerary monuments of the First Intermediate Period;
Gnter Lanczkowski (1954) took this a step further, characterizing the
work as a reactionary diatribe against Osirian views of the afterlife.
Y. Frantsev (1960) saw the poem more abstractly as debating materialism versus idealism and Hans Goedicke (1970), as hedonism
versus spirituality. Bernard Mathieu (2000) has argued that the debate
takes place at the final judgment and concerns the role of Maat in the
next life, while for Friedrich Haller (2004) it is about the value of
Maat for the non-elite members of Egyptian society. A few scholars
have emphasized the psychological nature of the mans inner struggle,
including Hermann Junker (1948), Hellmuth Jacobsohn (1954), and
especially Odile Renaud (1954), who described the man as neurotic
and the poem as his auto-therapy. Renaud, however, has emphasized that his neurosis is merely the subject matter of what was
intended primarily as a work of literature; the literary quality of the
poem has been championed by Vincent Tobin (1991 and 2003) and
Parkinson, who see the work as a dramatic monologue.
These differences of opinion arise, in part, from numerous ambiguities in the work itself. It is preserved in only a single manuscript,
whose beginning is lost, and understanding of the surviving text is
made difficult by a number of lacunae, words of unknown or uncertain
meaning, and grammatical constructions or references that are capable

INTRODUCTION

of more than one interpretation. The present study offers its own view
of the Debate, but its primary purpose is less to offer yet another interpretation than to address these philological conundrums, which have
exercised scholars since Erman. It has benefited from access to excellent
digital images of the papyrus as well as a brief first-hand examination of
the papyrus in the Berlin Museum. These have made possible a number
of new or improved readings and restorations, which hopefully will
enhance future discussionsthough they undoubtedly will not obviate
further debate about the poems meaning and significance.
The Characters

The preserved text of the Debate is a dialogue between two characters, an unnamed Man and his Soul.1 With a single, perhaps
irrelevant, exception,2 they address only each other. The lost beginning of the poem may have provided an audience of some sort, as
well as the context of the debate, but the composition can be understood coherently without either, and perhaps intentionally so: the
anonymity of the Man and his isolationthe latter lamented in the
second litanyenhance the conceit of what was clearly designed as
the transcript of one mans internal debate with himself.
The dominant character in the composition, however, is not the
Man but his Soul. It is the Soul that first takes the active role, urging
death, while the Mans initial response is conservative and defensive,
and it is the Soul who is given the final word.
In Egyptian literature, the Souls role as the Mans interlocutor is
unique to this text. Elsewhere in Egyptian texts, literary and other, it
is the heart that serves to personify one side of an internal conversation, most notably in the Lamentations of Khakheperre-seneb:

The terms Man and Soul (or Ba) are capitalized in this study when they
refer to the two main characters. Justification for the translation of the term b as
Soul is presented below.
2 The second-person plural pronoun of mj.tn look (col. 11). This is discussed in
Chapter Three, along with another supposed instance of the same pronoun in col. 1.
1

CHAPTER ONE

r.j tmmt wmt


d.j st wb n.j jb.j (ro. 7)
Would that I knew what has not been repeated,
that I might say it and my heart might respond to me.
jr jb qn m st qsnt
snnw pw n nb.f
n.j jb m r wdw
k jry.j snj r.f
tp.j sw m mdwt nt mj (ro. 1314)
As for a brave heart in a difficult situation,
it is the second of its owner.
Would that I had a heart that knew how to bear up:
then I would make a landing on it
and load it with the words of misery.
mj mj jb.j mdw.j n.k
wb.k n.j zw.j (vo. 1)
Come, then, my heart, that I might speak to you
and you answer to me my phrases.
d.j n.k jb.j wb.k n.j
nj gr.n jb p (vo. 56)
Let me speak to you, my heart, and you answer me.
A heart that has been reached cannot remain silent.3

Apart from its uniqueness as a literary conceit, the conversation of


the Man and his Soul (Ba) is also unusual because the ba is primarily
associated with the afterlife. It both accompanies (or personifies) the
deceased at the final judgment (Fig. 1) and then represents the form in
which the deceased leaves the tomb in the morning and returns to it at
night (Fig. 2).4

Gardiner, Admonitions, pls. 1718. For the heart as interlocutor, see Piankoff,
Le cur, 9192, and Todo Rueda, Das Herz, 12122.
4 The representation of the ba as a human-headed bird first appears in the New
Kingdom (abkar, A Study of the Ba Concept, 7585), but the bas avian nature is
reflected earlier both in the imagery of col. 9 of the Debate (see the next paragraph)
and in the hieroglyph with which the word b is written. Since the human ba has a
human nature, the New Kingdom representation undoubtedly reflects earlier concepts of the ba as well.
3

INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1. The Final Judgment


The deceased and his wife view the weighing of his heart against the symbol of Maat.
The ba is shown as a human-headed bird next to the scale.

Fig. 2. The Ba Returning to the Burial Chamber.


The ba is shown flying down the tomb shaft with sustenance for the mummy.

CHAPTER ONE

The ancient Egyptian concept of the human ba has been understood either as that of an entity immanent in the individual during life
and then surviving in non-physical form after death or as a mode of
existence associated with the afterlife.5 The first interpretation, akin to
the more recent notion of the soul, underlies most interpretations of
the Debate, as an inner dialogue. The second has been adopted by Mathieu (2000), who argues that the debate is projected into the afterlife,
at the moment of the final judgment, when the Soul has emerged as
an independent being after the Mans death.
With the new reading of col. 9 as r ntt.f m t.j m nw nw since
he is in my belly in rope net (see Chapter Three), it seems clear that
the Man is speaking of an entity immanent in his body. This validates
not only the understanding and translation of the Egyptian term b as
soul but also the interpretation that the debate takes place within
the context of this world rather than the afterlife.6
Since the Man speaks to his Soul rather than his heart, the choice
must reflect a characteristic of the one that is absent in the other. This
can only be the souls identity as a mode of existence, whereas the
heart is inextricably bound to the bodyso much so, that it was left
in the mummified corpse to remain with the body for eternity. The
Souls intention to leave the Man (col. 7 m b.j my souls going)
implies an independence that the heart does not possess. It is also implies, and threatens, the Mans deathor at least his inability to live
normally, as indicated by Sinuhes description of himself losing consciousness in the kings presence:

For the first, Otto, in Miscellanea Gregoriana, 15160, and ZS 77 (1942), 78


91; for the second, abkar, A Study of the Ba Concept, 11314. See also Allen, in Oxford Encyclopedia I, 16162. abkar discusses the Ba of the Debate in A Study of the Ba
Concept, 12023. Goedicke (1970, 3237) has synthesized the two views, arguing not
only that the Egyptian concept of the ba encompassed both but that the clash of
these two attitudes is the topic of the poem.
6 This may seem at odds with the consistent writing of the term b soul with
the dead determinative
in the text, but the same determinative is used in Sinuhe B 255 with respect to the ba of a living person.
5

INTRODUCTION

gm.n.j m.f r st wrt


m wmtw nt m
wn.k r.f dwn.kw r t.j
m.n.(j) wj m b.f
nr pn r wd.j nmw
jw.j mj z jtw m w
b.j zj.w w.j (h)d.w
tj.j nj ntf m t.j
r.j n r mt (Sin. B 25256)7
Once I had found His Incarnation on the great seat,
in the doorway of electrum,
and I myself was stretched out on my belly,
I no longer knew myself in his presence.
That god was addressing me amicably,
but I was like a man taken by obscurity,
my soul gone, my body limp.
My heart, that is not what was in my body,
that I might know life from death.

Sinuhe describes both his soul and his heart as having left his body. The
first absence leaves his body limp, as if lifeless, while the second deprives him of mental ability. In the case of the Debate, it is clearly the
first of these states that is envisioned in the souls threatened departure,
albeit a real death rather than a metaphorical one.

Koch, Sinuhe, 7374.

CHAPTER TWO

EPIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
The DEBATE BETWEEN A MAN AND HIS SOUL survives in a single
papyrus, now in the gyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin (pBerlin 3024), four fragments of which are now in the Morgan
Library and Museum, New York (pAmherst III).1 It was discovered
around 1830 in Thebes together with three other papyri now also in
Berlin: manuscripts B1 and B2 of the Tale of the Eloquent Peasant
(pBerlin 3023 and 3025, respectively), and manuscript B of the Story
of Sinuhe (pBerlin 3022).2 The four papyri were written by three different scribes (pBerlin 30223023 by a single scribe), probably during
the reign of Amenemhat III (ca. 18591813 BC).3 The correction in
cols. 11315 of the papyrus and apparent misreadings of a hieratic
original in cols. 26 and 113 (see Section C, below) indicate that the
scribe copied this work from an earlier manuscript.4 The date of the
original composition is unknown, but features of its grammar place it
somewhat earlier than the extant papyrus, probably within the first half
of the Twelfth Dynasty (see Chapter Four).
The papyrus of the Debate varies in height from 15.916.4 cm
and is currently 326 cm long; an estimated 66 cm have been lost from
the beginning of the roll, giving an original length of some 392 cm.5
Only the first (right-hand) 284 cm were used for the text of the Debate.

The analysis in this chapter is based on digital images, notes from a first-hand
inspection of the papyrus in the Berlin Museum and the fragments in the Morgan
Library and Museum, and the extensive discussion in Parkinson 2009, 8889 and 107
11. The Amherst fragments were published and analyzed by Parkinson (2003).
2 Parkinson 2009, 7783.
3 Parkinson 2009, 76 and 8990.
4 See Parkinson 2009, 107109.
5 Parkinson 2009, 88; Parkinson 2003, 12627. A height of 16 cm seems to have
been standard for Middle Kingdom literary papyri: ern 1952, 15.
1

10

CHAPTER TWO

That portion of the papyrus was constructed from one or two account
papyri originally some 32 cm high, cut in half horizontally.6 The accounts were washed off, with the exception of some horizontal ruling
lines still visible in places. The reconstituted roll in this portion consisted of eight sheets, inscribed with some 184 columns of text:7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

blank margin of 21 cm and cols. *1*15 (15 columns of text)


cols. *16*29 and 114 (27 columns of text)8
cols. 1442 (28 columns of text)
cols. 4354 (12 columns of text)
cols. 5578 (24 columns of text)
cols. 79108 (30 columns of text)
cols. 109136 (28 columns of text)
cols. 137155 (19 columns of text) and blank margin of 13 cm.

Sheets 14 are from the top half of an account papyrus; sheets 58,
from the bottom half of the same or another account papyrus. The end
of the papyrus consists of 2 additional sheets, 95 cm long, cut from a
papyrus containing the Tale of the Herdsman, partly erased.9 The scribe
may have intended to use this portion for a second, shorter text.10
Following Goedickes analysis, Parkinson has estimated the amount
of text lost at the beginning of the papyrus as some 29 columns.11 Part
of that text survives in the four fragments of pAmherst III. If Parkinsons suggested placement of those fragments is correct, some eight
columns are missing before the first preserved column, *9 (Parkin
Parkinson 2009, 89. A height of 32 cm is standard for Middle Kingdom accounts: ern 1952, 15.
7 All the text is written vertically, in columns. Column numbers with an asterisk
are those reconstructed as preceding col. 1 of the Berlin papyrus.
8 Col. 14 is written across the join between sheets 2 and 3.
9 See the facsimile in Lepsius 1859, pl. 112.
10 The entire roll was probably assembled at a single time: Parkinson 2009, 89.
Since the Berlin papyrus shows evidence of being copied from another literary manuscript, the scribe would presumably have been able to estimate the approximate
length of papyrus he would need for his copy of the Debate.
11 Goedicke 1970, 8384; Parkinson 2003, 12627.
6

11

EPIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

sons Frag. I). The other three fragments contain parts of cols. *12
*15 (Frag. L), *21*23 (Frag. H), and *25*28 (Frag. JK).
1. scribal practice

The hieratic text of the Debate contains 3,260 preserved or partlypreserved signs representing 215 separate hieroglyphs (see Appendix
Four).12 A few hieroglyphs have two hieratic counterparts:
ABBREVIATED

FULL
(A1)
(B1)

(col. 73)

(G1)

(col. 74 only)

(G17)
(G41)

(col. 74)

(col. 64)

(col. 67)
(col. 77)

(col. 67)

(col. 68)13

(col. 50 only)

(col. 92)

The consonant w is represented by both


and , the former more
often than the latter (98 and 61 instances, respectively), and the latter
only with another sign in a group. Ligatures are relatively infrequent,
involving only 10% of all signs: 153 instances of 38 groups of two to
four signs, a total of 314 ligatured signs. Signs most often ligatured are
(72 instances), (70),
(36), and
(22); the other signs occur in ligatures from one to ten times each.
The text is written entirely in black ink, with the exception of
the colophon, which is in red (cols. 15455). Vertical strokes made
with the scribes brush are generally 2 mm thick. Tall signs and hori
12 Including three monograms:
,
, and
the total:
(254 instances, including ligatures),
(full version, 119),
(108), (107),
(105),
13 Only with another sign in a group.

. Ten signs account for 43% of


(210),
(178), (123),
(99), and
(full version, 99).

12

CHAPTER TWO

zontal signs are usually slightly more than 1 cm high and wide, respectively, but larger signs are not infrequent: for example, the seated
man at the end of col. 76 (3.5 cm high) and the crocodile in col. 75
(4.4 cm wide). The scribe dipped his pen on average once per column,
sometimes more. Re-inked signs are visible in cols. *26 (final ),14 100
(
of d), 131 (stroke of
), 132 ( at top), and 143 ( ).
The text is arranged in columns, as typically for Middle Kingdom
literary compositions. In hieroglyphic transcription, the full columns
vary from 15 to 29 signs (lowest and highest in cols. 153 and 141, respectively), with an average of 21 signs per column. Words generally
are not divided between columns; in col. *25, the scribe has written
the final sign of the last word to the left of the column to avoid such a
split. In the 159 columns for which the end, beginning, or both, are
preserved, there are 31 instances of words divided between two columns, slightly less than twenty percent of the total. These include:
division within the consonantal signs of a word:15
3839

spdw

4748

5556

5657

bbt
wb.f

nt

5758

sjnd

7071

sqdwt

7172

8081

wt

12728

mrwt

13132

13233

14849

tp.kw
hjmt
ntjw

nsw

Parkinson 2003, 125.


There are also two instances of division between the elements of a compound
word: 107108 bw-nb and 14546 r-wt.
14
15

EPIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

13

division between a word and one or more of its determinatives:


1819

jhm

1920

2930

6364

6465

sf
nnw
rj-t

9495

9899

12324

12829
14950

snm

zw
grg

q-jb

division between a word and its determinatives and suffix:


67

wzf.j

2526

4950

11011

mdw.j
hjm.k

11213

ssbt.f

snw.f

division between a word and its suffixes:


34

1415

wp.n.j

[sn].f

1718

b.j

3940

[n].j

6970

mw.f

2. corrections

The scribe made at least 52 emendations in the course of writing cols.


1155 (none is visible in the fragments of cols. *1*29). Most of
these (78%) appear in the final two-fifths of the text (cols. 94155):

14

CHAPTER TWO

COLUMNS CORRECTIONS
131
0 (0%)
3262
2 (4%)
6393
10 (19%)
94124
18 (35%)
125155
22 (42%)
The majority of corrections occurs in the poems of cols. 86147,
and some of the errors in this section probably derive from the repetitive nature of the verses.16 The overall distribution, however, suggests
that the scribe was becoming tired or hasty, or both, as he neared the
end of his copy, and this in turn indicates that the papyrus was most
likely written in a single sitting.
Most of the corrections were made by erasing the erroneous signs,
but in some cases the scribe simply overwrote them. A number of the
emendations show that he reviewed his copy and checked it against his
original as he wrote. Observable corrections are the following:
47 erasure under mw r
56
erased under
, probably to allow insertion
of
after subsequent signs were written
65
corrected to
by erasing and overwriting
before writing following w
67 second
written over unerased
74 determinative of q changed to
by overwriting
77
of mst erased and overwritten with
, probably after
the determinative was written
81
below
erased and overwritten with
, added
next to
86

erased below
continuing
86
erased below
tinuing

and overwritten with


and overwritten with

16

As noted by Parkinson 2009, 109.

before
before con-

EPIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

15

88

erased below
and overwritten with
before continuing
92 incomplete
erased below
of bwt and overwritten
with
before continuing
93
erased below the
of b and overwritten with
:
the scribe began rn.j too low in the column to accomodate
the 1s suffix, erased the r and wrote the word higher in the
column, re-inking part of the back arm of
as well
94
94

96
100
100
101
102
106

107
111

11213
11315

altered to
by erasing and overwriting the last four signs before continuing
written over an erased
the scribe probably began the next verse, m(j.k b rn.j), before realizing he had
omitted r zw nw zw m n.sn
first determinative
of b written over erased
before continuing with
of rn.j written over erased
before continuing with
mj.k
of jw.f written over erased
changed to
by erasing and
overwriting second
determinative
of btw written over erased
erased below snnw.f probably the beginning of 107 j(w
zf q): the scribe wrote the first sign, half washed it out
and left the line blank before writing the following verses
(Parkinson 2009, 109)
of 107108 bw-nb written over erased
the scribe wrote the left half of
below the determinative
of jw, erased it and wrote the suffix
before continuing with
snnw.f changed to snw.f by adding a third stroke to
a three-column erasure under btw of 113 through d.j of
115; Parkinson reads the erased words as those of 12021
jbw wn nn wn jb n z rhn.tw r.f (Parkinson 2009, 109)

16

CHAPTER TWO

117
118
118
120
122
127
128
129
130
130
131
131
132
133
136
137
139
139
141

changed to
by erasing and overwriting before continuing with
erasure under d.j
erasure at bottom of column probably
, aborted beginning of 119 tm (Parkinson 2009, 107)
of mjn written over erased
altered to
by erasing and over17
writing
with
before continuing with
erasure under
erased and replaced by
as determinative of mjr
erased under
behind
of pw.fj erased (cf. the correction in col. 65)
inserted secondarily to the right of the
of pw.fj
corrected to
by erasing and overwriting
of 13132 hjmt written over erased
erased under mjn
erased after , overwritten by large plural strokes
of mjn written over erased
initially omitted
written over erased
the
scribe initially omitted jw (Parkinson 2009, 109)
erased below and overwritten with
before continuing
begun below
, erased and overwritten with
before continuing with
(Parkinson 2009, 109)
after bb the scribe wrote
, then erased
and overwrote it with
; he later
18
erased the second
, leaving

Parkinson offers a more complex analysis (2009, 107), perhaps based on the
spacing of the emended bookroll. The main part of this sign, however, is often positioned fairly far below the preceding one, to accommodate the dot representing the
ties: e.g., the determinative of mtt in col. 118.
18 This differs from Parkinson 2009, 109, where the erasure is analyzed as m jr.n.f
rnpwt t jt, to the bottom of the column. There is no erasure below the suffix sn, and
17

EPIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

17

141
inserted secondarily to the left of the column end
142 final
written over an aborted
145 first
changed to
by erasing the top
145
after wnn erased and overwritten with
147
of dt.n written over erased
( initially omitted)
(Parkinson 2009, 109)
19
149
after
erased and overwritten with
152 original
after s erased and overwritten with
(Parkinson 2009, 111)
153 original
after ny erased and overwritten with
(Parkinson 2009, 111)
153 original
after wrd erased and overwritten by
(Parkinson 2009, 111).
The greatest number of these corrections (18) involve altered spellings, including five in which a verb-form has been emended: 94 m
to mw, 101 msdd.f to msdw.f, 117 jn.t(w) to jnn.tw, 131 pr to prt, and
147 d.n to dt.n. Another fourteen reflect errors in copying.
3. uncorrected errors and omissions

In addition to his corrections, the scribe also seems to have made a


number of errors that were not emended. Most of these involve
omissions:
49 sm.k written for sdm.k (as in cols. 44 and 46)
81 jm.f written for jmt.f
89 the preposition r, and probably also the noun st(j) omitted
before sbnw

the right-hand tips of the original


are still visible. Parkinson suggests that the
scribe intended to replace the erased second z with a pronominal suffix (m.f ), but
the erasure of the second z is less thorough than that of the original phrase.
19 Cf. Parkinson 2009, 109. I see no trace of the correction in 148 noted by
Parkinson (2009, 109).

18

CHAPTER TWO

102 the preposition r omitted before dmj


102 the second

and probably a determinative omitted in jty

106 d.j n mj mjn omitted, despite space left for it (cf. Parkinson
2009, 109)
131 the preposition mj omitted before snb (note also the insertion of an omitted jw earlier in the same column, discussed
in Section 2, above).
There are also six instances of clearly or possibly omitted or unwritten 1s suffixes (as opposed to 84 instances of written
). The
likeliest omission occurs in 12 jjt.(j), as indicated both by the context
and by the parallel in 19 jjt.j, where the suffix is written. Possible instances are 13 .(j), 16 nnw.(j), 52 jww.(j), 148 b.(j), and 14849
nsw.(j), although these can be understood as written, without the suffix (see the discussions in Chapter Three). The 1s suffix of 52
sn.j was added secondarily.20
In three instances there are also clear or possible errors in spelling
in the papyrus:
17

for
the scribe has omitted the ticks
(representing wings) that distinguish the abbreviated version of
from
in his hand

92

perhaps for
psw is
otherwise unknown, and the scribe may have been influenced by col. 82

113

for

through misreading of a hieratic

original.
There is also one instance of dittography: jw.f at the bottom of
col. 100 repeated at the top of col. 101. The error may have been
conditioned by the erased
under the jw.f of col. 100 (see Section
2, above), or by the change of columns, or both.

Erman 1896, 38; overlooked by Faulkner 1956, 23, and in the transcriptions of
Barta 1969 and Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 45.
20

CHAPTER THREE

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
The preserved text of the Debate contains four interchanges between
its two characters, the Man and his Soul. The missing beginning had
perhaps three more sections, including an introductory passage that
was probably spoken by the Man.1 In all, the divisions of the text can
be analyzed as follows:
*1x
x*12
*12y
y3
355
5568
6880
8085
85103
10330
13042
14247
14754
15455

Introduction (lost)
The Souls first (preserved) speech
The Mans first (preserved) speech2
The Souls second speech
The Mans second speech
The Souls third speech: rebuttal
The Souls third speech: first parable
The Souls third speech: second parable
The Mans third speech: first litany
The Mans third speech: second litany
The Mans third speech: third litany
The Mans third speech: fourth litany
The Souls fourth speech
Colophon

The remainder of this chapter provides a hieroglyphic transcription,


transliteration, and relatively literal translation of each of these sections, with philological commentary. Epigraphic features, treated in
Chapter Two, are noted only where they have a bearing on the interpretation of the text.

Since the transitions in the text are all spoken by the Man, the same was probably true for the missing introduction.
2 Ending perhaps in col. *24 (see below).
1

20

CHAPTER THREE

1. introduction and the souls first speech (*1*12)

*1*8

(lost)

*9
[ ]wt
[ ] evil.
(*9)
jrt st [ ]
Doing it [ ]
Assuming that the first word of col. *9 is correctly restored as []wt,
that the final two signs are the dependent pronoun st, and that the
word preceding is the infinitive jrt rather than the imperfective participle jrr, the preserved signs probably contain the end of one sentence
and the beginning of another, with st it referring to wt evil.
*10*12 (lost)
In Parkinsons reconstruction (2003, 126), there is a gap of perhaps two columns between his Frags. I and L, the latter containing
part of the final four columns of the first sheet.
(*12)
[ w].k m[jr.j]
[ ] that you might set down my misery.
The suffix pronoun in this column may be the subject of a verb,
and the sign following, part of the word mjr need that recurs in cols.
22 and 128. In col. 22, the misery is that of the Soul, while in col.
128 it is the Mans. Both because the first of these is more proximate to
col. *12 and because of the dynamic of the text (discussed in Chapter
Six), it is possible that col. *12 contains the speech of the Soul, with
the suffix pronoun k addressed to the Man: thus, perhaps, as restored
here, based on col. 22 w mjr.j set down my misery (discussed in
Section 4, below). In that case, the trace above the suffix pronoun
belongs to a bookroll rather than to the r suggested by Parkinson.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

21

2. the MANs first speech (cols. *12Y)

*12*13
[dt.n.j n b.j]
What I said to my soul:
(*13)
wnwt pw [ ]
It is the hour [ ]
*14
[ ] sw r st[s.j ]
[ ] him, dragging me [ ]
*15
[ ]s[ ]
[]
*16*24 (lost; traces in cols. *21 and *23; one sign and a trace preserved in *22)
If *14 st[ ] is the verb meaning drag, as in col. 12 (there
written sts), the parallel of the latter column suggests that the Man is
speaking here, in which case *14 sw may refer to the Soul (who is
also referred to in the third person in col. 12). A transitional text of
some sort is then lost in the lacuna of cols. *12*13 or that of *13
*14. There is not enough space in either lacuna for a full transition
such as that of cols. 34 and 8586 jw wp.n.j r.j n b.j wb.j dt.n.f
And I opened my mouth to my soul, that I might answer what he
had said, but a shorter text such as that restored above would fit easily
(cf. 14748 dt.n n.j b What the soul said to me). Given the possible third-person reference to the Soul in *14, the transition to the
Mans speech is likelier to have come in cols. *12*13, making *13
wnwt pw [ ] It is the hour [ ]or perhaps wnwt pw [n nt ]
This is the hour of [ ]the beginning of the Mans statement.
In Parkinsons reconstruction, col. *15 is the last on the first sheet
of the papyrus, and the first fourteen columns on the second sheet are

22

CHAPTER THREE

lost before col. 1 of pBerlin 3024 (the fifteenth column on the second
sheet). Within these fourteen columns, Parkinson has placed his Frags.
H (*21*23) and JK (*25*28), with a gap of five columns before
Frag. H (*16*20), one between Frags. H and JK (*24), and one
(*29) between Frag. JK and the Berlin papyrus. His placement of the
two fragments within the lost fourteen columns is conjectural but
feasible given the reconstructed location of his Frags. I and L: the two
sets of fragments would probably have been contiguous on the papyrus when it was rolled and could therefore have survived together.
3. the souls second speech (cols. Y3)

Gardiner characterized oGardiner 369 as Part of an unidentified literary text and asked could it be a lost part of that known as the
Lebensmde ?3 The text makes reference to a b soul (6b) and has
several intriguing statements that could easily belong to the Debate: jw.j
jsq.kw I am hindered (3b4b), jw.j r rt-nr (4b) I am for the necropolis, mj.k bj jb p r t (4b5b) Look, what the heart desires is
the lifetime on earth, and p b m nw.st [r q]w pr mr.[f] The soul
inside it enters and emerges as it wants (5b6b). But its language is
literary Late Egyptian, pointing to a date of composition later than that
of the Debate. If the text is a later version of the Debate, however, it
most likely belongs to the Souls speech preceding col. *25: see below.
*25*26
[ ] r zw.t [ ]
[ ] face. Guard [ ]
Parkinson (2003, 13031) reads zw.t(j) Beware you, but the
nouns zwt guard or zwt[j] guardian are also possible. He describes the traces above the first sign of this word as Apparently a
single stroke (as at the top of 24), preceded by a sign ending in a diagonal stroke (2003, 129). These likely represent
(cf. col. 143).

ern and Gardiner 1957, 24: see Appendix Three, below.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

23

The two words could be part of the final phrase of oGardiner 369: r
zw r n.[j] guarding the mouth for me. Col. *25 zwt, however, is
not the infinitive of 3ae-inf. zj/zw, which is zt in Old and Middle
Egyptian (Urk. I, 278, 10, and 290, 3; CT VI, 70b, 83c, 84l). This
indicates that the parallel is illusory, and that *25 [r] and zw.t(j) belong to two separate clauses or sentences.
*26*27
m]j r.k sb.j tw [
Come, then, that I may instruct you [
(*27)
].k jrw n jmnt
] you [ ] the hostile nature of the West.
The initial statement is most likely part of a speech of the Soul,
since the Mans role in the text is defensive rather than didactic. The
sentence may have continued in col. *27 with [r ] about [ ]
(Wb. IV, 84, 812).
The reference in col. *27 to jrw n jmnt the hostile nature of the
West (for which, see Parkinson 2003, 13132) might seem better
suited to the Mans rejection of death at this point in the text, but the
lost verb could have been something such as [nn sn].k you shall not
fear (for sn used transitively, see CT IV, 123b; VII, 263b). Col. *25
then probably belongs to the Souls speech as well, and a transitional
statement as in cols. 5556 occurred somewhere between *15 and *25.
*28

(beginning lost)

*28*29
jw z [ ]
For a man [ ]
*29

(lost)

1
[j]w.n r d [m mt m t]
We are to speak truly in the tribunal:

24

CHAPTER THREE

The traces at the beginning of col. 1 have been read previously as


those of the 2pl pronoun
. Some instances of are very large in
this scribes hand (e.g., col. 11 mj.tn), but the spacing indicates that if
the first preserved sign is , another low sign has been lost at the top
of the column above it. Compared with other examples of , the trace
in col. 1 also has a less acute angle. Both that feature and the spacing
indicate that the sign is instead
, probably with a reed-leaf lost to its
right (compare the arrangement of jw grt in col. 6), yielding the adverbial-predicate future [j]w.n r d we are to speak. The restoration of
the remainder of the column is purely conjectural (cf. Wb. V, 620, 20;
CT VII, 112t), based on the preserved text, the size of the lacuna, and
the need for a referent of the 3pl pronoun of ns.sn in cols. 2 and 3.
2
nj nm.n [ns.s]n
their tongue cannot be biased.
23
[j]w r [b m] dbw
It would be crooked in return.
(3)
nj nm.n ns.sn
Their tongue cannot be biased.
The word bw exchange normally appears as object of the preposition m, which can be restored at the bottom of col. 2; with [b],
the column would have been about as long as col. 18. Most translations
have accepted Faulkners restoration [bb] (1956, 30 n. 2), based on
Peas. B1 138 and preferable to Goedickes (1970, 8687),4 which
seems to mean resist (Wb. I, 361, 6) rather than his rebuke. The
word may be the infinitive, however, rather than Faulkners noun. The
unexpressed subject is probably the situation of partiality, and the un
Followed by Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 23. Their restoration [j]w r [y] is
too short for the available space.
4

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

25

expressed referent of [m] dbw, speaking truly or the like (see the
preceding note). For the tribunal speaking, cf. CT V 209e/k/o.
4. the mans second speech (cols. 355)

34
jw wp.n.j r.j n b.j
And I opened my mouth to my soul
(4)
wb.j dt.n.f
that I might answer what he had said:
5
jw n wr r.j m mjn
This has become too much for me today:
56
nj mdw b.j n.j
my soul has not spoken in accord with me.
Most translations have followed Erman (1896, 20) in understanding
mdwj n as converse with (Wb. II, 179, 9). Suys, however, interpreted it as agree with (1932, 59 and n. 1, followed by Scharff 1937,
12 and 13 n. 2; van de Walle 1939, 312; Weill 1947, 116; Junker 1948,
220; Jacobsohn 1952, 10 and 11 n. 1; Parkinson 1997, 155; Tobin
2003, 179; Haller 2004, 14). This is superior both to the usual interpretation and to Faulkners argue with (1956, 21 and 30 n. 4; also
Goedicke 1970, 8889; Mathieu 2000, 23). Scharff points out that the
Soul is in fact speaking with the Man, and Faulkner himself notes
that arguing is apparently just what the soul has been doing. Although mdwj n normally denotes a conversation, with the extended
connotation of argument (as English have words with), the context
seems to demand Suyss interpretation of n as in accord with. This
sense appears elsewhere in the text: 40 twt n be in accord with, 114
jrj n act (in accord) with, 126 m n walk (in accord) with.

26

CHAPTER THREE

(6)
jw grt wr r b
It is also too much to exaggerate:
67
jw mj wzf jmt.f m b.j
my soul going is like one who ignores what he is in.
As Erman noted (1896, 19 n. 3), the space at the top of col. 7 is
too small for the
sign that normally determines wzf before the
walking legs, unless that sign projected abnormally high above the adjacent column tops. The two preserved traces suit
(for
), which
is a feasible determinative for the transitive sense of the verb, although
apparently not attested elsewhere.
The group below the seated man is almost certainly jm; the m is
lower than the reed-leaf because of the bottom flourish of the seatedman sign above. The traces below jm have been read as
ever
since Sethes suggested restoration (1927, 44, 2). The papyrus, however, shows a clear, free-standing
below the reed-leaf of jm,
with a short horizontal trace to its left, below the m of the same
group. These cannot represent
: they are separated by a preserved
blank space and are written too close to jm to accommodate the
hump of the
sign. The right-hand trace can only represent
(cf. col. *13). The left-hand one is most likely the head of
(cf. the
arrangement in col. 146): the two traces below and to its left, extending into col. 8, are part of the tail; the latter accounts for the gap that
intervenes before the m-sign that follows.
The resulting jmt.f must be a nisbe and the object of the preceding verb. Since it is the Soul who is ignoring the Man, the verb
must be participial wzf one who ignores rather than infinitival wzf.j
my ignoring; the seated man occurs as determinative of a participle
in 25 z, 117 jr, 131 mr, and 139 st; also plural 60 qdw, 62 sqdw, and
6364 nnw. The nisbe can mean both what is in him and what he
is in, but the latter makes more sense in the context, probably referring to the qsnwt difficulties cited in cols. 10 and 15.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

27

Given both the context and the following clause, m b.j is not
likely to mean my soul should go. Instead, it is probably a noun
clause in apposition to the unexpressed subject of the preceding clause.
The unusual construction may have been conditioned by the fact that
jw m b.j could be understood as My soul goes (at least, in writing).
(7)
.f n.j r.s
He should attend to it for me,
The spelling of the preposition r indicates that the following s is
a suffix pronoun, the referent of which is probably the preceding jmt.s.
Translations have generally regarded the relationship between .f
and n.j as primary, most following Erman (1896, 20) in understanding
the passage to connote support (stand by me, stand for me), with
others opting for the alternate sense wait for me5 (Suys 1932, 59;
Wilson 1969, 405; Bresicani 1999, 199). Faulkner saw r.s as the primary adjunct, translating that it may attend to it for me (1956, 21
and 30 n. 7; followed by Lichtheim 1973, 104; Renaud 1991, 23;
Mathieu 2000, 23).6 This is supported by the clear use of r with
this meaning in cols. 4243 (see below).
8
[snnw].j w[jn n].f
my second, who [rejects] his [life].
The upper half of col. 8 is lost except for traces. The first was hesitantly read by Faulkner as
(1956, 22). The traces below it are almost
certainly the right and left sides of the seated-man sign. Since there
seems to be no word ending in
that would be followed directly by
the seated man (either as determinative or 1s suffix pronoun), Faulk
Wb. I, 220, 5: identified there as N., but clear or likely earlier examples are
Pyr. 439a, 671ab, Nt 708; also, later, pWestcar 8, 4.
6 Variant translations are those of Goedicke (1970, 89 it shall respect me instead: Wb. I, 218, 11), Haller (2004, 8 er soll mir in dieser Sache Rede und
Antwort stehen), and Quirke (2004, 130 but resists me for it).
5

28

CHAPTER THREE

ners reading is doubtful. The traces may represent instead , which


suggests the noun snnw second; the spelling in col. 106 would fill
the lacuna to the top of the column, with the seated man as 1s suffix.
Below the seated man is a clear, though faint, -shaped trace at
the right of the column, most likely for
. The position suggests a
sign to its left. Of various possibilities, the likeliest is perhaps a reedleaf, which suggests in turn the verb wjn reject, albeit with a slightly
different grouping than in col. 151; a trace below would suit the upper
right tip of the
-sign.7 This leaves about one group before the top
of the preserved
, too little for sn brother but sufficient for the
restoration suggested here, which would also suit the traces to the
columns right and left.
(8)
nn dj.t .f wj
He will not be allowed to resist me,
The signs following
are clear as regards
,
,
,
,
8
is almost certainly
and the final
; the preserved sign before
rather than Faulkners suggested
(1956, 22). The crux of
the passage is the traces between
and
(drawn at
right). Goedickes proposed of (1970, 90) is impossible
(cf. col. 112), and there is no other verb (or m) that
suits the traces. The likeliest alternative is that
belongs to a separate word, undoubtedly dj; the trace just below it can be read as the
of the passive suffix t(w). The remaining trace best suits the
-sign
(cf. cols. 96 and 99) of the verb j resist, thwart (Wb. III, 361, 6: cf.
CT I, 154c). Since this verb takes a direct object, the small trace just
above the final seated man is most likely the tail of the
of wj; the
sign is tucked under and right of the diagonal of the preceding
.

The verb is used with reflexive dative in col. 151, but there is no trace of the
tail of a reflexive n.f here.
8 The last seen by Goedicke (1970, 90), though not included in his hieroglyphic
transcription. The fragment at the bottom left of col. 8 is mounted a millimeter too
low. Its uppermost trace is the tail of
.
7

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

29

9
r ntt.f m t.j m nw nw
since he is in my belly in a rope mesh:
Goedicke (1970, 91) restored the traces at the top of col. 9 as
, accepted in some studies (Tobin 1991, 345; Foster 1992,
11; Parkinson 1997, 155). The initial vertical trace could well be part
of
, but those following (before that of
, which is clear) do not
suit Goedickes reading. The horizontal that he saw as part of
does not have the angled back of all other instances of that sign in the
papyrus, and the two strokes he read as those of
do not match
those of the nine examples of that sign in the papyrus (particularly its
right-hand stroke, which is always thin, long, and angled right to left).
Since the horizontal trace is not part of
, the initial vertical
probably does not belong to
, which is always followed by
in
this text. Similar verticals, with the tapered bottom seen in this instance, occur in examples of , , , the second reed-leaf of
, the
single vertical stroke (Z1), and the ligature representing
; the horizontal trace below looks most like the left end of
or
. Of these
possibilities, the only combination that seems feasible here is
followed by
. The right-hand element of the third set of traces is
then most likely part of a ligatured
(cf. col. 15), and the left-hand
stroke represents a second , yielding the conjunction r ntt.9
The literal meaning of m nw nw is clear, undoubtedly referring
to the net in which birds were captured.10 This in turn identifies the
referent of the pronoun f as most likely the Soul (reflecting both its
avian nature and its hieroglyphic spelling). The passage is a metaphor
for the relationship of the Soul to the Man during life.

For r ntt with a suffix pronoun, cf. Malaise and Winand, Grammaire, 138. ntt
also appears in col. 28 as a ligature of three vertical signs, but in that instance it is
followed by a noun rather than a suffix pronoun.
10 Cf. Caminos, Literary Fragments in the Hieratic Script, pl. 13A, 7 (nw nw jdt.k
the meshes of your net); also CT 474, which speaks of the nww ropes of the
jdt net used for m fowling (CT VI, 17e/18i; 23 lm/24j).
9

30

CHAPTER THREE

910
nn pr m .f rwj.f hrw qsnwt
that he leave on a day of difficulties will not happen to him.
The verb rwj is normally intransitive in Middle Kingdom texts
(Wb. II, 406, 2) but can also be used transitively (Wb. II, 406, 1617).
Translations have adopted one or the other of these senses: the former, first by Erman (1896, 20); the latter, which Erman suggested as
an alternative (1896, 21), first by Faulkner (1956, 21 and 31 n. 9).11
The expression pr m can denote what happens to someone as well
as through their agency (Wb. III, 262, 19/21).12 Although either interpretation is defensible here, the second has been generally adopted.
The initial verb pr has usually been understood as a sm.f with
the rwj.f clause as its subject and the pronouns referring to the Soul:
e.g., It shall not happen to him that he flees on the day of affliction
(Assmann 1998, 390). Gunn, however, saw it as the participial subject
of a negative existential statement, to which the pronouns then refer:
i.e, There is no one through whose agency it will happen that he
leave on (or deflect) a day of difficulties.13 The parallel of col. 8
nn dj.t .f wj He will not be allowed to resist me favors the more
usual interpretation, and that of col. 7 m b.j my soul going, the
intransitive meaning of rwj.f.

The transitive use, however, does not have the sense of escape proposed by
Faulkner, but rather that of leave with respect to a place or office (Wb. II, 406, 16
17) or with causative sense, as in Sin. B 62 nn wn rwj w.f there is no one who can
deflect his arrows: Koch, Sinuhe, 36, 1. This sense also suits the instance cited by
Faulkner (1956, 31 n. 9): TR 19, 21 = CT IV, 117a. In his subsequent translation of
the CT passage, Faulkner opted for the intransitive: Coffin Texts, I, 241.
12 E.g., ShS. 2123 sd.j r.f n.k mjtt jrj pr m .j s.j So, let me relate to you
something similar that happened to me myself; Louvre C1 1719 jr mdt t(n) nt wt
pn mtt pw nt prt m .j jrt.n.(j) pw m wn m As for this speech of this stela, it is the
witness of what happened through my agency: it is what I actually did: Blackman,
Middle Egyptian Stories, 42, 7; Clre, JEA 24 (1938), 242.
13 Gunn, Studies, 145 and n. 1; followed by Scharff 1937, 14 n. 9; van de Walle
1939, 312; von der Wense 1949, 67.
11

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

31

The phrase hrw qsnwt day of difficulties has generally been seen
as a euphemism for death.14 The evidence assembled by Vandier, however, does not indicate that it is anything more than an expression for
times of hardship, like the analogous term rnpt qsnt difficult year,
which cannot be interpreted as a similar euphemism.15 Cols. 710 as a
whole record the Mans determination that the Soul not abandon him
but face hardship with him.
11
mj.tn b.j r tht.j
But look, my soul is leading me astray.
This is the only demonstrable instance of the second-person plural
pronoun in the papyrus and, since Ermans initial study (1896, 8), it
has long been thought to reflect an audience to the debate, established
in the poems now-lost beginning. Although it is conceivable that
such an audience was specified in the missing portions of cols. *1
*11, the beginning of this section (cols. 34) clearly indicates that the
Man is speaking only to the Soul. Since the plural pronoun has no
obvious referent, it is probably used here to avoid the specificity of
the singular, as Sethe suggested (1927, 61), perhaps also with the
poems readership in mind. A similar usage of mj.tn occurs in the
context of an address to one person in MuK 1, 7.16
The verb thj used transitively with the object of a person can
mean either assail, violate (Wb. V, 319, 20) or lead astray (Wb.
V, 320, 5). Early translations rendered it with the first of these meanings, but since Faulkner (1956, 21) it has usually been translated with
the second, based on two clear passages in the Story of Sinuhe: th.n.f r
kt st (Sin. B 14849) one whom he led astray to a different land,
bk th.n jb.f r swt rryt (Sin. B 202) a servant whom his heart led

First proposed by Scharff 1937, 14 n. 10. See especially Goedicke 1970, 92,
and Parkinson 1997, 161 n. 4.
15 Vandier, Famine, 6164. Brunner-Traut (1967, 78) reached a similar conclusion.
16 A. Erman, Zauberspruch fr Mutter und Kind aus dem Papyrus 3027 des Berliner
Museums (APAW; Berlin, 1901), 10.
14

32

CHAPTER THREE

astray to strange lands.17 This sense is indicated by the remainder of


the Mans second speech, which the statement of col. 11 introduces.
1112
nj sm.n.j n.f
I cannot listen to him
(12)
r sts.j r mt nj jjt.(j) n.f
because of dragging me to death before I have come to it,
Since Erman (1896, 22), the verb sts here and in col. 70 has been
generally interpreted as a variant of s drag, despite its final s. The
verb also occurs with this writing and meaning in Sin. B 230 nr w
wrt tn r sts.j the god who decided this flight was dragging me, for
which the parallel in AOS 34 has st.18 Suyss suggestion that the verb
here is an error for s hasten (1932, 59 n. 2; followed by Lurie 1939,
143; Weill 1947, 116, and Quirke 2004, 131) requires an unnecessary
emendation. Scharffs strive (1937, 12; also van de Walle 1939, 312;
Junker 1948, 220; von der Wense 1949, 67; Foster 1992, 12) demands
an intransitive use, not attested for s before the New Kingdom (Wb.
IV, 353). As noted by Scharff (1937, 15 n. 13), the verbs determinatives do not support a form of s()z lie on the back (Wb. IV, 362, 9
12; Wb. med. 82223), though understood as such by Jacobsohn (1952,
11) and Goedicke (1970, 93). Since the verb is transitive, sts.j must be
the infinitive with pronominal object, as it is commonly understood.
The prepositional phrase r sts.j r mt has been universally taken as
a second predicate parallel to 11 r tht.j (and dragging me to death),
but the intervening nj sm.n.j n.f is normally an independent construc
Koch, Sinuhe, 54, 1, and 63, 9. There is no evidence to recommend the singular
renderings of Brunner-Traut 1967, 10 rebelliert; Goedicke 1970, 92 disobeying;
Lalouette 1984, 221 mabandonnait; Foster 1992, 12 defames; Assmann 1998,
390 resists; Lohmann 1998, 214 bergehen; and Tobin 2003, 179 deceive.
18 Koch, Sinuhe, 68, 12. The verb appears as st in Sin. B 248 (stw) and as ideographic in Sin. B 248 (st.j = AOS [st]s.j) and B 264. Faulkner (1956, 31 n. 11) has
suggested that the final s is spurious.
17

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

33

tion, making this less likely than a phrase giving the reason why I
cannot listen to him. A parenthetic aside, however, is also possible,
along the lines of Parkinsons though I do not listen to him (1997,
155), in which case the usual understanding of r sts.j r mt is feasible.
Both the context and the parallel in col. 19 indicate that the firstperson suffix pronoun is omitted after jjt.19 The text observes the normal Middle Egyptian distinction between the negations nj and nn,
which rules out an infinitival expression without coming as well as
Lohmanns ohne da ein Unwillkommenes meiner dabei mglich
wird (1998, 21415 and n. 36).
13
r .(j) r t r smmt.j
because of throwing me on the fire to incinerate me.
The suffix pronoun of smmt.j implies an unwritten one in
.(j), as generally understood.20 This clause can also be understood
as a reason for 1112 nj sm.n.j n.f, although here the circumstantial
throwing me is also possible. The parallel with 12 sts.j r mt indicates that the Soul is to be understood as the agent of the infinitive, as
also generally understood.
Scharff interpreted the passage as a statement of the Mans intention to commit suicide by self-immolation (1937, 12), understanding
the 1s suffixes as reflexive. This has not won general support (followed
only by Lurie 1939, 143; van de Walle 1939, 312; Junker 1948, 220;
von der Wense 1949, 67; Jacobsohn 1952, 11; Foster 1992, 12). The
rest of this section, which clearly describes the Man as resisting death,
demands a metaphorical interpretation rather than a literal one, as in

See L. Zonhoven, in Essays in Honour of Herman te Velde, II, 39698. Goedickes


interpretation (1970, 94 nj jjt.n.f ) is grammatically impossible. The 1s suffix is normally
written in this text but is perhaps also omitted in 13 .(j) and 53 jww.(j) (see below).
20 Williamss offering sacrifice (1962, 53) has been accepted only by Lohmann
(1998, 215) and makes little sense here. Goedicke interprets as the infinitive with
passive sense, also without the first-person pronoun (1970, 9495 being cast). This
is possible grammatically but less likely in the context.
19

34

CHAPTER THREE

col. 9 r ntt.f m t.j m nw nw since he is in my belly in a rope


mesh. The fire determinative identifies smmt.j as a form of caus.
2-lit. sm burn rather than of 3-lit. sm kill; the same spelling
occurs in CT IV, 263a. The verb form could be the smt.f until I am
burned up (as understood by Williams 1962, 53; Goedicke 1970, 95;
and Mathieu 2000, 23) rather than the infinitive.
14
ptr mnt.f [ f]
What is his suffering, that he should [ ],
1415
r [rdjt] s.f r [sn].f
giving his back to his brother?
Goedickes reading of the second word in col. 14 as mnt.f his
suffering (1970, 96, based on Erman 1896, 21) makes eminent sense
of the traces.21 The first word, however, is not Goedickes jwtt without that but the interrogative ptr what, as Quack has seen (1995,
185); there is not enough space for the initial [r] suggested by Chioffi
and Rigamonti (2007, 28).
The lacuna that follows probably contained two verbal expressions before s.f, the first perhaps a subjunctive sm.f and the second
r [rdjt] giving.22 The lacuna at the bottom of col. 14 requires a
word large enough to postpone the 3ms suffix to the next column: sn
brother, written as in col. 52, fits the space and the common use of
rdj s r and provides an antithesis for the next sentence.
(15)
tk.f jm.j hrw qsnwt
He should be near me on a day of difficulties,

As understood by Tobin (1991, 346, but not 2003, 17980), Foster (1992, 12),
Parkinson (1997, 155), and Quirke (2004, 131). Parkinsons translation What is he
like indicates that he has read the determinative as
rather than
, but the
trace is better suited to the latter.
22 There is a trace of the right edge of
. For the idiom, see Wb. IV, 9, 11.
21

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

35

16
.f m pf gs mj jr-nnw
that he may stand on yon side like a eulogy-maker,
Pyr. 326b and 355c provide a parallel for m gs stand on a side
of the river. Goedickes reading of the final word in col. 16 as nnw
eulogy (1970, 97) is undoubtedly correct (followed by Lalouette
1984, 221; Tobin 1991, 346; Foster 1992, 12; Parkinson 1997, 155;
Mathieu 2000, 23). The seated-man sign at the end is probably the determinative of a compound jr-nnw eulogy-maker, although it could
also represent the 1s suffix of jr nnw.j one who makes my eulogy.
As in cols. 710, the Man is arguing that the Soul should not abandon
him; the sense her is apparently that he will then be able to welcome
the Man after death (yon side) as a friend rather than antagonist.
17
p js pw prr
for that is the sort who goes forth
(17)
jn.f sw r.f
and brings himself to it.
The sense of this passage is unclear, in part because of the characteristically Egyptian ambiguity of its four pronouns (Faulkner 1956, 31
n. 16). Since js links the statement to the preceding as a dependent
clause, the demonstrative p may refer to the kind of soul described in
those clauses, as most studies have assumed. Its more immediate referent, however, is jr-nnw eulogy-maker. The imperfective participle
prr implies either repetitive or normative action. In the first instance,
the statement may refer to the souls daily emergence from the tomb,
as understood by Faulkner (1956, 31 n. 16), Tobin (1991, 345 n. 24),
and Mathieu (2000, 34 n. 14). If the referent is jr-nnw, however, the
context here indicates normative action: i.e., a reference to going
forth from east to west by the eulogy-maker at the funeral, mirroring the preceding .f m pf gs that he may stand on yon side.

36

CHAPTER THREE

The verb jn.f has usually been understood to express either concomitant action or purpose or result, but its form suits only the first of
these.23 If p prr refers to jr-nnw, the pronominal subject of jn.f must
do so as well. The referent of r.f is probably col. 16 pf gs yon side,
since jnj r normally is used of bringing something to a place (e.g.,
ShS. 71, 84, 109, 114); the pronominal object sw, then, can only be
reflexive. The verb jnj is attested with a reflexive pronoun in the sense
of conduct oneself,24 but the present instance seems to demand the
more literal sense bring oneself.
The passage as a whole expounds on the Souls desire for death as a
release from a day of difficulties and reiterates the theme of the soul
going in cols. 610. It argues that the Soul should stand on yon side
only at the proper time, like a eulogist at a funeral.
1718
b.j w r sd h r n
My soul has become too foolish to suppress pain in life,
The initial b.j w has been understood in three ways: as a vocative followed by an adjectival predicate (Scharff 1937, 12 Meine
Seele, es ist tricht; similarly, Lurie 1939, 143; van de Walle 1939,
312; Weill 1947, 106; von der Wense 1949, 68; Jacobsohn 1952, 11;
Thausing 1957, 263; Barta 1969, 21; Lalouette 1984, 221; Renaud
1991, 23; Lohmann 1998, 215), as a vocative with modifying adjective (Faulkner 1956, 27 O my soul, who art too stupid; similiarly,
Williams 1962, 53; Wilson 1969, 405; Lichtheim 1973, 164; Parkinson 1997, 155; Bresciani 1999, 199; Haller 2004, 14; Quirke 2004,

Lichtheim (1973, 164) and Goedicke (1070, 9798) understood it as a statement of past action, but the spelling does not suit the sm.n.f and the perfective sm.f
is normally used only after the negation nj in Middle Egyptian. Jacobsohn interpreted
jn.f sw r.f as relative und zu dem er sich bringen soll (1952, 11 and 12 n. 11; similarly,
Haller 2004, 14), with jn.f sw referring to the Soul and r.f referring to Ermans npw
(1896, 23) at the end of col. 16. The reading nnw, however, makes this interpretation unlikely.
24 E.g., Heqanakht II 28 jnn.n n m jb qn you should conduct yourselves with
diligent heart: Allen, Heqanakht, 17.
23

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

37

131), or as a subjectstative construction (Suys 1932, 60 Mon me


est insense; similarly, Goedicke 1970, 9899; Tobin 1991, 345;
Assmann 1998, 390; Mathieu 2000, 23; Tobin 2003, 180; Chioffi and
Rigamonti 2007, 30).25 The interpretation depends largely on how
1819 jhm and 1920 snm are understood (discussed below).
The verb sd is undoubtedly causative sink (Wb. IV, 371, 67),
despite its determinative, as noted first by Weill (1947, 106 n. 1); the
determinative reflects the mental or verbal nature of the action in this
context. The phrase h r n was initially understood as participial
(Erman 1896, 25 einen Trauernden im Leben), but since Faulkners
study it has been largely interpreted as his misery in life (1956, 27),
which is partly supported by the fact that h does not have a seatedman determinative. Parkinsons understanding of r as causal (the
sorrow which is due to life: 1997, 155) is also possible.
1819
jhm wj r mt nj jjt.j n.f
one who prods me toward death before I have come to it,
The verb jhm/hjm (Wb. I, 118, 18) occurs with this determinative
only in this text (also 4050 hjm.k wj r mt). Its sense has been interpreted in two different ways, largely dependent on whether the Man
is viewed as rejecting or advocating death at this point: persuasion
(Erman 1896, 25, and most subsequent studies) or dissuasion (Sethe
1927, 63; Scharff 1937, 12; van de Walle 1939, 312; von der Wense
1949, 68; Faulkner 1956, 27; Goedicke 1970, 9899; Foster 1992, 12;
Assmann 1998, 390, and 2005, 385; Bresciani 1999, 199; Chioffi and
Rigamonti 2007, 30). Of the two, the first is almost certainly correct.
The verb from which Scharff derived the second, go slowly (Wb. I,
118, 19), is not used transitively and has a different determinative (
); a better correlate is the later verb
prod (Wb. II, 490,
6). The clause nj jjt.j n.f before I have come to it makes less sense

Erman (1896, 25) and Maspero (1907, 126) interpreted b.j w as a vocative followed by an imperative but were not aware of the meaning of the verb.
25

38

CHAPTER THREE

with the notion of dissuasion, and the clear parallel of col. 12 argues
for the more common reading. The verb form jhm is best understood
as a participle appositive to the initial b.j, as seen by Faulkner (1956,
27) and most subsequent studies.26
1920
snm n.j jmnt
who sweetens the West for me:
This clause has been understood as an imperative addressed to the
Soul, with a few exceptions me faire une peinture agrable lHads
(Maspero 1907, 126); elle madoucit (la perspective de) lOccident
(Suys 1932, 60); The West can cause (only) pleasantness to me
(Goedicke 1970, 99100; followed by Tobin 2003, 180); But the
West will be made pleasant for me (Tobin, 1991, 346; followed by
Mathieu 2000, 23, and Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 3031). None
of these interpretations, however, suits the context in this part of the
composition, where the Man is clearly arguing against death.27 Rather
than an imperative, snm can be understood as a participle describing
the Soul: the clause is then a parallel expression to the preceding jhm
wj r mt. In that case, the initial b.j is not vocative, and w is most
likely the stative rather than an adjective or adjectival predicate.
(20)
jn jw qsnt pw
Is it something difficult?

Understood as an imperative by Erman (1896, 25), Weill (1947, 1906), Jacobsohn (1952, 11), Lalouette (1984, 221), Foster (1992, 12), Assmann (1998, 390), and
Lohmann (1998, 215). Thausing (1957, 263) understood the participle as referring to
h rather than b.j: die Lebensmdigkeit, die mich zu Tode treibt. Cols. 1113,
however, clearly indicate that it is the Soul who is prodding the Man toward death.
Hallers ein Bekmmerter bin ich (2004, 14) is grammatically impossible.
27 Although Thausing (1957, 263) suggests that the Man is urging the Soul to
sweeten the West by letting him die at the proper time rather than prematurely.
26

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

39

2021
prt pw n
Life is a cycle;
(21)
jw tw r.sn
trees fall.
2122
nd r.k r jsft
Tread, then, on disorder,
(22)
w mjr.j
set down my misery.
Since these lines are an argument for death, at this point in the text
they are more appropriate to the Soul than the Man and therefore best
understood as the content of the Souls prodding and sweetening,
cited without an introductory m d saying or the like. The question
jn jw qsnt pw is a rare Middle Egyptian example of jw before a sentence
with nominal predicate;28 pw undoubtedly refers to 19 mt death.
The final clause is capable of several interpretations. The verb
may be transitive lay, set, offer, add or intransitive last (Wb. I,
25357); the noun could be mr miserable one (Wb. II, 30, 2) or
mr.j my misery (Wb. II, 30, 4). Most translations have understood
the verb as intransitive (exceptions are Weill 1947, 116; Lichtheim
1973, 164; Lalouette 1984, 221; Renaud 1991, 23; Tobin 1991, 346;
Foster 1992, 12; Parkinson 1997, 155; Haller 2004, 14; Quirke 2004,
131; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 31). The noun was first understood as mr, without suffix, but since Faulkner (1957, 27) has largely
been translated like his my misery (except by Herrmann 1957, 72;
Williams 1962, 54; Lohmann 1998, 215). Most studies since Lichtheim have followed the sense of her translation put down my

28

See Silverman, Interrogative Constructions, 8586.

40

CHAPTER THREE

misery, which seems best suited to the context. The use of w with
an abstract noun is also attested in an Old Kingdom letter.29
2324
w wj wtj tp nrw
Let Thoth judge me and the gods become content;
Cols. 2327 contain a series of four statements referring to the
judgment after death, and therefore probably also part of the Souls
prodding. As part of his argument, he urges the Man to let the gods
decide whether his wish for death is wrong.
Thoth appears as recorder in the judgment scene of the Book of
the Dead but also as judge: the text in front of Thoth in Fig. 1 reads,
in part, jw w.n.(j) jb n jsjrt jw b.f m mtr r.f I have judged the
heart of Osiris, as his soul stood in witness to him.30
Following Erman (1896, 28), translations have generally interpreted tp nrw as transitive who pacifies the gods (cf. Wb. III, 192,
1), but that expression is attested elsewhere only as an epithet of a god
in the fifth hour of the Amduat (LGG V, 57576), although Thoth
is called jmj tp nrw in CT I, 27c. As Goedicke has sensed (1970,
104105), it makes better sense in the context as referring to the outcome of Thoths judgment, but probably as a parallel subjunctive
sm.f rather than Goedickes adjectival statement (as seen by Mathieu
2000, 23, and Haller 2004, 14).
2425
sf nsw r.j z m mt
let Khonsu, who writes truly, intervene for me;
The expression sf r has been translated as defend in the legal
sense (since Erman 1896, 28), and that sense is clear in the context; its
specific meaning, however, is most likely Goedickes intervene on

pBerlin 8869, 11 nfr n w tj- pn w jr.n.f r t that this high official shall
not lay down the robbery he has done: Smither, JEA 28 (1942), 17.
30 Or against him. For Thoth in connection with judgment, cf. also Peas. B1
17981 and 299300.
29

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

41

behalf of (1970, 105).31 The mention of Khonsu, like that of Isdes in


cols. 2627, parallels that of Thoth in the preceding statement (see
L I, 962; III, 185). The term z is probably participial rather than
the noun scribe (for the determinative, cf. 117 jr, 131 mr, 139 st;
also plural 60 qdw, 62 sqdw, 6364 nnw).32 The epithet undoubtedly
refers to the role of recorder in the judgment.
2526
sm r mdw.j sg wj
Let the Sun, who stills the sun-bark, hear my speech;
The final verb has been interpreted mostly in one of two ways:33
either as a hapax sg, perhaps for sg(r), meaning still, silence (Sethe
1927, 62; Scharff 1937, 13 and 19 n. 35; van der Walle 1939, 312;
Jacobsohn 1952, 11; Barta 1969, 21; Goedicke 1970, 103; Lichtheim
1973, 164; Assmann 1998, 390; Lohmann 1998, 216; Haller 2004,
14; Quirke 2004, 131; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 33); or as a hapax sg meaning command or the like, in other studies. The latter is
more in line with the Suns usual role in his bark, but the former is
more likely. The verb sgr appears with the same determinative in CT
I, 321b Bh2C; with an omitted r in CT V, 217b B2Bo, and VII, 369a
B2Bo/B1L; and with
for
in CT I, 378c B1C and V, 217d
B1C. There is evidently a verb sgj astonish (ancestor of NK sg: Wb.
IV, 320, 5), which appears once in the Coffin Texts (VI, 276g) and
otherwise in the noun sgw/sgwt astonishment, but this is less likely
as an epithet of the Sun in relationship to his bark.34 The contrast
with mdw.j my speech also supports the reading sg(r) who stills:
cf. cols. 14547.

Also in Ptahhotep 18485 jn nr jr jqr.f sf.f r.f jw.f sr The god is the one who
made him successful, intervening for him while he was asleep: ba, Ptaotep, 30.
32 Khonsu is called z mt in CT VI, 272c; see also LGG VI, 600.
33 Weill (1947, 119 n. i) saw it as a causative of gw assemble, but misread the w
of wj as part of the word. The Late Egyptian verb sg, first noted and rejected by Erman
1896, 28 n. 2, is a New Kingdom loan word: Hoch, Semitic Words, 269 no. 383.
34 In CT 160 it is the Suns enemy that causes sgwt in the bark: CT II, 378c380b.
31

42

CHAPTER THREE

2627
sf jsdz r.j m t sr[t]
let Isdes intervene for me in the sacred room
28
[r] ntt sr.j wdn
since my need has become heavy
Based on the size of the lacuna and the other occurrence in col. 9
(see above), the lost preposition at the top of col. 28 was probably r
rather than r. Like the word at the end of col. 22, the word after ntt
can be read either as sr.j my need or sr needy one (Wb. IV, 19,
6). Faulkner (1956, 32 n. 24) understood it as the second, though he
admitted that this presents difficulties in understanding the line. With
the exception of Bresciani (1999, 200) and Chioffi and Rigamonti
(2007, 34), other translations have adopted the first, which makes better
sense here.
2829
nj [wnt] f n.f n.j
and [there is] no one to lift to himself for me.
The lacuna at the bottom of col. 28 has presented difficulties in
understanding the text at the top of the next column. Faulkner (1956,
27 and 32 n. 24) was the first to suggest a reading of the trace below
wdn as m and to restore a word (pw burden) in the lacuna (followed in most subsequent translations). Both this and his translation
of the preceding noun as sr needy one were based in part on the
lack of an obvious referent for the pronominal suffix f in col. 29, although most studies have seen it as the Soul (understanding cols. 20
29 to represent the Mans viewpoint). In the interpretation suggested
here, however, the words are those of the Soul, and there is no indication that the Soul views the Man as the source of his anguish.
Faulkners restoration is also questionable: the final trace lies somewhat too close to the preceding signs to be the tail of an
, there is

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

43

no trace below of what should be the tail of Faulkners


,35 and the
lacuna does not offer sufficient space for tp (cf. cols. 69 and 127).
In the restoration suggested here, f is a perfective active participle, referent of the following 3ms pronoun: one who might lift to
himself.36 The arm is probably a second determinative of f rather
than part of a separate dj.n.f; the same combination of determinatives
is used in the writing of tp in cols. 69 and 127.37
The final trace at the bottom of col. 28 could belong to the negative arms, as suggested by Quack (1995, 185). If so, the negation must
be nj rather than nn, because there is no trace of an
below it,
which always extends as far to the left as
in this scribes writing
of nn. Since this text observes the normal Middle Egyptian distinction
between nj and nn, nj alone cannot serve as a negative existential.
There is space in the lacuna for wnt, which would have extended as
low as the bottom of the last sign in col. 30 (for the lack of traces below nj here, cf. the alignment of wn below nn in col. 121). The scribe
uses nn wn elsewhere as a negative existential (cols. 121 and 130), but
only as an independent statement, whereas the clause here is probably
adverbial, a common use of nj wnt.38
2930
nm sf nrw tw t.j
The gods barring my bellys secrets would be sweet,

The same objections apply to the restored m[j.n] of Chioffi and Rigamonti
(2007, 34).
36 For the use of fj with reflexive dative and without object, see A. Badawy, The
Tomb of Nyhetep-Ptah at Giza and the Tomb of Ankhmahor at Saqqara (University of
California Publications: Occasional Papers 11: Archaeology; Los Angeles, 1978), 35
and pl. 61: f.(j) n.(j) jqr I will left to myself excellently (for jqr used adverbially, see
Wb. I, 137, 17; Wb. I, 137, 1819 r jqr, m jqr seems to rule out Badawys interpretation n jqr readily).
37 Relative dj.n.f would presumably modify a noun f burden. That word, however, is invariably feminine ft (Wb. I, 574, 912), and the pronoun of a relative dj.n.f
has the same lack of obvious referent as f.n.f.
38 Gunn, Studies, 16467; Satzinger, Negativen Konstruktionen, 33.
35

44

CHAPTER THREE

This may also be part of the cited prodding of the Soul, but it
makes better sense as an utterance of the Man himself. Since the Soul
in this text represents one side of an internal debate, the secrets of
the Mans belly (seat of thought: Wb. III, 357, 3) are his inner
thoughts of a premature death, detailed in the preceding lines, as expressed by the Soul, who is in the Mans belly (col. 9). The verb sf
here has the basic sense of prevention (Wb. III, 336, 57).
3031
dt.n n.j b.j
what my soul said to me:
This has generally been seen as a transitional such as those in cols.
34, 5556, 8586, and 14348, marking the end of the Mans
speech and the beginning of a short speech of the Soul (cols. 3133).
In that case, either 33 d.j serves alone as the transition to the Mans
reply, if it begins in col. 33, or a transitional statement has been omitted, if the reply begins in col. 39 (clearly spoken by the Man). Both
of these alternatives are problematic (see below).
Goedicke (1970, 10910) suggested that the statement is parenthetic, introducing a citation of the Souls words as part of the Mans
second speech, which does not end until the clear transition of cols.
5556 (followed by Mathieu 2000, 23/25). Apart from the content of
cols. 3339 (discussed below), this has some support in the consistency
of the transitional statements within the body of the textjw wp.n.j
r.j n b.j wb.j dt.n.f And I opened my mouth to my soul, that I
might answer what he had said (34 and 8586) and jw wp.n n.j b.j
r.f wb.f dt.n.j And my soul opened his mouth to me, that he might
answer what I had said (5556), all of which introduce long discoursesin contrast to the shorter dt.n n.j b What the soul said to
me (cols. 14748), which introduces the Souls short final speech,39

And perhaps mirrors [dt.n.j n b.j] What I said to my soul (cols. *1213),
introducing the Mans short first speech (ending between cols. *1215: see above).
Goedickes notion that the longer transitions introduce a statement made before the
court (1970, 109) is merely speculative.
39

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

45

Mathieu has understood the phrase here as topical (2000, 23 (Quant


) ce que mon ba ma dit), but it makes somewhat better sense as appositive to, and explicative of, 30 tw t.j my bellys secrets.
(31)
nj ntk js z
You are not a man,
The opening line of the Souls cited speech has usually been understood as a rhetorical question, but also as a negative statement.40 If
it is a question, it can only be so virtuallyYou are not a man?
which does not have the same meaning as the common translation
Are you not a man?41 In the present context, however, either kind
of question makes less sense than a negative statement. As part of his
argument for death, the Soul points out that the Man himself is in
dire straits. The implication is probably less one of social inferiority
(first suggested by Sethe 1927, 62) than You are barely human, as
indicated by what follows.
3132
jw.k tr n.t
even though you are alive.
This clause has also been understood as an interrogative, largely
due to the presence of the particle tr, which is most often found in

The latter by Erman 1896, 30; Suys 1932, 61; Lurie 1939, 143; Barta 1969, 21;
Foster 1992, 12; Assmann 1998, 391; Lohmann 1998, 216; Haller 2004, 15; Quirke
2004, 131. Von der Wenses Sei doch ein Mann (1949, 68) does not reflect the
Egyptian, and Goedickes Arent you (now), O man? (1970, 10910) is senseless.
41 Cf. Peas. B1 12627 nj jw js pw jwsw gs.w A tilted balance-arm is not a
wrong?: Parkinson, Peasant, 23, 4. Although
is well-attested as a spelling of
interrogative jn, the latter is spelled
in col. 20, and nominal-predicate sentences
with jn are not subordinated by js: Silverman, Interrogative Constructions, 6264. Sin. B
230 nj jnk js q s I am not one who is arrogant can only be a statement in the
context, even though AOS interprets the negative arms as interrogative jn jw (as also
in B 114 and B 267): Koch, Sinuhe, 68, 12; 47, 5/7; 76, 9/10. The B manuscript of
Sinuhe uses
as the interrogative (B 35, 115, 120, 123, 126, 133, 162).
40

46

CHAPTER THREE

questions (Gardiner, EG, 256). If so, it can only be rhetorical: e.g.,


Fosters Are you even alive? (1992, 12; followed by Quirke 2004,
131, and Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 3536).42 The probable declarative sense of the preceding sentence, however, makes a question less
likely than a statement.43 The presence of tr serves to distinguish this
clause from a more straightforward jw.k n.t(j) you being alive.
The sentence as a whole is antithetical to normal Egyptian values, as
expressed by Heqanakht: nfr gs n n r mt m zp w Half of life is better
than death in full.44
(32)
ptr km.k
What is your gain,
3233
my.k r n mj nb-w
if you will care about life like an owner of riches
The expression mj r also appears in col. 78, where it aptly illustrates the primary meaning care about (Wb. II, 120, 13). The form
supports the subjunctive (or prospective) sm.f rather than the imperfective used circumstantially (caring about).
3334
d nj m.j jw nf r t
who says, I have not gone, when all those are down?
The initial verb form has usually been rendered as simple past I
said in most translations, introducing a change of voice from the
Soul to the Man. Such a use of the bare initial (perfective) sm.f,

El-Hamrawi, LingAeg 15 (2007), 19, interprets the value of tr in this passage as


interrogative, with a connotation of reproach: Bist du denn kein Mann?
43 As understood by Faulkner (1956, 27), Barta (1969, 21), Goedicke (1970, 111),
Tobin (1991, 347; 2003, 180), Parkinson (1997, 156), Bresciani (1999, 200), and Haller
(2004, 15). Maspero (1907, 127) saw it as the verb twr reject (Wb. V, 252 = NK try,
Wb. V, 318, 12; followed by Lohmann 1998, 216), but this is grammatically impossible.
44 II 26: Allen, Heqanakht, 17, 4142, pls. 3031.
42

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

47

however, is highly unlikely before Late Egyptian. Subjunctive I will


say, let me say is possible, as understood by Mathieu (2000, 25), but
as such it would have to be part either of the Souls cited speech or of
the resumption of the Mans speech. The first alternative does not suit
the Souls evident desire to go (col. 7) and the second is inconsistent with the text of cols. 3439 (see below). In that light, the form is
better understood as a participle modifying the preceding nb-w
owner of riches (as suggested by Letellier 1991, 102 and 103 n. 4;
followed by Foster 1992, 13; Tobin 2003, 180). The scribe occasionally uses the seated man as determinative of participles (see the
discussion of cols. 67, above). Though often translated as future, nj
m.j can only be past in this text, which observes the standard Middle
Kingdom distinction between nj and nn.45
The pronoun nf refers to the West in col. 37 and has occasionally
been understood with the same sense here (Scharff 1937, 21; van de
Walle 1939, 313; von der Wense 1949, 68). As Faulkner saw, however (1956, 33 n. 32), the referent here is more likely the preceding
w riches of col. 33. The use of r t to earth to express an undesirable state is paralleled in Heqanakht I vo. 2 nj r nfr w r wnm jtj
m nfr jw.j r t Dont you have it good, eating fresh full barley while
I am down?46 The sense of the line is that the Man is clinging to life
despite his wretched state, like a rich man unreasonably attached to
his possessions, even when deprived of them.
3435
nmn tw r tfyt nn nwt.k
In fact, you are being uprooted, without considering yourself,

Goedicke translates I would say to someone (ready) to go (1970, 11112),


followed by Tobin (1991, 347). Goedicke saw
rather than
before m, noting
that the central hump that distinguishes the latter from the former is illusory here,
caused by the lower flourish of the preceding seated-man sign touching the horizontal of
(1970, 195 n. 96). The two signs do touch, but there is a clear hump
visible nonetheless (confirmed by first-hand observation; cf. Letellier 1991, 101).
46 See Allen Heqanakht, 30.
45

48

CHAPTER THREE

As Faulkner first realized (1956, 33 n. 33), the signs preceding r


represent the proclitic particle nmn in fact followed by the 2ms
dependent pronoun tw, rather than a form of the verb nm.47 The
second determinative of tfyt is
rather than Ermans
(1896, 32),
followed in all transcriptions. What Erman saw as plural strokes is the
normal bottom of the
sign; the arm attaches close to the top, as in
col. 36. The basic meaning of the verb is transitive uproot; the use
here is probably passive, describing the Mans misfortune and implying that, like a tree (Wb. V, 298, 1), he is being separated from life
even if he does not realize it.48
The form in nn nwt.k has usually been understood as the infinitive,
but also as subjunctive nw.t(w).k you will not be cared for (Faulkner
1957, 27; Lalouette 1984, 222; Renaud 1991, 24; Parkinson 1997,
156; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 37).49 Either interpretation is defensible, but the contrast with the preceding statement attributed to
the rich man suggests a circumstantial clause, like jw nf r t.
3536
nrj nb r d jw.j r jt.k
while everyone deprived is saying, I shall rob you,
The exact sense of this statement is unclear, in part because the
meaning of nrj is uncertain. The noun normally denotes a prisoner
(Wb. III, 296, 8). The speaking man determinative also appears in
Peas. B1 153 and 154, where the noun has been understood as evildoer, robber (Wb. III, 296, 11). The context of those two passages,
however, supports Parkinsons interpretation of a reference to some
Followed in most subsequent translations, with the exception of Wilson (1969,
405), Goedicke (1970, 112), Foster (1992, 13), and Lohmann (1998, 216). Letelliers
understanding of tw as the impersonal pronoun (1991, 103; followed by Mathieu
2000, 25) is less likely in the context.
48 Intransitive use (tearing off) is not attested until Late Egyptian: Wb. 5, 298,
1011 (the latter a NK text); Janssen, in Pyramid Studies, 135 n. a.
49 Also as a relative form: Letellier 1991, 104 Il nest rien que tu puisses
protger; followed by Mathieu 2000, 25.
47

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

49

one who is deprived (1997, 64): in B1 153 it is contrasted with nb-t


possessor of bread, and in B1 154 it is parallel to jwt(j) wt.f one
who has no things. The notion of deprivation also suits the content
of the nrjs speech here, which is probably to be understood with the
sense of 11213 z nb r jtt snnw.f every man robbing the other (see
below), as Letellier has seen (1991, 103).
3637
jw grt.k mt rn.k n
and you dead as well, while your name is alive.
Faulkner cites Urk. V, 148, 3 (BD 99) n mj tr.k jj who are you
who has come? as a parallel for the order jw grt.k mt (1956, 3334 n.
34). This statement recapitulates and clarifies the Souls description of
the Man as being uprooted.
(37)
st nf nt nt
Yonder is a place of alighting,
Following Scharff (1937, 21 and 23 n. 2), the pronoun has been
understood to designate the West, with the exception of Letellier
(1991, 102 and 104 n. 12), who saw it as ltat du dfunt, requiring
a rendition of st nt nt not as place but as une situation de repos. The verb nj, however, means primarily land and only
secondarily remain in a place (Wb. III, 287). The primary meaning
is almost certainly intended here, reflecting the souls avian nature.
37-38
fdt nt jb
storage-chest of the heart.
The reading of the final word in col. 37 has been a matter of some
discussion. Scharffs fd (1937, 24 n. 9) has generally been accepted,
though Goedicke read the first sign as
rather than
(1970,
11415) and Letellier, following Goedicke, suggested n fdq jb pour le
dsesper (1991, 100102 and 104105; similarly, Mathieu 2000, 25).

50

CHAPTER THREE

The sign at the top of col. 38 must represent


, even though the
does not have the downward turn found in all other examples of the
ligature; it cannot represent the that Letellier saw as determinative
of fdq, which is smaller and has a pronounced downward slant of the
bottom element in all other examples. The left end of the initial sign
of the word at the end of col. 37 is damaged, but the horizontal has a
slight dip, more like
than
; although normally
has a distinct upward projection on the left, absent here, this is sometimes
minimal (e.g., col. 129), which could also have been the case here.
The ink marks below the
are
. This does not have the
downward turn at the right characteristic of other examples of the
bookroll, nor does it look like other examples of . Instead, it appears to be a rectangle with a projection on the right, similar to the
one example of Q5 in Mllers Palographie I (188). With the preceding
consonantal signs it suggests fdt storage-chest, as seen by Quirke
(2004, 131 treasure-chest). The upper stroke in Mllers example
represents the top of the chest but here it may be for (although the
feminine t is also omitted in 81 jm.f ). The imagery seems unique but
is perhaps reflected in CT IV 54de pr.n.j m fdt r sktt jn.n.j jb.j m t
n.n.j m nt I have emerged from the chest to the Night-Bark,
bringing my heart from the Akhet; I have landed in the Day-Bark.
(38)
dmj pw jmnt
The West is a harbor,
3839
n.t spdw r jr
which the perceptive should be rowed to.
The first half of this passage presents little difficulty. The noun
dmj has been understood to refer both to a settlement and to a harbor.
The latter is probably meant here, both because of the nautical metaphor that follows and because it is the regular sense of the term in the
Middle Kingdom.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

51

The verb nj clearly has the determinative of a boat, and col. 38


clearly ends in a final . The sign or signs between these, and the
traces at the top of col. 39 before r, have usually been left untranslated. Erman (1896, 32) read the signs below the boat as
but
noted that these were probably not part of qs[n] difficult, since the
is not grouped with as in cols. 10, 15, and 20. Despite this, a few
scholars have understood that word following
(Suys 1932, 61;
Foster 1992, 13; Assmann 1998, 391; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007,
39; and perhaps also Parkinson 1997, 156). Goedicke (1970, 115) saw
in place of Ermans
and restored nt nj s[w.s n] r the
voyageit does not go beyond. Letellier suggested
instead,
reading r.s (1991, 100; 101102 n. g; and 102 naviguer jusqu lui (?)
est [ ]; evidently followed by Mathieu 2000, 25).
The ink marks between the boat and the final s consist of a central blob (which Goedick saw as the hump of
) and a
horizontal. Letellier perceptively noted that the boat sign in this hand
normally consists of two parts, the boat itself and a horizontal below it
representing the water on which the boat sails (cols. 71, 72, 137); the
horizontal is omitted in col. 70, and in col. 26 it is replaced by a smaller
sign more like . The sign in col. 38 has been seen as analogous to
that of col. 70 but it is probably more like that of col. 26, with the
blob below equivalent to the -like mark of the latter. The horizontal has a pronounced, though faint, upward projection on the left
and undoubtedly represents
(in place of
, as always in this
papyrus), which is sometimes used as a second determinative of nj
(Wb. III, 374).
This leaves the final s of col. 38 as either a suffix of
or
the first sign of a word continued at the top of col. 39. Together with
the following r, the traces in col. 39 are best suited to the plural of
the common expression spd-r perceptive (Wb. IV, 109, 1415).
Two interpretations of the resulting phrase are possible. If the verb
form is feminine, it must be a relative modifying jmnt with spdw r as
its subject: The West, which the perceptive should row, is a harbor

52

CHAPTER THREE

(for the transitive use of nj, see Wb. III, 374, 2526). The notion of
the West as a navigable body of water, however, is at odds with both
the determinative of jmnt here and the normal Egyptian concept of
the West. More likely, therefore, the verb form is masculine, modifying dmj; the therefore represents the passive suffix tw (placed before
the determinatives as in 115 s.t).
The resulting which the perceptive should be rowed is incomplete, indicating that the word following r must represent the adverb
jr(j) toward (Wb. III, 374, 11; Gardiner, EG, 113, 2) rather than
the initial jr if that has been universally understood to introduce the
next sentence. In the context of cols. 3138, the sense of the passage
is the Souls attempt to convince the Man that anyone perceptive
enough to understand the reality of his dire situation should consider
death as preferable to life. The text that follows shows that the citation attributed to the Soul in cols. 3139 ends here.
(39)
sm n.j b.j
My soul should listen to me instead:
This clause has been universally understood with the preceding jr
as the protasis of a conditional sentenceIf my soul listens to
me50but the interpretation argued above indicates an independent
sm.f. The form is perhaps subjunctive, with jussive sense, but more
likely emphatic, stressing the dative n.j, as an explicit contrast to the
preceding text (3031 dt.n n.j b.j what my soul said to me).
3940
n[n n].j [b]t
I have no transgression.
Sethe (1927, 63) restored the initial word in col. 40 as [b]t, suggesting ohne da ich ein Unrecht (bt ?) begehen mu. The

Lohmann 1998, 217, interpreted it as jr sm.n.j if I had heard. Suys rejected


the reading of the verb as sm (1932, 61 n. 8) but offered no alternative.
50

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

53

translation indicates that Sethe also understood n[n jrt].j in col. 3940,
but that restoration probably requires more space than is available in
the lacuna at the bottom of col. 39 and has not been adopted in subsequent studies. Scharff followed Sethe in reading [b]t in col. 40, as
have all scholars since, and restored jw[tj] in cols. 3940, giving jw[tj
b]t den Schuldlosen (?) (1937, 21 and 25 n. 12), a common expression (Wb. I, 484, 6) that has also been generally adopted.
Goedicke pointed out that the seated-man determinative should follow the entire phrase rather than its first element (1970, 116), but his
suggested b.j [s]n [b]t my ba, that neglectful companion (followed
by Foster 1992, 13 my foolish brother, and Tobin 2003, 181 my
stubborn brother) is incompatible with the clear
following b.j
and stretches the sense of bt, which denotes a legal, moral, or religious transgression (Wb. I, 48384) rather than neglect. In the
context, the seated man at the top of col. 40 most likely represents a 1s
suffix pronoun and suggests either the restoration above or perhaps nj
[jr].j [b]t I have committed no crime (Wb. I, 484, 8), based on
Sethe. The sense probably reflects the notion of the later bt n mt
big crime worthy of death (Wb. I, 484, 11) and is an explicit contrast with the Souls desire for judgment (cols. 2327).
4041
tt jb.f n.j jw.f r mr
Should his heart be in accord with me, he will be fortunate,
Faulkner (1956, 23 n. 40b) corrected the previous reading of the
first word as
, although the ligature he saw between the second
and the bookroll below the group does not exist. The interpretation
argued above for the preceding clause identifies the initial clause here
as part of an independent sentence rather than the second condition
or circumstantial clause found in previous translations.51 It is most
likely an emphatic construction expressing an initial condition.

It also excludes the result clause of Goedicke (1970, 115), the apodosis of Foster (1992, 13), and the relative clause of Lohmann (1998, 217).
51

54

CHAPTER THREE

4142
rdj.j p.f jmnt mj ntj m mr.f
for I will make him reach the West like one in his pyramid,
The initial rdj.j is an instance of the prospective sm.f, as in ShS.
7072 jr wdfj.k m d n.j jn tw r jw pn rdj.j r.k tw jw.k m zz If you delay
telling me who brought you to this island, I will make you find yourself in ashes.52 The alternation between rdj.j I will make and the
preceding jw.f r mr he will succeed illustrates Vernuss distinction
between subjective and objective expressions of the future, respectively,
the prospective suggesting an action over which the speaker has control
(here rdj.j) while the pseudo-verbal construction denotes one that is
necessary or external to the speaker, as in the preceding jw.f r mr.53
4243
.n rj-t r qrs.f
to whose burial a survivor has attended.
The verb form is almost certainly the relative sm.n.f: the circumstantial of Barta (1969, 22), Goedicke (1970, 117), Assmann
(1998, 391, and 2001, 385), and Haller (2004, 15), and the present
tense of Renaud (1970, 24) and Quirke (2004, 181), would require
different verb forms, and the participle of Tobins Which stands
above his grave in the sight of his descendants (2003, 181, following
Foster 1992, 13) is ungrammatical. The determinative of qrs reflects
the wood coffins of Middle Kingdom burials.
4344
jw.j r jrt njj r t.k
I shall make an awning over your remains,
The pseudo-verbal construction with first-person subject here, in
contrast to the sm.f of col. 41, most likely expresses inevitability.

Blackman, Middle Egyptian Stories, 43, 1112. For the form, see Allen, Middle
Egyptian, 21.2.1. Chioffi and Rigamontis r .j grazie a me (2007, 40) is improbable.
53 Vernus, Future at Issue, 2427. See also Chapter 4, Section C.
52

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

55

Scharff (1937, 2526 n. 17) conjectured the meaning of njj,


which occurs only here and in col. 45, as Schatten or Khlung
from the context and the determinative, which is certainly the sunshade or fan (Mller, Palographie I, 406), as well as from the term in
col. 48, which Scharff read as wjt shade (see below). Without explanation, von der Wense (1949, 68) rendered it as ein Dach aus
Palmen, adopted as shelter, abri in most subsequent studies.
Herrmann (1957, 74) translated Atemluft(?), probably relating the
word to the later nw/njw breeze, breath of air (Wb. II, 200, 5) as
Barta has done (1969, 33 n. 40; followed by Lohmann 1998, 217).
The translation cooling, Khlung was adopted by Assmann (1998,
391) and Burkard (2008, 156); Parkinson has combined Scharffs two
suggestions as cool shelter (1997, 156). Other translations, purely
speculative, are Fosters sacred fan (1992, 13), Brescianis offerte
and una tomba (1999, 200), and Mathieus receptacle (2000, 25).
Absent further evidence, the meaning must remain conjectural.
Both jrt make and cols. 4546 j tm.f sw and it wont get cold
(see below), suggest a structure rather than a less substantial term such
as shade. The noun may be an n-preformative from the root jj, a
term for hair in Pyr. 1221e and 1223d, perhaps related to the noun
j, denoting a kind of plant (Wb., I, 27, 9), also found in jt (a scepter: Wb. I, 27, 10).54
The word at the bottom of col. 43, which must be a preposition, is
damaged, but the preserved traces suit r, as seen by Scharff (1937, 26
n. 18). Goedickes reading jrj n (1970, 117) does not suit the left-hand
trace and is based on an erroneous reading of col. 45 j (see below).
His translation of the final noun, t.k, as your remains aptly reflects the plural strokes (and the body parts used as determinative in
Pyr. 548b T t = P jf qsw), but the noun is singular (cf. CT VI, 74g),
perhaps a collective, rather than plural as he suggests (1970, 11718).

The last often with the determinative of a plant in the Coffin Texts. Note also
Pyr. 264a jw(j) two combatants, with similar determinative: see Sethe, bersetzung und Kommentar I, 264. For n-preformatives, see Osing, Nominalbildung, 211.
54

56

CHAPTER THREE

4445
sdm.k ky b m nnw
and you will make jealous another soul in inertness.
The verb sdm appears only in this text (the same form in cols. 46
and 49). As Scharff saw (1937, 26 n. 20), it describes the Souls action
with respect to another one less well provided for, and could therefore
conform to either of the Wrterbuchs suggested translations despise or
pity (Wb. IV, 396, 9); the former was adopted in most early studies,55
as well as by Wilson (1969, 405). Faulkner (1956, 27 and 34 n. 40)
analyzed it as a causative of db/dm sting (Wb. V, 632, 89, and
634, 19635, 1) with the meaning make envious, which has largely
been adopted since.56 Although the verb here has the determinative of
the speaking man rather than the knife or fire of db/dm sting, this
seems the most reasonable interpretation, with the intransitive meaning of the root (Wb. V, 635, 1). The determinative here probably
reflects the mental rather than physical nature of the sting.
The final nnw has been understood as both a participle (first by
Erman 1896, 36 als Mde) and an abstract (first by Weill 1947, 120
en faiblesse); the lack of a seated-man determinative argues for the
latter, adopted in most studies since Weills. In cols. 6364, where the
same root is used as a participle with seated man and plural strokes,
the term refers to the drowned, who have no proper burial.57 The parallels ky b nt(j) t.w (4647) and ky b ntj qr (49) indicate that m nnw
here modifies ky b.58

Jacobsohn opted for pity (1952, 20; followed by Lohmann 1988, 217).
Fosters attract (1992, 13) apparently derives from the verb in Sin. B 130
db.n.s wyt.s (Koch, Sinuhe, 49, 12), which has been translated It had assembled its
tribes (e.g., Lichtheim 1973, 228; Wb. V, 632, 13). The use of db meaning assemble is unattested until the Ptolemaic Period, however, and Gardiner proposed
incite, an extended meaning of db sting (Notes on the Story of Sinuhe, 50).
57 See G. Meyer, SAK 17 (1990), 27273.
58 Bartas nisbe (j)m(j) nnw (1969, 33 n. 42) is unnecessary. A parallel for the attributive use of a prepositional phrase occurs in Sin. B 23334 mw m jtrw swrj.t.f mr.k
water in the river, it is drunk when you like: Koch, Sinuhe, 68, 7.
55
56

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

57

4546
jw.j r jrt njj j tm.f sw
I shall make an awning and it wont get cold,
4647
sdm.k ky b nt t.w
and you will make jealous another soul who is hot.
Pace Goedicke (1970, 119; not reflected in his transcription of the
column), j is clear at the bottom of col. 45. Its subordinate use denotes
future sequentiality, which suits the present context.59
Scharff (1937, 26 n. 22) emended tm.f to tm.k. a suggestion adopted by van de Walle (1939, 313), Weill (1947, 120), von der Wense
(1949, 69), Faulkner (1956, 34 n. 42), Renaud (1991, 24), Parkinson
(1997, 156), and Mathieu (2000, 25). The emendation, however, is
unnecessary: as Barta saw (1969, 33 n. 43), the masculine pronoun
refers to njj. The
is overwritten by the top of the s-vase in the
group below but does not seem to have been canceled; the scribe
dipped his brush after writing it and before writing the s group.
Quack (1995, 185) has proposed understanding sw as get hot,
based on the preceding line and Westendorfs suggestion that the verb
may express both extremes of temperature.60 The determinative,
however, indicates coolness, and there is no clear evidence for the
opposite meaning until the Roman Period.61 The soul who is hot
seems a non sequitur with the notion of a warm shelter, but the similar
opposition between swrj.j mw and b ntj qr in the next sentence indicates that the contrast is intentional.
4748
swrj.j mw r bbt
I will drink water at the flood

Vernus, Future at Issue, 10611.


Westendorf, GM 29 (1978), 15354.
61 M.-T. Derchain-Urtel, Zum besseren Verstndnis eines Textes aus Esna,
GM 30 (1978), 2734.
59
60

58

CHAPTER THREE

The term bbt has been understood


as a watering place, with the exception
of Erman (1896, 36 aus dem Strom),
Lurie (1939, 143 from the
stream), von der Wense (1949, 69 aus
dem Strome), Mathieu (2000, 25 du
courant), and Chioffi and Rigamonti
(2007, 44 lacqua corrente), following
Wb. I, 419 Stelle des Flusses, aus der
(r) man trinkt. Ward, however, has
demonstrated that it refers to the waters
of the inundation, and Pamminger has
collected evidence for the act of drinking these waters as a means of daily
rejuvenation of the dead.62

Fig. 3.
The Deceased Drinking
from the Inundation

(48)
zy.j wjw
and shall lift away dryness,
49

s<d>m.k ky b ntj qr
and you will make jealous another soul who is hungry.
Erman (1896, 36) transcribed the final word in col. 48 as
and noted a verwischtes
o. . below the circle. Scharff (1937, 27
n. 27) tentatively read
, adopted by Faulkner (1956, 23 n. 48a).
Goedicke (1970, 120) proposed
. Of these, Ermans transcription is the most accurate. The sun determinative is clear; it has the shape
used elsewhere in the papyrus in the group
but also centrally in
col. 88 and cannot be Goedickes
; the plural strokes are also visible
upon close inspection. Scharff and Goedicke misread the right half of the

Ward, Four Egyptian Homographic Roots, 101103; Pamminger, GM 122 (1991),


7175.
62

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

59

sun sign as a second reed-leaf; the separation of


in two groups is
improbable. The word is probably not w sunlight nor wt shade,
which has a final t and uses the sunshade as sole determinative until
the New Kingdom (Wb. IV, 432). Instead, it is most likely a noun
from the root w dry (Wb. IV, 429); this adjective-verb is often
written with plural strokes as well as the sun sign, but the strokes here
may represent the common ending w of verbal nouns.63
This reading of the noun wjw is ill-suited to normal meaning of
the verb zj raise up (Wb. V, 405407). In this context, however,
the sense is lift away: analogous usages occur in CT V, 379a, and
VII, 110h, parallel to dj take away, and CT IV, 23839b, 24243c.
The notion of lifting away dryness is more coherent with the preceding clause than the generally accepted raise a shade.64
4950
jr hjm.k wj r mt m p qj
If you prod me to death in that manner,
5051
nn gm.k nt.k r.s m jmnt
you will not find a place to land on in the West.
For hjm prod, see the note to cols. 1819, above. The adjunct m
p qj can be read with either mwt (death in this manner) or hjm.k (if
you prod in this manner).65 Of studies with unambiguous translations or explicit commentary, most have adopted the former (first Sethe

The same word probably appears in pUCL 32157 2, 18 (hymn in praise of


Senwosret III): Collier and Quirke, UCL Lahun Papyri II, pl. 2. Collier and Quirke
transcribe
, but a better reading is
. The frequent writing of the verb as
ww, and the Coptic reflexes S ooue / L auie, suggest a root wj (infinitive wjt).
64 Lichtheims relative over which I made shade (1973, 165; followed by Lalouette 1984, 222, and Assmann 1998, 391) would require a resumptive. Derchains
suggestion in RdE 29 (1977), 63 n. 33, that the verb is an error for s sit would require emendation of two determinatives and a missing preposition.
65 Goedickes statement that qj denotes physical form (1970, 121) is contradicted
by uses such as Heqanakht II 43 ptr qy n wnn.j n.n m t wt What is the manner of
my being with you in one community?: Allen, Heqanakht, 47.
63

60

CHAPTER THREE

1927, 63). The latter, however, is preferable, as understood by Erman


(1896, 38), Jacobsohn (1952, 20), Thausing (1957, 264), and Foster
(1992, 13). Although the prior use of the verb in 1819 jhm wj r mt nj
jjt.j n.f who prods me toward death before I have come to it supports
the former, the apodosis in cols. 5051 is an explicit threat to counter
the Souls prodding: i.e., if you keep pushing me toward death as you
have been, I wont have time to make all the preparations for the afterlife I just described (in cols. 4149). This, in turn, provides the
background for the Mans closing statement in cols. 5155.
5152
w jb.k b.j sn.j
Set your heart, my soul, my brother,
The final three signs of col. 51 are indicated in transcriptions as
lost, but traces of all three are preserved. The semi-detached fragment
with the right side of these signs is currently mounted too close to the
rest of the papyrus on the left, distorting the shape of the final bookroll.
The idiom w jb has usually been understood in this passage as
patient, but also as friendly or well-disposed, the meaning given
in the Wrterbuch (Wb. I, 256, 1518) (Jacobsohn 1952, 20; Faulkner
1956, 27; Thausing 1957, 264; Williams 1962, 54; Goedicke 1970,
12122; Lalouette 1984, 222; Lohmann 1998, 218; Bresciani 1999,
201). Its basic sense, however, is attentiveness or determination, similar to that of the English idiom set ones mind toward something.66
The Man is apparently urging his Soul to stand up to the difficulties
he faces instead of avoiding them by dying.
5253
r prt jww drpt.fj
until the heir has grown up who will present offerings,

Lichtheim, Moral Values, 7882. The sense is particularly clear in Ptahhotep


62425 w jb.k tr n mdwy.k d.k wt tnw Set your mind at the time of your speaking, that you may say things of distinction: ba, Ptaotep, 64. The same sense is
reflected in the translations of cols. 5152 by Foster (1992, 13) and Haller (2004, 15).
66

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

61

5354
t.fj r t hrw qrs
who will attend to the tomb on burial-day
The verb-form prt is undoubtedly the smt.f; there is no need to
emend r pr m so as to become, as Faulkner suggested (1956, 34 n.
46; similarly, Erman 1896, 39; Lurie 1939, 143; Lalouette 1984, 222;
Lohmann 1998, 218; Bresciani 1999, 201). The signs are clear and the
following clauses undoubtedly describe a human survivor. The verb
here certainly has the sense of maturing (Wb. III, 262, 1) rather than
merely coming into being (as seen by Suys 1932, 64; Brunner-Traut
1967, 10; Barta 1969, 23): the Man is urging his Soul to wait for death
at least until he has an adult heir to see to his proper burial. The single
seated man at the end of col. 52 is probably the determinative of jww
rather than the 1s suffix pronoun. The noun could therefore mean an
heir, as understood by de Buck (1947, 23), Goedicke (1970, 12122),
Foster (1992, 13), Parkinson (1997, 156), Lohmann (1998, 218), Tobin
(2003, 181), Quirke (2004, 131), and Chioffi and Rigamonti (2007,
45). The participles drpt(j).fj and t(j).fj in col. 53, however, point to a
defined antecedent: thus, either jww.(j) my heir or the heir who
will , as understood by Thausing (1967, 264). Although the 1s suffix could well have been omitted at the end of the column, Thausings
reading has the benefit of understanding the word as written.
The
before the suffix in Faulkners transcription of drpt.fj (1956,
23) is more likely the horns of the
, as indicated by Ermans
transcription (1896, 38). The determinatives of qrs burial in col. 54
indicate that the author (or scribe) understood the word here as the
act of interring the mummy, as opposed to the wood determinative
of the same word in col. 43, which reflects the coffin (see above).
5455
sy.f nkyt n rj-nr
and will transport a bed for the necropolis.
The sign read as
by Erman (1896, 38), and universally accepted
as such since, does not have the leftward hook at the top found in

62

CHAPTER THREE

all other examples of


in the papyrus: from its form and the following
, it is undoubtedly
instead. The verb is clearly caus. 2-lit.
sj transport (in this case, across the river) (Wb. IV, 39798), normally written with walking legs or a boat as determinative but
occasionally also with the bookroll.67
The word at the top of col. 55 is n rather than nt and therefore
the preposition rather than the genitival adjective. For the deceaseds
bed, cf. CT VI, 218km, 358f/p, 359k, 360f, 362f. The reference is
probably to the bier rather than an item of funerary furniture.
5. the souls rebuttal (cols. 5568)

(55)
jw wp.n n.j b.j r.f
And my soul opened his mouth to me
5556
wb.f dt.n.j
that he might answer what I had said:
5657
jr s.k qrs nt jb pw
As for your bringing to mind burial, it is heartache;
The jr of col. 56 is topical rather than conditional, since the clauses following are not apodoses of bringing to mind but elaborations
on the notion of qrs burial. The determinative of qrs in this case is
the sarcophagus: as opposed to col. 43, where a survivor attends at
the wood (coffin) and col. 54, where the act of interment seems intended, it suggests that the author (or scribe) had in mind the ultimate
finality of burial. The reading of the determinative of qrs and the
of nt jb were first suggested by Gardiner, and the translation of the

CT I, 109b; II,41e; III 240b, 254a; V, 48e, 363e, 364c, 377d, 381d/l; VI,
152e, 331j; VII, 396c. The bookroll may be influenced by s/sw make sound
(cf. CT III, 240b), but the ending y rules out that verb in col. 54.
67

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

63

phrase as heartache, first by Junker (1948, 220).68 The meaning


seems clear, both from the context and from the use of the term in
the medical papyri with reference to disorders of the stomach and
eyes (Wb. med. I, 47172).
5758
jnt rmyt pw m sjnd z
it is bringing tears by saddening a man;
5859
dt z pw m pr.f r q
it is taking a man from his house so that he is left on the hill:
Since it has no object, is more probably the stative than an infinitive. It clearly expresses an action subsequent to taking a man from
his house and is therefore best understood as the stative of result,69 as
first seen by Jacobsohn (1952, 23 n. 2).
5960
nn pr.n.k r rw m.k rw
you wont be able to go up and see Suns.
The construction nn sm.n.f is a future counterpart of nj sm.n.f as
an expression of inability (Gunn, Studies, 12730). The plural strokes
after r are clear; the plural reflects the notion of the spirits daily emergence from the tomb at sunrise, as first noted by Ranke (1926, 26 n. b).
6061
qdw m jnr n mt
Those who build in stone of granite,
(61)
ws qn
the construction finished,

Gardiner, Admonitions, 82. See also A.B. Lloyd, JEA 61 (1975), 63.
Lefebvre, GEC, 350. Lloyd has so that he is laid up on the hill: JEA 61
(1975), 63.
68
69

64

CHAPTER THREE

As Goedicke has seen (1970, 126), the signs following ws undoubtedly represent the three hieroglyphs with which the verb qn
finish is usually written (Wb. V, 49), rather than the
of
70
previous transcriptions. The lack of plural strokes argues against either ws or qn being a participle like the preceding qdw, as ws has
been understood since Erman (1896, 43) and as Goedicke understood
qn. In the context, ws probably represents the noun wzw (Wb. III,
249, 8), which occurs in a Hatnub graffito also as object of qd,71 with
qn the 3ms stative. The point of the circumstantial clause, that the
building in stone of granite was actually completed, strengthens the
irony of the main clause in col. 63.
6162
mrw nfrw m kwt nfrt
fine pyramids as fine works
The noun following qn has usually been transcribed as singular but
translated as plural.72 What has been understood as the pyramids base,
however, consists of two strokes, an upper horizontal and a lower shaped element whose left end overlaps that of the horizontal. The
form without the lower element is attested as a hieratic version of the
pyramid (Mller, Palographie I, 371) and is identical to the sign used
as determinative of w (heaps of) riches in col. 33. The lower
element should therefore probably be read as plural strokes.
With Goedickes reading of qn, mrw must be either a second object of qdw or, more likely, appositive to the preceding ws qn. The
following nfrw is probably an adjective modifying mrw (as understood
by van de Walle 1939, 313; Faulkner 1956, 27; Barta 1969, 23; Licht
Goedickes reading was accepted by Mueller (1973, 354), Tobin (1991, 348,
and 2003, 182), and Foster (1992, 14).
71 Anthes, Hatnub, pl. 13, Gr. 9, 8: jw qd.n.j wzw jm I built a construction there.
72 Plural transliteration in Lohmann 1998, 218. Translation as singular in Erman
1896, 43, and 1923, 125; Maspero 1907, 127; Ranke 1926, 26; Suys 1932, 65; Lurie
1939, 143; Weill 1947, 121; Jacobsohn 1952, 23; Lanczkowski 1954, 4; Frantsev
1960, 209; Wilson 1969, 405; Goedicke 1970, 126.
70

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

65

heim 1973, 165; Lalouette 1984, 222; Renaud 1991, 25; Tobin 1991,
348; Parkinson 1997, 157; Assmann 1998, 392, and 2005, 385; Lohmann 1998, 219; Bresciani 1999, 201; Mathieu 2000, 25; Haller
2004, 16; Quirke 2004, 132; and Burkard 2008, 156) rather than an
independent adjective appositive to col. 60 qdw.73
6263
pr sqdw m nrw
once the building commissioners become gods,
This has usually been interpreted as an initial dependent clause
(i.e., with an emphatic verb form) but also as a clause of purpose
(the latter by Sethe 1927, 64; Lanczkowski 1954, 4; Parkinson 1997,
157; Tobin 2003, 182; Haller 2004, 16; Burkard 2008, 156).74 The
former offers better sense in the context. The use of the sm.f rather
than the sm.n.f suggests non-past reference and implies in turn that
col. 60 qdw is aorist rather than past. Although it refers to the same subjects as qdw those who built, the causative participle sqdw clearly
denotes those who caused building: hence, the deceased who
commissioned the funerary structures.
(63)
bw jrj w.w
what are dedicated to them are razed,
The spelling of bw does not suit the universal translation of the
term as a noun referring to an offering stone or stela (Wb. I, 177, 7
9). Instead, it may be a passive participle of the verb b, used both of
directing ships and presenting offerings (Wb. I, 177, 12). The masculine plural reflects the gender of the preceding ws and mrw.

It is possibly a 3pl stative mrw nfr.w the pyramids being fine if col. 61 ws qn
is subject-stative. Elsewhere in the papyrus, however, the 3pl stative is written without plural strokes (63, 74, 103, 117, 119, 120), while masculine plural adjectives and
participles usually have them (3839, 60, 63, 6364, 64, 79, 123).
74 Also as a declarative statement (Maspero 1907, 27; Herrmann 1957, 67; Frantsev
1960, 209; Lalouette 1984, 222; Renaud 1991, 25; Tobin 1991, 347). Fosters translation (1992, 14) bears little relation to the original.
73

66

CHAPTER THREE

As Faulkner noted (1956, 35 n. 53), the verb of the plural stative


w.w razed implies destruction rather than terms such as empty or
desolate, with which it is otherwise translated. It is used elsewhere
of depilation (Wb. I, 368, 6) and defoliation, and as such suits a referent of buildings rather than single stones.75
6364
mj nnw mtw r mryt
like the inert who have died on the riverbank
6465
n gw rj-t
for lack of a survivor,
For nnw the inert, see the discussion of cols. 4345, above. The
phrase is a comparison to the preceding sqdw building commissioners rather than to bw, as Lichtheim has seen (1973, 165 as if they
were the dead).
6566
jt.n nwy p.fj jw m mjtt jrj
the waters having taken his end, or Sunlight similarly
6667
mdw n.sn rmw spt n mw
they to whom the fish and the lip of the water speak.
For pwj used of the end of life, see Wb. I, 536, 14; an analogous
use occurs in col. 130 nn wn pw.fj it has no end. The suffix of p.fj
must refer to rj-t, unless it resumes nnw mtw in the singular.76 The
ideogram for Sunlight probably represents jw (Wb. I, 33, 3) rather
than w (Wb. IV, 430, 7).

For w used of defoliation, see H. Junker, Gza XI: Der Friedhof sdlich der
Cheopspyramide, Ostteil (sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophischhistorische Klasse, Denkschriften 74, 2; Vienna, 1953), 187 Fig. 74a, 191. For the verb
used of destroying structures, see Gardiner and Sethe, Letters to the Dead, pl. 6, 45.
76 Assmanns The water has taken its share (2005, 385) is unsupported.
75

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

67

The suffix of n.sn probably refers to nwy and w rather than to nnw
mtw. The final rmw spt n mw has usually been interpreted as a single
genitival phrase fish of the waters lip,77 but is more likely coordinate, with the rmw speaking to nwy and spt n mw to jw. The image
is apparently that of a body lying in the shallows at the riverbank.
(67)
sm r.k n.j
Listen, then, to me:
(67)
mj.k nfr sm n rmt
look, listening is good for people.
68
ms hrw nfr sm m
Follow a good time, forget care.
Despite its inordinately large size, the final consonant of col. 67 is
rather than
, since the latter is distinguished by a tick (see the
note to col. 82, below). Similarly large
signs appear elsewhere in
this manuscript (e.g., 78 kt, 146 t). The prepositional phrase n rmt
has occasionally been understood as governed by sm (listening to
people: Foster 1992, 14; Parkinson 1997, 157; Mathieu 2000, 27;
Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 51), but this is less likely than the more
common translation in which it is governed by nfr, as above.
6. the souls first parable (cols. 6880)

6869
jw ns sk.f dw.f
A little man plows his plot,

The masculine genitive n may not be an error. Though normally feminine, spt
is occasionally treated as masculine: e.g., CT III, 391e spt n twj (cf. CT IV, 45j spt
twj). This may be the origin of Coptic spotou,which evidently derives from a masculine dual *sptwj.
77

68

CHAPTER THREE

6970
jw.f <t>p.f mw.f r nw dpt
and he loads his harvest inside a boat,
Franke has established the meaning of ns as denoting a man of
means but in need of protection from the powerful.78 The trace below
the seated man determinative of this word at the end of col. 68 does
not seem to be part of an erased sign and cannot belong to a word between ns and sk.f; it may remain from the palimpsest.
The use of the subjectsm.f construction here and in the next
parable presents a problem. Both the context and the continuation of
the narrative with the sm.n.f in cols. 7175 rule out the usual aorist
meaning in Middle Egyptian, which the construction has elsewhere
in this text (see Chapter Four). Since the subject, ns, is undefined, it
might be possible to understand the first sentence as existential There
was a little man who plowed his plot (Weill 1947, 124; Guilmot
196972, 260; Renaud 1991, 25; Foster 1992, 14; Lohmann 1998,
219; Tobin 2003, 182), but the next sentence indicates that the sm.f
is part of the subjectsm.f construction and not a virtual relative. As
this and the following story are parables rather than true narratives,
the construction here probably expresses a non-specific present (as
understood by Erman 1896, 45, and most translations since), although
that use is evidently not attested elsewhere.
The of 69 tp.f is omitted in error. The sign before the suffix is
certainly
(for
) rather than
, which does not curve up to
the left in this hand. It is possible that the word is a conflation of f.f
and tp.f, although the latter is expected in the context.
7071
sts.f sqdwt
and drags a sailing,

GM 167 (1998), 3348. The term is nearly synonymous with the English little
man: e.g., unless we limit the size of the big man so as to give something to the
little man, we can never have a happy or free people (from a speech of Huey Long
in the US Senate, as reported in the Congressional Record of January 14, 1935).
78

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

69

The verb of sts.f is identical with that meaning drag in col. 12


(see above). The phrase sts.f sqdwt clearly refers to a voyage by ship.
Two interpretations of the syntax are possible. If sts is transitive, the
expression drag a sailing (Erman schleppt die Fahrt: 1896, 45) must
be an idiom for making such a voyage: probably not by towing the
boat (first suggested by Suys 1932, 68 tandis quil la hale et la trane),
since 72 rs m dpt later places the man of the parable in the boat (see
below). Alternatively, the verb may be intransitive flow,79 in which
case the verbal noun sqdwt sailing is used adverbially. The verb-form
sts.f is used either circumstantially (imperfect) or as a clause of purpose
(subjunctive). It can be understood as emphatic, but in view of the
past tense of the following m.n.f clause, the sm.n.f would more probably have been employed if an initial circumstance had been intended.
(71)
b.f tkn
his festival near.
The mans festival has been explained in several ways: as la fte
de la mise au grenier (Maspero 1907, 128), as a time of mourning
(Suys 1932, 69 n. 1; Hannig 1991, 2728) or rejoicing (Tobin 1991,
348), as a time of liberty (Scharff 1937, 35 n. 6), and as returning home
(Jacobsohn 1952, 26 n. 1).80 Of these, the notion of personal celebration after the harvest seems likeliest: it both reflects the preceding
exhortation ms hrw nfr follow a good time (col. 68)81 and enhances
the pathos of the tragedy that follows.

Wb. IV, 35354, there characterized as belegt seit D. 18, but possibly in
Peas. B1 270 j stw flowing basin: Parkinson, Peasant, 34, 7. I owe this reference to
Richard Parkinson.
80 Goedickes accounting (1970, 134), followed by Foster (1992, 14) and Tobin (2003, 182 taxation), is entirely speculative. The interpretation b f la festa
del 12o distretto offered by Chioffi and Rigamonti (2007, 52) requires a highly unlikely use of
without determinative as a place name.
81 Cf. the expression zj n b man of festival (Wb. III, 58, 12), which is used in
parallel with zmy n hrw nfr associate of a good time: Janssen, Autobiografie, 144 Ao.
79

70

CHAPTER THREE

7172
m.n.f prt wt nt myt
When he saw the darkening of a northers emergence,
The Souls parable continues from her as a past narrative, with
m.n.f perhaps expressing an initial circumstantial clause. The rest of
the clause has been understood to describe the onset of a storm, but the
next two clauses seem to describe the man watching the sunset (see
below), arguing against that interpretation. As indicated by the following r r q as the Sun was going in, the wt darkening is that of
evening (Wb. I, 6/11), when the wind (prevailing northerly in Egypt)
picks up as the land cools. The final water sign is undoubtedly an
unusual second determinative of myt north-wind,82 though not
necessarily indicative of a rainstorm. The image is probably that of
twilight accompanied by a northerly breeze that darkens the water.
7273
rs m dpt r r q
he watched in the boat as the Sun was going in,
Faulkner (1956, 35 n. 59) has interpreted the initial verb as an ellipsis for rs.n.f, as also 73 pr and 74 q, but these can be understood as
written, as statives expressing the past tense of an intransitive verb.
Goedickes reading of the preposition
as
(1970, 135) is mistaken: the birds back and ears (which he saw as
) are clearly
joined to the base (which he saw as
), and
is never ligatured
by this scribe (cols. 7, 29, 84). The verb rs can mean merely awake
but here more likely has the extended sense watchful (Wb. II, 450,
7; see Hannig 1991, 29). The phrase r r q refers to the sunset (cf.
Pyr. 1469bc) rather than to the suns disappearance behind storm
clouds. There seems to be a subtle word-play between 71 prt and 73
q, and again between 73 pr.(w) and 74 q.(w).

Probably not a separate rectum of nt, which would most likely be expressed as
nt myt n mw. Osings interpretation of mw as subject to rs.(w) is improbable: see
Hannig 1991, 2829.
82

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

71

7374
pr n jmt.f msw.f
disembarked with his wife and his children,
The reading
rather than Goedickes
(1970, 135) is
clear; prj is consistently written with
in this text. Goedickes interpretation of the verb as a second object of rwhile the sun sets
and comes up (again); followed by Hannig (1991, 2931), Tobin
(1991, 348, and 2003, 182), Lohmann (1998, 219), and Mathieu
(2000, 27)is therefore improbable. The verb form is most likely the
stative, as in col. 72 rs.
The verbs sense has been understood as escape (Scharff 1937, 35
n. 11; van de Walle 1939, 314; Weill 1947, 124; von der Wense 1949,
69; Jacobsohn 1952, 23; Faulkner 1956, 27; Guilmot 196872, 259;
Barta 1969, 24; Wilson 1969, 406; Osing 1977b, 620; Bresciani 1999,
202), but in the interpretation argued above for cols. 7172, there is
nothing to escape from. The preceding clauses indicate that the man
is on deck (watching the sun set). Therefore, pr went up probably
refers to disembarking (as seen by Renaud 1991, 25 n. 13), antonym
of hj go down used of boarding a boat (Wb. II, 472, 910). For
msw.f as coordinate with jmt.f, see the note to col. 7677, below.
(74)
q tp
and they perished atop a depression
The initial q is probably the third-person plural stative (Barta
1969, 35 n. 57) rather than a plural active participle (Hannig 1991,
31): the absence of an ending or plural strokes is typical for the 3pl
stative in this text, but not for the (masculine) plural participle (see n.
73, above; a 3pl stative ending appears in 63 w.w).
If j means lake, pool, the preposition tp implies location atop
a body of water (Wb. V, 274, 911), which is inconsistent with that of
the wife and children indicated by the preceding clause: it is improbable that the crocodiles climbed into the boat (which was large enough

72

CHAPTER THREE

to carry a cargo of grain). The noun j, however, can refer to a dry


depression as well as one full of water (Wb. IV, 398, 59)in particular, the natural basins of the Nile Valley that filled with water
during the inundation.83 The spelling of the word here, with the same
determinative used for t land (e.g., col. 78), suits such a reference.
7475
n m gr r mryt
ringed by night with riverbankers.
Given its undefined antecedent, n is probably the stative rather
than a passive participle. The verb is undoubtedly nj ring, encircle:
the determinative84 merely specifies the agent of the action. Judging
from its spelling (also in col. 97), the noun mryt is probably a collective rather than a nisbe.
7576
r.jn.f ms pz.f m rw
So, he ended up seated and spreading out by voice,
Despite its bookroll determinative, the verb of pz.f is probably
not ps divide, share, which makes no sense in this context, but p
spread out, which is commonly written pz in Middle Kingdom
texts (Wb. I, 560); the determinatives are borrowed from ps divide,
share (cf. CT VIII, 38889). The expression pz m rw is evidently
an idiom for cry aloud, broadcast.
7677
r d nj rm.j n tf mst
saying, I have not wept for that one who was born,
The negation here has usually been understood as present but also
as future (Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 54; similarly, Mathieu 2000,
27), and perfect or past (Jacobsohn 1952, 23; Williams 1962, 55; Osing

83
84

See Allen, Heqanakht, 150.


Also found in Peas. B1 161 and R 25, 2: Parkinson, Peasant, 26, 56.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

73

1977b, 620; Foster 1992, 14; Quirke 2004, 132). 85 The normal Middle
Egyptian past negation, however, suits the context: the initial r.jn.f
ms So, he ended up seated implies a passage of some time between
the death of the wife and children and the mans spreading out by
voice. There is no compelling reason to assume an exceptional use
of nj sm.f or an older negated prospective I shall not weep.
The demonstrative tf perhaps reflects the separation between the
man and the dead mst (on pf gs yon side and nf yonder: cols. 16
and 37). The determinative of mst is clearly
, as seen by Erman
(1896, 47), rather than the
of other transcriptions. The word has
usually been interpreted as an active participle but is more likely a
passive one (as understood by Barta 1969, 35 n. 62; Hannig 1991, 26;
Assmann 1998, 393; and Burkard 2008, 156), contrasting the mother,
who has experience life, with her children (below), who have not.
Scharffs interpretation of mst as referring to a deceased daughter
(1937, 37 n. 20, perhaps anticipated by Suys 1932, 69) was adopted in
subsequent translations (with the exception of de Buck 1947, 26) until
effectively countered by Faulkner (1956, 36 n. 64). This was based in
part on Scharffs understanding of 74 msw.f alone as subject of q perishedin other words, both husband and wife surviving while the
children diedbut the following reference to the mst as being in the
West rules it out.
7778
nn n.s prt m jmnt r kt r t
though she has no emerging from the West to another one
on earth.
Wilson (1969, 406 n. 12) noted that prt m jmnt may reflect the
notion of coming forth by day, denied the wife because of the
manner of her death, but this is unlikely in view of the following prepositional phrases. Those have commonly been understood to refer to a

For the present tense, see Gunn, Studies, 99. Goedicke (1970, 137) argues for
past tense but his translation I would not weep is more appropriate of the future.
85

74

CHAPTER THREE

second lifetime. Gunns interpretation of the preposition r with comparative sense (more than another woman) is possible if r t is to
be understood with prt m jmnt (emerging from the West on earth)
but not, as Gunn translated, with r kt, since someone on earth does
not emerge from the West.86 Mathieu understood r with antagonistic
meaning (2000, 27 pour sopposer une autre, sur terre), as a reference to the spirits possible opposition to her husbands remarriage (35
n. 30), but this seems extraneous to the narrative.
The interpretation hinges on what kt another one was meant to
denote. Neither the commonly understood time or life is likely,
because both terms would probably have been reflected by a masculine kj (n, zp). Lalouette saw it as referring to the wife: pour devenir
une autre (femme) sur la terre (1984, 223). More likely, however, is
a reference to the notion of birth (mswt) inherent in the term mst.87
7879
my.j r msw.s sdw m swt
But I care about her children, broken in the egg,
Since this statement is contrastive with the preceding one, my.j
is probably emphatic, focusing r msw.s (as understood by Tobin
1991, 340): the point is not the fact that the man cares but those he
cares about. Faulkner (36 n. 64) suggested that msw.s refers to the
potential offspring whom the husband had hoped his wife would bear
in the future. This overlooks the more obvious reference to the
children mentioned in col. 74, who perished with the wife (and
would otherwise be unmourned).

Gunn, Studies, 143 not more than another woman (who is) upon earth; followed by Suys 1932, 69; Scharff 1937, 34; van de Walle 1939, 314; Weill 1947, 124;
von der Wense 1949, 70; Goedicke 1970, 138; Renaud 1991, 25; Foster 1992, 14. A
reading
rk time is unlikely, both grammatically and because the sun sign in
this papyrus is always round with a central dot when it stands alone in the column.
87 Guilmot understood it as referring to the phrase prt r t (196872, 59: pour
une autre (sortie) sur terre; followed by Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 55), but this is
unlikely, since the infinitive (prt) is grammatically masculine.
86

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

75

7980
mw r n ntj nj nt.sn
who saw the face of Khenti before they lived.
The qualifications broken in the egg and before they lived are
hyperbolic, reflecting the childrens death at a young age (see Williams
1962, 55 n. 2). The determinative of ntj is probably the crocodile over
a standard, although the latter may have been erased (Erman 1896, 47).
7. the souls second parable (cols. 8085)

8081
jw ns db.f mrwt
A little man asks for an afternoon meal,
(81)
jw jm<t>.f d.s n.f jw r msyt
and his wife says to him, It will be supper,
For the sense of the subjectsm.f construction in this parable, see
the note to cols. 6869, above. The nature of jw r msyt as a sentence
with impersonal subject was first reflected in de Bucks translation
(1947, 26) het zal zijn voor het avondmaal, which also expresses
the future implications of the preposition r (similarly, van de Walle
1939, 314; Weill 1947, 124; Lalouette 1984, 223; Foster 1992, 15;
Lohmann 1998, 200; Bresciani 1999, 202; Tobin 2003, 182; Chioffi
and Rigamonti 2007, 56). There is no need to assume a textual omission, as some scholars have done (Faulkner 1956, 36 n. 66; Barta
1969, 34 n. 64; Renaud 1991, 25; and Lohmann 1998, 220).
82
jw.f pr.f r ntw r.s
and he goes outside at it,
(82)
s r t
only for a moment.

76

CHAPTER THREE

The signs between ntw and r t have puzzled translators since


Erman. The sign before the preposition is clearly
; the tick that
distinguishes the latter from
is also visible in 48 zy.j and is placed
differently from that of the bookroll. All translations have understood
the signs as r ss, with ss the infinitive of an obscure causative verb
(Faulkner 1956, 36 n. 67), without determinative. A number provide
no translation (Erman 1896, 49; Faulkner 1956, 27; Lichtheim 1973,
166; Lalouette 1984, 223; Lohmann 1998, 220). Suys was first to suggest a meaning, pleurer(?) (1932, 69). Scharff offered schimpfen
(1937, 40 n. 7), followed in most translations. Barta (1969, 35 n. 66)
suggested a causative of wz wasted (Wb. I, 358, 5); Goedicke
(1970, 141), a causative of st (Wb. IV, 27, 5: see the note to cols. 84
85, below); and Badawy, a form of sj shoot referring to urination
(1961, 145; followed by Parkinson 1997, 157, and Bresciani 1999,
202). None of these offers a reasonable interpretation of the passage,
and any of the verbs suggested should have a determinative.
Rather than r ss, the signs are undoubtedly to be read r.s s. The
prepositional phrase could mean from her, with reference to the
wife (literally, with respect to her), but prj r otherwise means go out
against a person (Wb. I, 520, 2); it is therefore more probably at it,
referring to the wifes rejection of his request (cf. Wb. II, 387, 25).
The word s is the subordinating proclitic particle (Gardiner, EG,
231) and belongs with the following r t for a moment; its presence
is evidently meant to distinguish this phrase from a less-marked adjunct (he goes out at this for a moment).
83
nn.f sw r pr.f jw.f mj ky
When he turns back to his house, he is like another man
The spelling with both
signs before the determinative argues
against an interpretation of the initial verb form as the sm.n.f (Faulkner
1956, 27; Griffiths 1967, 157; Lichtheim 1973, 166; Tobin 1991, 348,
and 2003, 183; Lohmann 1998, 219). In either case, it functions as an
initial circumstantial clause, as Erman first understood (1896, 49).

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

77

Griffiths suggested emending ky another, with the seated-man


determinative, to ky baboon: he returned to his house (acting) like
an ape (1967, 157). This has found no acceptance and is unnecessary: the remainder of the story does not necessarily indicate rage (see
the note to cols. 8485, below).
8384
jmt.f r s n.f
his wife pleading to him.
The verb s here has usually been understood as Scharffs kndig
sein (1937, 41 n. 9) or Faulkners reasoned (?) with (1956, 27),
despite the fact that the preposition n rather than r or m does not suit
this meaning, as Scharff realized. Better sense is given by Lichtheims
beseeches (1973, 166; followed by Lalouette 1984, 223; Parkinson
1997, 157; Quirke 2004, 132; and similarly, Osing 1977b, 620, and
Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 56). The verb is most likely a metathesis
of sj plead (Wb. IV, 281, 2), with the determinative influenced by
s gain experience (Wb. IV, 54344). The lack of an introductory
jw suggests that the clause is circumstantial to the preceding one, with
the subjectr-sm construction indicating the imperfect.
(84)
nj sm.n.f n.s
He doesnt listen to her,
8485
s n.f w jb n wpwtjw
offended and unreceptive to those of the household.
The word s (here with determinative) is most likely a form of the
later st (Wb. IV, 27, 5), as suggested by Goedicke (1970, 141). The
later verb is used both transitively and intransitively. The former use
occurs with both human and divine objects and is rendered by the
Wrterbuch as slur, blaspheme; the latter occurs only in a single instance in the Destruction of Mankind, where it is translated as suffer

78

CHAPTER THREE

damage.88 The root meaning may be offend, be offended. In the


present context, it refers to the commoners reaction to his wifes rejection and is probably the stative with a following reflexive dative.
The expression w jb appears only here. The verb is undoubtedly
the same as that in col. 63, despite the difference in determinatives
(here perhaps reflecting the more abstract nature of the action). The
literal translation stripped of heart (see cols. 6263, above) presents
an image of emotional barrenness, hence, lack of receptivity.
The term wpwtjw is either the plural of wpwtj messenger or a
plural nisbe of wpwt household (Wb I, 303, 46). The latter, first
suggested by Lichtheim (1973, 166; followed by Tobin 1991, 348,
and 2003, 183; Parkinson 1997, 157; and Bresciani 1999, 202) is more
likely in the context. This in turn indicates that the preceding n is the
preposition rather than the indirect genitive (pace Faulkner 1956, 36
n. 71). Goedickes interpretation of the term as the spirits of the demons (1970, 14243; similarly, Foster 1992, 15, and Mathieu 2000,
35 n. 24) is unnecessarily speculative.
8. the mans first litany (cols. 85103)

8586
jw wp.n.j r.j n b.j
And I opened my mouth to my soul,
(86)
wb.j dt.n.f
that I might answer what he had said:
8687
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:

E. Hornung, Der gyptische Mythos von der Himmelskuh: eine tiologie des Unvollkommenen, 3rd ed. (OBO 46; Freiburg, 1997), 25: nj st.n rryt.f his portal cannot
suffer damage.
88

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

79

(87)
mj.k r st sw
look, more than carrions smell
88
m hrww mw pt t.t
on Harvest days, when the sky is hot.
The verb-form b, which occurs in this writing only in the papyrus, was initially interpreted as despised (Erman 1896, 51; followed
by Maspero 1907, 129; Ranke 1926, 26; Pieper 1927, 27; Blackman
1930, 70; van de Walle 1939, 314; Garnot 1944, 22; Weill 1947, 125;
Faulkner 1956, 27; Thausing 1957, 265; Potapova 1965, 77; Lohmann
1998, 220; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 58). Scharff suggested offensive (1937, 44; followed by von der Wense 1949, 70; Spiegel 1950,
48; Brunner-Traut 1967, 9; Barta 1969, 25; Hornung 1990, 113 ; Renaud 1991, 26; Tobin 1991, 349, and 2003, 183; Lohmann 1998, 220).
Lurie (1939, 144) was the first to suggest stink, which has been followed in other translations. That sense seems likeliest, both from the
determinatives and from the comparison to sj smell throughout the
litany; the usual meaning of bj, overwhelm, suggests the connotation of an overpowering smell. In any case, it is clear that b rn.j
denotes the Mans bad reputation. The comparative r indicates that
b has adjectival value and is therefore probably an active participle.
Ermans understanding of the second
of each stanza as a
repetition of the initial mj.k has been followed by Maspero (1907, 129),
Ranke (1926, 26), Weill (1947, 125), Spiegel (1950, 48), Faulkner
(1956, 27), Frantsev (1960, 210), Guilmot (196872, 255), Lichtheim
(1973, 166), Lalouette (1984, 223), Renaud (1991, 26), Tobin (1991,
349, and 2003, 183), Parkinson (1997, 158), Assmann (1998, 394),
Lohmann (1998, 220), Bresciani (1999, 202), and Chioffi and Rigamonti (2007, 58). Other scholars have adopted Sethes interpretation of
it (1927, 65; also Pieper 1927, 27) as the compound preposition m .k
through you, identifying the Soul as the cause of the Mans ill repute. Faulkner (1956, 36 n. 73) noted, however, that there is nothing

80

CHAPTER THREE

in the text to indicate that the Soul was the source of the Mans
troubles. The repetition of mj.k look serves to divide the first comparison in each stanza as a line of verse separate from the initial one.
Mathieu (2000, 27) translated mon nom serait odieux cause de
toi, with the conditional reflecting his view (2000, 35 n. 36) that the
Man is thinking of the final judgment, when his name would be
odious if he acceded to the Souls desire for a premature death. The
remaining litanies, however, clearly indicate that the Man at this
point has given up his resistance and has adopted the Souls point of
view. This obviates Mathieus conditional as well as the occasional
translation of b as future (first by Scharff 1937, 43).
The noun sw is unattested elsewhere with this determinative.
Most translations have followed either Scharfs suggestion that it refers
to bird droppings (1937, 44) or Blackmans interpretation of it as a
term for bald-headed vultures (1938, 6768). Goedicke, who adopted
Scharffs surmise, proposed a connection with s (1970, 146477),
more fully js, a general term for offal (Wb. I, 20, 1013; Wb. Drogennamen, 1). The determinative here, in place of the usual pustule,
suggests an image of carrion, as understood by a few scholars (Lichtheim 1973, 166; Lalouette 1984, 223; Assmann 1998, 394; Haller
2004, 17; Quirke 2004, 132).
8889
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:
(89)
mj.k <r st> zp sbnw
look, more than an eel-traps smell
90
m hrw rzf pt t.t
on catch day, when the sky is hot.
Before zp, the scribe inadvertently omitted the preposition r, and
probably also the word st(j), which is used in the other four of the

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

81

first five stanzas. The word zp has been interpreted universally as a


form of the verb meaning receive (not catch, as often understood
here), but this makes little sense in the context, either as a participle
(one who receives a sbnw) or as an infinitive (receiving a sbnw). A
participle denoting a human being is out of place in the first five stanzas, where the comparison is otherwise to the smell of things or
animals, and is also unlikely in view of the lack of a seated-man determinative. It is also improbable that the receiving of something
would reek, rather than the thing itself. In that light, zp more likely
is a noun; its meaning is dependent on that of the following noun.
The hapax sbnw has uniformly been translated as fish, from its
determinative. As Scharff pointed out (1937, 45), the term derives
from zbn glide, which can have the same determinative (Wb. III,
433). It may be merely a more colorful term for fish than the common
rmw, but the basic sense of the verb suggests it may be the otherwise
unknown word for eel.89 Despite the absence of a relevant determinative, the word zp may then denote the trap in which eels have
traditionally been caught, which can smell rancid both from the kind
of bait used and from the dead eel itself.90
The term rzf has sometimes been translated as an activity: catching (Lurie 1939, 144; Faulkner 1956, 28; Frantsev 1960, 210;
Potapova 1965, 77; Parkinson 1997, 158), fishing (Lichtheim 1973,
166; Tobin 1991, 349, and 2003, 183; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007,
59), hunting (Goedicke 1970, 148), angling (Foster 1992, 15),
and trawling (Quirke 2004, 132). The noun, however, refers not to
the act of catching but to the catch itself (Wb. II, 449, 46), as reflected
in most translations.

For eels in the Nile, see D. Brewer and R.F. Friedman, Fish and Fishing in
Ancient Egypt (The Natural History of Egypt 2; Warminster, 1989), 71.
90 The word possibly derives from the lattice-work
of which the trap was
constructed: cf. zpt gazebo (Wb. IV, 535). The earliest recorded eel traps consisted of sticks and branches held together with sinew and the basic design has
remained fairly consistent since those times; The traps are always baited to attract
eels, with some believing the more the bait stinks the better due to the eels keen
sense of smell (www.eeltraps.com).
89

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CHAPTER THREE

91
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:
9192
mj.k r st pdw
look, more than ducks smell
9293
r bwt nt trjw r msyt
at a rise of reeds with a brood.
The hapax psw has been related to 87 sw (Scharff 1937, 43; Van
de Walle 1939, 314; Garnot 1944, 23; von der Wense 1949, 70; Spiegel 1950, 48; Jacobsohn 1952, 31; Wilson 1969, 406; Kitchen 1999,
81) but it is almost certainly an error for pdw ducks (Erman 1896,
54), perhaps influenced by sw, as Faulkner suggested (1956, 37 n. 77).
Ducks themselves are not notoriously malodorous, although their
droppings often are. This suggests that the initial preposition of the
third line does not denote a second comparative, as universally understood, but rather has locative sense (Wb. II, 387, 22).
Blackmans interpretation of bwt as covert (1930, 70) has been
followed in most translations. Weill (1947, 126 n. d) pointed out, however, that the word is obviously related to bw stand out (Wb. I,
454) and therefore probably refers to a rise of ground, as Erman originally saw (1896, 53; followed by Maspero 1907, 129; Ranke 1926,
26; Lurie 1939, 144; Lalouette 1984, 223; Foster 1992, 15; Haller
2004, 17); that sense is also more compatible with the determinative.
As Faulkner noted (1956, 37 n. 79), Ermans original understanding
of trjw as willows (followed by Blackman 1930, 70) is in error.91
The final msyt has usually been interpreted as a term for waterfowl
(after Wb. II, 143) but is probably the same as the collective for children and foals (Wb. II, 140, 1113 and 15), as Haller (2004, 17) and

See L. Keimer, BIFAO 31 (1931), 22729. The spelling in col. 92 clearly reflects
a word originally ending in r rather than the feminine rt willow (Wb. V, 385).
91

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

83

Quirke (2004, 132) realized.92 The image seems to be that of a mound


of dry ground within a reed marsh, where birds have nested.
(93)
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:
94
mj.k r st mw
look, more than fowlings smell
9495
r zw nw zw m n.sn
at the channels of the nests fowled for them.
The verb m is used of fishing and fowling (Wb. III, 31, 1213
and 18); the reference to zw nests indicates the latter activity here.
The lack of a seated man and plural strokes identifies mw as a verbal
noun rather than the plural fishermen (Wb. III, 32, 3) of most
translations.93 As in the previous stanza, the preposition r in the third
line may indicate locale rather than another comparison: fowling
may not be malodorous in itself but probably was so in marshes full of
bird nests. Gardiner has established the probable meaning of zw.94
The final word of the stanza has usually been understood as
m.n.sn, either a relative form which they have fowled (most
translations) or the sm.n.f used circumstantially when they have
fowled (Erman 1896, 54; Ranke 1926, 26; Lurie 1939, 144; Lalouette 1984, 223; Foster 1992, 15).95 Since col. 94 mw is a verbal

See also R. Caminos, Late Egyptian Miscellanies (Brown Egyptological Studies 1;


London, 1954), 348; W. Helck, Materialien zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte des Neuen Reiches
III (AAWLM 1963 no. 2; Mainz, 1963), 309.
93 Exceptions are the singular pcheur of Weill (1947, 125) and Mathieu
(2000, 29), and Potapovas unsubstantiated bolotna] tina marsh-slime (1965, 79).
94 A.H. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Onomastica (Oxford, 1947), I, *9 no. 43.
95 Von der Wenses der Unrat auf dem Schlamm (1949, 70) and Potapovas
rybaq|i otrep|] i nevod fishermens rags and net (1965, 79) unfounded.
92

84

CHAPTER THREE

noun, however, the only possible referents of the suffix pronoun are
zw channels or zw nests, neither of which are appropriate
subjects of m.n.sn. This indicates the reading m n.sn fowled for
them, with a passive participle. The participle modifies zw channels and the pronoun refers to zw nests.
9596
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:
(96)
mj.k r st msw
look, more than crocodiles smell
97
r mst r w r mryt
at a site of slaughter with riverbankers.
Although mst could be the infinitive of cols. 133 and 135, as it is
normally understood, here it is more likely a noun denoting a place of
sitting (as Wb. III, 99, 3), as Barta sensed (1969, 25; followed by Lichtheim 1973, 166; hut). Together with the fact that crocodiles
themselves do not have an inherently unpleasant smell,96 this suggests
that the preposition r at the head of the third line is locative, as in the
two preceding stanzas.
The noun
appears to be either w desert edges (of the
cultivation: Wb. I, 239, 6) or spwt areas of cultivation.97 The second
is unlikely in view of the spelling without , and spt is not used elsewhere as a general term for region (as understood by Goedicke 1970,
150; Hornung 1990, 113; Tobin 1991, 349; Lohmann 1998, 221;
Haller 2004, 17; Quirke 2004, 132). The first does not appear else
www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/crocs/wrestling/wrestling3.html.
For the latter (Goedicke, 1970, 151; Lohmann, 1998, 220; Quirke 2004, 132),
see Allen, Heqanakht, 150. The reading t argued by Scharff (1937, 46 n. 11; followed by van de Walle 1939, 315; von der Wense 1949, 71; Spiegel 1950, 49; Jacobsohn 1952, 31; Potapova 1965, 79; Wilson 1969, 406) is improbable.
96
97

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

85

where as a term for the riverbank, as often translated here (Lurie 1939,
144; Barta 1969, 25; Lalouette 1984, 224; Parkinson 1997, 158; Bresciani 1999, 203; Kitchen 1999, 81; Mathieu 2000, 29; Tobin 2003,
183). Faulkners sandbanks (1956, 28; followed by Renaud 1991,
26; Foster 1991, 15, and 2001, 60) is conjectural; in any case, one
does not sit r under sandbanks.98 The other sense of w is also illsuited to the context, since they were not frequented by crocodiles.99
In light of these difficulties, the word
may represent instead a verbal noun of the verb hack up, slaughter (Wb. I, 238:
cf. Wb. I, 239 t bloodbath): that verb appears as
in CT
100
VI, 413l r- slaughter. The first r-phrase qualifies mst; the
second qualifies w, with the agentive sense of col. 7475 n r
mryt. The third sign of mryt is undoubtedly
(for
) rather than
a second
: its shape is different from that of the
preceding and
similar to that of most example of
in this papyrus.
9798
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:
(98)
mj.k r zt-jmt
look, more than a married woman
98-99
d grg r.s n y
about whom the lie of a lover has been told.
The exact connotation of zt-jmt in the Middle Kingdom, as opposed to the separate terms zt woman and jmt woman, wife, is

Faulkner translated by sandbanks (1956, 28), but this meaning is not attested
for the preposition r. In addition, the Egyptians would undoubtedly have avoided
sandbanks full of crocodiles.
99 Weill (1947, 125) translated la lisire de linondation, but does not seem
to have this meaning elsewhere.
100 Cf. ShS. 11416 jw m r nfrwt nbt island full of all good things.
98

86

CHAPTER THREE

unclear. Goedicke (1970, 151) saw it as a term for a sexually mature


maiden, but evidence is lacking. The nature of this passage would
seem to support Scharffs interpretation of the phrase as referring to a
married woman (1937, 46). The word jmt is used in the text for a
woman in relation to her husband, as usually elsewhere, so the compound term here evidently denotes a woman who is a wife. The use of
the attributive d (passive sm.f ) rather than a passive participle dt or
ddt indicates that zt-jmt is undefined, as reflected in most translations.
The term y denotes both male and husband (Wb. V, 344
45). The latter meaning has been accepted in some translations (Erman
1896, 53; Maspero 1907, 129; Ranke 1926, 26; Weill 1947, 125; Potapova 1965, 79; Lichtheim 1973, 166; Lalouette 1984, 224; Tobin
1991, 349, and 2003, 184; Foster 1992, 15; Parkinson 1997, 158; Mathieu 2000, 29; Quirke 2004, 132; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 61),
but as Blackman noted (1930, 71), the lack of a third-person feminine
singular suffix argues against it. Male probably has the extended sense
of lover here, like the New Kingdom term wtj, which denotes
both a male (particularly with reference to virility) and a lover.101
The preceding n has been understood either as to or on account of. If y refers to a lover rather than a husband, the first is not
likely. Faulkners argument that the second meaning would more
likely have been expressed by r (1956, 37 n. 82) was countered by
Barta (1969, 35 n. 73), citing Edel, AG, 757d, and Gardiner, EG,
164, 5. Those references, however, describe the use of the preposition n to express cause, a meaning ill-suited to the present passage,
since the lover is the subject of the lie, not its cause. Rather than the
preposition, n is probably the indirect genitive, modifying the preceding singular grg lie; for the word order, see Gardiner, EG, 86.102
99100
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:

101
102

E.g., A.H. Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Stories (BA 1; Brussels, 1932) 10, 1; 12, 910.
Goedickes emended jw.s She belonged (1970, 152) is unnecessary.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

87

(100)
mj.k r rd qn
look, more than a brave boy
100101
d r.f jw.f {jw.f} n msdw.f
about whom has been said, He is for one he should hate.
A few scholars have understood rd qn as a direct genitive (Spiegel
1950, 49; Barta 1969, 25; Hornung 1990, 113; Lohmann 1998, 221),
but the absence of a seated-man determinative after qn makes this less
likely than the common interpretation of qn as an adjective (or 3ms
stative) modifying rd. As such, qn is usually rendered as brave or the
like, but also as sturdy, healthy, able, vigorous (Blackman 1930, 71;
Lichtheim 1973, 166; Foster 1992, 15; Parkinson 1997, 158; Chioffi
and Rigamonti 2007, 62), good, fine (Scharff 1937, 44; van de Walle
1939, 315; Tobin 1991, 349; Haller 2004, 17), and difficult (Jacobsohn 1952, 31). All but the first, which is the standard meaning of the
adjective (Wb. V, 42), derive from the various ways in which the sense
of the following relative clause has been understood (discussed below).
The initial d is undoubtedly the passive sm.f, as in the preceding
stanza, with r.f about whom103 referring to rd qn. The following jw.f
n has been understood as he belongs to or the like, but that carries an
aorist connotation, more likely to have been rendered by the adjectival
predicate nj sw. The construction jw.f n may have a less aorist connotation, as Sethe sensed (1927, 65 er soll gehren; followed by
Scharff 1937, 44; Jacobsohn 1952, 31; and Hornung 1990, 113).
The final msdw.f has occasionally been understood as a noun of
agent his hater (meaning one who hates him: Ranke 1926, 26;
Lichtheim 1973, 166; Lalouette 1984, 224; Renaud 1991, 27; Parkin
As understood by all except Quirke (2004, 132 told). The expression d r
means either say against or say about (Wb. V, 620, 56). The meaning say to
(Wb. V, 620, 7) is probably spurious; all of the pre-Ptolemaic examples cited for that
meaning can be understood with the sense of Wb. V, 620, 56.
103

88

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son 1997, 158; Haller 2004, 17). Such a noun is not attested elsewhere, however, and the active sense would have been rendered
more probably by an active participle (cf. the feminine msddt: Wb. II,
154, 12; Wb.med., 394). It is undoubtedly a perfective relative form,
as interpreted by most scholars and as suggested by the scribes correction from the imperfective msdd (see Chapter Two, Section 2).104
Blackman understood the sense of the passage as referring to a child of
adultery (1930, 71; first suggested by Maspero 1907, 129 dont on dit
un mensonge auprs de ses parents), which has generally been followed since: in that case, msdw.f refers either to the boys true father
or to the cuckolded husband. Goedicke (1970, 15354) noted the
possibility of a reference to the boys illicit homosexual lover (followed by Tobin 2003, 184 n. 15, and possibly Foster 1992, 15).105
There is no compelling rationale in the context for Blackmans
interpretation, but Goedickes bears consideration. It would provide a
male counterpart to the theme of female sexual misbehavior in the
preceding stanza, to which it is linked by the repeated relative d r. It
would also explain the use of jw.f n rather than nj sw, and is more
compatible with the usual prospective sense of the perfective relative
form. The adjective qn suggests a contrast to what is said about the
boy,106 paralleling the more explicit d grg r.s about whom the lie has
been said of the previous stanza. Both refer to the damaged reputation of innocent victims: a married woman and a boy with no
homosexual transgressions.
(101)
mj.k b rn.j
Look, my name is reeking:

Quirkes translation told that he is hated (2004, 132) implies a passive sm.f,
which overlooks the preceding n.
105 Bartas Snde (1969, 26; followed by Lohmann 1998, 224) and Mathieus
lamant (2000, 29) refer to adultery (Barta 1969, 35 n. 74; Mathieu 2000, 35 n. 37).
106 A rd qn brave boy was presumably considered the antithesis of a homosexual jmt rd woman boy (Ptahhotep 457: ba, Ptaotep, 52): cf. R.B. Parkinson,
JEA 81 (1995), 6670.
104

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

89

102
mj.k <r> dmj n jt<y>
look, more than the harbor of the Sire
102103
nn btw m s.f
that plots sedition but whose back is seen.
For dmj, see the note to cols. 3839, above. The two signs following it have been understood as a defective writing of 74 n (all
studies before Faulkner 1956; also Potapova 1965, 79, and Wilson
1969, 406), as n mz of a/the crocodile (Goedicke 1970, 154; Foster 1992, 16; Haller 2004, 17; and Quirke 2004, 133), and n jty of
the Sire (Faulkner 1956, 28 and 37 n. 85, and most studies since).
All three interpretations require an emendation: the first, of a missing
n sign; the second, of a missing or omitted stroke following the crocodile; and the third, of a second crocodile and probably also a
determinative. Of these, the second is likeliest epigraphically, but the
term btw sedition that follows presupposes a reference to the king
and therefore argues for Faulkners reading.
The word nn is clearly an imperfective active participle modifying
dmj harbor. The phrase m s.f has been understood as a passive
sm.f with nominal subject, with the suffix pronoun referring to jty:
e.g., Bartas wenn sein Rcken gesehen wird (1969, 26). If so, however, it can only be the prospective passive (smm.f ) his back will be
seen, which makes no sense here.107 An active participle like nn also
makes no sense if the referent of s.f is jty (which sees his back).108

See Allen, Middle Egyptian, 21.2.2. The usual circumstantial translation, such
as that of Barta, requires either the passive sm.f (m s.f when his back has been
seen) or the tw-passive of the imperfective sm.f (m.tw s.f when his back is
seen). Seeing the back is probably not a metaphor for the kings absence but for
cowardice: note Sin. B 58 nj rdj.n.f s.f he does not give his back (Koch, Sinuhe,
34; describing Senwosret I) and cf. Parkinson, JEA 81 (1995), 66.
108 An active participle has been understood by Scharff (1937, 44; followed by van
de Walle 1939, 315; Jacobsohn 1952, 31; and possibly also Haller 2004, 17, and Quirke
2004, 133), but with a different referent of s.f.
107

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Instead, the pronoun refers to dmj and m is a passive participle


whose back is seen. This is undoubtedly a metaphor for cowardice,
as in the comparable idiom rdj s give the back (Wb. IV, 9, 10).
9. the mans second litany (cols. 10330)

(103)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(103)
snw bjn
Brothers have become bad;
104
nmsw nw mjn nj mr.nj
the friends of today, they do not love.
104105
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(105)
wn jbw
Hearts are greedy,
105106
z nb r jtt wt snnw.f
every man taking the others things.
(106)
<d.j n mj mjn>
To whom can I speak today?
107
jw zf q
For kindness has perished

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

91

107108
nt r h.w n bw-nb
and sternness has descended to everyone.
The partial col. 106 seems to reflect a hiatus before col. 107. The
scribe wrote a reed-leaf after snnw.fpresumably the first sign of the
clause in col. 107, the second line of the next stanzaand subsequently erased it (Parkinson 2009, 109), leaving the rest of the
column blank, with enough space for the missing refrain.109
The clause in col. 107108 recurs in Adm. 5, 10, in almost identical spelling, with the exception of
in place of before the walking
legs: i.e., hb has been sent instead of h.w has descended.110 The
phrase nt r, again spelled as in col. 107, occurs also in Peas. B1 198
99 jr b<s>.k r.k r nt r nmj jr.f sf.f bw wrw if you cloak your face
so as to be stern, who then will bar poverty?111 The phrase, literally
force of face (as a verb in the last passage), is an antonym to zf, suggesting a reference to sternness. Since it does not have the seated-man
determinative, it is more probably an abstract here (and in Adm. 5,
10) than the participial one who is stern that has been adopted in
some translations (see Barta 1969, 36 n. 79). For hj n descend to (a
person), see Wb. II, 472, 23; the sense is obviously that everyone has
become stern.
(108)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?

Parkinson suggests that the area of the erased reed-leaf was probably still too
moist to be written over immediately, and he neglected to come back and fill in the
right refrain. While this is conceivable, it seems unlikely for such a minor erasure,
and the papyrus has numerous examples of erasures probably overwritten immediately
(see Chapter Two, Section Two). The gap remains inexplicable.
110 Enmarch, Ipuwer, 35. Quirke (2004, 133) adopts the verb from this parallel in
col. 107, but there is no compelling rationale for such an emendation.
111 Parkinson, Peasant, 29, 10.
109

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CHAPTER THREE

(108)
tp r bjn
There is contentment with the bad,
109
rdj r.f bw nfr r t m st nbt
in that goodness has been put down in every place.
Translations of the clause tp r bjn have offered nearly every possible interpretation of its three words. Erman (1896, 59) understood tp
r as a participial compound serving as subject of a 3ms stative bjn:
Der mit ruhigem Gesicht ist elend (followed by Ranke 1926, 27;
Scharff 1937, 49; Lurie 1939, 144; Van de Walle 1939, 315; Weill
1947, 127; von der Wense 1949, 71; Jacobsohn 1952, 34; Lanczkowski
1954, 2; and Goedicke 1970, 16061). De Buck (1947, 28) saw tp as
an impersonal sm.f with r bjn a prepositional phrase: Men is ingenommen med schlechtheid (followed in most subsequent studies).
Barta (1969, 26) understood r bjn as subject of an adjectival tp: das
Gesicht der Bosheit ist zufrieden (perhaps following Spiegel 1950,
50 Zufrieden ist der Schlechte; followed by Hornung 1990, 114 ;
Renaud 1991, 27; Lohmann 1998, 222; and Haller 2004, 17).
Of these interpretations, de Bucks is likeliest to be correct (as reflected in the degree of its acceptance): the absence of a seated-man
determinative argues against a participle, and bw nfr in the following
clause is evidently contrastive with an abstract bjn. The verb tp is probably an emphatic sm.f with unexpressed subject stressing r bjn.
The enclitic r.f in col. 109 relates its clause to the preceding (referent of the pronoun) more closely than a less-marked circumstantial
(rdj bw nfr r t goodness having been put down). Goedicke (1970,
161) read the r of r.f as t, but it is difficult to tell from his translation
(he is willing to abandon goodness) what verb form he had in
mind. His reading was adopted by Tobin (1991, 350, and 2003, 184),
who understood the form as a future participle rdjt(j).f (which will
cast goodness to the earth), but this makes less sense than the more
common reading.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

93

10910
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(110)
sr z m zp.f bjn
When a man causes anger by his bad deed,
11011
ssbt.f bw-nb jw.f w
he makes everyone laugh, though his misdeed is evil.
Most scholars have understood sr z m zp.f bjn as a participial
clause anticipatory to the pronominal subject of ssbt.f, as rendered by
Erman (1923, 128 wer einen (guten) Mann durch seine
Schlechtigkeit wtend macht, der bringt alle Leute zum lachen).
Erman originally understood the clause as an initial circumstantial
(1896, 59; followed by Lurie 1939, 144; von der Wense 1949, 71;
Wilson 1969, 406; Goedicke 1970, 161; Kitchen 1999, 83; Tobin
2003, 184; and similarly, Tobin 1991, 350, and Foster 1992, 16),112
which is somewhat likelier in view of the absence of a seated-man
determinative of sr. The verb is then emphatic, with ssbt.f the
same form in a balanced clause or, more probably, the imperfective.
The final jw.f w is usually rendered as a noun with following adjective, governed by an omitted preposition m, but it is better
analyzed as a circumstantial subjectstative construction, as first seen
by Ranke (1926, 27; followed by Sethe 1927, 65; Scharff 1937, 49;
Van de Walle 1939, 315; De Buck 1947, 28; von der Wense 1949,
71; Jacobsohn 1952, 34; Wilson 1969, 406; Lalouette 1984, 224; and
Kitchen 1999, 83). The sentence as a whole describes a prevalent insensitivity to wrongdoing.

The renderings of von der Wense (1949, 71 Wenn man sich emprt), Tobin
(1991, 350 For a man is enraged; 2003, 184 Though a man be woeful), and
Foster (1992, 16 A man is maddened) do not reflect the transitive value of the
causative.
112

94

CHAPTER THREE

11112
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(112)
jw .tw
For one plunders,
11213
z nb r jtt snw.f
every man robbing his brothers.
The group at the top of col. 113 has universally been read as
(i.e., snnw.f his second), but there is a clear third stroke partly overlying the two signs. The ink of this stroke is lighter than that of
and
, indicating that the stroke was made after them, perhaps after the
scribe wrote the suffix
.
The second and third lines of this stanza have been universally
analyzed as here, with jw .tw one clause and z nb r jtt snnw.f a
second. It is also possible to read jw .tw z nb For every man is
plundered as the first clause and r jtt snw.f because his brothers
take as the second,113 but this is less likely: all tercets in this litany
have the second and third lines as paired statements.
A few scholars have followed Erman (1896, 60) in supplying an
omitted wt before snnw.f, as in 105106 z nb r jtt wt snnw.f every
man taking the others things, (Ranke 1926, 27; Scharff 1937, 49;
Van de Walle 1939, 315; de Buck 1947, 28; Weill 1947, 127; Wilson
1969, 406). As Lurie (1939, 144) and others have seen, however, an
emendation is unnecessary. The verb jj is used with the sense of
take from in col. 36 (see above) as well as in Peas. B1 13435 jn t
pw n.k jmy r jb.k r jt tw msw.j Is anything of yours something bigger
in your mind than my follower robbing you?114

113
114

For r sm.f, see Gardiner, EG, 165.11.


Parkinson, Peasant, 23, 1112.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

95

(113)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
11314
btw m q-jb
The one who should be avoided is an intimate,
11415
sn jrr n.f pr m ft
the brother one used to act with become an opponent.
As Faulkner has seen (1956, 38 n. 94), the of btw is an error for
, with which this word is normally written (Wb. I, 485, 1114).
The two signs are somewhat similar in hieratic (cf.
in col. 112),
and the position of
above the
indicates that btw was not intended (pace Faulkner). The word btw is probably a passive participle
(Wb.med., 255), normally used with reference to a serpent but here
undoubtedly with a human referent (antonym of the following sn),
despite the lack of a seated-man determinative.
(115)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(115)
nj s.t sf
Yesterday has not been remembered;
116
nj jr.t n jr m t t
no one in this time has acted for one who has acted.
The expression m t t has usually been understood as an adjunct
to nj jr.t(w) n jr, with its regular meaning in this time, now (Wb. I,
1, 17). De Buck rendered it as op het eigen ogenblik (1947, 28),
adopted by Lohmann with the phrase as an adjunct to jr (1998, 223

96

CHAPTER THREE

der im rechten Augenblick gehandelt hat). Parkinson followed Lohmanns syntactic analysis but interpreted t with past reference (1997,
159 him who gave help then). Of these, the common interpretation
is most probably correct. The usual temporal and present reference of
t t argues against the three variant interpretations,115 and the use of
the demonstrative pf for past reference in col. 126 (see below) indicates that the author would have used tf rather than t if that sense had
been intended here. The phrase is thus contrastive to the preceding sf.
(116)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
117
snw bjn
Brothers have become bad;
11718
jnn.tw m rrw r mtt nt jb
one brings only strangers into the middle of the heart.
The scribe has omitted the strokes representing the arms (raised in
greeting or homage) of the sign
that is commonly used as determinative of rr stranger (Wb. V, 604).
The word mtt has been understood as related to mtr witness or
exact (Wb. II, 17173). The phrase mtt nt jb middle of the heart,
however, is attested elsewhere as a term for innermost thoughts or
feelings (Wb. II, 168, 46) and can be understood as such here. Although jnn.tw m r has the sense of resort to for in the similar
verse of cols. 12425, the meaning here is probably closer to jnj r
bring a person to something (Wb. I, 90, 34). The passage evidently decries the need to take strangers into ones confidence.

Past reference is possible in Adm. 6, 5 r.f jr.n.j rw.j m tj t If only I had


used my voice at that time (Enmarch, Ipuwer, 37), but the context better supports the
reading r.f jr-n.j-rw m tj t If only there were someone to use the voice for me
in this time, with the seated man after rw a determinative to the phrase jr-n.j-rw.
115

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

97

(118)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
11819
rw tm
Faces are obliterated,
11920
z nb m r r rw r snw.f
every man with face down to his brothers.
Pace Hornung (1990, 115) and Quirke (2004, 133), the word at
the bottom of col. 118 is clearly rw faces and not jbw hearts: cf.
the form of the latter in col. 120.
The sense of rw tm.(w) as connoting unwillingness or inability
to look (Wb. III, 197, 19) is clear from the line that follows. The
meaning of the stative tm.(w), however, is stronger than the terms
such as averted or blank with which it is usually rendered. The
notion is that of the eradication of face-to-face encounters, as seen by
Erman (1896, 63 die Gesichter vergehen), Spiegel (1950, 51 Die
Gesichter sind verschwunden), Wilson (1969, 406 Faces have disappeared), Foster (1992, 16 Faces are wiped out), and Haller
(2004, 18 Die Gesichter sind vernichtet). The absence of an initial
jw suggests that the final line is a circumstantial clause.
(120)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(120)
jbw wn
Hearts have become greedy;
121
nn wn jb n z rhn.tw r.f
there is no mans heart one can depend on.

98

CHAPTER THREE

12122
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
(122)
nn mtjw
There are no righteous;
12223
t zp n jrw jsft
the land left to disorder-doers.
(123)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
12324
jw w m q-jb
There is lack of an intimate;
12425
jnn.tw m mm r srt n.f
one resorts only to an unknown to make known to.
As Faulkner pointed out (1956, 38 n. 101), the verb sr is commonly used of making complaints. In this case, however, its literal
meaning is probably intended, in contrast to the preceding mm an
unknown, as sensed by Lohmann (1998, 223), Haller (2004, 18), and
Chioffi and Rigamonti (2007, 71).
(125)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
12526
nn hr-jb
There is no calm-hearted;

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

99

12627
pf m n.f nn sw wn
the one once walked with, he is no more.
The demonstrative pf implies a distance from the speaker, here
temporal: often applied to things and persons belonging in the past
(Gardiner, EG, 112).116 Erman understood m as an active participle,
with the suffix pronoun of n.f referring to hr-jb: jener, der mit ihm
ging (1923, 123). This has been followed in a few translations
(Ranke 1926, 28; Lurie 1939, 145; Faulkner 1956, 29; Bresciani
1999, 204; Kitchen 1999, 85; Haller 2004, 18) but is less likely than
the passive participle first recognized by Scharff (1937, 54 n. 34) and
accepted in most other studies.117 Ermans reading implies that both
the calm-hearted and the one who once associated with him have
vanished, which is a paler statement than that implied by the passive
participle, that the disappearance of the calm-hearted leaves no one
who can be associated with.
(127)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
12729
jw.j tp.kw r mjr n gw q-jb
For I am loaded with need for lack of an intimate.
(129)
d.j n mj mjn
To whom can I speak today?
12930
nf w t nn wn pw.fj
The injustice that has hit the land, it has no end.

So also tf in col. 77. Jacobsohn (1952, 36 n. 6) is alone in understanding pf


here as modifying hr-jb, which makes little sense in this context.
117 Quirke (2004, 133) saw the form as a relative with (unwritten) 1s subject.
116

100

CHAPTER THREE

Ermans rendering of nf w t as das Bse schlgt das Land


(1896, 66) has been followed in some translations (Lurie 1939, 145;
Weill 1947, 127; Spiegel 1950, 51; Frantsev 1960, 210; Potapova
1965, 81; Goedicke 1970, 171; Lichtheim 1973, 168; Lalouette 1984,
225; Renaud 1991, 28; Tobin 1991, 351; Foster 1992, 17; Parkinson
1997, 159; Assmann 1998, 395; Lohmann 1998, 223; Kitchen 1999,
85; Tobin 2003, 185; Haller 2004, 18; Quirke 2004, 133), but the
syntax allows only for a noun modified by a participial clause, as Erman later saw (1923, 129 die Snde, die das Land schlgt) and as
recognized in other translations.
Following a suggestion of Gunn, Blackman identified the expression wj t as an idiom for roam the earth, a meaning it clearly has in
the Story of Sinuhe, and applied that meaning to the present passage.118
This interpretation has been followed in a number of translations (de
Buck 1947, 29; Faulkner 1956, 29; Wilson 1969, 407; Goedicke 1970,
171; Lichtheim 1973, 168; Tobin 1991, 351; Parkinson 1997, 159;
Assmann 1998, 395; Kitchen 1999, 85; Tobin 2003, 185), but the
more literal meaning also makes sense here, as generally understood.
As Erman saw (1896, 66), the dual strokes behind the
of
pw(j).fj, recorded in other transcriptions, were erased. The same
word was also emended in col. 65, from pw.f to p.fj (see Chapter
Two, Section 2).
10. the mans third litany (cols. 13042)

(130)
jw mt m r.j m mjn
Death is in my sight today,
13031
<mj> snb mr
like a sick man gets well,

118

A.M. Blackman, JEA 22 (1936), 38.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

101

13132
mj prt r ntw r s hjmt
like going outside after mourning.
The scribe has added the initial jw to the right of mt. This is the
only stanza in which the final mjn today of the first verse is preceded
by the preposition m; in the others, mjn is used adverbially. The scribe
has also omitted the preposition mj like before the second verse.
The correct transcription of hjmt was determined by Smither
(1939, 220), who suggested its meaning as detention. Smithers reading, however, was not accepted until Faulkners study (1956, 29), and
thereafter only sporadically (Guilmot 196872, 256; Wilson 1969, 407;
Goedicke 1970, 173; Lichtheim 1973, 168; Tobin 1991, 351; Parkinson
1997, 159; Assmann 1998, 398; Bresciani 1999, 204; Kitchen 1999, 87;
Mathieu 2000, 31; Burkard 2008, 157; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007,
74). Other translations have largely adopted the conjectured meanings
sickness (Erman 1896, 67) or accident (Scharff 1937, 56 n. 4).
While Smithers transcription is correct, the meaning of the word
as detention is debatable. Its determinative does not support a relationship with 1819 jhm and 4950 hjm.k, which in any case do not
mean restrain (see the note to cols. 1819 above). As Quirke realized (2004, 133), hjmt is most likely derived from the verb jhm
mourn, which has the same determinative (Wb. I, 118); the noun
appears as hmt in the New Kingdom (Wb. I, 12, 8).
(132)
jw mt m r.j mjn
Death is in my sight today,
13233
mj st ntjw
like myrrhs smell,
13334
mj mst r tw hrw w
like sitting under sails on a windy day.

102

CHAPTER THREE

Blackman (1930, 71) proposed awning as the meaning of tw,


based on a Demotic parallel, and this has been accepted in some
translations (Scharff 1937, 55; Lurie 1939, 145; Van de Walle 1939,
316; Garnot 1944, 24; De Buck 1947, 29; Gilbert 1949, 85; Spiegel
1950, 53; Jacobsohn 1952, 36; Lanczkowski 1954, 3; Faulkner 1956,
29; Barta 1969, 28; Wilson 1969, 407; Mathieu 2000, 31; Burkard
2008, 157). In the Middle Kingdom, however, the noun has the
meaning sails (singular t),119 indicated here by the adjunct hrw w
on a windy day (see Goedicke 1970, 174).
(134)
jw mt m r.j mjn
Death is in my sight today,
135
mj st znw
like lotuses smell,
13536
mj mst r mryt-nt-tt
like sitting on the Bank of Inebriation.
The mountain-range determinative after tt inebriation suggests that the entire phrase mryt nt tt was understood as a region
outside Egypt. Sitting on the Bank of Inebriation is therefore a metaphor for translation from the world of everyday reality to one of
intoxication, reverie, and bliss.
(136)
jw mt m r.j mjn
Death is in my sight today,

Clearly in Peas. B1 87 = R 14, 4: Parkinson, Peasant, 17, 78. The meaning


sail is also the primary one in Demotic: CDD (09.1), 288 (The Demotic Dictionary
of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, ed. by J.H. Johnson, available online
at http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/cdd/).
119

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

103

13637
mj wt wyt
like the floods ebbing,
13738
mj jw z m m r pr.sn
like a man comes home from an expedition.
The phrase wt wyt has been interpreted mostly as the infinitive
of wj become far (Wb. I, 24546) with the noun wyt rain (Wb.
III, 49, 13) as its subject (first by Sethe 1927, 66 das Entfernen des
Regens), but also as the noun wt path modified by the perfective
passive participle of wj hit (first by Erman 1923, 129 ein
betretener Weg), or a direct genitive with wyt either as rain (first
by Erman 1896, 6869 Regenweg) or inundation (Foster 1992,
17; Tobin 2003, 186; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 74).120 All these
interpretations can be justified, but the first is perhaps the most accurate: the water determinative argues against the identification of
wyt as a passive participle of wj hit, and the parallel verse mj kft pt
in the next stanza offers some support both for the analysis of wt as
the infinitive and for the image of an earthly counterpart to the skys
clearing here (the last suggested by Barta 1969, 37 n. 90).
The noun wyt, however, is perhaps better understood with reference to the inundation than as rain. This use seems to appear
otherwise first in the New Kingdom (Wb. III, 49, 4), but the verb
from which it is derived is attested earlier (Wb. III, 48, 16), and the
annual flood was a more familiar phenomenon than rain.121 The image is a metaphor both for the end of a spate of troubles and the
promise of new life. It also offers a stylistic antonym to the line following: going away versus coming home.

The last perhaps the source of Hallers unique ein Gang im berschwang des
Glcks (2004, 18).
121 The use of wyt to refer to the inundation may also appear in CT VII, 370f: cf.
B. Backes, Das altgyptische Zweiwegebuch: Studien zu den Sargtext-Sprchen 1029
1130 (A 69; Wiesbaden, 2005), 342.
120

104

CHAPTER THREE

Scharff (1937, 57 n. 8) pointed out that the determinative of m


suggests an expedition by ship, but as Goedicke noted (1970, 176), the
same determinative is used where the excursion was clearly terrestrial:
e.g., Sin. B 38 m r t tmw expedition to the (Libyan) Temehus
land, with the same spelling as in col. 137.122
(138)
jw mt m r.j mjn
Death is in my sight today,
13839
mj kft pt
like the skys clearing.
13940
mj z st jm r mt.n.f
like a man enmeshed thereby to what he has not known.
The sense of st jm has eluded most scholars. Erman (1896, 69)
and a number of others left it untranslated. Scharff (1937, 57 n. 10)
concluded that a verb had been omitted before z(j) (followed by Van
de Walle 1939, 316; Garnot 1944, 24; Spiegel 1950, 53), and Jacobsohn (1952, 37 n. 3) suggested that the passage has been garbled from
an original mj st zj. Of those who attempted a translation of the text
as it stands, most have followed the sense of Sethes hingeleitet,
aufmerksam gemacht (1927, 66), despite the fact that st is not attested elsewhere with those meanings.
Except for the bookroll determinative, the verb with this spelling
means either trap (Wb. IV, 26263) or weave (Wb. IV, 263),
both probably reflecting a root meaning enmesh. A number of
translations have attempted to reflect the first of these meanings: begreift (Brunner-Traut 1985, 83; Barta 1969, 28), fowling (Wilson
1969, 407), grasping (Parkinson 1997, 160), auffngt (Lohmann
1998, 224), trapping (Kitchen 1999, 87), tracking down (Quirke

122

Koch, Sinuhe, 27, 8.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

105

2004, 133), and un uomo che ha compreso un tranello (Chioffi and


Rigamonti 2007, 75). The root meaning, however, offers better sense
in this context, as a passive participle.123 The adverb jm refers to the
preceding kft pt the skys clearing.124 The passage as a whole uses
the image of a man entranced by the clearing of the sky, which reveals things he could not see before.125 As such, it is a powerful simile
for the sudden attraction of death that is the subject of the third litany.
(140)
jw mt m r.j mjn
Death is in my sight today,
141
mj bb z m pr.sn
like a man longs to see home,
14142
jr.n.f rnpwt t jt m nrt
when he has spent many years taken in captivity.
The scribe added jt taken to the left of rnpwt t at the bottom
of col. 141. Erman saw this as intended for insertion between the jm
and m of col. 142, but left it untranslated.126 Faulkner regarded it as
inexplicable (1956, 26), but Sethe (1927, 66, and 1928, 46, 13)

The undefined antecedent might suggest the stative (as seen by Sethe 1927,
66), but the seated man makes a participle likelier.
124 Bartas reading m r durch einen Spruch (1969, 18, 28, and 37 n. 92; followed
by Lohmann 1998, 224) ignores the reed-leaf and the absence of a stroke after
that normally distinguishes the noun mouth, spell from the preposition. Goedickes
searcher here (1970, 176) is dubious.
125 The bookroll determinative may reflect the metaphorical use of the word here.
It also appears in Ptahhotep 95, 96, and 107, all of which can represent similar metaphorical uses of the verb.
126 Erman 1896, 7072. This interpretation was reflected in Erman 1923, 130, and
followed by Ranke (1926, 28), who also left the word untranslated. The stroke below jm that Erman saw as signaling the insertion point is more likely an aborted
overwritten by the following m: see Chapter Two, Section 2.
123

106

CHAPTER THREE

recognized it as a stative meant to be read with the end of col. 141


and before col. 142. His translation, in Gefangenschaft gehalten, has
been followed by a few scholars (Scharff 1937, 56 and 57 n. 15; von
der Wense 1949, 72; Jacobsohn 1952, 37; Barta 1969, 28; Wilson
1969, 407; Lohmann 1998, 224; Quirke 2004, 133; Chioffi and Rigamonti 2007, 76), but most translations have ignored the word.
11. the mans fourth litany (cols. 14247)

(142)
wnn ms ntj jm m nr n
Surely, he who is there will be a living god,
143
r sf jw n jrr sw
punishing the misdeed of him who does it.
In contrast to all other translations, Junge has analyzed the second
verse of this stanza as predicate to the first: Wer dort als lebender
Gott ist, verwehrt das bel dem, der es tut.127 This is possible syntactically but unlikely in view of the third stanza of the litany, in which
the prepositional phrase m r-wt after wnn ms ntj jm must be the predicate. The same parallel also argues against Scharffs analysis of the
second line as governed by wnn ms ntj jm: Wer dort ist, frwahr, der
wird ein lebender Gott sein und strafen die snde an dem der sie tut
(1937, 58 and 59 n. 4; followed by Van de Walle 1939, 316; Junker
1948, 221; von der Wense 1949, 72; Spiegel 1950, 54; Jacobsohn
1952, 37; and Lanczkowski 1954, 3). Goedicke (1970, 17879) interpreted r sf as because of having refuted (followed by Tobin 1991,
352, and 2003, 186) rather than the expression of concomitant action
understood in other translations. This too is possible syntactically, but
unlikely in view of the parallel in the second stanza, which can only
express concomitance.

127

F. Junge, JEA 72 (1986), 122.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

107

The sense of sf has generally been understood as punish (first


by Erman 1896, 71) but also as repel, avert, bar, suppress (Maspero
1907, 130; Jacobsohn 1952, 37; Faulkner 1956, 30; Renaud 1991, 29;
Mathieu 2000, 33).128 The former is likelier in this context, in part
because the aorist sense of the participle is incompatible with the notion of preventing misdeeds. The n before jrr sw is then the
preposition rather than an indirect genitive modifying jw (Wb. III,
336, 15): literally, punishing the misdeed to the one who does it.
14344
wnn ms ntj jm m wj
Surely, he who is there will be standing in the bark,
14445
r rdjt dj.t stpwt jm n rw-prw
having choice cuts given from it to the temples.
The second verse of this stanza illustrates the use of r-pr as a term
for temple specifically in association with offerings.129 Goedickes
reading of the second
as
(1970, 180 nt-stpwt) is improbable:
the signs left end has a clear upward projection.
14546
wnn ms ntj jm m r-wt
Surely, he who is there will be a knower of things,
14647
nj sf.n.t.f r spr n r ft mdw.f
not barred from appealing to the Sun when he speaks.
Although the final pronoun could refer to r the Sun, in the
context it undoubtedly denotes the deceased.

Goedickes having refuted (1970, 178), Tobins has rejected (1991, 352) and
purged away (2003, 186), Brescianis scansa (1999, 205), Hallers rcht (2004,
18), and Quirkes avenging (2004, 134) go beyond the attested uses of the verb.
129 P. Spencer, The Egyptian Temple, a Lexicogaphical Study (London, Boston, Melbourne and Henley, 1984), 41.
128

108

CHAPTER THREE

12. the souls fourth speech (cols. 14754)

14748
dt.n n.j b
What the soul said to me:
All previous references to the Soul have the 1s suffix (b.j), but
the pronoun may be intentionally omitted here rather than simply
unwritten. If so, the difference may reflect the impending resolution,
in which the Man is no longer arguing with himself (my soul).
(148)
jmj r.k nwt r
Put, then, complaint on the stake,
The determinative of the hapax indicates that it denotes a
wood object of some kind.130 Faulkner was the first to propose a
translation, peg, suggesting that the image may be that of discarding
misery like an unwanted garment and hanging it on a peg (1956,
39 n. 111). This was adopted in most subsequent translations, although Lichtheim suggested wood-pile (1973, 169; followed by
Quirke 2004, 134) and Tobin, garbage heap (1991, 352). Parkinsons fence (1997, 160) is based on a suggestion of Gardiner that
the later hapax
yt, rendered as palisade, may be a
collective of .131 Goyon suggested that is related to another
later hapax,
wj, which he rendered as brindille, bton132
net. If either of these is correct, the term in col. 148 may denote a
wood upright, and the image is perhaps that of putting complaint
to death by impaling it, as in the New Kingdom punishment of major
criminals rdj r tp t putting on top of the stick (Wb. III, 341, 1).

130

And therefore not a form of Wb. I, 361, 6 j as argued by Goedicke (1970,

183).
A.H. Gardiner, Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum, Third Series, Chester Beatty
Gift (London, 1935), I, 43 n. 2; II, pl. 20, 6, 4; followed by Mathieu (2000, 35 n. 43).
132 J.-C. Goyon, Confirmation du pouvoir royal au nouvel an (BdE 52; Cairo, 1972),
I, 112 n. 261; rejected by W.A. Ward, SAK 5 (1977), 273 n. 34.
131

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

109

14849
nsw pn sn.j
O belonger, my brother.
Since sn.j my brother is written with two seated-man signs,
nsw, with only one, was perhaps not intended to be understood with a
1s suffix. The term, literally he belongs to, is used uniquely as a
noun here (see the discussion of Scharff 1937, 6162 n. 2), and clearly
denotes a relationship closer than mere companionship, as seen first
by Erman (1896, 74 du Angehriger).
14950
wdn.k r
You should make offering on the brazier
(150)
mj .k r n
in accord with your fighting for life,
15051
mj d.k r wj
in accord with your saying, Desire me here.
Faulkners understanding of the first clause as urging the Man to
offer to the gods (1956, 39 n. 113) is undoubtedly accurate, in contrast
to Scharffs Du sollst dich aufs Feuer werfen (1937, 60), accepted
until Faulkners study and occasionally thereafter (Thausing 1957,
266; Wilson 1969, 407; Foster 1992, 18). The offering is presumably
intended to encourage the gods to alleviate the Mans misfortune.
The sign at the top of col. 150 has been read as
(of dmj
cling) except for Goedickes
(1970, 18384). Neither is completely satisfactory, because of the clear bump in its lower middle,
not present in other examples of
and
in the papyrus. Goedickes r mj.k in order to be adamant is impossible, since m is
otherwise attested only as a noun (Wb. II, 49, 56). The verb dmj is
also problematic in view of the sign before the striking man. Faulkners reading of this as
(1956, 26 and 39 n. 114) rather than

110

CHAPTER THREE

Ermans
(1896, 75) is correct; identical forms are recorded by
Mller, Palographie I, 113. Since the sign is unlikely to be a determinative of dmj, it must represent the verb fight, as usual.
This leaves the sign at the top of the column to be accounted for.
The best explanation is probably a form of the brazier with which
is often determined. No exact parallels exist for the form here (cf.
Mller, Palographie I, 551), but somewhat similar signs occur in CT
IV, 413 (309a); VI, 206e and 308m.
The first mj in col. 150 is then a preposition governing .k, as in
the subsequent mj d.k. Faulkners emendation of d.k to d.j (1956,
3940 n. 115; followed by Bresciani 1999, 205) is unnecessary; the
passage makes sense as written. The verb has usually been translated as
present (first by Erman 1896, 75 wie du sagst) but also as past (Lurie
1939, 145 podobno tomu kak ty skazal as you said), future (Jacobsohn 1952, 39 wie du sagen wirst), and perfect (Faulkner 1956, 30
according as I have said, followed by Bresciani 1999, 205, and with
2s subject by Brunner-Traut 1967, 11; Lohmann 1998, 225; and Tobin
2003, 187). Of these, Jacobsohns future is improbable and the past or
perfect would more likely have been expressed by the relative dt.n.k.
The verb forms in mj .k and mj d.k are either the infinitive or a
non-attributive relative, but in either case have no specific tense.
Jacobsohn was also the first to understand mr here and in col. 151
as the imperative (1952, 39 Wnsche, da ich hier bleibe) in place
of Scharffs hypothetical sei es sei es (1937, 6263 n. 4; see also
Faulkner 1956, 40 n. 117). The sense is clearly that of Jacobsohns
translation, as generally understood. The command, however, is most
likely that of the Man to the Soul rather than vice versa, and therefore
a direct quotation introduced by mj d.k, with wj referring to the
Man. Together with the probable non-past sense of mj d.k, it reflects
the Mans argument in the beginning of the text. Though seemingly
at odds with the Mans position in the litanies, it establishes one side
of the debate for the resolution that follows. The sense of the passage
as a whole can be paraphrased: Insofar as you prefer to fight for life
and have me remain here, you should ask the gods for assistance.

PHILOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

111

(151)
wjn n.k jmnt
Reject the West for yourself,
The verb of this clause has usually been interpreted as a sm.n.f
expressing prior circumstance (Scharffs nachdem du den Westen abgelehnt hast 1937, 60). Faulkner, however, saw it as an imperative
with ethical dative (1956, 30 thrust thou aside the West; followed by Foster 1992, 18; Lohmann 1998, 225;133 Bresciani 1999, 205;
Tobin 2003, 187; Haller 2004, 19; Quirke 2004, 134;134 and Chioffi
and Rigamonti 2007, 80). Although either is arguable syntactically,
the latter gives better sense in the context of the clause that follows.
15152
mr m p.k jmnt
but desire too that you reach the West
(152)
s .k t
when your body touches the earth,
The second clause has been understood both as parallel to p.k
jmnt (e.g., Jacobsohn 1952, 39 wnsche auch, da du den Westen
erreichst und dein Leib zur Erde gelangt) and as circumstantial to it
(e.g., Faulkner 1956, 30 but desire that thou mayest attain the West
when thy body goes to earth). Either interpretation is possible, but
the second is clearly more germane to the immediate context, as seen
by Renaud (1999, 2930 Ne dsire atteindre lOccident que lorsque
ton corps aura rejoint la terre; similarly, Lohmann 1998, 225; Tobin
2003, 187; Haller 2004, 19).
153
ny.j r s wrd.k
and I will alight after your weariness.

133
134

Transcribed as wjn.n.k but translated as stelle fr dich den Westen zurck.


With the inexplicable translation hold up the West for yourself.

112

CHAPTER THREE

154
j jr.n dmj n zp
Thus we will make harbor at the same time.
The expression jrj dmj make harbor seems not to be attested
elsewhere, but jrj is used with an object of place in the sense of travel
to (Wb. I, 111, 12); cf. also jrj st take a position (Wb. IV, 6, 610).
The final prepositional phrase has usually been interpreted as a variant of the more common m zp together, at one time (Wb. III, 438,
89). This understanding has been challenged by Goedicke (1970,
186), who renders it for the occasion, and Cannuyer and Delpech
(1999), who translate it as de survivant. The preceding lines, in
cols. 15053, however, indicate that the author had in mind both the
Man and the Soul reaching the West (described as dmj a harbor in
col. 38) in tandem. Together with the clear sense of reconciliation in
this section, this argues for the usual interpretation of n zp as denoting
commonality. The expression n zp w is attested elsewhere in the
Middle Kingdom with the closely related meaning on one occasion.135
13. the colophon (cols. 15455)

15455
jw.f pw t.f r p.fj mj gmyt m z
That is how it comes, its beginning to its end, as found in
writing.
The colophon, written in red, follows the standard form of Middle Kingdom literary texts. It undoubtedly indicates that the text was
copied from another manuscript.

135

Anthes, Hatnub, pl. 6, 8.

CHAPTER FOUR

GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS
1. the lexicon

The preserved and restorable text of the Debate contains 346 lexemes
and 1,028 words.1 The lexemes can be divided into eleven categories:
adverbs, nisbes of prepositions and nouns, common nouns, compound nouns,2 proper nouns,3 nouns with a verbal root (abstracts,
nouns of agent, etc.), particles, simple prepositions, pronouns, the
quantifier nb, and verbs. Their distribution is as follows:
CATEGORY

NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

OCCURRENCES

PERCENTAGE

1%

1%

Nisbes

2%

30

3%

Common nouns

99

29%

246

24%

Adverbs
4

Compound nouns

2%

14

1%

Proper nouns

1%

< 1%

Verbal nouns

48

14%

69

7%

This count differs somewhat from that of Barta (1969, 12225) and Schenkel
(1973) because of the inclusion of the fragments published by Parkinson (2003) and
additional restorations.
2 Noun phrases viewed as a single noun, as indicated by a common determinative or usage elsewhere. These include bw-nb everyone; the direct genitive r-pr
temple; the nisbe compounds nj-sw belonger, rj-t survivor, and rj-nr necropolis; and the participial phrases q-jb intimate and hr-jb calm-hearted. The phrase
mryt-nt-tt in cols. 13536 also has a common final determinative but is considered as
three separate lexemes because it is not attested as a compound elsewhere. The elements of the phrases bw nfr goodness (109) and nt r sternness (107) are also
considered as separate lexemes because they lack a common determinative.
3 Not including the noun rw sun used as a proper name.
4 Not including the nisbes rj and rj, which occur only in the compounds rj-t
survivor and rj-nr necropolis, respectively.
1

114

CHAPTER FOUR

CATEGORY

NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

OCCURRENCES

PERCENTAGE

Particles

13

4%

96

9%

Prepositions

10

3%

228

22%

Pronouns

15

4%

52

5%

Quantifier

< 1%

< 1%

138

40%

271

26%

Verbs

The percentage of occurrences in each category corresponds to the


categorys weight in the lexicon of the text, with the exception of verbal nouns and verb forms, which have a substantially lower number of
occurrences than their lexical weight, and particles and prepositions,
with a higher proportion of occurrences than their distribution in the
lexicon. Verbs and nouns as a whole account for the greatest number of
both lexemes and occurrences, with 271 occurrences (26%) of various
forms of 138 verbs (40% of the lexicon) in the text, and 337 occurrences (33%) of 159 nouns of all types (46% of the lexicon).
2. verb forms

The text of the Debate is written in classical Middle Egyptian. It contains most of the verb forms used in that stage of the language (see the
Indices, Section 2), with the exception of the rarer ones: prospective
passive (smm.f ), sm.r.f, sm.k.f, and complementary infinitive.
The perfective sm.f is restricted to the negation nj sm.f, as in
standard Middle Egyptian. The prospective active (smw.f ) appears
not only in the frequent future wnn (142, 143, 145) but also as a more
unusual alternant of the subjunctive in clause-initial position:
rdj.j p.f jmnt mj ntj m mr.f (4142)
I will make him reach the West like one who is in his pyramid.

This use of the form is paralleled in older Middle Egyptian texts, including the Coffin Texts, the letters of Heqanakht, and the Tale of the
Shipwrecked Sailor.5 Other possible examples of the form are cols. 47

See also Allen, Heqanakht, 9196.

GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS

115

48 hjm.k, after conditional jr, an environment in which the prospective is occasionally used instead of the subjunctive in Middle
Egyptian;6 and 32 my.k, 47 swrj.j, 48 zy.j, 152 p.k, and 153 ny.j,
with prospective reference. All six, however, could also be instances
of the more common subjunctive (see Section 3, below).
The text observes the standard Middle Egyptian preference for
the stative as the intransitive counterpart of the transitive sm.n.f. The
stative is used with reference to the past not only in the subject-stative
construction (107 jw zf q and nt r h.w, 114 sn pr) but also initially with third-person subject in past narrative (72 rs, 73 pr, 74 q), a
relatively rare use.7 The sm.n.f of intransitive verbs, or of transitive
verbs in intransitive use, occurs only after a negation (23 nj nm.n,
11 nj sm.n.j, 59 nn pr.n.k, 84 nj sm.n.f ).
The perfective passive participle of verbs with biliteral roots
shows both the older geminated form (124 mm) and the ungeminated form more common in Middle Egyptian (79 sdw). The text has
perhaps one instance of the sm.n.f relative in non-attributive use
(emphatic or nominal)71 m.n.f, as an initial circumstantial
but a fairly large number of examples of the sm.f form in this function:
as an initial conditional or circumstantial (40 tt, 62 pr, 83 nn.f, 110
sr); with a focused adverbial adjunct (78 my.j, 10329 d.j, 117
and 124 jnn.tw); as object of a preposition (130 snb, 137 jw, 141 bb,
147 mdw.f, 150 .k, 150 d.k, 153 wrd.k),8 subject of another predicate (10 rwj.f, 2930 sf ), and nominal predicate (154 jw.f ). Where
the form is clear it is the imperfective (bb, nn.f, jw/jw.f, jnn.tw), but
the perfective is possible in 10 rwj.f and 78 my.j.9

Allen, Middle Egyptian, 21.6.


For this use in Middle Egyptian, see Allen, Middle Egyptian, 17.17. Past narrative uses of the intransitive stative are generally restricted to the first person singular:
Doret, Narrative Verbal System, 5861.
8 130 snb, 150 .k and d.k, and 153 wrd.k could be infinitives.
9 The perfective relative in emphatic use is attested in Sin. B 202 jr.tw nn mj
mj How was this done? (Koch, Sinuhe, 63, 9).
6
7

116

CHAPTER FOUR

3. synthetic and analytic prospectives

For statements with prospective reference, the text uses the prospective and subjunctive forms of the sm.f and the periphrastic jw.f r sm.
Four instances of the prospective and three of the subjunctive can be
identified morphologically: prospective rdj.j (41) and wnn (142, 143,
145); and subjunctive m.k (59) and wn (121, 130). The subjunctive
can also be identified in a number of syntactic environments for
which it is the only or dominant form in Middle Egyptian: as an initial jussive or optative (7 .f, 15 tk.f, 23 w, 24 sf, 25 sm, 26 sf,
39 sm, 149 wdn.k), in the negation nn sm.f (8 dj.t, 910 pr, 51
gm.k, 121 wn, 130 wn), after the particle j (46 tm.f, 153 jr.n),10 in
clauses of purpose or result (16 .f, 23 tp, 44 sdm.k, 46 sdm.k, 49
s<d>m.k, 5556 wb.f, 59 m.k, 86 wb.j, 150 .k), to continue an
imperative (*26 sb.j), and as object of rdj (8 .f, 41 p.f, 144 dj.t).
In other environments, the sm.f with prospective reference could
be either form. Both are attested after conditional jr (4748 hjm.k), as
noted above, and as object of the verb mrj desire (152 p.k).11 One
environment in which the prospective is normally used instead of the
subjunctive is the clause of future circumstance.12 This use may be
attested in the Debate in five passages:
ptr km.k
my.k r n mj nb-w (3233)
What is your gain,
if you will care about life like an owner of riches?
tt jb.f n.j jw.f r mr
rdj.j p.f jmnt mj ntj m mr.f (4041)
Should his heart be in accord with me, he will be fortunate,
for I will make him reach the West like one is in his pyramid.

See Vernus, Future at Issue, 10115.


For the subjunctive after mrj, see Gardiner, EG, 452.1a; for the prospective,
Pyr. 977a ( jw).
12 Allen, Middle Egyptian, 21.6.
10
11

GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS

117

swrj.j mw r bbt
zy.j wjw (4748)
I will drink water at the flood
and shall lift away dryness.
t.fj r t hrw qrs
sy.f nkyt n rj-nr (5355)
who will attend at the tomb on burial-day
and will transport a bed for the necropolis.
mr m p.k jmnt s .k t
ny.j r s wrd.k (15153)
But desire too that you reach the West when your body touches the
earth,
and I will alight after your weariness.

In these cases, the verb form in question is either clearly prospective


rather than subjunctive (41 rdj.j) or shows an ending y (32 my.j, 48
zy.j, 54 sy.f, 153 ny.j), which is typical of the prospective of finalweak verbs although also found in the subjunctive of such verbs.13
The periphrastic prospective subjectr-sm (Third Future) is
used in independent statements or initial clauses and as the apodosis of
an initial emphatic conditional:
[ j]w.n r d [ ] (*291)
[ ] we are to speak [ ]
[j]w r [b m] dbw (23)
It would be crooked in return.
jw.j r jt.k (36)
I shall rob you.
tt jb.f n.j jw.f r mr (4041)
Should his heart be in accord with me, he will be fortunate.

Allen, Middle Egyptian, 21.2 (prospective) and 19.2 (subjunctive). The prospective active rdj does not have an ending. The ending y of the final-weak
prospective derives from an original jw: Allen, Inflection, 20. Apart from the nonattributive (perfective?) relative my.j (78), these are the only examples of the 3ae-inf.
sm.f with this ending. It does not appear in this text in the final-weak subjunctive (8
dj.t .f, 51 gm.k, 144 dj.t, 153 jr.n).
13

118

CHAPTER FOUR

jw.j r jrt njj (43, 45)


I shall make an awning.

The prospective or subjunctive sm.f is also used as an initial future


(47 swrj.j, cited above). In this case, the usage illustrates Vernuss distinction between internal and external expressions of the future: thus,
swrj.j I will drink vs. jw.j r jt/jrt I shall rob/make.14
4. synthetic and analytic imperfectives

A comparable alternation involves the subjectsm.f and subjectrsm constructions. In this case, the distinction is between what Vernus
has termed unachieved non-extensive and unachieved extensive
expressions, respectively.15
In the Debate, subjectsm.f, with the imperfective, is used for aorist statements. These typically hold true regardless of contextjw tw
r.sn (21) Trees fallbut also more narrowly within the context of
a parable, a usage apparently unique to this text:
jw ns sk.f dw.f
jw.f <t>p.f mw.f r nw dpt (6870)
A little man plows his plot,
and he loads his harvest inside a boat.
jw ns db.f mrwt
jw jm<t>.f d.s n.f jw r msyt
jw.f pr.f r ntw r.s s r t (8082)
A little man asks for an afternoon meal,
and his wife says to him, It will be supper,
and he goes outside at it, only for a moment.

The subjectr-sm construction (First Present) is used in the Debate


to describe actions contemporary with another action or with a situation, including the situation of the speech event itself (moment of
speaking):

14
15

Vernus, Future at Issue, 2427.


Vernus, Future at Issue, 16393.

GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS

119

mj.tn b.j r tht.j (11)


But look, my soul is leading me astray.
nmn tw r tfyt nn nwt.k
nrj nb r d jw.j r jt.k (3436)
In fact, you are being uprooted, without considering yourself,
while everyone deprived is saying, I shall rob you.
rs m dpt r r q (7273)
He watched in the boat as the Sun was going in.
nn.f sw r pr.f jw.f mj ky
jmt.f r s n.f (8384)
When he turns back to his house, he is like another man,
his wife pleading to him.
wn jbw
z nb r jtt wt snnw.f (105106)
Hearts are greedy,
every man taking the others things.
jw .tw
z nb r jtt snnw.f (11213)
For one plunders,
every man robbing the other.

Both uses of the subjectsm.f construction correspond to comparable


uses of the simple present in English (aorist and historical present),
while subjectr-sm can usually be rendered best by the English imperfect, both as an immediate present (is leading) and in non-present
contexts (was going in).
These aspectual differences extend to the use of the two predicates in circumstantial clauses without initial subjects. The
imperfective sm.f appears in aorist statements (17 jn.f and 11011
ssbt.f, both governed by an imperfective attributive in the preceding
clause, and 70 sts.f, following a subjectsm.f clause) and other nonextensive environments (152 s, describing a single event):
p js pw prr jn.f sw r.f (17)
that being the one who goes forth and brings himself to it.

120

CHAPTER FOUR

sr z m zp.f bjn
ssbt.f bw-nb jw.f w (11011)
When a man causes anger by his bad deed,
he makes everyone laugh, though his misdeed is evil.
jw.f <t>p.f mw.f r nw dpt
sts.f sqdwt b.f tkn (6971)
and he loads his harvest inside a boat
and drags a sailing, his festival near.
mr m p.k jmnt
s .k t (15152)
But desire too that you reach the West
when your body touches the earth.

The example in col. 70 can also be analyzed as an instance of gapping,


where sts.f is to be understood as governed by 69 jw.f, like <t>p.f.
Gapping also explains the use of the imperfective sm.f in 76 pz.f,
which might otherwise appear to be an extensive use of the form, like
the circumstantial r d that follows:
r.jn.f ms pz.f m rw
r d nj rm.j n tf mst (7577)
So, he ended up seated and spreading out by voice,
saying, I have not wept for her who was born.

In this case, pz.f is governed by the initial (non-extensive) r.jn.f, like


the stative ms, while r d indicates an action that is contemporary
(co-extensive) with the situation described by the three preceding
verb forms.
This value of r plus the infinitive also applies to three or four
other instances of the construction in the Debate:
ptr mnt.f [ f]
r [rdjt] s.f r [sn].f (1415)
What is his suffering, that he should [ ],
giving his back to his brother?
b.j w r sd h r n (1718)
My soul has become too foolish to suppress misery while living.

GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS

121

wnn ms ntj jm m nr n
r sf jw n jrr sw (14243)
Surely, he who is there will be a living god,
punishing the misdeed of the one who does it.
wnn ms ntj jm m wj
r rdjt dj.t stpwt jm r rw-prw (14345)
Surely, he who is there will be standing in the bark,
having choice cuts given from it to the temples.

Only the last of these is a clear example of circumstantial r plus infinitive: the first is conjectural, the second may involve a verbal noun
rather than the infinitive (because of life); the third was perhaps
intended as a virtual relative (who bars), although its aspectual value
is the same in both cases.16 As Vernus notes,17 the use of r plus the
infinitive as an extensive represents a grammaticalized construction, as
distinct from other examples in which r has the value of a full preposition: 12 r sts.j because of dragging me (possibly also *14), 13 r
.(j) because of throwing me, 146 r spr from petitioning (Wb.
III, 335, 10), and perhaps also 150 .k r n your fighting for
life if n is the infinitive rather than a verbal noun.
The clear distinction between subjectsm.f and subjectr-sm in
the Debate represents the third stage (Dynasty XIXII) in Vernuss
analysis of the history of these two constructions in Middle Egyptian.18 It identifies the probable date of the texts composition as the
first half of Dynasty XII, perhaps a hundred years earlier than the
copy that has been preserved.19

For r plus infinitive as a virtual relative after an undefined antecedent, see


Allen, Middle Egyptian, 15.10.2.
17 Future at Issue, 164.
18 Future at Issue, 191.
19 See also P. Vernus, in Studies in Egyptology Presented to Miriam Lichtheim, 1033
47. For the date of the papyrus itself, see Chapter Two, above.
16

CHAPTER FIVE

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
The Debate between a Man and His Soul is one of the great compositions
of Middle Egyptian literature. As such, it employs the conventions
found in other such works, including versification, metaphor, simile,
and devices such as alliteration and word-play.1 Not all of these features are recoverable to the same degree, and the means by which
some are analyzed is the subject of ongoing debate. To the extent that
stylistic features can be discerned, however, they are crucial to the
way in which the work is understood.
1. versification in the litanies

The key stylistic feature of the text is its verse structure. Although
much of the composition has usually been translated as prose, there is
general agreement that at least the litanies in the Mans third speech
are in verse.2 The stanzas of the first three litanies have been understood most often as tercets and those of the fourth as couplets.3 This
reflects the structure that seems logically innate in each litany, based
on its repetitive elements:

See Parkinson, Poetry and Culture, 11228.


The composition apart from the litanies has been treated as verse by Ranke
1926 (cols. 5568), von der Wense 1949, Barta 1969, Renaud 1991 (cols. 530 and
3355), Tobin 1991 (cols. 530), Foster 1992, Parkinson 1997, Assmann 1998, Bresciani 1999, Mathieu 2000, Tobin 2003, and Burkard 2008. The term litany has
been adopted here to distinguish the four poems of the Mans third speech (cols. 85
147) from the rest of the poem proper.
3 The fourth litany is treated as a tercet by Erman 1923, Spiegel 1950, Potapova
1965, Wilson 1969, Foster 1992, and Mathieu 2000. Von der Wense 1949 treats the
third and fourth litanies as quatrains. Lohmann 1998 and Burkard 2008 treat all the
litanies as couplets. The versification of Barta 1969 is discussed below.
1
2

124

CHAPTER FIVE

mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r

d.j n mj mjn

Look, my name is reeking:


look, more than

To whom can I speak today?

(8 stanzas)

(16 stanzas)

jw mwt m r.j mjn


mj
mj

Death is in my sight today,


like
like

(6 stanzas)

wnn ms ntj jm

Surely, he who is there will be

(3 stanzas).

Acceptance of this logical structure, however, requires modification of


the prevailing theory of Egyptian metrics, developed by Gerhard Fecht.4
In Fechts analysis, lines of ancient Egyptian verse regularly consist of two or three groups of words (cola), each of which has a single
primary stress. This system works well for some of the lines of the
four litanies: for example,5
3
2
3

d.j nmj mjn


jww mq-jb
jnn.tw mmm rsrtn.f (12325)
To whom can I speak today?
There is lack of an intimate;
one resorts only to an unknown to make known to.

3
2
3

jwmwt mr.j mjn


mjbbzj mpr.sn
jr.n.frnpwtt jt.w mnrt (14042)
Death is in my sight today,
like a man longs to see home,
when he has spent many years taken in captivity.

Initially, Fecht, ZS 91 (1964), 1163, supplemented by several later studies.


See Parkinson, Poetry and Culture, 11314.
5 Based on Barta 1969, 1618, where the Debate is analyzed according to Fechts
system. In the transcription, full forms of all verb forms are used. The words of each
colon are joined by a dash; the numbers on the left indicate the number of cola per line.
4

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

2
2

125

wnnmsntjjm mnrn
rsfjw njrrsw (14243)
Surely, he who is there will be a living god,
punishing the misdeed of him who does it.

In most cases, however, retaining the logical verse structure produces


cola that are shorter or longer than those regarded by Fecht as normative: for instance,
1
2
2

mj.kbrn.j
mj.krdmj njty
nnbtw ms.f (101103)
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than the harbor of the Sire
that plots sedition but whose back is seen.

3
1
4

d.j nmj mjn


snwbjn.w
jnn.tw mrrw rmtt ntjb (11618)
To whom can I speak today?
Brothers have become bad;
one brings only strangers into the middle of the heart.

3
1
3

jwmwt mr.j mjn


mjwtwyt
mjjwzj mm rpr.sn (13638)
Death is in my sight today,
like the floods ebbing,
like a man comes home from an expedition.

2
4

wnnmsntjjm mrwt
njsf.n.tw.f rspr nr ftmdw.f (14547)
Surely, he who is there will a knower of things,
who cannot be barred from appealing to the Sun when he speaks.

Fechts norm of two or three cola can only be maintained in such


cases by reanalyzing the lines, as Barta has done. But this often results
in a violation of the logical integrity of each line:
3
2
3

d.j nmj mjn


snwbjn.w jnn.tw
mrrw rmtt ntjb

126

CHAPTER FIVE

To whom can I speak today?


Brothers have become bad; one brings only
strangers into the middle of the heart.
3
2
2

jwmwt mr.j mjn


mjwtwyt mjjwzj
mm rpr.sn
Death is in my sight today,
like the floods ebbing, like a man comes
home from an expedition.

Bartas analysis also disrupts the logical stanza structure, producing a


somewhat random pattern of tercets and couplets in the litanies.6
Fechts system is based on Coptic, where stress can be deduced
from spelling, but it also entails a somewhat subjective supposition that
groups of words have only a single primary stress.7 That supposition is
borne out by Coptic in some cases: for example, the Coptic circumstantial First Present with pronominal subject and stativee.g.,
efsotp he chosenhas a single stress (efstp), indicating that the
same was probably true for its Middle Egyptian ancestor, jw.f stp.w.
Fecht extrapolates the same stress pattern for the form with nominal
subjecte.g., 3637 rn.k n your name is alivebut Coptic indicates that this construction had two stressespekEre onh your
son is alive (Jn 4:50 pekre nh)and there is no reason to believe
that the situation was different in Middle Egyptian. Such discrepancies suggest that the cola identified by Fechts rules may not always
reflect the true metrical structure of a Middle Kingdom text.
Coptic generally shows a single fully stressed vowel in nouns (including the descendants of some original adjectives), independent
pronouns, adverbs, prepositional phrases with a noun or suffix pronoun, and verbal compounds with pronominal subject (such as
efsotp); other elements normally function as clitics, without full

Barta retains consistent tercets only in the third litany. In the first, he has three
tercets and five couplets; in the second, ten tercets and six couplets; and in the fourth,
two couplets and a tercet.
7 Fechts rules defining these stress units are elaborated in ZS 91 (1964), 3036.
6

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

127

stress. For elements that are usually fully stressed, reduction to a clitic
is largely restricted to three syntactic environments: the independent
pronoun as subject in a non-verbal sentence with nominal predicate,
original direct genitive or noun-adjective constructions that have become lexicalized, and the infinitive and conjunct participle with nominal object: e.g., ntok (ntk) you vs. ntk nim (ntk-nm) Who are
you?; rwme (rme) man vs. rm+me (rmtme) villager (from rm
dmj man of a village); stoi (sti) smell vs. s+noufe (stinfe)
perfume (from sj nfr good smell); swtm (stm) hear vs. setmhroou (setmhru) hear noise (from sm rw hearing of noise).
These features provide a somewhat more objective basis than
Fechts cola for deducing the metrics of a Middle Kingdom verse
composition. Not surprisingly, lines analyzed in this way turn out to
have meters not too different from those in Fechts analysis, with two
or three feet per line the norm (see Appendix Two). In the first litany,
for example, half of the stanzas have a 323 meter, as in stanza one:
3
2
3

mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rstjsw
mhrwwmw pt t.tj
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than carrions smell
on Harvest days, when the sky is hot.8

In the last two stanzas of the litany, the second line has three feet:
mj.k rrd qn.w (100) look, more than a brave boy and mj.k rdmj
njty (102) look, more than the harbor of the Sire. Lines with four
feet also occur at the end of three stanzas: rzw nwzw m n.sn

Fecht analyzes proclitic particles as clitics but mj.k followed by a dependent


pronoun as one colon: ZS 91 (1964), 34. The particle mj.k itself, however, may have
been fully stressed, as suggested by its origin in mj plus a dependent pronoun (mj-kw:
e.g., Pyr. 162c). Fecht also analyzes an adjectival predicate with nominal subject as a
single colon: ZS 91 (1964), 34 and 36. This was perhaps true for common adjectives such as nfr, as indicated by Coptic nefrnoun, but examples such as Sin. B 82
wr n.f jrp r mw wine was greater for it than water, where the adjective and noun are
separated, suggest that in other cases both carried full stress.
8

128

CHAPTER FIVE

(9495) at the channels of the nests for which they are fowled,9 d
grg r.s ny (9899) about whom the lie of a lover has been told,
and nn btw m s.f (102103) that plots sedition but whose back is
seen.10 This suggests a conscious attention to meter on the part of
the author, with variation from the normal pattern used for stylistic
effect. The overall pattern is 323 (stanzas 13 and 5), 324 (stanzas
4 and 6), 333 (stanza 7), and 334 (stanza 8).
The pattern is less regular in the second litany. Its lines have not
only two to four feet but also one and five. A single foot appears in the
second line of stanzas six, twelve, and fourteen: jw.tw (112) For
one plunders, nnmtjw (122) There are no righteous, and nnhr-jb
(12526) There is no calm-hearted. A line with five feet occurs at
the end of the seventh stanza: sn jrr n.f pr.w mftj (11415) the
brother one used to act with become an opponent. Ten meters appear
in the litany as a whole: 312 (stanza 6), 313 (stanza 14), 314
(stanza 12), 322 (stanza 2), 323 (stanzas 1, 3, 8, 13), 324 (stanzas

The pronominal dative is fully stressed in Coptic, at least bisyllabic n.n >
nEtn, and therefore probably also Middle Egyptian n.sn. In Middle Egyptian, however, it may have been clitic when preceding verbal objects and nominal subjects:
e.g., Pyr. 587c sm.nn.ksw rw Horus has turned him away for you, with two
feet rather than three (sm.n n.ksw rw). A similar bivalence may have existed for
clitic r.f/r.k: e.g., col. 109 rdjr.f bwnfr rt mstnbt vs. cols. 9899 d grg r.s ny.
10 Fecht analyzes the sm.f with nominal subject as a single colon: ZS 91 (1964),
36. This is based, however, on adjectival predicates, which may not have had the
same prosody as the sm.f. The fact that a nominal subject can be separated from the
verb by a number of elements suggests that it bore a separate stress. The same argument applies to the nominal object of active participles, complement of passive
participles, and subject of relative forms. The fact that attributive forms can have such
complements indicates that they were probably separate cola, as Fecht recognized at
least for relative forms: ZS 91 (1964), 35. The prosody of adjectives is uncertain.
Fecht treats a noun with following adjective as a single colon: ZS 91 (1964), 32.
Coptic, however, also shows full stress of both elementsBohairic sToy noufe
(sthi nfe) perfumewhich suggests that they should normally be analyzed as two
cola except for common (probably lexicalized) phrases such as hrw nfr good time.
The quantifier nb, however, was likely only enclitic, as shown by its occasional presence in direct genitives: e.g., Urk. I, 12, 9 m-k nb t every ka-servant of the
funerary estate.
9

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

129

4, 9, 10, 11),11 325 (stanza 7), 334 (stanza 5),12 33 (stanza 15),
and 34 (stanza 16). Although its length indicates that this litany was
intended as the most important of the four, the irregularity of its meter suggests that prosody was less important here than content.
In the third litany, the poem returns to a more regular meter. Its
first three stanzas have a 313 pattern.13 This is altered in stanzas four
and five by lengthening the final line by one foot (314), and the final
stanza has a unique 345 meter. This pattern suggests that the author
may once again have been devoting attention to prosody in his composition, with a deliberate lengthening of stanzas toward the litanys end.
Of the 94 lines in the litanies, there are 8 with one foot, 19 with
two, 48 with three, 16 with four, and 3 with five. In the first three litanies, lines of more than three feet occur only at the end of a stanza.
The couplets of the fourth litany, however, use lines of more than
three feet as the first of stanzas one and two and the last of stanzas two
and three (42, 45, 34). This may also be a conscious stylistic device on the authors part: the longer lines are associated with finality,
as in the ends of the three preceding litanies.
1. versification in the text

There is general agreement that the literary corpus of the Middle


Kingdom was composed as verse.14 This is undoubtedly true in the
case of the Debate as well, and has been recognized in a number of
translations (see n. 2, above). In other Middle Kingdom literary
works, the primary organizing feature is the two-line unit that Foster
has called the thought couplet, defined by him as a pair of verse
lines which form an independent unit of thought, syntax, and rhet
The final line of stanza nine may have three feet rather than four, if the phrase
mtt nt jb had only one stress: for indirect genitive phrases with a single stress, see
Fecht, ZS 91 (1964), 33.
12 Or 344, if the final bjn of the second line had independent stress.
13 Perhaps 323 in the first stanze if snb z is a sm.f with nominal subject.
14 Parkinson, Poetry and Culture, 114.
11

130

CHAPTER FIVE

oric.15 Each line is normally end-stopped, coinciding with a


grammatical clause, and the couplets contain no final run-on lines,
where the grammatical or rhetorical, or thought content continues
without break into the next couplet.16
The litanies, of course, demonstrate the use of tercets in addition
to couplets. These can be analyzed as a stylistic extension of Fosters
basic unit. In the verses of the first and second litanies, a common
initial line, or refrain, is followed by a couplet; the verses of the
third litany consist of an initial couplet (with a common first line)
expanded by an additional line. These show that adjuncts or attributives of a single clause can extend over two lines of a couplet (or three
of a tercet, as in the third litany), and that a single line can contain
more than one grammatical clause: e.g., 11011 ssbt.f bw-nb jw.f w.w
he makes everyone laugh, though his misdeed is evil and 14142
jr.n.f rnpwt t jt.w m nrt when he has spent many years taken in
captivity, both of which have a second, circumstantial clause with
stative predicate.
Although the verse structure in the body of the poem is not as
self-evident as it is in the litanies, these criteria can be used to analyze
it. Unlike the litanies, the division between lines in the rest of the
poem is not always clear: for example, 2021 prtpw n jwtw
r.sn Life is a cycle; trees fall, can be analyzed as a single line with
four feet or a couplet with two feet per line.17 In such cases, the
choice usually comes down to individual preference.
The text seems to have been composed largely in couplets, and
most lines have two or three feet, as in the litanies. There are, however, some probable exceptions to both of these patterns.
Although the litanies have a few lines of five feet, the rest of the
poem may have had none: possible instances can also be analyzed as

Foster, JNES 34 (1975), 9.


Foster, JNES 34 (1975), 78.
17 Treated as a single line by Renaud (1991, 23), Tobin (1991, 346, and 2003,
180), and Mathieu (2000, 21), and as a couplet in other verse translations.
15
16

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

131

couplets with two feet in one line and three in the other. As in the
litanies, however, a number of lines probably have one foot or four:
for example,
3
1

twt jb.f n.j


jw.frmr (4041)
Should his heart be in accord with me,
he will be fortunate.

3
4

jrhjm.kwj rmwt mpqj


nngm.k nt.k r.s mjmnt (4951)
If you prod me to death in that manner,
you will not find a place to land on in the West.

As in the litanies, lines of one foot do not occur in the poem as the
first line of a couplet or tercet. Those with four feet can appear in any
line, or both of a couplet, and are not limited to the beginning or end
of a section (see Appendix Two).
The poem also has nine instances in which an independent unit
of thought extends over three lines rather than twothat is, expressed as a true tercet. Seven mark the end of a section. The Mans
second speech begins with two symmetrical sections, each of which
has three couplets and a closing tercet. A third tercet marks the end of
the first part of this speech, in which the Man speaks of the Soul in
the third person, and a fourth occurs as the last stanza of the minilitany of cols. 4349, in which he addresses the Soul directly for the
first time. Three more tercets appear in the Souls third speech: one at
the end of its first section, before the two-couplet injunction of cols.
6768, and the other two in the Souls first parable, marking the end
of the first section of the story and the end of the tale itself. The final
two tercets occur in the Souls concluding speech.
These observations indicate that meter can be both incidental to
content and an intentional stylistic feature. In the first case, the prosody
probably reflects the normal metric length of an Egyptian clause, two
or three feet. In the second, the use of lines shorter or longer than the
norm suggests a conscious pacing to give variety to the composition

132

CHAPTER FIVE

and as an index of thematic change. Coupled with the occasional use


of tercets in place of the usual couplets, this indicates that the parameters of composition were capable of greater variation than that dictated
by Fechts system of metrics and Fosters uniform couplets.
The poems structure, as versified in Appendix Two, is also consciously constructed. The Souls second speech (cols. x-*29 and 13)
ends with two couplets whose second line is identical. The Mans
second speech has seven discrete sections, with the following themes
and structure:
510
1117
1729
2939
3943
4149

the Souls disagreement: 3 couplets and 1 tercet


the Souls enticement to death: 3 couplets and 1 tercet
the Souls sweetening the West: 9 couplets18
the Souls disparagement of the Mans situation: 8 couplets
proper burial, introduction: 2 couplets and 1 tercet
proper burial, mini-litany (first address to the Soul): 3 couplets and 1 tercet
4955 proper burial, conclusion: 3 couplets.

The Souls third speech has four sections:


5667
6768
6880
8185

disparagement of proper burial: 7 couplets and 1 tercet


injunction to enjoy life: 2 couplets
first parable: 3 couplets and 1 tercet plus 2 couplets and 1 tercet
second parable: 4 couplets.

The Souls fourth speech, which ends the poem, has a symmetrical
structure, with an opening couplet, two tercets, and a closing couplet.
3. other stylistic devices

Apart from meter, the only other phonological device recoverable


from the text of the Debate is consonantal alliteration. There is nothing
to indicate whether this feature is a deliberate device employed by the
author or merely accidental, but the following seem to be clear examples with a single consonant:

18

Or 8 if cols. 1921 is a 34 couplet rather than two short couplets (21 and 22).

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

2/3
17
21
11617

133

nj nm.n ns.sn
p js pw prr
jw tw r.sn
nj s.tw sf nj jr.tw n jr

More complex alliterations appear in other instances where similar


consonants are repeated:
1718
23
24
5354
68
11415
11819
13334
12930

b.j w.w r sd h r n
w wj wtj
sf nsw r.j
tj.fj r t hrw qrs
sm m
sn jrr n.f pr.w m ftj
rw tm.w
r tw hrw w
nf w t nn wn pwj.fj.19

A particularly sophisticated instance of complex alliteration occurs in


14950 wdn.k r .k r n, where similar groups of consonants are used in each clause. In this case, the approximate vocalization
can be recovered from Coptic, illustrating assonance as well: *wadnk
i and ak ina. Alliteration involving metathesis occurs
in 2526 sm r mdw.j (probably sdm mdw) and between the
second and third lines of the tercet in 9697 (r stj msw and r mst).
Rhetorical devices are more self evident. An unusual feature of
the composition is its use of repeated lines or phrases outside the litanies, producing mini-litanies in the text. These include nj nm.n
ns.sn their tongue cannot be biased as the second line in each of the
final two couplets of the Bas second speech (cols. 13), and the
phrase sdm.k ky b and you will make jealous another ba in the
beginning of the second line of the first three couplets in the final
section of the Mans second speech (cols. 4349).
A number of the second and third lines in the tercets of the litanies employ contrastive words or images: bjn the bad and bw nfr

A similar alliteration appears in the second and third lines of the tercet in cols.
8990, between zp and rzf.
19

134

CHAPTER FIVE

goodness (108109), sr zj a man causes anger and ssbt.f he


makes laugh (11011), sf yesterday and t t this time (11617),
mtjw righteous and jrw jsft disorder-doers (12223), wt wyt
the floods ebbing and jw zj r pr.sn a man comes home (136
38); also within a single line in 12425 jnn.tw m mm r srt n.f one
resorts only to an unknown to make known to.
Simile is used throughout the first and third litanies as well as in
the rest of the poem (cols. 67, 3233, 4143, 6365). The Egyptian
predilection for metaphorical expressions is illustrated by phrases such
as tw t.j my bellys secrets (30), w.w jb unreceptive (85: literally, stripped of heart), nt r sternness (107: literally, force of
face), q-jb intimate (114, 124, 12829: literally, one who enters
the heart), and mryt-nt-tt Bank of Inebriation (13536). Longer
metaphors are also employed throughout the composition:
r ntt.f m t.j m nw nw (9)
since he is in my belly in a rope mesh
.(j) r t r smmt.j 13)
throwing me on the fire to incinerate me
nmn tw r tfyt nn nwt.k (3435)
In fact, you are being uprooted, without considering yourself
st nf nt nt fdt nt jb (3738)
Yonder is a place of alighting, storage-chest of the heart
dmj pw jmnt n.t spdw r jr (3839)
The West is a harbor, which the perceptive should be rowed to
mdw n.sn rmw spt n mw (6667)
to whom the fish and the lip of the water speak
msw.s sdw m swt
mw r n ntj nj nt.sn (7880)
her children, broken in the egg,
who saw the face of Khenti before they lived.
jmj r.k nwt r (148)
Put, then, complaint on the stake
j jr.n dmj n zp (154)
Then we will make harbor at the same time.

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

135

A number of metaphors reflect the imagery of the soul as avian in nature. Cols. 37, 5051, and 153 use the verb
nj alight with
reference to the souls destination in the West, and the metaphor of
the nw nw (9) rope mesh, cited above, derives from the practice
of snaring wild birds in a clap-net.

CHAPTER SIX

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
When I hear somebody sigh, Life is hard,
I am always tempted to ask, Compared to what?
Sydney J. Harris

The Debate is presented as a discussion about life and death between


two protagonists: the Man, speaking in the first person, and his Soul.
As discussed in Chapter One, the concept of the soul is essentially
that of a complete individual residing, during life, in a physical shell
(the body). The debate is therefore the Mans inner struggle with
himself. It is developed in a series of coherent sections, each devoted
to one side of the debate, before the final resolution.
1. introduction and the souls first speech
[]
[ ] evil.
Doing it [ ]
[]
[that] you [might set down my] misery.

The lost beginning of the Debate can only be the subject of


speculation. Presumably it contained an introductory section, spoken
by the narrator, setting the background of the debate. It has been suggested that it was set in the context of an audience of some sort
(Parkinson 1997, 152), perhaps a court of the gods (Goedicke 1970,
40) or the final judgment (Mathieu 2000, 20), but there is no evidence of this in the surviving text other than the second-person plural
pronoun in 11 mj.tn look, and this may be merely generic (see the
discussion in Chapter Three, above).

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CHAPTER SIX

The Mans mention of a day of difficulties (cols. 10 and 15),


the Souls words cited in the Mans second speech (cols. 3137), and
the theme of the first two litanies all indicate that the debate takes
place in a time of great hardship for the Man. The opening words of
the poem undoubtedly made reference to this in some wayperhaps
analogous to the beginning of Edgar Allan Poes The Raven (Once
upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary), with
the Man pondering over his sorry state rather than Poes many a
quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore.
Poes raven is not introduced until the seventh stanza of his
poem. The loss before the Souls first speech is shorter (some ten
columns of text) but sufficient for the Mans initial lament and the
introduction of the Soul (also avian, like Poes raven) as his
interlocutor. The first two fragments of the papyrus preserve what
may be a few of the words from the Souls opening speech. If [w].k
m[jr.j] that you might set down my misery is restored correctly, it
is the first intimation of the Souls role in the first part of the poem,
giving voice to the Mans thoughts of death as a means of release
from his troubles. The words suggest that the Soul begins his role in
the debate as an advocate for death as a release from hardship.
2. the mans first speech
[What I said to my soul]:
It is the hour [ ]
[ ] him,
dragging [me ]
[]
[]

In the reconstruction suggested in Chapter Three, cols. *12


*15+x contained the Mans first response to the Souls opening remarks, with a short heading [dt.n.j n b.j] mirroring that which
introduces the Souls final words at the end of the poem. The phrase
r st[s.j] dragging me, if restored correctly, suggests the Mans re-

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

139

sistance to the Souls argument. In that case, his opening words wnwt
pw [ ] may have been part of a statement such as wnwt pw [nt w
jb] It is the hour for being resolute.1
3. the souls second speech
[And my soul opened his mouth to me
that he might answer what I had said]:
[]
[ ] face.
Guard [ ].
Come, then, that I may instruct you [ ]
[ ] you [ ] the hostile nature of the West.
[]
For a man [ ].
We are to speak [truly in the tribunal]:
their tongue cannot be biased.
It would be [crooked in return]:
their tongue cannot be biased.

The Souls response to the Mans objections began between cols.


*15 and *25 and was probably introduced by the same two clauses
that head the Souls third speech (cols. 5456). Although the first part
of the speech is lost, the Souls exhortation Come, then, that I may
instruct you [ ] the hostile nature of the West may be part of an
attempt to convince the Man not to fear death. The final two couplets of his speech may refer to the judgment after death, with the
repeated clause their tongue cannot be biased indicating the gods
verdict. If so, the import of these couplets is evidently that the gods
will understand and forgive the desire for death. As such, they are an
initial statement of the theme reiterated in the Souls cited words in
the Mans second speech.

Based on the use of the expression w jb in cols. 5152 (see the discussion in
Chapter Three). For the sentence, cf. Heqanakht I, vo. 9 mj.k rnpt n nt jrr z n nb.f
Look, this is the year for a man acting for his master: Allen, Heqanakht, pl. 28.
1

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CHAPTER SIX

4. the mans second speech


And I opened my mouth to my soul
that I might answer what he had said:
This has become too much for me today:
my soul has not spoken in accord with me.
It is also too much to exaggerate:
my soul going is like one who ignores what he is in.
He should attend to it for me,
my [second, who [rejects] his [life].
He will not be allowed to resist me,
since he is in my belly in a rope mesh:
that he leave on a day of difficulties will not happen to him.

In his second speech, the Man does not address his Soul directly
until the very end, but speaks about it in the third person (as he may
have done in his first speech as well, if col. *14 sw refers to the Soul).
This characteristic could indicate an address before an audience of
some sort, but it may also be a more subtle device on the part of the
texts ancient author, meant to reflect the Mans attempt to disown
his own inner thoughts, to which he initially expresses opposition.
The initial section of the speech has three couplets and a final tercet. The first couplet describes the Mans reaction to the Souls
preceding speech: frustration that the Soul persists in his wish for
death despite the Mans misgivings. In other words, the Man has not
been able to dispel his own thoughts of death as a release. In the
second and third couplets, the Man decries the Souls desire to go
as facile solution to his problems (what he is in): the Man himself
rejects death at this point and instead wants the Soul to help him face
his troubles (He should attend to it for me). The final tercet returns
to the theme of disagreement, with the Man making the point that
his Soul cannot in fact choose death on his own, because the two are
inseparable (since he is in my belly in a rope mesh). This a further
expression of frustration, that the Man cannot resolve the inner dichotomy that prevents him from dealing resolutely with his problems.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

141

But look, my soul is leading me astray.


I cannot listen to him
because of dragging me to death before I have come to it,
because of throwing me on the fire to incinerate me.
What is his suffering, that [he] should [ ]
[giving] his back to his [brother]?
He should be near me on a day of difficulties,
that he may stand on yon side like a eulogy-maker,
for that is the sort who goes forth and brings himself to it.

The second section, like the first, has three couplets with a final
tercet. Addressed to a general audience (mj.tn), the opening couplets
expand on the theme of the preceding section: instead of helping the
Man to face his problems, the Soul is tempting him to avoid them by
dying. The words dragging me to death before I have come to it are
a clear intimation of morbid thoughts, but the phrase throwing me on
the fire to incinerate me is most likely metaphorical rather than an
indication of the mode of death that the Man contemplates, as argued
initially by Scharff (1937, 1516). The image reflects the Mans fear,
perhaps expressed in his first speech, that an unnatural death will deny
him a happy afterlife, which is dependent on the Souls continued
association with his mummy but is threatened by his wish to separate
himself from the Man. It is clearly a metaphor for total annihilation,
but may also reflect the notion of the damned being burnt in the
Duat, as depicted in the netherworld books of the New Kingdom.
In the closing couplet and tercet, the Man reiterates his argument
that the Soul should remain with him and see him through a day of
difficulties. The Souls desire to leave prematurely for yon side is
contrasted with the normal separation of the soul at death, when it
welcomes the deceaseds mummy in the West. The final lines of the
tercet seem to reflect an otherwise unknown funeral rite (recitation of
the deceaseds tomb biography?), but their primary purpose is to serve
as a contrast to the Souls wish to go to the West prematurely. In addition, they introduce for the first time the notion of a proper burial,
which is elaborated at the end of the Mans second speech.

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CHAPTER SIX

My soul has become too foolish to suppress misery in life,


one who prods me toward death before I have come to it,
who sweetens the West for me:
Is it something difficult?
Life is a cycle;
trees fall.
Tread, then, on disorder,
set down my misery.
Let Thoth judge me
and the gods become content;
let Khonsu intervene for me,
he who writes truly;
let the Sun hear my speech,
he who stills the sun-bark;
let Isdes intervene for me
in the sacred room
since my need has become heavy
and [there is] no one to lift to himself for me.

The next section is the first of two in which the Man cites the
Souls words (which are, of course, his own inner thoughts). They
may reiterate, in part, elements of the Souls first speech, now lost.
Both lines of the opening couplet have a four-foot meter, reinforcing
the beginning of a new section. The text then continues with shorter
lines of one to three feet. Its nine couplets fall thematically into three
sub-sections, two of four couplets each and a concluding couplet.
The first four couplets open with a reprise of the Mans description
of the Soul as advocating death instead of persevering in misery in
life, with the change of dragging to proddingboth images reflecting the Mans own inability to dismiss a nagging desire for death.
The next three couplets provide the content of his persistent thoughts,
sweetening the idea of death as a natural part of existence.
With the four statements in the second set of couplets, the Soul
returns to the theme of the final judgment sounded at the end of his
second speech. In essence, the Man tells himself to let the gods decide
whether his thoughts of death are wrong, countering the trepidation
expressed in the preceding section. The judgment is described in

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

143

terms of the god who records the verdict, in the form of Thoth,
Khonsu, and Isdes, and the judge, the Sun. This differs from the quartet of gods specified in the later Book of the Dead: jr t t jmt
wt mtw wtj pw jsjrt pw jnpw pw jsdz pw (BD 18) As for the great
tribunal that is in the path of the dead, it is Thoth, it is Osiris, it is
Anubis, it is Isdes. Lanczkowski (1954, 1213) used the difference as
part of his argument for the text of the Debate as anti-Osirian. The
absence of Osiris here, however, probably has little significance. In
the more contemporary Coffin Texts, the t is described as that of
Osiris (CT II, 243c244a; IV, 304b; V, 229f, 230n, 232f), Thoth (CT
I, 27c28a; IV, 92k), and both gods (CT VII, 449ab), but also as that
of the Sun (CT I, 76gh, 199ef; III, 149e; VI, 264o); Thoth and the
Sun appear together in CT VI, 209df j.n r.k wtj zp r r.f ms
t t r w-mdw Greetings, Thoth whose speech the Sun
receives when the great tribunal sits for judgment.
The final couplet, in which the Soul bemoans the fact that he is
alone in his travail, is an ironic counter to the theme of the first section of the Mans speech.
The gods barring my bellys secrets would be sweet,
what my soul said to me:
You are not a man,
even though you are alive.
What is your gain,
if you will care about life like an owner of riches
who says, I have not gone,
when all those are down?
In fact, you are being uprooted, without considering yourself,
while everyone deprived is saying, I shall rob you,
and you dead as well,
while your name is alive.
Yonder is a place of alighting,
storage-chest of the heart.
The West is a harbor,
which the perceptive should be rowed to.

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CHAPTER SIX

The opening couplet of this section serves both to interrupt the


Souls cited words and to counter his request for divine judgment. Its
initial nm sweet contrasts deliberately with the Souls description
as snm sweetening in the previous section: instead of the Soul
sweetening the West, the Man says, it would be better if the gods
made things sweet by removing his nagging thoughts of death.
The couplets that follow also contrast with the preceding section:
instead of sweetening the West, the Soul now in effect sours the
East by pointing out how miserable the Mans life is. Antitheses also
occur within the Souls cited words: in the two lines of the first couplet, in the contrast between the owner of riches and the deprived
in the three that follow, and again in the two lines describing the
Man himself as both dead and alive, the latter in name only. In
the final couplets, the Soul argues that anyone in the Mans wretched
state should be perceptive enough to consider death as an alternative
to a miserable life.
My soul should listen to me instead:
I [have] no transgression.
Should his heart be in accord with me,
he will be fortunate,
for I will make him reach the West
like one who is in his pyramid,
to whose burial a survivor has attended.

In this short section, the Man returns to opposing the Souls arguments. The opening couplet is a statement of the Mans superior moral
position: he has done nothing to merit death. In the final couplet and
tercet, the Man attempts to dissuade the Soul from going prematurely by offering him the prospect of a happy afterlife that follows on a
death in the natural course of things, when a proper tomb has been
prepared and the Mans survivor can see to the funerary rites.
The final tercet serves a dual purpose. In view of the distinctive
section that follows, it presents a coda more prominent than the other
concluding device used in the poem, a line of four feet; it also stresses
the theme of the final two sections, a proper burial.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

145

I shall make an awning over your remains,


and you will make jealous another soul in inertness.
I shall make an awning and it wont get cold,
and you will make jealous another soul who is hot.
I will drink water at the flood
and shall lift away dryness,
and you will make jealous another soul who is hungry.
If you prod me to death in that manner,
you will not find a place to land on in the West.
Set your heart, my soul, my brother,
until the heir has grown up who will present offerings,
who will attend to the tomb on burial-day
and will transport a bed for the necropolis.

These last two sections continue the theme sounded at the end of
the preceding section but are marked as distinct by the change in the
Mans reference to the Soul, from the third person to direct address.
Although the Soul speaks directly to the Man throughout the poem,
this is the only place in the surviving text, and perhaps in the original
composition as a whole, where the Man clearly does the same to the
Soul. This externalizes the opposing side of what had previously been
an internal debate. The change is certainly intentional, both setting
these lines off from the preceding text and foreshadowing the reversal
of roles in the second half of the poem.
The two sections are divided both thematically and stylistically.
The first, in litany form, elaborates on the theme of proper preparations for the afterlife, with each verse contrasting the fate of a soul
who will enjoy such provisions and that of one whose body died
without them: a funeral structure versus inertness (Zustand des
nicht richtig Begrabenen: Wb. II, 275, 11), the absence of cold versus
heat, and the slaking of thirst versus hunger. The second section
summarizes the Mans argument to this point, that untimely death
destroys the chance for a happy afterlife.2 The final couplet reprises
the theme that ended the section before the litany.

On this point, see A. de Buck, in Pro Regno Pro Sanctuario, 7988.

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CHAPTER SIX

The features that make this group of seven verses stand out suggests that it is focal to the composition and one of the poems key
themes. Weill (1947, 13239) argued that the conflict between the
Man and the Soul reflects, in part, disillusionment (expressed by the
Soul) with the need for the traditional protocol of burial (expressed
by the Man). In the context of the poem to this point, however, the
Mans insistence on the need for proper preparations for the afterlife
has less to do with defending such provisions than with pointing out
that premature death will obviate them. The protocol of burial as
such is viewed as a moot point: it is presented not as a subject of debate but as an argument for the Mans point of view. Its presence as a
theme here, at the end of the Mans long second speech, both marks
the end of the first part of the poem and serves as a transition to the
Souls rebuttal that follows.
5. the souls third speech
And my soul opened his mouth to me
that he might answer what I had said:
As for your bringing to mind burial, it is heartache;
it is bringing tears by saddening a man;
it is taking a man from his house
so that he is left on the hill:
you wont be able to go up
and see Suns.
Those who build, in stone of granite,
the construction finished,
fine pyramids
with fine works
once the building commissioners become gods,
what are dedicated to them are razed,
like the inert who have died on the riverbank
for lack of a survivor,
the waters having taken his end,
or Sunlight similarly
they to whom the fish and the lip of the water speak.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

147

The first section of the Souls third speech deals with the futility of
funeral arrangements, and directly counters the argument of the Man in
the last two sections of his second speech with two themes: the sadness
of burial and the futility of traditional funeral arrangements. The Souls
opening words, As for your bringing to mind burial, refer to the term
burial day in the last couplet of the Mans preceding speech. The distinction in the spellings of qrs burial in these lines may be intentional.
The determinatives of
, at the end of the Mans speech, reflect the act of interring the mummy and the Mans character as the
corporeal shell in which the Soul resides; this is the theme of the first
three couplets in this section (taking a man from his house so that he
is left on the hill). That of
, in the Souls speech, prefigures
the material arrangements that are described in the rest of the section.
Listen, then, to me:
look, listening is good for people.
Follow a good time,
forget care.

This short section states the primary theme of the Souls third
speech. As first noted by Weill (1947, 122 n. c), it and the preceding
sextion are thematically identical to the later Harpers Song, which it
may have inspired:
nrw prw r t
tpw m mrw.sn
sw w m mjtt
qrsw m mrw.sn
qd wwt nn wn swt.sn
jnbw.sn f.w nn wn
swt.sn mj ntt nj pr.sn
w jb.k r.s
mhj jb.k r.s
n.k msj jb.k wnn.k 3

BM 10060 6, 49: E.A.W. Budge, Facsimiles of Egyptian Hieratic Papyri in the British
Museum, 2nd Series (London, 1923), pl. 45. See M. Lichtheim, JNES 4 (1945), 19195.
3

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CHAPTER SIX

The gods who existed previously,


who rest in their pyramids;
the effective privileged likewise,
who rest in their pyramids
their enclosures were built, but their places are no more
their walls are lost and no more,
their places like that which has not come into being
Let your heart be informed about it,
but let your heart forget about it:
it is useful for you to follow your heart while you exist.

Following Weill (1947, 13239), the Souls attitude at this point


in the Debate is often described as critical of traditional funerary protocol. In the context, however, the Souls remarks serve two purposes:
to dismiss the Mans argument about the need for such arrangements
and, as in the Harpers Song, to provide a rationale for the final exhortation. The first couplet counters the Mans previous statement sm
n.j b.j My soul should listen to me instead.
The Souls words at the beginning of his third speech can therefore be understood as continuing the debate that has been the poems
subject thus far. The final couplet, however, is directly antithetical to
the Souls previous role in the debate. Instead of dragging and
prodding the Man toward death, the Soul now exhorts him to forget about his troubles and enjoy life.
Together with the opening of the Souls third speech, these words
represent a profound reversal in the Souls attitude, one that is paralleled by a change in the Mans attitude, as reflected in his own third
speech. Each party now adopts the others position, the Soul advocating life and the Man, death. The beginning of the Souls third speech
provides the impetus for this reversal: the realization that death may
be an answer to lifes misery but that it also has drawbacks of its own.
The remainder of the speech consists of two parables that the
Soul narrates. These are in some ways the most obscure part of the
poem, but they evidently serves to illustrate the value of the Souls
exhortation to follow a good time, forget care.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

149

A little man plows his plot,


and he loads his harvest inside a boat,
and drags the sailing,
his festival near.
When he saw the gloom of a northers emergence,
he watched in the boat as the Sun was going in,
disembarked with his wife and his children,
and they perished atop a depression
ringed by night with riverbankers.
So, he ended up seated and spreading out by voice,
saying, I have not wept for that one who was born,
though she has no emerging from the West
to another one on earth.
But I care about her children,
broken in the egg,
who saw the face of Khenti before they lived.

The first of the Souls two parables carries a relatively transparent


message, illustrating the point of his exhortation to enjoy life. The
tale begins in seemingly happy circumstances. The farmers hard labor
of plowing, sowing, and harvesting has culminated in a crop that he
and his family are transportingpresumably to a granary, perhaps to
sell. In any case, the man anticipates enjoying the fruits of his labor:
his festival near. Into this happy scene comes the ominous approach
of night (a time of fear and danger in ancient Egypt),4 and the man
watches as the sun setsa detail that not only enhances the narrative
but also carries metaphorical intimations of impending death. The
family disembarks to spend the night ashore, and the mans wife and
children are killed by crocodiles.
The moral of the story seems to be, Appreciate life while you
have it, because you cannot know when death will come. It is reinforced by the farmers lament at the end of the tale, which contrasts
the loss of his wife, who has lived a productive life, with that of his
children, deprived of the same opportunity by an untimely death.

E. Hornung, Nacht, L IV, 29192.

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CHAPTER SIX

A little man asks for an afternoon meal,


and his wife says to him, It will be supper,
and he goes outside at it,
only for a moment.
When he turns back to his house, he is like another man
his wife pleading to him.
He doesnt listen to her, offended
and unreceptive to those of the household.

The message of the Souls second parable is as obscure as that of


the first one is clear. Parkinson (1997, 163 n. 23) has perceptively
noted that the initial first couplet parallels the wish for death (the
mans request for a late afternoon meal) before the proper time (the
wifes reply). The wifes pleading with her husband may also be an
oblique reference to the debate in the first part of the poem. In this
respect, it is perhaps germane that snt sister was commonly used
with reference to a mans wife (Wb. IV, 151, 89), analogous to the
Mans evocation of the Soul as sn.j my brother at the end of his
second speech. Here, however, the pleading wife is an avatar of the
Soul and her husband, who refuses to listen, that of the Man. The
reversal of roles is reflected in the final speech of the poem, in which
the Soul addresses the Man as sn.j my brother.
The two key points in the end of the narrative seem to be jw.f mj
ky he is like another man and the final couplet. As in the first parable,
the former may be intended to illustrate the fact that a happy situation
can change in an instant (s r t only for a moment). The final line
apparently reflects the obstinacy of one side of the debate (here, the
Man) in refusing to listen to reason. The idiom w.(w) jb stripped of
heart must have been particularly evocative for an agricultural society, connoting fallow land devoid of all growth.
The Souls third speech stands approximately at the center of the
poem and is one of the central messages of the entire composition, if
not the primary one. Along with its exhortation to enjoy life, it introduces the reversal of roles in the second half of the poem and in doing
so, it illustrates the possibility of a change of heart through persuasion.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

151

6. the mans third speech

The Mans response to the Souls exhortation is presented in a series


of four litanies, the first of which is evidently addressed directly to the
Soul:5
And I opened my mouth to my soul
that I might answer what he had said:
1 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than carrions smell
on Harvest days, when the sky is hot.
2 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than an eel-traps smell,
on catch day, when the sky is hot.
3 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than ducks smell,
at a rise of reeds with a brood.
4 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than fowlings smell,
at the channels of the nests fowled for them.
5 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than crocodiles smell,
at a site of slaughter with riverbankers.
6 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than a married woman
about whom the lie of a lover has been told.
7 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than a brave boy
about whom has been said, He is for one he should hate.
8 Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than the harbor of the Sire
that plots sedition but whose back is seen.

The eight sets of similes in this litany are arranged in what appears
to be a logical progression from death to life, water to land, and lower
to higher orders of life. The first tercet evokes death with its image of
carrion. The next four are based on nature, with references to the river

The stanzas of this and the following litanies are numbered for ease of reference.

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(stanza two), marshland (stanzas three and four), and the shore (stanza
five). In the second tercet, the simile of an eel-trap, with its dead bait
or eel, provides a bridge between the opening stanza and these four,
and the theme of carrion is reprised in the fifth stanza. The sixth and
seventh tercet move to the realm of human beings and society, with
the stench in each case deriving from an affront to societal mores.
The final tercet involves both humanity in more general terms (the
harbor) and the pinnacle of Egyptian society, the king.
In beginning his response with this litany, the Man answers the
Souls exhortation on the personal level, in effect protesting, How
can I enjoy life when I am in disrepute? The metaphor of the Mans
name carries with it connotations not only of reputation but also of
identity and reflects the Souls earlier statement, cited in the Mans
second speech, and you dead as well, while your name is alive.
1 To whom can I speak today?
Brothers have become bad;
the friends of today, they do not love.
2 To whom can I speak today?
Hearts are greedy,
every man taking the others things.
3 To whom can I speak today?
For kindness has perished
and sternness descended to everyone.
4 To whom can I speak today?
There is contentment with the bad,
in that goodness has been put down in every place.
5 To whom can I speak today?
When a man causes anger by his bad deed,
he makes everyone laugh, though his misdeed is evil.
6 To whom can I speak today?
For one plunders,
every man robbing the other.
7 To whom can I speak today?
The one who should be avoided is an intimate,
the brother one used to act with become an opponent.
8 To whom can I speak today?
Yesterday has not been remembered,
no one in this time has acted for one who has acted.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

153

9 To whom can I speak today?


Brothers have become bad;
one brings only strangers into the middle of the heart.
10 To whom can I speak today?
Faces are obliterated,
every man with face down to his brothers.
11 To whom can I speak today?
Hearts have become greedy;
there is no mans heart one can depend on.
12 To whom can I speak today?
There are no righteous,
the land left to disorder-doers.
13 To whom can I speak today?
There is lack of an intimate;
one resorts only to an unknown to make known to.
14 To whom can I speak today?
There is no calm-hearted;
the one once walked with, he is no more.
15 To whom can I speak today?
For I am loaded with need for lack of an intimate.
16 To whom can I speak today?
The injustice that has hit the land, it has no end.

As noted in Chapter Five, the length of this litany, with its fourteen tercets and two final couplets, indicates that it was intended as
the most important of the four. Lurie (1939, 146) was the first to discuss the affinities between it and the later Admonitions of Ipuwer, which
is also composed in litany form and has several parallels with, and one
quotation from, the Debate:
jw ms [mt] t t m rn.s pwy
jsft pw jrr.sn r grg r.s (Adm. 5, 34)
Surely, Maat is throughout the land in that name of its,
but what they do is disorder, while lying about it.
jw ms k[ ] t t
nt r hb n bw-nb (Adm. 5, 910)
Surely, [ ] is throughout the land,
sternness sent to everyone.

154

CHAPTER SIX

jw ms nf q.w m sf
t zp.w n gnwt.f (Adm. 5, 1213)
Surely, that which was seen yesterday has perished,
the land left to its weakness.6

Unlike the first litany, this has no discernible order in its stanzas.
Several themes are repeated, but only one verbatim, snw bjn Brothers
have become bad in stanzas one and nine, clearly intentionally: the
line is the second of the tercets at the beginning and midpoint of the
litany, respectively. Other instances are slightly reworded: wn jbw
Hearts are greedy (stanza 2, line 2) and jbw wn.(w) Hearts have
become greedy (11, 2); z nb r jtt wt snnw.f every man taking the
others things (2, 3) and z nb r jtt snw.f every man robbing his
brothers (6, 3); jnn.tw m rrw r mtt nt jb one brings only strangers into
the middle of the heart (9, 3) and jnn.tw m mm r srt n.f one resorts
only to an unknown to make known to (13, 3); btw m q-jb The one
who should be avoided is an intimate (7, 2), jw w m q-jb There is
lack of an intimate (13, 2), and jw.j tp.kw r mr n gw q-jb For I
am loaded with need for lack of an intimate (15, 2). This brings a certain cohesiveness to what might otherwise seem a simple list of woes.
The tribulations are societal in every case, broadening the Mans
argument from the personal level of the first litany: he now asks,
How can I enjoy life when all around me are evil? Apart from the
general theme of injustice, the dominant motif is the lack of someone
to turn to for aid and comfort (reprising the adage in the Mans
second speech: There is no one who can deflect a day of difficulties
by himself), which is reflected not only by the initial question To
whom can I speak today? but also in such terms as sn/snw brother/
brothers (1, 2; 4, 2; 6, 3; 7, 3; 10, 3), nmsw friends (1, 3), q-jb
intimate (7, 2; 13, 2; 15, 2), btw the one who should be avoided
(7, 2), rrw strangers (9, 3), and mm an unknown (13, 3). This

Enmarch, Ipuwer, 35. For the parallel in Adm. 5, 10, see the discussion to col.
107108 in Chapter Three, above. The Admonitions also has a line adapted from the
Instruction of Amenemhat (Adm. 6, 1213): Enmarch, Ipuwer, 37; Adrom, Amenemhet,
7576.
6

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

155

continues the theme of the unresponsiveness of the Soul (the Mans


sn brother) sounded at the beginning of the Mans second speech.
1 Death is in my sight today,
like a sick man gets well,
like going outside after mourning.
2 Death is in my sight today,
like myrrhs smell,
like sitting under sails on a windy day.
3 Death is in my sight today,
like lotuses smell,
like sitting on the Bank of Inebriation.
4 Death is in my sight today,
like the floods ebbing,
like a man comes home from an expedition.
5 Death is in my sight today,
like the skys clearing,
like a man enmeshed thereby to what he had not known.
6 Death is in my sight today,
like a man longs to see home,
when he has spent many years taken in captivity.

To modern sensibilities, this litany is clearly the most lyrical of


the four. Its similes, however, stand not in isolation but in reference
to the long second speeches of the Man and the Soul, as Parkinson
has seen (1997, 164 nn. 3237). The tercets are also intricately related
to one another. In stanzas two and three, the second lines are connected by the simile of scent (now pleasant, as opposed to the first
litany, as Parkinson has noted: 1997, 164 n. 33) and the third, by the
notion of sitting on the shore after sailing. Stanza four parallels the
simile of inebriation with that of the flood, and its final line continues
the narrative of the two preceding in its image of returning home.7
The natural simile of the sky clearing in stanza five is analogous to
that of the flood ebbing in stanza four. The phrase jt.(w) m nrt taken
in captivity in the last line of stanza six reflects the term st.(w) en
This association may also be reflected in the ship determinative of the word
m expedition.
7

156

CHAPTER SIX

meshed in the final line of stanza five, and the notion of returning
home brings an end to the metaphorical voyage that began with
going outside in the first stanza.
The theme of the litany as a whole also follows logically on those
of the two litanies that precede it. Since the Mans personal situation,
the injustice that has hit the land, and the lack of an intimate all
make it impossible to follow a good time and forget care, death is
the only alternative.
1 Surely, he who is there will be a living god,
punishing the misdeed of him who does it.
2 Surely, he who is there will be standing in the bark,
having choice cuts given from it to the temples.
3 Surely, he who is there will be a knower of things,
not barred from appealing to the Sun when he speaks.

The thematic logic of the litanies culminates in these three short


couplets, moving from the theme of death in the third litany to the
afterlife. The first two stanzas reflect the first two litanies, contrasting
the sublime state of the deceased as a living god with that of the
Mans malodorous reputation and identity in the first litany, and
promising redress for the ills detailed in the second litany. The second
stanza is analogous: standing in the (Suns) bark implies divine status, and the provision of offerings is part of the proper function of
society (Parkinson 1997, 164 n. 39). The final stanza is contrastive
with the debate expounded in the poem as a whole: as a knower of
things, the Man will no longer be subject to the doubts about the
afterlife that have kept him from accepting the notion of premature
death, and by appealing to the Sun when he speaks he will have
not only the vindication that the Soul sought (let the Sun hear my
speech) but also the sympathetic ear denied him by the Soul and the
rest of society (the last point, Parkinson 1997, 164 n. 40).
The four litanies together form a coherent whole and clearly reference and advance the arguments in the text that precedes them.
The relationship is complex and detailed enough to rule out the suggestion that the litanies were inserted into the poem from another

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

157

source (Weill 1947, 134). There can be no doubt that they were
composed as part of the poem by a single author.
7. the souls final speech
What the soul said to me:
Put, then, complaint on the stake,
O belonger, my brother.
You should make offering on the brazier
in accord with your fighting for life,
in accord with your saying, Desire me here.
Reject the West for yourself,
but desire too that you reach the West
when your body touches the earth,
and I will alight after your weariness.
Thus we will make harbor at the same time.

The conclusion of the poem clearly bespeaks reconciliation. The


Soul, who is given the role of apologist for life in the poems second
half, proposes a final compromise that reflects and reconciles the two
sides of the debate.
The opening couplet mentions the Mans complaint, which
most likely refers to his lamentations in the first two litanies. The image of putting complaint on the stake is an alternative to the death
that he wished for himself in the third and fourth litanies (see the discussion in Chapter Three). The tercet that follows reflects the Mans
initial position, in his second speech. Making offering on the brazier
is both an alternative to the metaphor of throwing me on the fire to
incinerate me in the Mans second speech and a means of entreating
the gods to end the Mans tribulations. Together, these establish the
two opposing sides of the debate and set stage for the reconciliation
that follows.
In the second tercet, the injunction to reject the West for yourself counters both the Souls initial desire to go and the Mans
wish for death as expressed in the third and fourth litanies. The final

158

CHAPTER SIX

compromise exhorts the Man to reject not death per se but rather,
prematurely. The acceptance of death in the natural order of things
permits both a happy afterlife (and I will alight after your weariness)
and reconciliation (Thus we will make harbor at the same time).
The metaphor in the final line reprises, in a different sense, the Souls
earlier description of the West as a harbor.
8. conclusion

The Debate between a Man and His Soul presents the inner struggle of a
man who is attracted by the thought of death as a release from great
personal distress but uncertain and fearful of the consequences a premature death might have for his afterlife. The two sides of this debate are
voiced by the characters of the Man and his Soul.
Initially, the Soul argues for death, pointing out the Mans
wretched state and exhorting the Man to let the gods decide the justice of his desire. The Man resists these entreaties, protesting that,
among other things, premature death will rob him of the opportunity
to provide for his afterlife (and the Souls) in the proper fashion.
The thought of those provisions, however, awakens doubts about
their permanence, and this serves as the catalyst for a reversal of the
two roles. The Soul now urges the Man to forget about his cares and
relish life, using two parables to illustrate how brief and uncertain life
is. In a series of litanies, the Man replies by describing the wretchedness
of his life, the general injustice of society and the lack of someone to
turn to for comfort and aid, the attraction of death, and the happy
state of the afterlifeeach directly countering the Souls arguments.
The Soul is given the final speech, in which he proposes a compromise: to turn to the gods for assistance and to accept death as the
ultimate end of life rather than a more immediate solution. Only in
this way can the man resolve his inner turmoil, so that both he and
his soul reach the West in harmony. The poems presentation of the
two sides of this mental conflict and its final resolution anticipate Hegels classic pattern of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

159

Except in its ending, the death envisioned in the poem is clearly a


premature one, and is even explicitly stated as such twice: dragging
me to death before I have come to it (12) and who prods me to
death before I have come to it (1819). This has often been interpreted as a reflection of the mans intention to commit suicide, even by
those who (rightly) rejected Scharffs interpretation of the line because
of throwing me on the fire to incinerate me (13) as literal (1937, 12:
und wenn ich mich ins Feuer strze, um mich zu verbrennen) rather
than metaphorical. As Thausing saw, however, there is in fact nothing
specific in the poem to indicate thoughts of suicide, only a general
wish for death as a release: Der Lebensmde will ja sterbenwas er
nicht will, ist der Selbstmord, ist ein Tod ohne Bestattung (1957,
264).8 The mans thoughts are of death but not of the way to achieve
it, as unspecific as those reflected in the later Admonitions of Ipuwer:
jw ms wr rj (r) mr.j mt.j
Surely, great and small are saying, I wish I could die.9

Although it is a debate about death, in its conclusion the poem is an


affirmation of life.
Renaud (1991) has argued that the primary motive of the Debate
was artistic, to create a work of dramatic, rather than instructional,
literature. The literary quality of the poem is unquestionable, but it is
doubtful that the rationale of a work such as this could have been
viewed by its author in isolation from its message; the notion of instruction is even explicit in the Souls words in cols. *26*27 [m]j r.k
sb.j tw Come, then, that I may instruct you (which Renaud was
unaware of). The struggle and resolution in the poem is more than
just a literary motif; it is also, and fundamentally, a lesson intended to
teach its audience the value of clinging to life in the midst of turmoil. As such, it belongs squarely in the Middle Kingdom tradition of
didactic literature.

Maspero (1907, 12526) was the first to cast doubt on the notion of suicide,
although he admitted Les deux faons de comprendre le text sont possibles.
9 Adm. 2, 2: Enmarch, Ipuwer, 31.
8

160

CHAPTER SIX

As a work of literature, the Debate has few peers in the canon of


Middle Kingdom texts. Despite its missing beginning, its lacunae, and
its difficult or obscure passages, its sole surviving text exhibits subtlety
and sophistication in composition coupled with beauty in imagery
and language. These features place it at the acme of Middle Kingdom
literature, where it is equaled perhaps only by the language of the
Eloquent Peasantwith the major papyrus of which, coincidentally, it
was discovered.

Appendices

APPENDIX ONE

THE TEXT
This appendix presents the text of the Debate between a Man and His
Soul in its entirety, with transliteration and relatively literal translation,
as established in Chapter Three, on facing pages. Numbers to the left
of each line are those of the columns of the papyrus. Indentation
marks the second line of couplets and the third of tercets.
introduction and the souls first speech

*1*8
*9
*10*12

(lost)
[ ]wt
jrt st [ ]
(lost)
[w].k m[jr.j]
the mans first speech

*12*13
*14
*15
*15x

[dt.n.j n b.j]
wnwt pw [ ]
[ ] sw
r st[s.j ]
[ ]s[ ]
[]
the souls second speech

xy

[jw wp.n n.j b.j r.f


wb.f dt.n.j]

THE TEXT

163

APPENDIX ONE

THE TEXT
This appendix presents the text of the Debate between a Man and His
Soul in its entirety, with transliteration and relatively literal translation,
as established in Chapter Three, on opposing pages. Numbers to the
left of each line are those of the columns of the papyrus. Indentation
marks the second line of couplets and the third of tercets.

introduction and the souls first speech

*1*8
*9
*10*12

[]
[ ] evil.
Doing it [ ]
[]
[that] you [might set down my] misery.
the mans first speech

*12*13
*14
*15
*15x

[What I said to my soul]:


It is the hour [ ]
[ ] him,
dragging [me ]
[]
[]
the souls second speech

xy

[And my soul opened his mouth to me


that he might answer what I had said]:

164
*25
*25*26
*26*27
*28
*2829
1
2
23

APPENDIX ONE

[ ] r
zw..t [ ]
[m]j r.k sb.j tw [ ]
[ ].k jrw n jmnt
[]
jw zj [ ]
[j]w.n r d [m mt m t]
nj nm.n [ns.s]n
[j]w r [b m] dbw
nj nm.n ns.sn
the mans second speech

34

jw wp.n.j r.j n b.j


wb.j dt.n.f

5
56

jw n wr r.j m mjn
nj mdw b.j n.j
jw grt wr r b
jw mj wzf jmt.f m b.j
.f n.j r.s
[snnw].j w[jn n].f
nn dj.t .f wj
r ntt.f m t.j m nw nw
nn pr m .f rwj.f hrw qsnwt

67
8
9
910
11
1112
13
14
1415
16
17

mj.tn b.j r tht.j


nj sm.n.j n.f
r sts.j r mt nj jjt.( j) n.f
r .( j) r t r smmt.j
ptr mnt.f [ f]
r [rdjt] s.f r [sn].f
tk.f jm.j hrw qsnwt
.f m pf gs mj jr-nnw.
p js pw prr jn.f sw r.f

THE TEXT

*25
*25*26
*26*27
*28
*28*29
1
2
23

165

[ ] face.
Guard [ ].
Come, then, that I may instruct you [ ]
[ ] you [ ] the hostile nature of the West.
[]
For a man [ ].
We are to speak [truly in the tribunal]:
their tongue cannot be biased.
It would be [crooked in return]:
their tongue cannot be biased.
the mans second speech

34

And I opened my mouth to my soul


that I might answer what he had said:

5
56

This has become too much for me today:


my soul has not spoken in accord with me.
It is also too much to exaggerate:
my soul going is like one who ignores what he is in.
He should attend to it for me,
my [second, who [rejects] his [life].
He will not be allowed to resist me,
since he is in my belly in a rope mesh:
that he leave on a day of difficulties will not happen to him.

67
8
9
910
11
1112
13
14
1415
16
17

But look, my soul is leading me astray.


I cannot listen to him
because of dragging me to death before I have come to it,
because of throwing me on the fire to incinerate me.
What is his suffering, that [he] should [ ]
[giving] his back to his [brother]?
He should be near me on a day of difficulties,
that he may stand on yon side like a eulogy-maker,
for that is the sort who goes forth and brings himself to it.

166
1718
1819
1920
2021
2122
23
2324
25
2526
2627
28
2829
2930
3031
3132
3233
34
3435
3536
3637
3738
3839

APPENDIX ONE

b.j w r sd h r n
jhm wj r mt nj jjt.j n.f
snm n.j jmnt
jn jw qsnt pw
prt pw n
jw tw r.sn
nd r.k r jsft
w mr.j
w wj wtj
tp nrw
sf nsw r.j
z m mt
sm r mdw.j
sg wj
sf jsdz r.j
m t sr[t]
[r] ntt sr.j wdn
nj [wnt] f n.f n.j
nm sf nrw tw t.j
dt.n n.j b.j
nj ntk js zj
jw.k tr n.t
ptr km.k
my.k r n mj nb-w
d nj m.j
jw nf r t
nmn tw r tfyt nn nwt.k
nrj nb r d jw.j r jt.k
jw grt.k mt
rn.k n
st nf nt nt
fdt nt jb
dmj pw jmnt
n.t spdw r jr

THE TEXT

1718
1819
1920
2021
2122
23
2324
25
2526
2627
28
2829
2930
3031
3132
3233
34
3435
3536
3637
3738
3839

167

My soul has become too foolish to suppress pain in life,


one who prods me toward death before I have come to it,
who sweetens the West for me:
Is it something difficult?
Life is a cycle;
trees fall.
Tread, then, on disorder,
set down my misery.
Let Thoth judge me
and the gods become content;
let Khonsu intervene for me,
he who writes truly;
let the Sun hear my speech,
he who stills the sun-bark;
let Isdes intervene for me
in the sacred room
since my need has become heavy
and [there is] no one to lift to himself for me.
The gods barring my bellys secrets would be sweet,
what my soul said to me:
You are not a man,
even though you are alive.
What is your gain,
if you will care about life like an owner of riches
who says, I have not gone,
when all those are down?
In fact, you are being uprooted, without considering yourself,
while everyone deprived is saying, I shall rob you,
and you dead as well,
while your name is alive.
Yonder is a place of alighting,
storage-chest of the heart.
The West is a harbor,
which the perceptive should be rowed to.

168

3940
4041
4142
4243
4344
4445
4546
4647
4748

APPENDIX ONE

sm n.j b.j
n[n n].j [b]t
tt jb.f n.j
jw.f r mr
rdj.j p.f jmnt
mj ntj m mr.f
.n rj-t r qrs.f

49

jw.j r jrt njj r t.k


sdm.k ky b m nnw
jw.j r jrt njj j tm.f sw
sdm.k ky b nt t.w
swrj.j mw r bbt
zy.j wjw
s<d>m.k ky b ntj qr

4950
5051
5152
5253
5354
5455

jr hjm.k wj r mt m p qj
nn gm.k nt.k r.s m jmnt
w jb.k b.j sn.j
r prt jww drpt.fj
t.fj r t hrw qrs
sy.f nkyt n rj-nr
the souls third speech

5556
5657
5758
5859
5960
6061

jw wp.n n.j b.j r.f


wb.f dt.n.j
jr s.k qrs nt jb pw
jnt rmyt pw m sjnd z
dt z pw m pr.f
r q
nn pr.n.k r rw
m.k rw
qdw m jnr n mt
ws qn

THE TEXT

3940
4041
4142
4243
4344
4445
4546
4647
4748

169

My soul should listen to me instead:


I [have] no transgression.
Should his heart be in accord with me,
he will be fortunate,
for I will make him reach the West
like one who is in his pyramid,
to whose burial a survivor has attended.

49

I shall make an awning over your remains,


and you will make jealous another soul in inertness.
I shall make an awning and it wont get cold,
and you will make jealous another soul who is hot.
I will drink water at the flood
and shall lift away dryness,
and you will make jealous another soul who is hungry.

4950
5051
5152
5253
5354
5455

If you prod me to death in that manner,


you will not find a place to land on in the West.
Set your heart, my soul, my brother,
until the heir has grown up who will present offerings,
who will attend to the tomb on burial-day
and will transport a bed for the necropolis.
the souls third speech

5556
5657
5758
5859
5960
6061

And my soul opened his mouth to me


that he might answer what I had said:
As for your bringing to mind burial, it is heartache;
it is bringing tears by saddening a man;
it is taking a man from his house
so that he is left on the hill:
you wont be able to go up
and see Suns.
Those who built, in stone of granite,
the construction finished,

170

6162
6263
6364
6465
6566
6667

68
6869
6970
7071
7172
7273
7374
7475
7576
7677
78
79
7980
8081
82

APPENDIX ONE

mrw nfrw
m kwt nfrt
pr sqdw m nrw
bw jrj w.w
mj nnw mtw r mryt
n gw rj-t
jt.n nwy p.fj
jw m mjtt jrj
mdw n.sn rmw spt n mw
sm r.k n.j
mj.k nfr sm n rmt
ms hrw nfr
sm m
jw ns sk.f dw.f
jw.f <t>p.f mw.f r nw dpt
sts.f sqdwt
b.f tkn
m.n.f prt wt nt myt
rs m dpt r r q
pr n jmt.f msw.f
q tp j
n m gr r mryt
r.jn.f ms pz.f m rw
r d nj rm.j n tf mst
nn n.s prt m jmnt
r kt r t
my.j r msw.s
sdw m swt
mw r n ntj nj nt.sn
jw ns db.f mrwt
jw jm<t>.f d.s n.f jw r msyt
jw.f pr.f r ntw r.s
s r t

THE TEXT

6162
6263
6364
6465
6566
6667

68
6869
6970
7071
7172
7273
7374
7475
7576
7677
78
79
7980
8081
82

fine pyramids
with fine works
once the building commissioners became gods,
what are dedicated to them are razed,
like the inert who have died on the riverbank
for lack of a survivor,
the waters having taken his end,
or Sunlight similarly
they to whom the fish and the lip of the water speak.
Listen, then, to me:
look, listening is good for people.
Follow a good time,
forget care.
A little man plows his plot,
and he loads his harvest inside a boat,
and drags a sailing,
his festival near.
When he saw the gloom of a northers emergence,
he watched in the boat as the Sun was going in,
disembarked with his wife and children,
and they perished atop a depression
ringed by night with riverbankers.
So, he ended up seated and spreading out by voice,
saying, I have not wept for that one who was born,
though she has no emerging from the West
to another one on earth.
But I care about her children,
broken in the egg,
who saw the face of Khenti before they lived.
A little man asks for an afternoon meal,
and his wife says to him, It will be supper,
and he goes outside at it,
only for a moment.

171

172
83
8384
85

APPENDIX ONE

nn.f sw r pr.f jw.f mj ky


jmt.f r s n.f
nj sm.n.f n.s s n.f
w jb n wpwtjw
the mans third speech

8586

jw wp.n.j r.j n b.j


wb.j dt.n.f

8687

mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r st sw
m hrww mw pt t.t
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k <r st> zp sbnw
m hrw rzf pt t.t
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r st pdw
r bwt nt trjw r msyt
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r st mw
r zw nw zw m n.sn
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r st msw
r mst r w r mryt
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r zt-jmt
d grg r.s n y
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k r rd qn
d r.f jw.f {jw.f} n msdw.f
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k <r> dmj n jt<y>
nn btw m s.f

88
8889
90
91
9192
9293
94
9495
9596
97
9798
9899
99100
100101
102
102103

THE TEXT

83
8384
85

173

When he turns back to his house, he is like another man,


his wife pleading to him.
He doesnt listen to her, offended
and unreceptive to those of the household.
the mans third speech

8586

And I opened my mouth to my soul


that I might answer what he had said:

8687

Look, my name is reeking:


look, more than carrions smell
on Harvest days, when the sky is hot.
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than an eel-traps smell
on catch day, when the sky is hot.
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than ducks smell
at a rise of reeds with a brood.
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than fowlings smell
at the channels of the nests fowled for them.
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than crocodiles smell
at a site of slaughter with riverbankers.
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than a married woman
about whom the lie of a lover has been told.
Look, my name is reeking:
look, more than a brave boy
about whom has been said, He is for one he should

88
8889
90
91
9192
9293
94
9495
9596
97
9798
9899
99100
100101
hate.
102
102103

Look, my name is reeking:


look, more than the harbor of the Sire
that plots sedition but whose back is seen.

174

104
104105
105106
107
107108

109
10910
11011
11112
11213
11314
11415

116
117
11718
11819
11920

121

APPENDIX ONE

d.j n mj mjn
snw bjn
nmsw nw mjn nj mr.nj
d.j n mj mjn
wn jbw
z nb r jtt wt snnw.f
<d.j n mj mjn>
jw zf q
nt r h.w n bw-nb
d.j n mj mjn
tp r bjn
rdj r.f bw nfr r t m st nbt
d.j n mj mjn
sr z m zp.f bjn
ssbt.f bw-nb jw.f w
d.j n mj mjn
jw .tw
z nb r jtt snw.f
d.j n mj mjn
btw m q-jb
sn jrr n.f pr m ftj
d.j n mj mjn
nj s.t sf
nj jr.t n jr m t t
d.j n mj mjn
snw bjn
jnn.tw m rrw r mtt nt jb
d.j n mj mjn
rw tm
z nb m r r rw r snw.f
d.j n mj mjn
jbw wn
nn wn jb n zj rhn.tw r.f

THE TEXT

104
104105
105106
107
107108

109
10910
11011
11112
11213
11314
11415

116
117
11718
11819
11920

121

175

To whom can I speak today?


Brothers have become bad;
the friends of today, they do not love.
To whom can I speak today?
Hearts are greedy,
every man taking the others things.
To whom can I speak today?
For kindness has perished
and sternness descended to everyone.
To whom can I speak today?
There is contentment with the bad,
in that goodness has been put down in every place.
To whom can I speak today?
When a man causes anger by his bad deed,
he makes everyone laugh, though his misdeed is evil.
To whom can I speak today?
For one plunders,
every man robbing his brothers.
To whom can I speak today?
The one who should be avoided is an intimate,
the brother one used to act with become an opponent.
To whom can I speak today?
Yesterday has not been remembered,
no one in this time has acted for one who has acted.
To whom can I speak today?
Brothers have become bad;
one brings only strangers into the middle of the heart.
To whom can I speak today?
Faces are obliterated,
every man with face down to his brothers.
To whom can I speak today?
Hearts have become greedy;
there is no mans heart one can depend on.

176
12122
12223
12324
12425
12526
12627
12729
12930

APPENDIX ONE

d.j n mj mjn
nn mtjw
t zp n jrw jsft
d.j n mj mjn
jw w m q-jb
jnn.tw m mm r srt n.f
d.j n mj mjn
nn hr-jb
pf m n.f nn sw wn
d.j n mj mjn
jw.j tp.kw r mr n gw q-jb
d.j n mj mjn
nf w t nn wn pw.fj

141
14142

jw mt m r.j m mjn
<mj> snb mr
mj prt r ntw r s hjmt
jw mt m r.j mjn
mj st ntjw
mj mst r tw hrw w
jw mt m r.j mjn
mj st znw
mj mst r mryt-nt-tt
jw mt m r.j mjn
mj wt wyt
mj jw z m m r pr.sn
jw mt m r.j mjn
mj kft pt
mj zj st jm r mt.n.f
jw mt m r.j mjn
mj bb z m pr.sn
jr.n.f rnpwt t jt m nrt

143

wnn ms ntj jm m nr n
r sf jw n jrr sw

13031
13132
13233
13334
135
13536
13637
13738
13839
13940

THE TEXT

12122
12223
12324
12425
12526
12627
12728
12930

177

To whom can I speak today?


There are no righteous,
the land left to disorder-doers.
To whom can I speak today?
There is lack of an intimate;
one resorts only to an unknown to make known to.
To whom can I speak today?
There is no calm-hearted;
the one once walked with, he is no more.
To whom can I speak today?
For I am loaded with need for lack of an intimate.
To whom can I speak today?
The injustice that has hit the land, it has no end.

141
14142

Death is in my sight today,


like a sick man gets well,
like going outside after mourning.
Death is in my sight today,
like myrrhs smell,
like sitting under sails on a windy day.
Death is in my sight today,
like lotuses smell,
like sitting on the Bank of Inebriation.
Death is in my sight today,
like the floods ebbing,
like a man comes home from an expedition.
Death is in my sight today,
like the skys clearing,
like a man enmeshed thereby to what he has not known.
Death is in my sight today,
like a man longs to see home,
when he has spent many years taken in captivity.

143

Surely, he who is there will be a living god,


punishing the misdeed of him who does it.

13031
13132
13233
13334
135
13536
13637
13738
13839
13940

178
14344
14445
14546
14647

APPENDIX ONE

wnn ms ntj jm m wj
r rdjt dj.t stpwt jm n rw-prw
wnn ms ntj jm m r-wt
nj sf.n.t.f r spr n r ft mdw.f
the souls final speech

14748
14849
150
15051
15152
153
154

dt.n n.j b
jmj r.k nwt r
nsw pn sn.j
wdn.k r
mj .k r n
mj d.k mr wj
wjn n.k jmnt
mr m p.k jmnt
s .k t
ny.j r s wrd.k
j jr.n dmj n zp
the colophon

15455

jw.f pw t.f r p.fj


mj gmyt m z

THE TEXT

14344
14445
14546
14647

Surely, he who is there will be standing in the bark,


having choice cuts given from it to the temples.
Surely, he who is there will be a knower of things,
not barred from appealing to the Sun when he speaks.
the souls final speech

14748
14849
150
15051
15152
153
154

What the soul said to me:


Put, then, complaint on the stake,
O belonger, my brother.
You should make offering on the brazier
in accord with your fighting for life,
in accord with your say, Desire me here.
Reject the West for yourself,
but desire too that you reach the West
when your body touches the earth,
and I will alight after your weariness.
Thus we will make harbor at the same time.
the colophon

15455

179

That is how it comes, its beginning to its end,


as found in writing.

APPENDIX TWO

VERSIFICATION
This appendix presents the preserved and restored text of the Debate
versified as discussed in Chapter Five, with full transliteration and
translation on facing pages. Numbers to the left of each line represent
its putative feet. The translation is free instead of literal, because it is
also designed to reflect the meter of the original.
introduction and the souls first speech

x+1
1+x
2

(lost)
[ ] wt
jrtst [ ]
(lost)
w.k mj.j
the mans first speech

dt.n.j nb.j

1+x
x+1
1+x

wnwtpw [ ]
[ ]sw
rsts.j [ ]
[ ]s[ ]
[]
the souls second speech

3
2

jwwp.nn.j b.j r.f


wb.f dt.n.j

VERSIFICATION

181

APPENDIX ONE

THE TEXT
This appendix presents the text of the Debate between a Man and His
Soul in its entirety, with transliteration and relatively literal translation,
as established in Chapter Three, on opposing pages. Numbers to the
left of each line are those of the columns of the papyrus. Indentation
marks the second line of couplets and the third of tercets.

introduction and the souls first speech

x+1
1+x
2

[]
[ ] evil.
Doingit [ ]
[]
andallay mypain.
the mans first speech

WhatIsaid tomysoul:

1+x
x+1
1+x

Itsthehour [ ]
[ ]him,
draggingme [ ]
[]
[]
the souls second speech

3
2

Andmysoul opened hismouth


toanswer whatIsaid:

182
x+1
1+x
2+x
x+3
1+x
3
2
2
2

APPENDIX TWO

[ ] r
zw.tj [ ]
mjr.k sb.jtw [ ]
[ ].k jrw njmnt
[]
jwzj [ ]
jw.nrd mmt mt
njnm.n ns.sn
jwrb mdbw
njnm.n ns.sn
the mans second speech

3
2

jwwp.n.j r.j nb.j


wb.j dt.n.f

4
3
3
4
2
3
2
3
4

jwn wr.w r.j mmjn


njmdw b.j n.j
jwgrt wr.w rb
jwmjwzf jmt.f m b.j
.fn.j r.s
snnw.j wjn n.f
nndj.tw .fwj
rntt.f mt.j mnww
nnpr m.f rwj.f hrwqsnwt

3
2
4
3
3+x
3
3
3
4

mj.tn b.j rtht.j


njsm.n.j n.f
rsts.j rmt njjjt.j n.f
r.j rt rsmmt.j
ptr mnt.f [ ].f
rrdjt s.f rsn.f
tk.f jm.j hrwqsnwt
.f mpfgs mjjr-nnw.
pjspw prr jn.fsw r.f

VERSIFICATION

x+1
1+x
2+x
x+3
1+x
3
2
2
2

[ ] face.
Guard [ ].
Comethen: Iwillteachyou [ ]
[ ] you [ ] theenmity oftheWest.
[]
Foraman [ ].
Wemustspeak thetruth inthecourt:
theirruling isnotbiased
wouldbecrooked inreturn:
theirruling isnotbiased.
the mans second speech

3
2

AndIopened mymouth tomysoul


toanswer whathesaid:

4
3
3
4
2
2
2
3
4

Thisis toomuch forme today:


mysoul notagreeing withme.
Toomuch aswell toexaggerate:
likeignoring hisplight, mysouls going.
Heshouldattendtoit forme,
myother, whorejects hislife.
Hecannot resistme,
sinceheis enmeshed insideme:
hewont beable toescape inhardtiimes.

3
2
4
3
3+x
3
3
3
4

Butlook, mysoul ismisleadingme.


Icantlisten tohim
fordraggingme todeath before mytime,
forthrowingme onthefire toincinerateme.
Whatis hissuffering, [that]heshould[ ],
giving hisback tohisbrother?
Heshouldstay besideme inhardtimes,
andstand onyonside likeaeulogist,
forthats whogoesoff andwindsup overthere.

183

184

APPENDIX TWO

4
4
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3

b.j w.w rsdh rn


jhmwj rmt njjjt.j n.f
snmn.j jmnt
jnjwqsntpw
prtpw n
jwtw r.sn
ndr.k rjsft
w mr.j
wwj wtj
tp nrw
sf nsw r.j
z mmt
sm r mdw.j
sg wj
sf jsdz r.j
mt srt
rntt sr.j wdn.w
njwnt fn.f n.j

4
2
2
1
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
3

nm sf nrw twt.j
dt.nn.j b.j
njntkjs zj
jw.ktrn.tj
ptr km.k
my.k rn mjnb-w
d njm.j
jwnf rt
nmntw rtfyt nnnwt.k
nrjnb rd jw.jrjt.k
jwgrt.k mwt.tj
rn.k n.w
st nf ntnt
fdt ntjb
dmjpw jmnt
n.tw spdwr jrj

VERSIFICATION

4
4
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3

Butmysoul istoofoolish tosuppress lifespain,


proddingme todeath before mytime
andsweetening theWest:
Isithard?
Life isacycle;
trees fall.
Sotread ondisorder,
allay mypain.
LetThoth judgeme
andthegods becontent;
letKhonsu intervene onmybehalf,
hewhowrites thetruth;
lettheSun hear myspeech,
hewhostills thebark;
letIsdes intervene onmybehalf
inthesacred room
sincemyneed hasbecome soheavy
andnoone willliftit away.

4
2
2
1
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
3

Better thegods barthethoughts insideme,


whatmysoul hastoldme:
Youarelessthan aman,
thoughalive.
Whatis yourgain,
ifyoucare forlife likearichman
whosays, Icantleave,
whenall islost?
Infact, youreuprooted unnoticed,
thedeprived planning torobyou,
andyougood asdead,
alive butinname.
Yonder istheplace toalighton,
storage-chest oftheheart.
TheWest isaharbor,
towhich theperceptive shouldberowed.

185

186

APPENDIX TWO

2
2
3
1
3
1
3

smn.j b.j
nnn.j bt
twt jb.f n.j
jw.frmr
rdj.j p.f jmnt
mjntjmmr.f
.n rj-t rqrs.f

3
3
4
3
3
2
3

jw.jrjrt njj rt.k


sdm.k kyb mnnw
jw.jrjrt njj jtm.f sw
sdm.k kyb ntjt.w
swrj.j mw rbbt
zy.j wjw
sdm.k kyb ntjqr.w

3
4
4
3
3
3

jrhjm.kwj rmwt mpqj


nngm.k nt.k r.s mjmnt
w jb.k b.j sn.j
rprt jww drptj.fj
tj.fj rt hrwqrs
sy.f nkyt nrj-nr
the souls third speech

3
2

jwwp.nn.j b.j r.f


wb.f dt.n.j

3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2

jrs.k qrs ntjbpw


jntrmytpw msjndzj
dtzjpw mpr.f
.w rq
nnpr.n.k rrw
m.k rw
qdw mjnr nmt
ws qn.w

VERSIFICATION

2
2
3
1
3
1
3

Letmysoul heedme:
Ihave notransgression.
Shouldhisheart agree withmine,
hellsucceed,
forIllmakehim reach theWest
asapyramidowner,
towhoseburial asurvivor hasattended.

3
3
4
3
3
2
3

Ishallmake ashelter foryourcorpse


tomakejealous asoul indeath.
Ishallmake ashelter anditwont getcold,
tomakejealous asoul whoishot.
Iwilldrink atthefloods waters,
anddispel dryness,
tomakejealous asoul whoishungry.

3
4
4
3
3
3

Butprodme todeath inthatway,


andyouwont findaplace toalight intheWest.
Set yourheart, mysoul, mybrother,
tilanheir hasgrownup tooffer,
attend tothetomb onburial-day,
andprovide abed forthenecropolis.
the souls third speech

3
2

Andmysoul opened hismouth


t0answer whatIsaid:

3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2

Asforthinking ofburial, itisheartache,


bringingtears andsadness,
takingone fromhishouse
tobeleft onthehill.
Youllnever goup
andsee thesunrise.
Builders instone ofgranite,
whenconstruction isfinished

187

188

APPENDIX TWO

2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
4

mrw nfrw
mkwt nfrt
pr sqdw mnrw
bw jrj w.w
mjnnw mwtw rmryt
ngw rj-t
jt.n nwy pwj.fj
w mmjtt jrj
mdwn.sn rmw spt nmw

2
3
2
2

smr.k n.j
mj.k nfrsm nrmt
ms hrwnfr
sm m

3
3
2
2
3
4
3
2
3
4
4
3
2
2
2
4

jwns sk.f dw.f


jw.ftp.f mw.f rnwdpt
sts.f sqdwt
b.f tkn.w
m.n.f prtwt ntmyt
rs.w mdpt r rq
pr.w njmt.f msw.f
q.w tpj
n.w mgr rmryt
r.jn.f ms.w pz.f mrw
rd njrm.j ntfmst
nnn.s prt mjmnt
rkt rt
my.j rmsw.s
sdw mswt
mw r nntj njnt.sn

3
3
3
1

jwns db.f mrwt


jwjmt.f d.sn.f jwrmsyt
jw.fpr.f rntw r.s
srt

VERSIFICATION

2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
4

fine pyramids
withfine works
andthebuildings commissioners aregods,
whatwasmade forthem israzed,
likethedead wholie ontheriverbank
forlack ofasurvivor,
thewaters havingendedhim too
orsunlight inequal measure
theytowhom thefish andthewaterslip speak.

2
3
2
2

Listenthen tome:
tolisten isgood forpeople.
Follow agoodtime,
forget care.

3
3
2
2
3
4
3
2
3
4
3
3
2
2
2
4

Alittleman plows hisplot,


andloads hisharvest onaboat,
anddrags asailing,
hisfestival near.
Whenhesaw adarknorther comeup,
hewatched intheboat astheSun wentdown,
disembarked withhiswife andhischildren,
andtheyperished byalake
ringed bynight withriverbankers.
Soheendedup seated andspreading hisvoice,
saying, Iweptnot forherborn,
whowillhave noemergence fromtheWest
toanother onearth.
ButIcare forherchildren,
broken intheegg,
whosaw Khentisface before theyhadlived.

3
3
3
1

Alittleman asks forlunch,


andhiswife tellshim, Itsforsupper,
andatthat hegoes outside,
justamoment.

189

190
3
3
3
3

APPENDIX TWO

nn.fsw rpr.f jw.fmjky


jmt.f rs n.f
njsm.n.fn.s s.w n.f
w.w jb nwpwtjw
the mans third speech

3
2

jwwp.n.j r.j nb.j


wb.j dt.n.f

3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
3
4

mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rstjsw
mhrwwmw pt t.tj
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rstjzpsbnw
mhrwrzf pt t.tj
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rstjpdw
rbwt nttrjw rmsyt
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rstjmw
rzw nwzw m n.sn
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rstjmsw
rmst rw rmryt
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rzt-jmt
d grg r.s ny
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rrd qn
d r.f jw.fnmsdw.f
mj.k b rn.j
mj.k rdmj njty
nn btw m s.f

VERSIFICATION

3
2
3
3

191

Heturnsback tohishouse butischanged


andhiswife ispleading withhim.
Hewontlisten toher, offended,
unreceptive tothose ofthehousehold.
the mans third speech

3
2

AndIopened mymouth tomysoul


toanswer whathesaid:

3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
3
4

Look, myname isreeking:


look,morethan carrionssmell
onHarvestdays, whenthesky ishot.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan aneel-trapssmell
oncatchday, whenthesky ishot.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan duckssmell
atarise ofreeds withabrood.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan fowlingssmell
atthechannels ofnests inwhich theyarefowled.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan crocodilessmell
atasite ofslaughter withriverbankers.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan awife
aboutwhom thelie ofadultery hasbeentold.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan abrave youngboy
saidtobe forone heshouldhate.
Look, myname isreeking:
look,morethan theharbor oftheSire
thatplots sedition butwhoseback isseen.

192
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
4
3
1
2
3
2
5
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
2
4
3
2
4

APPENDIX TWO

d.j nmj mjn


snw bjn.w
nmsw nwmjn njmr.nj
d.j nmj mjn
wn jbw
zjnb rjttwtsnnw.f
d.j nmj mjn
jwzf q.w
ntr h.w nbw-nb
d.j nmj mjn
tp rbjn
rdjr.f bwnfr rt mstnbt
d.j nmj mjn
sr zj mzp.fbjn
ssbt.f bw-nb jw.f w.w
d.j nmj mjn
Jw.tw
zjnb rjttsnw.f
d.j nmj mjn
btw mq-jb
sn jrr n.f pr.w mftj
d.j nmj mjn
njs.tw sf
njjr.tw njr mtt
d.j nmj mjn
snw bjn.w
jnn.tw mrrw rmtt ntjb
d.j nmj mjn
rw tm.w
zjnb mr rrw rsnw.f
d.j nmj mjn
jbw wn.w
nnwnjb nzj rhn.tw r.f

VERSIFICATION

3
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
4
3
1
2
3
2
5
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
2
4
3
2
4

193

Towhom canIspeak today?


Brothers arenowbad;
thefriends oftoday donotlove.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Hearts aregreedy,
eachstealing fromtheother.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Forkindness hasperished
andsternness descended oneveryone.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Therescontent withwhatsbad,
forgoodness hasbeenput aside ineachplace.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Whenaman causesanger bybadacts,
hemakeseveryone laugh, thoughhismisdeed isevil.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Thereisplundering,
eachrobbing hisbrothers.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Thepariah isanintimate,
thebrother withwhom oneused toact isanenemy.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Theresnothought ofthepast,
nodoing forthedoer thesedays.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Brothers arenowbad;
onlystrangers totake tothedepths ofonesheart.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Faces areturned,
eachman withhisface down tohisbrothers.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Hearts arenowgreedy;
theresnoheart ofaman onwhich todepend.

194

APPENDIX TWO

3
1
4
3
2
3
3
1
3
3
3
3
4

d.j nmj mjn


nnmtjw
t zp.w njrw jsft
d.j nmj mjn
jww mq-jb
jnn.tw mmm rsrtn.f
d.j nmj mjn
nnhr-jb
pfm n.f nnswwn.w
d.j nmj mjn
jw.jtp.kw rmr ngwq-jb
d.j nmj mjn
nf w t nnwnpwj.fj

3
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
4
3
1
4
3
4
5

jwmwt mr.j mmjn


mjsnbmr
mjprt rntw rshjmt
jwmwt mr.j mjn
mjstjntjw
mjmst rtw hrww
jwmwt mr.j mjn
mjstjznw
mjmst rmryt nttt
jwmwt mr.j mjn
mjwtwyt
mjjw zj mm rpr.sn
jwmwt mr.j mjn
mjkftpt
mjzj st jm rmt.n.f
jwmwt mr.j mjn
mjbb zj m pr.sn
jr.n.f rnpwt t jt.w mnrt

4
2

wnnms ntjjm mnr n.w


rsfjw njrrsw

VERSIFICATION

195

3
1
4
3
2
3
3
1
3
3
3
3
4

Towhom canIspeak today?


Norighteous,
fortheland hasbeenleft tothose whodowrong.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Thereislack ofanintimate;
only anunknown tocomplainto.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Nopeaceful;
theassociate ofold isnomore.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Iamladen withneed foranintimate.
Towhom canIspeak today?
Theinjustice thathashit theland hasnoend.

3
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
4
3
1
4
3
4
5

Death isbeforeme today,


likegettingwell,
likegoing outside aftermourning.
Death isbeforeme today,
likemyrrhscent,
likesitting undersails inthewind.
Death isbeforeme today,
likelotusscent,
likesitting ontheBank ofInebriation.
Death isbeforeme today,
likefloodebb,
likeaman comeshome fromatrip abroad.
Death isbeforeme today,
likeskyclear,
likeaman entranced bywhat wasnotknown.
Death isbeforeme today,
likeaman longing tosee hishome,
whentaken andheld asacaptive year afteryear.

4
2

Surely, onethere willbealiving god,


punishing themiscreant.

196
4
5
3
4

APPENDIX TWO

wnnms ntjjm .w mwj


rrdjt dj.tw stpwt jm nrw-prw
wnnms ntjjm mr-wt
njsf.n.tw.f rspr nr ftmdw.f
the souls final speech

dt.nn.j b

3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3

jmjr.k nwt r
nswpn sn.j
wdn.k r
mj.k rn
mjd.k mrwj
wjnn.k jmnt
mrm p.k jmnt
s .k t
ny.j rs wrd.k
jjr.n dmj nzp

VERSIFICATION

4
5
3
4

197

Surely, onethere willbestanding inthebark,


havingcuts ofmeat given fromit tothetemples.
Surely, onethere willbewise,
notbarred fromappealing totheSun whenhespeaks.
the souls final speech

What the soul said to me:

3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3

Putthen complaint onthestake,


Obelonger, mybrother.
Youshouldoffer onthebrazier
asyoufight forlife,
asyousay, Desireme here.
Reject theWest,
butdesire toreach theWest
whenyourbody touches theearth,
andIll alight onceyoupass.
Thus wellmakeharbor together.

APPENDIX THREE

oGARDINER 369

Fig. 4. oGardiner 369

[ ] r d mr.n.f
p mj[]nw[tj ] mj mt
p y n t [ ] mjk m s.f
p? mt mjwt.tf t.f ft
3b4b jw.j jsq.kw
jw.j r rt-nr
4b5b mj.k bj jb p r t
bwt.f [t]
5b6b p b m nw.st [r q]w pr mr.[f]
1
12
23 b

200

APPENDIX THREE

3a5a
5a6a
6a7

[ ] jb.f r [ ]
jnk w [ ] dtw mr.f
jw [ ] m myt r zw r n.[j]

The ferryman [ ] like Maat.


[ ] saying what he wanted.
The ship of the land [ ] protected behind him,
the going of his mother and his father accordingly,
while I am hindered.
I am bound for the necropolis.
Look, what the heart desires is the lifetime on earth.
Its abomination is to cross.
The soul inside it enters and emerges as it wants,
[ ] his heart on [ ].
I am one sound [ ] who says what he wants,
while [ ] at the rudder, guarding the mouth for me.
The ostracons language and hieratic paleography are clearly of New
Kingdom date (see below). Since line 7 is evidently the end of the
text, the inscription probably began on the reverse side, now lost.1 The
apparent sequentiality of lines 4b5b and perhaps also 5b6b suggests
that the left side is relatively intact, with perhaps a single determinative (of the speaking man) lost at the end of line 4b and a suffix
pronoun at the end of 6b. The gap before mj at the start of line 2 indicates that the beginnings of lines 16b are also preserved. The scribe
apparently wrote six lines on the main surface of the stone, beginning
near the right-hand edge of the top. He then wrote the remainder of
his text to the right of lines 3b6b and below line 6b and drew a red
line to the right of lines 3b6b and below line 6b to separate this text
from the preceding (see the textual note to lines 5b6b, below).
The texts language appears to be Late rather than Middle Egyptian, as indicated by the frequent use of the definite article p (lines 1,
2, 3b?, 5b) the First Present construction (lines 1, 5b6b?, 6a7, per
1

See ern and Gardiner 1957, 24.

oGARDINER 369

201

haps also 3a5a), and the A B nominal-sentence pattern (line 4b5b).


The superfluous in jsq.kw (line 3b), the writing of the 3fs suffix as st
(line 6b) and the active participle of d as dtw (line 6a) are also typical
of Late Egyptian, as is the use of the masculine relative in place of the
feminine (lines 1, 3b, 6a).2 The words y (line 2) ship and myt (line
7) rudder are first attested in the New Kingdom.3 The absence of
verb forms with prothetic j and the use of the sm.n.f relative (line 1)
identify the text as literary rather than colloquial Late Egyptian.

Fig. 5. oGardiner 369, hieratic of line 3


Textual notes

3b

The
following s.f is evidently part of a definite article
with the first sign omitted, more probably p than t,4 or perhaps plural n.
The damaged signs following mt, which ern and Gardiner
left untranscribed, may be those of mjwt (see Fig. 5, above, and
cf. Mller, Palographie II, 194 Abbott), followed by the seated
woman above a ligatured
.
ern and Gardiner read the final sign in the line as
. Since
there is little or nothing lost at the end of the line and 4b
jsq.kw follows directly, the resulting j yields little sense. The
form of the sign is also somewhat different from that of the
other
in the line. The sign may instead be above
,
yielding jw.j. In view of the resulting jw.j jsq.kw, ft would

J. ern and S.I. Groll, A Late Egyptian Grammar, 3rd ed. (Studia Pohl 4; Rome,
1984), 1, 27, 464, 485.
3
Wb. V, 515, 6; III, 81, 1113.
4
ern and Groll, A Late Egyptian Grammar, 182.

202

APPENDIX THREE

appear to be used adverbially rather than as a preposition or


conjunction.
5b
Since only the hieratic of line 3 has been published, it is impossible to judge the validity of the
-sign that ern and
Gardiner have transcribed with a question mark. If correct, it
can only be a writing of the definite article without
, unless it is an unusual literary Late Egyptian variant of the copula
pw. The sign below is most likely the initial
of .
5b6b Although the scribes dividing line has grouped jw with line
6b, the particle is out of place following 5b p. In the hieroglyphic transcription, the b-sign aligns vertically with the
beginnings of the two lines above. These features indicate that
jw probably belongs with lines 6a7, and therefore that the red
dividing line was drawn after all the text had been entered.
The referent of m nw.st is probably 4b rt-nr.
7
The verse point at the end of the line indicates that the
text is complete (to that point) and not simply aborted. In
that light, and judging from the size of the final damage trace
in the hieroglyphic transcription, the lost sign can only have
been the seated man of the 1s suffix pronoun. The resulting
n.[j] is out of place both for Middle Egyptian and Late Egyptian, but was perhaps conditioned by an understanding of
zw-r as a compound expression.5

The expression occurs in CT VI, 206g zw r.j those who guard my mouth.
For the position of the dative in Late Egyptian, see Leo Depuydt, Four Thousand
Years of Evolution: on a Law of Historical Change in Ancient Egyptian, JNES 56
(1997), 2135.

APPENDIX FOUR

SIGN LIST
1. individual signs

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

A1 full

33

4 (4), 5, 6, 7 (2), 8, 9, 11 (2), 12,


13, 15, 16, 18, 19 (2), 20, 22, 23,
24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 (2), 31, 33
(4), 35, 36, 39 (2), 40 (2), 41, 42,
43, 45, 47, 48, 50, 52 (2), 55 (2),
56, 64, 65, 67, 76, 78, 80, 83, 85
(2), 86 (3), 87, 89, 91, 96, 98, 99,
100 (2), 101, 103, 104, 106, 108,
114 (2), 115, 116, 122, 124, 126,
128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 138,
139, 146, 147, 149 (2), 153

A1 abbr.

33

*26, *28, 5, 7, 8, 11, 25, 31, 46, 52


(2), 58 (2), 60, 68, 74, 78, 93, 103,
104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111 (2),
112, 113 (2), 116, 117 (2), 118,
119, 120 (2), 121 (2), 123, 125, 127
(2), 129, 136, 137, 139, 141, 143,
145, 149, 150

A2

35

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 16, 18, 26, 31, 32, 35,


44, 47, 49, 56 (2), 66, 68, 76, 78, 80,
87, 89, 91, 93, 96, 98, 99 (2), 101 (2),
102 (2), 104, 107, 110, 111, 115, 125,
141, 142, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151

A7

32

45, 64, 104

204

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

A9

42

29, 62, 69, 127

A12

44

137

A13a

49

115

A15

52

21

A17

30

74, 75, 77, 97, 100, 133, 135, 153

A24

15

*25, *26, 8, 13, 19, 24, 26, 30, 34,


36, 40, 48, 54, 58, 60, 61, 65, 94,
95, 100, 105 (2), 107, 112 (2),
120, 141, 142, 143, 146, 150

A25

16

129, 137

A26

11

26

A28

59

A30

60, 62, 117 ( )

A47

48

*25

A53

10

40, 50, 54

B1 full

61

73, 98

B1 abbr.

61B

67, 74, 78, 81, 83, 108, 111

D1

79

74

D2

80

*14, 11, 12, 13 (2), 14, 18, 22, 32,


34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 47, 53, 58, 64,
73, 76, 78 (2), 79, 84, 105, 107,
108, 112, 118, 119, 130, 132, 134,
135, 136, 138, 140, 143, 144, 146,
148, 149, 150; see also Ligatures
(D2+D21)

D3

81

63

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

205

OCCURRENCES

D4

82

*9, 16, 43, 45, 57, 59, 72, 76, 114,


116 (2), 123, 141 (2), 143, 154;
see also Ligatures (U2+D4)

D20

90

35, 102, 107

D21

91

*27, 1, 2, 4, 5 (2), 6 (3), 7, 10 (2),


12, 13, 14 (2), 15, 17 (3), 18, 19,
20, 21, 22, 25, 28, 31, 32, 34, 35,
36 (3), 39, 41 (3), 42, 43, 45, 47, 49
(2), 50, 52, 53 (2), 54, 55 (2), 56
(2), 57, 59 (2), 60 (2), 61, 63, 64, 66
(2), 67 (2), 68 (2), 70, 71, 72, 73
(2), 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82 (4),
83, 86, 87 (2), 88, 89, 90 (2), 91 (2),
92 (2), 93, 94 (2), 96 (2), 97 (2), 98
(2), 99, 100 (5), 104, 109 (4), 110,
114 (2), 118, 119, 121, 125 (2), 126,
128, 131 (3), 134, 135, 138, 140,
143, 144, 145 (2), 146, 147, 150,
151, 153 (2); see also Ligatures
(D2+D21, D21+F22, D21+N35,
D21+V31, D21+X1, G17+D21,
L1+D21, L1+D21+X1, M36+D21,
N29+D21, T28+D21, W12+D21)

D25

92

67

D28

108

62, 69

D33

112

38

D34

113

150

D35

111/332

2, 3, 5, 9, 11, 12, 19, 28, 33, 34,


39, 50, 59, 68, 76, 77, 80, 84, 104,
115, 116, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126,
130, 140, 146

206

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

D36

99

2, 3, 6 (3), 7 (2), 8, 10, 11, 13, 16,


23, 25, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38,
40, 41 (2), 42, 50, 52, 53, 58 (2), 61,
63, 67, 68, 69 (2), 73 (2), 78, 80, 83,
86, 87 (2), 88, 89 (3), 91 (3), 93 (2),
94, 95, 96 (2), 97, 98 (2), 99 (2), 100,
101 (2), 102, 103, 105 (2), 108, 109
(2), 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 118, 120 (2), 122, 123, 125,
126, 127 (2), 129 (2), 132, 139, 144,
148, 151 (2), 152; see also Ligatures
(D36+N5, D36+X1, D36+Aa1)

D39

104

54

D41

101

121, 151

D45

107

27

D46

114

1, 3, 5, 18, 21, 25, 27, 28, 33, 35,


37, 38, 39, 44, 46, 53, 58, 60, 66,
69, 70 (2), 72, 76, 79, 80, 81, 98,
100 (2), 101, 102, 103, 104, 108,
109, 111, 113, 115, 116, 118, 120,
121, 123, 125, 127, 129, 147, 149,
150 (2), 153, 154; see also Ligatures (D46+W24, D46+X1,
D46+X1+N35)

D50

117

118 (2)

D52

95

118

D53

96

99

D54

119-20

*26, 7 (3), 10, 11, 12 (2), 15, 16,


17, 19, 21, 33, 37, 41, 42, 51, 53,
59, 68, 70, 71 (2), 73 (2), 77, 82,
107, 114, 124, 126, 128, 131, 137,

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

207

OCCURRENCES

(D54

119-20

144, 152 (2), 153, 154

D55

121

83

D56

122

11, 21, 34

D58

124

*26, 3, 4, 6, 47, 48, 56, 63, 71, 80,


86, 87, 89 (2), 91, 92, 93, 96, 98,
99, 101, 102, 103, 107, 108, 109,
110 (2), 111, 113, 117, 130, 141
(2)

D63

595

152

E9

142

52, 111, 143

E23

125

*27, 81

E34

132

*13, 120, 121, 127; see also Ligatures (E34+N35)

F2

175

146

F4

146

155

F5

151

84

F13

155

3, 55, 85 (2)

F16

157

80, 111

F20

161

2, 3, 148

F21

15859

11, 25, 39, 67 (2), 84

F22

163

41, 65, 130, 152; see also Ligatures


(D21+F22)

F26

165

70

F30

517

58, 69

F31

408

74, 77, 78, 81, 93, 101, 142, 143,


145

F32

169

9, 20, 30, 100

F34

179

38, 40, 52, 57, 85, 105, 114, 118,


120, 121, 124, 126, 128

208

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

F35

180

61, 62, 67, 68, 109

F44

52

F48

526

20

F51

17778

3, 152

G1 full

192

74

G1 abbr.

192B

*25, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13 (2), 17, 18


(2), 22 (2), 26, 28, 29, 30, 34, 37,
40, 43, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 53, 54,
56, 57, 58, 59 (3), 61, 62, 63, 64, 69
(2), 70, 71, 77, 79, 84, 87, 88, 90,
92, 94 (2), 95, 99, 103 (2), 107 (2),
112, 116 (2), 126, 127, 128 (2), 133,
137, 141 (2), 144, 148 (2), 151,
152; see also Ligatures (G1+X1)

G4

190

85, 122, 133

G7

188

23, 24, 25, 27, 60, 65, 73, 147

G14

193

131

G17 full

196

5, 7, 9 (2), 10, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19 (2),


25, 27, 32, 33, 34, 36, 41, 42 (2), 44,
45, 46 (2), 49, 50 (2), 51, 57 (2), 58,
60, 61, 62, 64, 66 (2), 67, 72, 74, 76
(2), 77, 79, 80, 86, 87, 88 (2), 89, 90,
91 (2), 93, 94 (2), 95 (2), 96 (2), 97,
98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 108,
109 (2), 110, 111, 113 (2), 115, 115,
116, 117, 118, 119 (3), 120, 122, 123,
124 (4), 125, 126, 127, 129, 130 (3),
132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 140, 142
(2), 144, 145 (2), 151, 155; see also
Ligatures (G17+D21, G17+X1)

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

209

OCCURRENCES

G17 abbr.

196B

G21

229

2, 3, 7, 11, 15, 25, 29, 39, 49, 51,


67 (2), 68, 84, 104, 140, 142, 144,
145, 148, 155
16

G26

207

23

G28
G29

205
208

51, 155
2, 47, 48, 63

G29a

209

G35

215

4, 5, 7, 11, 17, 31, 39, 44, 46, 49,


52, 55, 86, 148
73, 114, 124, 128

G36
G37

198
197

G39

21617

5, 6, 47, 153
*9, *27, 10, 14, 15, 18 (2), 20, 22
(2), 28, 49, 58, 64, 68, 74, 80, 84, 85,
107, 108, 110, 111 (2), 117, 119,
123, 124, 128 (2), 129, 131, 132,
143; see also Ligatures (N35+G37)
*25, 17 (for G41), 119

G41 full

222

50

G41 abbr.

222

37, 51, 87, 90, 92, 93, 153

G43

200

*13, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 (3), 8 (2), 10 (2), 15,


16, 17 (2), 18, 19, 20, 21 (2), 23 (2),
24, 25, 26, 28, 31, 36 (2), 38, 39, 40,
43, 45, 47, 50, 52, 53, 55 (2), 60, 61
(2), 62, 63 (3), 66 (2), 68, 69, 71, 74,
79 (2), 81 (3), 82 (2), 83, 85 (2), 86,
88, 90, 92, 94 (2), 101, 103, 111 (2),
113, 117 (2), 119, 120, 123, 128, 129,
130, 132, 133, 134, 137, 140, 143,
144, 147, 149, 150, 151, 154 (2); see
also Ligatures (G43+X1, W24+G43)

210

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

G47

224

99

G49

226

95

G51a

214

94, 95

H6

237

48, 123

H8

238

79

I1

240

141

I3

241

74, 75, 96, 97, 102

I3+R12

79

I6

392

32

I9

263

6, 7 (2), 8 (2), 9, 10 (2), 12, 14 (2),


15 (2), 16 (2), 17 (2), 19, 22, 24, 26,
29 (3), 34 (2), 37 (2), 40 (2), 41, 42,
43, 46, 53 (2), 54, 55, 56, 58, 61,
62, 65, 67, 68, 69 (4), 70 (2), 71, 73,
74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81 (2), 82 (2), 83
(4), 84 (3), 90, 100 (2), 101 (2), 103,
106, 107, 109 (2), 110, 111 (2), 113,
114, 115, 120, 121, 123, 125, 126
(2), 129, 130, 139, 140, 141, 143,
146 (2), 147 (2), 154, 155 (2); see
also S29+I9; see also Ligatures
(D46+X1+N35 +I9, N35+I9)

I10

250

1, 4, 8, 19, 23, 29, 30, 33, 35, 44,


46, 49, 56, 68, 76, 80, 81, 86, 98,
100, 103, 104, 108, 109, 111, 113,
115, 116, 118, 120, 121, 123, 125,
127, 129, 147, 150

I14

248

113

K1

253

57, 151

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

211

OCCURRENCES

K4

257

2, 8, 44, 66, 87, 89 (2), 91, 93, 96,


98, 99, 101, 148

L1

258

114; see also Ligatures (L1+D21,


L1+D21+X1)

M2

268

54, 92, 135

M3

269

21, 43, 107, 148

M4

270

141

M6

271

31, 32, 92

M12

277

13, 18, 56, 58, 94, 115

M16

279

53, 57, 94, 95

M17

282

*26, *27, *28, 3, 5, 6 (3), 7, 10, 12,


15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 (2), 21, 22 (2),
26, 27, 31 (2), 33, 34, 35, 36 (2), 38,
39, 40, 41, 43 (3), 45 (4), 47, 48, 49
(2), 50, 55, 56, 57, 60, 63 (2), 66,
68, 69, 75, 80, 81 (2), 82, 83 (2), 85,
92, 100, 101, 102, 103, 107, 108,
110, 112, 117, 123 (2), 127, 128,
130, 131 (2), 132 (2), 133, 134, 135
(2), 136 (2), 137, 138 (2), 139, 140
(2), 141, 142, 144 (2), 145 (2), 148,
150 (2), 151, 154 (2), 155

283

32, 34, 44, 46, 48, 49, 54 (2), 57,


64, 65, 72, 75, 78, 81, 83, 93, 97,
99, 135, 137, 153, 155

M18

284

12, 19

M22a

288

45, 63

M23

289

*14, 17, 24, 83, 126, 143, 149

212

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

M29

296

19, 29

M30

297

41

M36

294

see Ligatures (M36+D21)

N1

300

42, 59, 64, 88, 90, 139

N2

301

72, 75

N5

303

5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 26, 48, 53, 68,


73, 81, 82, 88 (2), 90, 115, 116,
127, 134, 138; see also Ligatures
(D36+N5, N35+N5)

N8

305

65

N14

314

*13, *26

N16

317

34, 42, 64, 78, 109, 122, 129, 152

N23

324

34, 38, 42, 59, 64 (2), 69, 74, 78,


82, 92, 95 (2), 97, 102, 109, 119,
122, 129, 131, 135, 152, 154

N25

322

*27, 20, 38, 41, 51, 55, 77, 136,


151, 152

N26

320

111

N28

307

110

N29

319

10, 15, 20, 50, 54, 56, 59, 73, 74,


100, 107, 114, 124, 128; see also
Ligatures (N29+D21)

N31

326

137, 151

N35

331

*13, *27, 1, 2 (3), 3 (3), 4 (2), 5 (2),


6, 8, 9 (3), 11 (2), 12, 16 (2), 17, 19
(2), 20 (2), 21, 24, 28, 29 (2), 30 (2),
34 (4), 35 (2), 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45
(3), 50, 52, 54, 55 (3), 56, 58, 59, 60
(2), 61, 63, 64, 65 (2), 66 (2), 67 (3),

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

213

OCCURRENCES

(N35

331

68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77 (3), 79, 80


(2), 81, 83 (2), 84 (4), 85 (2), 86, 87,
89 (2), 91, 93, 95 (2), 96, 98, 99,
100 (2), 101, 102 (3), 103 (2), 104
(2), 105, 107 (2), 108 (2), 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114 (2), 115, 116 (2),
117 (4), 118, 120 (3), 121 (5), 122
(2), 123, 124 (2), 125 (3), 126 (2),
127 (3), 128, 129 (2), 130, 132, 135,
138 (2), 140, 141 (2), 142 (2), 143
(2), 145 (3), 146, 147 (2), 148 (2),
149 (3), 151 (2), 153, 154 (2); see
also Ligatures (D21+N35,
D46+X1+N35, E34+N35,
N35+G37, N35+I9, N35+N5,
N35+V31, N35+X1, N35+Aa1)

N35a

333

47, 48, 65, 67, 69, 72, 88, 137

N37

335

4, 30, 55, 60, 61, 63, 69, 74, 76,


80, 84, 85, 86, 88, 97, 102, 135

N40

336

7, 33, 126

N42

98

34, 73, 75, 81, 83, 97, 98, 133,


135, 151

O1

340

17, 27, 37, 53, 58, 59, 70, 71, 73,


77, 82, 83, 109, 131, 138, 141, 145

O4

342

10, 11, 15, 18 (2), 53, 68, 88, 90,


107, 121, 126, 131, 134

O24

371

33, 42, 61

O29

363

151

O34

366

*25, *28, 6, 8, 18, 24, 26 (2), 27,


31, 44, 46 (2), 48, 49, 56, 58 (2),
67, 68, 74, 76, 79 (2), 80, 90, 94,

214

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

OCCURRENCES

(O34

366

98, 105, 107, 110 (2), 112, 119,


121, 122, 135, 137, 139 (2), 141,
142, 143 (2), 145, 154

O43

368

89

O50

403

see Ligatures (Q3+O50)

P1

374

26, 38, 70, 71, 72, 137

P3

376

144

P5

379

46, 72, 134

P6

380

7, 16, 33, 42, 53, 144

P8

381

76

Q1

383

37, 109

Q3

388

*13, 3, 14, 16, 17 (2), 20 (2), 21,


23, 32, 38, 39, 41, 50, 53, 55, 57
(2), 58, 67, 69, 76, 85 (2), 88, 89,
90, 92, 108, 126, 127, 149, 152,
154; see also Ligatures (Q3+O50,
Q3+X1)

Q5

387

37

Q6

372

56

Q7

394

13 (2), 47, 88, 90, 149

R4

552

see Ligatures (R4+X1)

R8

547

24, 30, 63, 142

R14

579

*27, 20, 38, 41, 51, 77, 151, 152

R50

549

55

S29

432

*9, *14, *15, *26, 3, 7, 10, 12 (2),


13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29,
31, 38, 43, 47, 51, 54 (2), 56, 57,

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

215

OCCURRENCES

(S29

432

S29+I9

432n

115

S34

534

18, 21, 32 (2), 37, 80, 142, 150

S36

406

43, 45

S42

451

63

S43

456

5, 25, 66, 147

T12

438

22, 28, 128

T18

443

68

T19

460

15, 20

T22

596

52, 103, 112, 114, 117, 120, 149

T25

462

T27

464

139

T28

397

see Ligatures (T28+D21)

T34

585

2, 3, 104

U2

469

*12, 8, 13, 22, 25, 59, 61, 122, 128,


141; see also Ligatures (U2+D4)

U7

465

64, 75, 97, 104, 135, 150, 151

U9

470

69

U13

468

69

U15

489

46, 119

U17

467

99

61, 62, 66, 68 (2), 69, 70 (3), 72, 75,


77 (2), 78 (2), 80, 81 (2), 82 (2), 84
(3), 87 (2), 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96
(2), 97, 99, 101, 104, 110 (3), 115,
123, 125, 130 (2), 132, 133, 135 (2),
138, 141, 144, 146, 152

216

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

U20

480

9, 35, 65

U21

481

144

U23

484

42, 61, 131

U23

485

141

U28

391

54, 112

U30

393

*14, 12, 30, 40, 47, 70, 88, 90,


113, 133

U32

402

28, 149

U35

473

24, 26, 29, 143, 146

U40

405

48, 72

V1

518

9 (2), 35

V2

519

12, 70

V4

524

22, 51, 92, 137

V7

521

9, 74, 102

V14

528

48, 82, 84

V15

529

36; see also Ligatures (V15+X1)

V23

459

32, 68, 72, 78

V28

525

6, 9, 16, 18, 22, 23, 40, 41, 46, 49,


51, 54, 71, 72, 73, 75, 79, 80, 87,
89, 91, 93, 96 (2), 98, 99, 101,
112, 114, 119, 126, 129, 133, 137,
152 (3)

V29

398

22, 51

V30

510

33, 35, 105, 108, 109, 111, 112, 119

V31

511

*12, *27, 15, 31 (2), 32 (2), 35, 36


(2), 44 (3), 46 (2), 49 (2), 50, 51 (2),
52, 54, 56, 59, 67, 71, 78, 83, 86,

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

217

OCCURRENCES

(V31

511

87, 88, 89, 91 (2), 93, 94, 95, 96, 97,


98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 127, 139, 149,
150 (2), 151, 152 (2), 153; see also
Ligatures (D21+V31, N35+V31)

V32

513

64, 128

V48

480

54, 133, 139

W3

512

71

W12

395

6, 26, 36, 64, 128; see also Ligatures (W12+D21)

W14

502

46

W18

504

79, 62, 131

W19

509

5, 6, 16, 33, 38, 41, 63, 66, 83, 102,


103, 104, 105, 108, 110, 112, 113,
115, 116, 118, 120, 122, 123, 125,
127, 129, 130, 131, 132 (2), 133,
134, 135 (2), 136 (2), 137, 138 (2),
139, 140, 141, 150 (2), 154, 155

W23

506

133, 136

W24

495

*13, 9 (2), 16, 35, 45, 60, 63, 65,


70 (2), 89, 95, 103, 104, 117, 120,
135; see also Ligatures (D46+W24,
W24+G43)

W25

496

17, 57, 117, 124

W79

551

150

X1

575

*9 (2), *13, *14, *25, *26, *27, 6, 7,


8, 9 (2), 11 (3), 12 (2), 13 (2), 14, 15,
19 (2), 20 (2), 21, 22, 23, 30 (2), 31,
32 (2), 34 (3), 35, 36 (3), 37 (2), 38,
40 (3), 41, 43, 45, 47, 50, 51, 53 (2),

218

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

OCCURRENCES

(X1

575

54, 57 (2), 61, 62, 64 (2), 66 (2), 67


(2), 70, 71 (2), 72 (2), 73, 75, 77 (4),
78, 79, 80, 81 (2), 83, 87, 88 (3), 90
(3), 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97 (2), 98
(2), 102, 105, 106, 107, 109 (2),
110, 112, 113, 115, 116 (2), 117,
118 (2), 121, 123, 124, 125, 127,
130, 131, 132, 133 (2), 135 (3), 136
(2), 137 (2), 139 (2), 141, 142, 144
(2), 146, 147, 151, 152, 155 (2); see
also Ligatures (D21+X1, D36+X1,
D46+X1+N35 , G1+X1,
G43+X1, L1+D21+X1, N35+X1,
Q3+X1, V15+X1, X1+R4)

X4

555

81

Y1

538

*12, *22, 3, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 29,


30, 32, 33, 40, 41, 45, 50, 51, 54,
61, 62, 76, 84, 106, 118, 122, 126,
139, 145, 146, 149, 154, 155

Y3

537

25, 155

Y5

540

14

Z1

558

*14, *25, *28, 4, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14,


15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 30 (2),
31, 32, 34 (2), 35, 38 (2), 39, 40, 42
(2), 43, 47, 52, 53 (2), 54, 55, 57, 58
(4), 59, 60, 63, 64 (3), 68, 69, 73, 74
(2), 76, 78 (3), 79, 81, 82, 84, 85,
86, 88, 90, 92, 95 (3), 97, 102, 103,
104, 105 (3), 107, 108, 109, 110,
112 (2), 114, 118 (2), 119 (3), 120,
121 (3), 122, 124, 126,

SIGN LIST

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

219

OCCURRENCES

(Z1

558

128, 129, 130, 131 (2), 132, 134 (2),


135 (2), 136, 137, 138, 139, 140,
141 (2), 143, 144, 145 (2), 146, 148,
149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155

Z2

561

*27, 1, 2, 3 (2), 11, 15, 21 (2), 22,


24, 30 (2), 33, 35, 39, 44, 57, 60
(2), 61 (3), 62 (2), 63 (2), 64 (2), 66
(2), 67, 69, 74, 75, 79, 80, 81, 85,
87, 88, 90, 92 (2), 93, 95 (3), 96,
97 (2), 103, 104, 105, 106, 108,
111, 113, 117 (2), 118, 120 (3),
122, 123 (2), 133 (2), 135, 138, 141
(3), 144, 145 (2), 146, 152, 154

Z4

560

23, 42, 49, 53 (2), 63, 65, 66, 79,


104, 130, 142, 144, 145, 155

Z5

559

25, 82, 116

Z6

49B

4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 17, 19, 31 36, 39,


44, 46, 49, 50, 52, 55, 64, 86, 130,
132, 134, 136, 138, 140, 148

Z7

200B

*14, *25, *26, *27, *28, 2, 3, 5, 9


(2), 20, 34 (2), 35, 45, 57 (2), 58,
59, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 76, 78,
79, 80, 83, 85, 87, 89, 100, 101,
102, 104, 107 (3), 109, 111, 112
(2), 117, 121, 123 (2), 124, 126,
127, 128, 130, 131, 134 (2), 135,
136, 138, 143, 149

Z9

565

3, 4, 55, 56, 76, 79, 85, 86, 95

Z49

615

8, 106

Aa1

574

*27, 13, 18, 21 (2), 24 (2), 26, 29,


35, 37, 45, 51, 56, 61, 68, 71, 104,

220

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER MLLER

SIGN
)

OCCURRENCES

(Aa1

574

106, 107, 115, 124, 125, 136, 139,


140, 143, 146 (2), 147, 148, 153,
154; see also Ligatures (D36+Aa1,
N1+Aa1)

Aa2

566/582

44, 57, 87, 91, 94, 96, 132, 135

Aa8

604

61, 97

Aa11

477

25, 122

Aa14

327

148

Aa16

328

16

Aa17

594

14, 28, 84, 103, 131, 152, 153

Aa21

583

23

Aa28

488

60, 62, 70

2. ligatures

GARDINER

MLLER

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

D2+D21

80C

7, 24, 27, 42, 51, 59, 64, 121

D21+F22

155

D21+N35

XXVI

101

D21+V31

*26, 21, 67, 148

D21+X1

XXIX

62

D21+Aa1

XXVIII

145

D36+N5

60, 147

D36+X1

II

25, 27, 53, 122, 144 (2)

D36+Aa1

149

D46+W24

62

SIGN LIST

221

GARDINER

MLLER

D46+X1

XLVI

30, 58, 147

D46+X1+N35

56

D46+X1+
N35 +I9

4, 86

E34+N35

105, 130, 142, 143, 145

G1+X1

44, 48, 82, 92, 115, 141

G17+D21

61, 131

G17+X1

XI

12, 132, 134, 136, 138, 140


(2)

G43+X1

III

*9, 71, 148

L1+D21

10, 62

L1+D21+X1

52

M36+D21

294

9, 75, 117 (2), 142

N29+D21

XXXIV

43, 49

N35+G37

103

N35+I9

XVI

12, 29, 71

N35+N5

103, 104, 105, 108, 110, 112,


113, 115, 116, 118, 120, 122,
123, 125, 129, 130, 132, 134,
136, 140

N35+V31

XIX

36, 59

N35+X1

XX

9, 10, 14, 15, 20, 21, 31, 37 (2),

SIGN

OCCURRENCES

222

APPENDIX FOUR

GARDINER

MLLER

(N35+X1

XX

N35+X1+X1

XXII

28

N35+Aa1

XVIII

18, 21, 32 (2), 37, 80, 142,


150

Q3+O50

403n

110, 122, 154

Q3+X1

VII

70, 72, 139

R4+X1

552n

23, 108

T28+D21

75, 93, 97 (2), 119, 128, 133

U2+D4

71, 79, 103

V15+X1

65, 105, 141

V15+X1+X1

112

W12+D21

75, 98

W24+G43

495n

106, 112

SIGN
)

OCCURRENCES
38 (2), 42, 47, 49, 51, 57, 72,
79, 82, 92, 118, 131, 136,
142, 144, 145, 146

APPENDIX FIVE

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR


1. lexicon

This section lists all instances of all the individual words that either
survive or can be restored in the papyrus (suffix pronouns are listed
under Pronoun, personal, suffix in Section Two, below). Words
are arranged by their roots, in transcription, usually according to the
order used in the Wrterbuch. The spellings and forms that appear in
the papyrus are listed under each root, with references to column
numbers of the text. Derivatives are listed after their root rather than
strictly alphabetically: e.g., ms child after msj give birth.
t moment, time (noun: Wb. I, 12):

82, 116

js offal (noun: Wb. I, 20, 1013; Wb.med., 3; Wb. Drogennamen,


1):
87 sw
bj long (verb: Wb. I, 67):

141 bb

pd bird (noun: Wb. I, 9):

92 pdw

h misery (verbal noun: Wb. I, 12):

18

q perish (verb: Wb. I, 21):

74 q.(w), 107 q.(w)

p load (verb: Wb. I, 2223):


12728 tp.kw

69 <t>p.f ;

jw sunlight (noun: Wb. IV, 43031):


jj come (verb: Wb. I, 37):

65

12 jjt.(j), 19 jjt.j

jw (particle: Wb. I, 4243):


1 [j]w.n, 6 (2), 20, 21, 31 jw.k, 36, 36
jw.j, 40 jw.f, 43 jw.j, 45 jw.f, 55, 81 (2), 82 jw.f, 83 jw.f, 132, 140;
*28, 2, 5, 34, 68, 69 jw.f, 80, 85, 101 jw.f, 107, 112, 123, 127
jw.j, 130 (added), 134, 136, 138

224

APPENDIX FIVE

jwj come (verb: Wb. I, 4445):

137, 154 jw.f

jw misdeed (noun: Wb. I, 48):

jw 111 jw.f, 143

jww heir (verbal noun: Wb. I, 50):

52

jb heart (noun: Wb. I, 5960):


jb 38, 40 jb.f, 52 jb.k, 57, 85, 114
q-jb, 118, 121, 124 q-jb, 126 hr-jb, 12829 q-jb;
jbw 105, 120
jm (preposition with suffix pronoun and adverb): see m
jmj (nisbe): see m
jmj put (imperative: Wb. I, 7677):
jmnt West (noun: Wb. I, 86):

148
*27, 20, 38, 41, 51, 77, 151, 152

jn (particle, interrogative: Wb. I, 89):


jnj get (verb: Wb. I, 9091):

jn 20
17 jn.f, 57 jnt

117 jnn.tw, 124 jnn.tw

jnr stone (noun: Wb. I, 9798):

60

jr if, as for: see r


jrj thereto: see r
jrj make, do (verb: Wb. I, 10812):
116, 116 jr.t(w), 141 jr.n.f, 154 jr.n;

*9 jrt, 16 jr, 43 jrt, 45 jrt,


jrw 123

114 jrr, 143 jrr

jhm prod (verb): see hjm


jhmt mourning (verbal noun: Wb. I, 12 hmt):
hjmt
j and, then (particle: Wb. I, 123):
jt thing (noun: Wb. I, 12325):

13132

45, 154
106 wt, 146 r-wt

jrw hostile nature (verbal noun):

*27

jzft disorder (noun: Wb. I, 129):

22, 123

js (particle: Wb. I, 130):

17, 31

jst place (noun: Wb. IV, 16 st):

37, 109

jsdz Isdes (proper name: Wb. I, 134):


jty Sire (noun: Wb. I, 143):

102 (error for

27
)

225

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

jj take, rob (verb: Wb. I, 14950):


(added);
105 jtt, 112 jtt
arm (noun: Wb. I, 156, 913):
t room (noun: Wb. I, 160):

36 jtt, 65 jt.n, 141 jt

10 m .f
27

here (adverb: Wb. I, 164):

151

wn be greedy (verb: Wb. I, 172):

105, 120 wn.(w)

b dedicate (verb: Wb. I, 177):

63 bw

b exaggerate (verb: Wb. I, 177):

fdt storage-chest (noun: Wb. I, 183, 1517):


nn turn (verb: Wb. I, 18889):

37

83 nn.f

n live and life (verb and verbal noun: Wb. I, 193200):


n 8?, 18, 21, 32, 32 n.t(j), 37 n.(w), 142 n.(w), 150;
80 nt.sn
ntjw myrrh (noun: Wb. I, 206207):
fight (verb: Wb. I, 21516):

13233
150 .k

stand up (verb: Wb. I, 21820):


.n, 144;
53 t(j).fj

7 .f, 16 .f, 42

heap (verbal noun: Wb. I, 22021): in


nb-w
brazier (noun: Wb. I, 223):

33

49

many (adjective-verb: Wb. I, 22829):


q enter (verb: Wb. I, 23032):

141 t

73

q-jb intimate (compound noun: Wb. I, 231, 18119):


114, 124, 12829
w slaughter (noun):

97

wj become far (adjective-verb: Wb. I, 24546):


w lay aside, set (verb: Wb. I, 25357):
22, 51

wt 137
*12 [w].k,

226

APPENDIX FIVE

wj (dependent pronoun 1s: Wb. I, 27071):

8, 19, 23, 50, 150

wj bark (noun: Wb. I, 27172):

26;

wjn reject (verb: Wb. I, 272):


wpj part (verb: Wb. I, 298301):

144

8?, 151
34 wp.n.j, 55 wp.n, 85 wp.n.j

wpwtj householder (nisbe: Wb. I, 304):


wnn be (verb: Wb. I, 308309):
28 [wnt]

85 wpwtjw

wn 121, 127 wn.(w), 130;

wnn 142, 143, 145

wnwt hour (noun: Wb. I, 31617):

*13

wrr great (adjective-verb: Wb. I, 32628):

5 wr.(w), 6 wr

wr become weary (verb: Wb. I, 33738):


wt darkness (verbal noun: Wb. I, 352):

153 wrd.k
7172

w foolish (adjective-verb: Wb. I, 354):


wzf ignore (verb: Wb. I, 357):
w raze, strip (verb: Wb. I, 368):
wb answer (verb: Wb. I, 37172):
86 wb.j

18 w.(w)
67 wzf
63 w.w;

4 wb.j, 5556 wb.f,

wdn heavy (adjective-verb: Wb. I, 390):


wdn offer (verb: Wb. I, 391):
w judge (verb: Wb. I, 404406):

85

28 wdn.(w)
149 wdn.k
23

b soul (noun: Wb. I, 41112):


4 b.j, 5 b.j, 7 b.j, 11 b.j,
1718 b.j, 31 b.j, 39 b.j, 44, 46, 49, 52 b.j, 55 b.j, 86 b.j, 148
bbt inundation (noun: Wb. I, 419):

4748

bjn bad (adjective-verb and verbal noun: Wb. I, 44244):


103 bjn.(w), 108, 110, 117 bjn.(w)
bj reek (verb: Wb. I, 44849):
98, 99, 101

87, 89, 91, 93, 96,

bw-nb everyone (nominal compound: Wb. I, 452):


108, 111

107

227

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

bw nfr goodness (nominal compound: Wb. II, 254):


bwt rise (verbal noun: Wb. I, 454):

109

92

bw sedition (verbal noun: Wb. I, 479):

102 btw

bt transgression (verbal noun: Wb. I, 48384):

40

btw who should be avoided (verbal noun: Wb. I, 484):


pt sky (noun: Wb. I, 49091):

113

88, 90, 139

p that (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. I, 492):

17;

pw it, that (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. I, 505):


38, 154;
20, 57 (2), 58

*13, 17, 21,

pf, pf yon, he (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. I, 507):


126 pf

16;

pn oh (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. I, 507508):


pr house (noun: Wb. I, 51113):
138 pr.sn

149

58 pr.f, 141 pr.sn;

prj go out (verb: Wb. I, 51825):


pr.f;
71 prt, 77 prt, 131 prt

50

83 pr.f,

59 pr.n.k, 73 pr.(w), 82

17 prr

p reach (verb: Wb. I, 53335):

41 p.f, 152 p.k

pwj end (noun: Wb. I, 53536):


pw.fj

65 p.fj, 155 p.fj;

prt cycle (verbal noun):

20

p spread out (verb: Wb. I, 56061):

76 pz.f

ptr what (interrogative pronoun: Wb. I, 506):


fj lift (verb: Wb. I, 57273):

130

14, 32

29

m in, with, etc. (preposition: Wb. II, 12):


[1] (2), [2], 5, 9 (2),
10, 15, 16, 25, 27, 42, 45, 50, 51, 57, 58, 60, 61 (2), 62, 66, 72,
74, 76, 77, 79, 88, 90, 109, 110, 113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 124 (2),
130 (2), 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 140, 142 (2), 144, 145 (2), 155

228

APPENDIX FIVE

(m in, with, etc.)

15 jm.j

(adverb: Wb. I, 72) 140, 142, 144, 145 (2)

(nisbe: Wb. I, 7276) 7 jmt.f

m see (verb: Wb. II, 710):


mw

59 m.k, 71 m.n.f;

m 103, 141

mt Maat (verbal noun: Wb. II, 1820):

[1], 25

mtj orderly (nisbe: Wb. II, 21):

122 mtjw

mr misery (verbal noun: Wb. II, 30, 4):


m[jr.j], 22 mjr.j, 128
m granite (noun: Wb. II, 34):

*12
mt 61

mj who (interrogative pronoun: Wb. II, 4):


103, 105, 108,
109, 111, 113, 115, 116, 118, 120, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129
mj look (particle: Wb. II, 45):
mj.k 67, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91
(2), 93, 94, 95, 96, 98 (2), 99, 100, 101, 102;
mj.tn 11
mj come (verb imperative: Wb. II, 35):

*26

mj like (preposition: Wb. II, 3638):


6, 16, 33, 41, 63, 83, 131,
132, 133, 135 (2), 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 150 (2), 155; omitted
130
mjtt likeness (nisbe: Wb. II, 4041):

66

mjn today (noun: Wb. II, 43):


5, 103, 104, 105, 108, 110,
112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 120, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 130, 132,
134, 136, 138, 140
mr fortunate (adjective-verb: Wb. II, 4849):

41

mwt die and death (verb and verbal noun: Wb. II, 16566 mt):
mt 12, 19, 36 mt.(tj), 50, 130, 132, 134, 136, 138, 140;
mtw 64
mnt suffering (verbal noun: Wb. II, 67):
mr pyramid (noun: Wb. II, 94):

14 mnt.f
42, 61

229

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

mr ail (verb: Wb. II, 95):

131

mrj desire (verb: Wb. II, 98100):

104 mr.nj, 150, 151

mryt riverbank (noun: Wb. II, 10910):

64, 135

mryt riverbankers (noun: Wb. II, 110):


97

75;

mj care (verb and verbal noun: Wb. II, 120):


32 my.k, 78 my.j

68;

myt norther (nisbe: Wb. II, 125):

72

mz crocodile (noun: Wb. II, 136):

96 msw

ms surely (particle: Wb. II, 142):

142, 143, 145

msj give birth (verb: Wb. II, 13738):

77 mst

ms child (verbal noun: Wb. II, 13940):


78 msw.s

74 msw.f;

msyt brood (verbal noun: Wb. II, 140, 15):


msyt supper (noun: Wb. II, 142):
msj hate (verb: Wb. II, 154):
m expedition (noun: Wb. II, 155):

93
81
101 msdw.f
138

mrwt evening meal (noun: Wb. II, 158):

8081

mtt middle (noun: Wb. II, 168):

118

mdwj speak (verb: Wb. II 179):

5, 66, 147

mdw speech (verbal noun: Wb. II, 180):

2526 mdw.j

n to, for (preposition: Wb. II, 19394):


4, 7 n.j, 12 n.f (2), 19
n.f, 20 n.j, 29 n.f and n.j, 30 n.j, 39 n.j, 40 [n].j, 55, 55 n.j, 64, 66
n.sn, 67 n.j, 67, 77, 77 n.s, 81 n.f, 84 n.f (2), 84 n.s, 85, 86, 95
n.sn, 101, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 111, 113, 115, 116 (2),
118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125 n.f, 125, 127, 128, 129, 143, 145,
146, 147 n.j, 151 n.k, 154
nj of, belonging to (nisbe: Wb. II, 19697):
n *27, 60, 67, 79,
99, 102, 121;
nt 37, 38, 72, 92, 118, 136;
nw 95, 104

230

APPENDIX FIVE

nj-sw belonger (compound noun: Wb. II, 197, 4):


49 nsw

148

n this (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. II, 199):


nj no, not (particle: Wb. II, 195):
76, 80, 84, 104, 115, 116, 146

2, 3, 5, 11, 12, 19, 31, 33,

njj awning (noun: Wb. II, 202, 5):

43, 45

njnj inert (adjective-verb: Wb. II, 203, 7; 275 nnj):


6364 nnw
njnw inertness (verbal noun: Wb. II, 275 nnw):
nwj consider (verb: Wb. II, 220):

45 nnw

35 nwt.k

nwy waters (noun: Wb. II, 221):

65

nw rope (noun: Wb. II, 223):

nb all, every (quantifier: Wb. II, 23436):


bw-nb, 111 bw-nb, 112, 119;
nbt 109

35, 105, 107108

nbw owner (noun: Wb. II, 228, 511):

33 nb-w

nf injustice (noun: Wb. II, 252):

129

nf that, yonder (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. II, 251):


nfr fine, good (adjective-verb: Wb. II, 25356):
bw nfr;
nfrt 62;
nfr.w 61

34, 37
67, 68, 109

2 nm.n, 3 nm.n

nm show bias (verb: Wb. II, 267):


nn no, not (particle: Wb. II, 195):
122, 125, 126, 130

8, 9, 34, 39, 50, 59, 77, 121,

nt ache (verbal noun: Wb. II, 291, 4; Wb.med. 47172):


5657
nmn in fact (particle: Wb. II, 297):

34

nnw eulogy (verbal noun: Wb. II, 297):

16

nwt complaint (verbal noun: Wb. II, 305):


nt force (verbal noun: Wb. II, 31617):
ns tongue (noun: Wb. II, 320):

148
107 nt-r sternness

2 ns.[s]n, 3 ns.sn

231

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

ntj who, which (nisbe: Wb. II, 35153):


nt(j) 47;
/
ntt 9, 28

42, 49, 142, 145;

ntk you (pronoun independent, 2ms: Wb. II, 357):


nr god (noun: Wb. II, 35862):
also rj-nr

142;

31

nrw 24, 30, 63; see

nm sweet (adjective-verb: Wb. II, 37880):

29

nrj capture (verb: Wb. II, 38283):

142 nrt

ns little man (verbal noun: Wb. II, 385):

68, 80

r with respect to (preposition: Wb. II, 38688):


*26 r.k, 1, 2, 5
r.j, 6, 8 r.j, 12, 13, 14, 17 r.f, 18, 19, 21 r.k, 34, 36, 41, 43, 45,
50, 52, 59, 67 r.k, 70, 78, 81, 82, 83 r.s, 82, 83, 87, 91, 92, 94
(2), 96, 97, 98, 99 r.s, 100, 100 r.f, 102, 109 r.f, 109, 118, 119 (2),
125, 131, 131 r s, 138, 140, 148 r.k, 153 r s, 155; omitted 89

jr as to, if (Wb. I, 103) 8 [jr], 49, 56

jrj (adverb: Wb. I, 104, 1920) 63, 66;

r mouth (noun: Wb. II, 38990):

39 jr(j)

4 r.j, 55 r.f, 86 r.j

r-pr temple (compound noun: Wb. II, 397):

145 rw-prw

rw Sun (noun: Wb. II, 401):


60 rw

73, 147;

25;

rwj leave (verb: Wb. II, 406407):

10 rwj.f

rm fish (noun: Wb. II, 416):

66 rmw

rmj weep (verb: Wb. II, 41617):

76 rm.j

rmyt tears (verbal noun: Wb. II, 417):


rm people (noun: Wb. II, 42124):

57
67

rn name, identity (noun: Wb. II, 42528):


36 rn.k, 87 rn.j, 89
rn.j, 91 rn.j, 93 rn.j, 96 rn.j, 98 rn.j, 100 rn.j, 101 rn.j
rnpt year (noun: Wb. II, 42930):
rhnj rely (verb: Wb. II, 440):

141 rnpwt
121 rhn.tw

232

APPENDIX FIVE

r learn (verb: Wb. II, 44245): in


knower of things (Wb. II, 443, 2930)
rzf catch (noun: Wb. II, 449):

14445 r-wt

90

rs awaken (verb: Wb. II, 44951):

72 rs.(w)

rdj give, put, cause (verb: Wb. II, 46468):


14 [rdjt], 144

41 rdj.j, 109;

8, 144 dj.t(w)

hj descend (verb: Wb. II, 47274):

107 h.w

hjm prod (verb: Wb. II, 490, 6 hmw):


1819 jhm

4950 hjm.k;

hjmt mourning (verbal noun): see jhmt


hrj calm (adjective-verb: Wb. II, 49697): in
hearted 126
hrww day (noun: Wb. II, 498500):
90, 134;
hrww 88
t tomb (noun: Wb. III, 12):
t front (noun: Wb. III, 1924):

hr-jb calmhrw 10, 15, 53, 68,

53
155 t.f

b festival (noun: Wb. III, 5758 b):

71 b.f

m fowl (verb: Wb. III, 3132):

95

mw fowling (verbal noun):

94

jmt wife (noun: Wb. III, 7678 mt):


98 zt-jmt;
81 jm<t>.f

73 jmt.f, 83 jmt.f,

body (noun: Wb. III, 3739):

152 .k

plunder (verb: Wb. III, 43):

112 .tw

wj hit (verb: Wb. III, 4648):

129 w

wyt flood (verbal noun: Wb. III, 49, 4):


m also (particle: Wb. III, 78):

151

137

233

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

msj sit (verb: Wb. III, 9698):


133, 135

75 ms.(w);

mst site (noun: Wb. III, 99, 3):

mst 97

n with (preposition: Wb. III, 11011):


73, 114 n.f, 126 n.f

mst

6 n.j, 40 n.j,

nkyt bed (noun: Wb. III, 11920):

54

r face, sight (noun: Wb. III, 12529):


39, 79, 107, 119, 130
r.j, 132 r.j, 134 r.j, 136 r.j, 138 r.j, 140 r.j;
118 rw
r upon, over (preposition: Wb. III, 13132):
*14, 11, 12, 13
(2), 14, 18, 22, 32, 34, 35, 42, 43, 47, 53, 58, 64, 73, 76, 78 (2),
84, 105, 108, 112, 135, 143, 144, 146, 148, 149, 150;
7 r.s,
24 r.j, 27 r.j, 51 r.s;
121 r.f
rj-t survivor (compound noun: Wb. III, 136):
rw up (noun: Wb. III, 14243):

42, 6465

59

sj be cold (verb: Wb. III, 166):

46 sw

qr hunger (verb: Wb. III, 17475):

49 qr.(w)

tw sail (noun: Wb. III, 182):

133

tp content (adjective-verb: Wb. III, 18892):


tm negate (verb: Wb. III, 199):
t fire (noun: Wb. III, 21718):

23;
119 tm.(w)

13

throw (verb: Wb. III, 22728):

13, 58 .(w)

z channel (noun: Wb. III, 293, 19):

9495 zw

wzw construction (verbal noun: Wb. III, 249, 8):


pr happen, become, grow up (verb: Wb. III, 26065):
62, 114 pr.(w);
52 prt
ft when (preposition: Wb. III, 275):

147

ftj opponent (nisbe: Wb. III, 27677):

115 ft(j)

m not know (verb: Wb. III, 27880):

140 mt.n.f

124 mm

108

61 ws
10,

234

APPENDIX FIVE

nj land (verb: Wb. III, 287):


nt, 51 nt.k

153 ny.j;

35

nms friend (noun: Wb. III, 29495):


nmsw

104

nr deprived one (verbal noun: Wb. III, 296):

35 nrj

nsw Khonsu (proper name: Wb. III, 300):

24

ntj Khenti (proper name: Wb. 3, 308, 4):

79

ntw outside (noun: Wb. III, 303, 6):


131

82;

nd tread (verb: Wb. III, 31213):


r fall (verb: Wb. III, 31921):
rw voice (noun: Wb. III, 32425):

21 n{t}d
21 r.sn
76

sf bar, intercede, punish (verb: Wb. III, 33536):


143;
2930, 146 sf.n.t(w).f
t tree (noun: Wb. III, 33941):
t belly (noun: Wb. III, 35657):

24, 26,

21 tw
9 t.j, 30 t.j

t (corporeal) remains (noun: Wb. III, 359):


stake (noun: Wb. III, 361):

44 t.k

148

j resist, thwart (verb: Wb. III, 361):

b crooked (adjective-verb: Wb. III, 361):


[b]

nw inside (noun: Wb. III, 37072):

70

nj row (verb: Wb. III, 37475):

38 n.t

r under, with (preposition: Wb. III, 38688):


133
rw down (noun: Wb. III, 39293):

75, 93, 97, 128,


119

rj-nr necropolis (compound noun: Wb. III, 394):


rd lad (noun: Wb. III, 39698):

100

55

235

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

zj man (noun: Wb. III, 404406):


112, 119, 121, 137, 139, 141

*28, 31, 58 (2), 105, 110,

zt-jmt married woman (noun: Wb. III, 407):

98

zw guard (verb: Wb. III, 41617):

*25 zw.t(j)

zwr drink (verb: Wb. III, 428):

47 swrj.j

zbnw eel (verbal noun):

89

zp deed, occasion (noun: Wb. III, 43538):


zpj be left over (verb: Wb. III, 439):
zf be kind (verb: Wb. III, 442):

110 zp.f, 154


122 zp.(w)

107

z write and writing (verb and verbal noun: Wb. III, 47579
z):
25;
155
z nest (noun: Wb. III, 48385):

95 zw

znj lotus (noun: Wb. III, 48586):

135 znw

st place (noun): see jst


s back (noun: Wb. IV, 812):

14 s.f, 103 s.f, 131 r s, 153 r s

sm burn (verb: Wb. IV, 18):

13 smmt.j

sr need (verbal noun: Wb. IV, 1819):

28 sr.j

s touch (verb: Wb. IV, 2021):


s offend (verb: Wb. IV, 27 st):

152
84 s.(w)

sjnd sadden (verb: Wb. IV, 40):

5758

sw him, himself, he, it (dependent pronoun 3ms: Wb. IV, 59):


17;
*14, 83, 126, 143
swt egg (noun: Wb. IV, 73):

79

sb instruct (verb: Wb. IV, 8384):


spt lip (noun: Wb. IV, 99100):

*26 sb.j
67

spr appeal (verb: Wb. IV, 103104):

146

spd sharp (adjective-verb: Wb. IV, 10810):


sf yesterday (noun: Wb. IV, 113):

115

39 spdw

236

APPENDIX FIVE

sm forget (verb: Wb. IV, 14041):

68

snnw second (noun: Wb. IV, 14950):


snnw.f

8 [snnw].j, 106

sn brother (noun: Wb. IV, 15051):


1415 [sn].f, 52, 114,
149 sn.j;
snw 103, 11213 snw.f, 117, 120 snw.f
snb get well (verb: Wb. IV, 15859):

130

snm sweeten (verb: Wb. IV, 18586):

1920

sr make known (verb: Wb. IV, 199):

125 srt

s call to mind (verb: Wb. IV, 29294):


115 s.t(w)

56 s.k;

sr anger (verb: Wb. IV, 238):

110

st enmesh (verb: Wb. IV, 26263):

139

szb make laugh (verb: Wb. IV, 274):

ssbt.f

s plead (verb: Wb. IV, 281):

84

sqd commission (building) (verb: Wb. IV, 310):


62 sqdw
sqdwt (sailing) voyage (verbal noun: Wb. IV, 309):
71
sk plow (verb: Wb. IV, 31516):
sgr still (verb: Wb. IV, 323):

69 sk.f
26

st it (dependent pronoun 3n: Wb. IV, 325):

*9

stpt choice cut (verbal noun: Wb. IV, 39697):


s (particle: Wb. I, 134 js):

70

144 stpwt

82

ss drag (verb: Wb. IV, 35153 s):


ss.j;
70 ss.f
sj smell (noun: Wb. IV, 349):
sdj sink (verb: Wb. IV, 371):
s break (verb: Wb. IV, 37375):

*14 s[s.j], 12

st 87, 91, 94, 96, 132, 135


18
79 sdw

s make sound (verb: Wb. IV, 7881 sw):

54 sy.f

237

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

sm listen (verb: Wb. IV, 38487):


84 sm.n.f

11 sm.n.j, 25, 39, 67 (2),

sdm make jealous (verb: Wb. IV, 396):


46 sdm.k;
49 s<d>m.k

44 sdm.k,

j depression (noun: Wb. IV, 39798):

74

w empty (adjective-verb: Wb. IV, 42627):

12324

wjw dryness (verbal noun: Wb. IV, 482):

48

mj go (verb: Wb. IV, 46265):

7, 33 m.j, 126

mw harvest (noun: Wb. IV, 481):

69 mw.f

mw Harvest (season) (noun: Wb. IV, 480):

88

msj follow (verb: Wb. IV, 48284)

: 68

nj encircle (verb: Wb. IV, 48991):

74

nj plot (verb: Wb. IV, 496):

102 nn

nw net (verbal noun: Wb. IV, 609):


zp trap (noun):

89

tw secret (verbal noun: Wb. IV, 55354):


dj take (verb: Wb. IV, 56062):

30

58 dt

dw plot (of land) (noun: Wb. IV, 568):

69 dw.f

q height (verbal noun: Wb. V, 5):

59

qj manner (noun: Wb. V, 1516):


qn finish (verb: Wb. V, 49):

61 qn

qnj brave (adjective-verb: Wb. V, 4143):


qrs burial (verbal noun: Wb. V, 6364):
55;
56
qsn difficult (adjective-verb: Wb. V, 6970):
10, 15 qsnwt
qd build (verb: Wb. V, 7273):

50
100
43 qrs.f;
20 qsnt;
60 qdw

238

APPENDIX FIVE

kt work (noun: Wb. V, 98101):

62 kwt

ky other (noun: Wb. V, 11014):


kt 78

44, 46, 49;

kfj clear (verb: Wb. V, 119):

139 kft

km gain (verb: Wb. V, 12830):

32 km.k

gw lack (verbal noun: Wb. V, 152):

64, 128

gmj find (verb: Wb. V, 16669):


gmyt

51 gm.k;

grt also, as well (particle: Wb. V, 17879):


gr night (noun: Wb. V, 18385):

155

6, 36 grt.k
75

grg lie (verbal noun: Wb. V, 18990):


gs side (noun: Wb. V, 19194):

9899

16

t that (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. V, 21112):


t land (noun: Wb. V, 21216):
109, 122, 129, 152

116

34, 42 rj-t, 64 rj-t, 78,

t hot (adjective-verb: Wb. V, 229):


88 t.t(j), 90 t.t(j)

47 t.w;

twt agree (verb: Wb. V, 25657):

40 tt

tp on (preposition: Wb. V, 27376):

74

tf that (demonstrative pronoun: Wb. V, 297):


tfj uproot (verb: Wb. V, 29798):

77
34 tfyt

tm not (negative verb: Wb. V, 302303):


tr (particle: Wb. V, 31617):

83;

46 tm.f

31

tr reed (noun: Wb. V, 318):


thj mislead (verb: Wb. V, 31920):
tj get drunk (verb: Wb. V, 32324): in
tt Bank of Inebriation 13536

92 trjw
11 tht.j
mryt-nt-

239

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

tk/tkn come near (verb: Wb. V, 33335):


tkn.(w)

15 tk.f;

y male (lover) (verb: Wb. V, 34445):


ww wind (noun: Wb. V, 35052):

99
134

w you (dependent pronoun 2ms: Wb. V, 35758 w):

tw *26, 34

zj raise (verb: Wb. V, 405407):

48 zy.j

db ask (verb: Wb. V, 43940):

80 db.f

dpt boat (noun: Wb. V, 446):

71

70, 72

dmj harbor (noun: Wb. V, 45556):

38, 102, 154

drp present offerings (verb: Wb. V, 476):

53 drpt.fj

t court (noun: Wb. V, 52829):

1?

wj evil (adjective-verb: Wb. V, 54547):

111 w.(w)

wt evil (verbal noun: Wb. 5, 54748):

*9

bw exchange (verbal noun: Wb. V, 55860):


r since (preposition: Wb. V, 59293):
r end up (verb: Wb. V, 595):

9, [28] r ntt

75 r.jn.f

rr stranger (verbal noun: Wb. V, 604):


wtj Thoth (proper name: Wb. V, 606):
sr sacred (adjective-verb: Wb. V, 61014):

117 rrw
23
27 sr[t]

d say (verb: Wb. V, 61825):


1, 33, 35, 76, 81 d.s, 98, 100,
103 d.j, 104 d.j, 108 d.j, 109 d.j, 111 d.j, 113 d.j, 115 d.j,
116 d.j, 118 d.j, 120 d.j, 121 d.j, 123 d.j, 125 d.j, 127 d.j,
129 d.j, 150 d.k;
4 dt.n.f, 30 dt.n, 56 dt.n.j, 86 dt.n.f,
147 dt.n
2. grammatical forms and constructions

Adjective: see Participle, active


Apposition: 7, 8, 1819, 1920, 3738, 52, 149

240

APPENDIX FIVE

Clause
adverbial: 8, 17 (2), 2829, 34, 3637, 62 (initial), 7071, 71, 71
(initial), 73, 76, 82, 83 (initial), 8384, 84, 85, 88, 90, 110 (initial), 111, 141, 14142
noun: 8, 9, 10, 28, 2930, 41, 13031, 137, 141, 144, 147, 150
(2), 152 (2), 153, 154
purpose/result: *26, 4, 14, 2324, 3233, 44, 46, 49, 5556, 59
60, 86, 149, 150, 153
relative: 42, 47, 49, 142, 144, 145
Conditional: 40, 4950
Coordination: 72, 7374
Copula (pw): *13, 17, 20, 21, 38, 57 (2), 58, 154
Emphatic: see Relative, non-attributive
Genitive
direct: 9, 10, 15, 30, 5354, 5657, 57, 5758, 58, 64, 6667, 69,
7172, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 9192, 94, 96, 105106, 106, 107,
11213, 126, 12829, 13233, 134, 135, 139
indirect: see nj of, belonging to in Section One, above
Imperative: *26 [m]j, 21 nd, 22 w, 51 w, 67 sm, 68 ms, 68 sm,
148 jmj, 150 mr, 151 wjn, 151 mr
Infinitive: *9 jrt, *14 st[s.j], 1 d, 2 [b], 6 b, 67 wzf.j, 11 tht.j,
12 sts.j, 12 mt, 13 , 13 smmt.j, 14 [rdjt], 18 sd, 18 n, 19
mt, 21 n, 34 tfyt, 35 nwt.k, 35 d, 36 jt.k, 41 mr, 43 qrs.f, 43
jrt, 45 jrt, 50 mt, 56 s.k, 56 qrs, 57 jnt, 5758 sjnd, 58 dt, 61
ws, 67 sm, 71 prt, 73 q, 76 d, 77 prt, 84 s, 90 rzf, 105 jtt, 108
tp, 108 bjn, 112 jtt, 125 srt, 130 mt, 130 snb, 131 prt, 132 mt,
133 mst, 134 mt, 135 mst, 136 mt, 137 wt, 138 mt, 139 kft, 140
mt, 141 m, 142 nrt, 143 sf, 144 rdjt, 146 spr, 150 n, 155 z
after m: 5758, 142, 155
after r: 6, 12, 13, 18, 19, 50, 56, 125; see also Predicate, adverbial
after r: *14, 12, 13, 14, 18, 76, 143, 144, 146, 150; see also Predicate, adverbial

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

241

Interrogative: 14, 20, 32, 104105, 108, 10910, 11112, 113, 115,
116, 118, 120, 12122, 123, 125, 127, 129
Negation
nj [wnt]: 2829; nj sm.f: 5, 33, 76, 115, 116; nj sm.n.f: 2, 3, 11,
84, 104, 146; nj smt.f: 12, 19, 80; nj js: 31
nn with adverbial predicate: 3940, 77; nn NOUN: 3435 (infinitive); 122, 12526; nn sm.f: 8, 910, 5051, 121, 130; nn
sm.n.f: 59; nn SUBJECTstative: 12627
tm: 46
Negatival complement: 46 sw
Object, unstated: 29
Participle
active: 7 wzf, 8 w[jn], 1819 jhm, 1920 snm, 20 qsnt, 25 z, 26
sg, 27 sr[t], 29 nm, 33 d, 3839 spdw, 60 qdw, 61 nfrw, 62 nfrt,
62 sqdw, 6364 nnw, 64 mtw, 68 nfr, 87 b, 89 b, 91 b, 93
b, 96 b, 98 b, 99 b, 100 qn, 101 b, 105 wn, 110 bjn,
114 q-jb, 124 q-jb, 12829 q-jb, 131 mr, 141 t, 142 n (or
stative), 14546 r-wt
imperfective active: 17 prr, 102 nn, 143 jrr
imperfective passive: 103 m, 114 jrr
future: 53 drpt.fj, 53 t.fj
passive: 61 qn, 63 bw, 95 m, 126 m, 139 st
perfective active: 6 wr, 16 jr, 29 f, 79 mw, 116 jr, 123 jrw, 126
hr-jb, 129 w
perfective passive: 77 mst, 79 sdw, 124 mm, 155 gmyt
Predicate
adjectival: 6, 29, 67, 81, 87, 89, 91, 93, 9596, 9798, 99100,
101, 105
adverbial: 67, 9, 34, 3940, 42, 83, 100101, 11314, 119, 130,
132, 134, 136, 138, 140; SUBJECT r sm: 1, 2, 36, 4041, 43, 45
SUBJECT r sm: 11, 34, 35, 73, 8384, 105, 112
nominal: *13, 17, 20, 2021, 31, 37, 38, 5657, 57, 58, 154

242

APPENDIX FIVE

Pronoun
demonstrative: 16 pf, 17 p, 34 nf, 37 nf, 50 p, 77 tf, 116 t,
126 pf, 149 pn
interrogative: 14 ptr, 32 ptr, 103 mj, 105 mj, 108 mj, 109 mj, 111
mj, 113 mj, 115 mj, 116 mj, 118 mj, 120 mj, 122 mj, 123 mj, 125
mj, 127 mj, 129 mj
personal, dependent: 1s wj 8, 19, 23, 50, 150; 2ms tw *26, 34; 3m
sw *14, 17, 83, 126, 143; 3n st *9
personal, independent: 2ms ntk 31
personal, suffix, 1s ( ): *12 m[jr.j], *12 [dt.n.j], *12 [b.j], *14
st[s.j], *26 sb.j, 4 wp.n.j, 4 r.j, 4 b.j, 4 wb.j, 5 r.j, 5 b.j, 6 n.j,
7 b.j, 7 n.j, 8 [snnw].j, 9 t.j, 11 b.j, 11 tht.j, 11 sm.n.j, 12 sts.j,
13 smmt.j, 15 jmj.j, 1718 b.j, 19 jjt.j, 20 n.j, 22 mjr.j, 24 r.j,
2526 mdw.j, 27 r.j, 28 sr.j, 29 n.j, 30 t.j, 30 n.j, 31 b.j, 33 m.j,
36 jw.j, 39 n.j, 39 b.j, 3940 [n].j, 40 n.j, 41 rdj.j, 43 jw.j, 45
jw.j, 47 swrj.j, 48 zy.j, 52 b.j, 52 sn.j, 55 n.j, 55 b.j, 56 dt.n.j, 67
n.j, 76 rm.j, 78 my.j, 85 wp.n.j, 86 r.j, 86 b.j, 86 wb.j, 87 rn.j, 89
rn.j, 91 rn.j, 93 rn.j, 96 rn.j, 98 rn.j, 100 rn.j, 101 rn.j, 103 d.j, 104
d.j, 108 d.j, 109 d.j, 111 d.j, 113 d.j, 115 d.j, 116 d.j, 118
d.j, 120 d.j, 121 d.j, 123 d.j, 125 d.j, 127 d.j, 129 d.j, 127
jw.j, 130 r.j, 132 r.j, 134 r.j, 136 r.j, 138 r.j, 140 r.j, 147 n.j,
153 ny.j; unwritten 12 jjt.(j), 13 .(j), 53 jww.(j).
personal, suffix, 2ms: *12 [w].k, *26 r.k, *27 [ ].k, 21 r.k, 31
jw.k, 32 km.k, 32 my.k, 35 nwt.k, 36 jt.k, 36 grt.k, 37 rn.k, 44
t.k, 44 sdm.k, 46 sdm.k, 4950 hjm.k, 51 gm.k, 51 nt.k, 52
jb.k, 56 s.k, 59 pr.n.k, 59 m.k, 67 r.k, 67 mj.k, 86 mj.k, 87 mj.k,
88 mj.k, 89 mj.k, 91 mj.k (2), 93 mj.k, 94 mj.k, 95 mj.k, 96 mj.k, 97
mj.k, 98 mj.k, 99 mj.k, 100 mj.k, 101 mj.k, 102 mj.k, 148 r.k, 149
wdn.k, 150 .k, 150 d.k, 151 n.k, 152 p.k, 152 .k, 153 wrd.k
personal, suffix, 3ms: 4 dt.n.f, 7 jmt.f, 7 .f, 8 [n].f, 8 .f, 9
ntt.f, 10 .f, 10 rwj.f, 12 n.f (2), 14 mnt.f, 14 [ f], 14 s.f, 1415
[sn].f, 15 tk.f, 16 .f, 17 jn.f, 17 r.f 19 n.f, 29 n.f, 40 jw.f, 41 p.f,
43 qrs.f, 46 tm.f, 54 sy.f, 55 r.f, 5556 wb.f, 58 pr.f, 65 p.fj, 69
sk.f, 69 dw.f, 69 jw.f, 69 <t>p.f, 6970 mw.f, 70 sts.f, 71 b.f,

LEXICON AND GRAMMAR

243

(Pronoun, personal, suffix, 3ms)


71 m.n.f, 73 jmt.f, 74 msw.f, 75 r.jn.f, 76 pz.f, 80 db.f, 81
jm<t>.f, 81 n.f, 82 jw.f, 82 pr.f, 83 nn.f, 83 pr.f, 83 jw.f, 83 jmt.f,
84 n.f (2), 84 sm.n.f, 86 dt.n.f, 100 r.f, 100 jw.f, 101 jw.f, 101
msdw.f, 103 s.f, 109 r.f, 110 zp.f, 11011 ssbt.f, 111 jw.f, 11213
snnw.f, 114 n.f, 120 snw.f, 121 r.f, 125 n.f, 126 n.f, 130 pw.fj,
141 jr.n.f, 146 sf.n.t.f, 147 mdw.f, 154 jw.f, 155 t.f, 155 p.fj
personal, suffix, 3fs ( ): 7 r.s, 51 r.s, 77 n.s, 78 msw.s, 81 d.s, 82
r.s, 84 n.s, 99 r.s
personal, suffix, 1pl (
): 1 [j]w.n, 153 jr.n
personal, suffix, 2pl (

): 11 mj.tn

personal, suffix, 3pl (


): 2 ns.[s]n, 3 ns.sn, 21 r.sn, 66 n.sn, 80
nt.sn, 95 n.sn, 138 pr.sn, 141 pr.sn
Relative: 121 rhn.tw
imperfective: 66 mdw
perfective: 38 n.t, 51 nt.k, 101 msdw.f
non-attributive: 7 m, 10 rwj.f, 2930 sf, 40 tt, 62 pr, 71 m.n.f,
78 my.j, 83 nn.f, 103 d.j, 104 d.j, 108 d.j, 109 d.j, 111 d.j,
113 d.j, 115 d.j, 116 d.j, 118 d.j, 120 d.j, 121 d.j, 123 d.j,
125 d.j, 127 d.j, 129 d.j, 110 sr, 117 jnn.tw, 124 jnn.tw, 137
jw, 141 bb, 147 mdw.f, 150 .k, 150 d.k, 153 wrd.k, 154 jw.f
sm.n.f: *12 [dt.n.j], 4 dt.n.f, 30 dt.n, 42 .n, 56 dt.n.j, 65
jt.n, 140 mt.n.f, 147 dt.n
virtual: 74 and 139 (stative), 98 and 100 (passive sm.f ), 146 (nj
sm.n.f )
sm.f
imperfective:17 jn.f, 21 r.sn, 69 sk.f, 69 <t>p.f, 70 sts.f, 76
pz.f, 80 db.f, 81 d.s, 82 pr.f, 11011 ssbt.f, 112 .tw, 152 s
SUBJECTsm.f: 21, 6869, 69, 8081, 81, 82
passive: 98 d, 100 d, 109 rdj
perfective: 5 mdw, 33 m.j, 115 s.t, 116 jr.t
prospective: 41 rdj.j, 142 wnn, 143 wnn, 145 wnn

244

APPENDIX FIVE

(sm.f )
prospective or subjunctive: 32 my.k, 47 swrj.j, 48 zy.j, 4950
hjm.k, 54 sy.f, 152 p.k, 153 ny.j
subjunctive: *12 [w].k, *26 sb.j, 7 .f, 8 dj.t .f, 10 pr, 14
[ f], 15 tk.f, 16 .f, 23 w, 23 tp, 24 sf, 25 sm, 26 sf, 39
sm, 41 p.f, 44 sdm.k, 46 tm.f, 46 sdm.k, 49 s<d>m.k, 51 gm.k,
5556 wb.f, 59 m.k, 86 wb.j, 121 wn, 130 wn, 144 dj.t, 149
wdn.k, 153 jr.n
sm.jn.f: 75 r.jn.f
sm.n.f: 2 nm.n, 3 nm.n, 34 wp.n.j, 11 sm.n.j, 55 wp.n, 59 pr.n.k,
84 sm.n.f, 85 wp.n.j, 104 mr.nj, 141 jr.n.f, 146 sf.n.t.f
smt.f: 12 jjt.(j), 19 jjt.j, 52 prt, 80 nt.sn
Stative: *25 zw.t (2s), 5 wr (3ms), 18 w (3ms), 28 wdn (3ms), 32
n.t (2s), 36 mt (2s), 37 n (3ms), 47 t.w (3ms), 49 qr (3ms),
58 (3ms), 63 w.w (3pl), 71 tkn (3ms), 72 rs (3ms), 73 pr
(3ms), 74 q (3pl), 74 n (3ms), 75 ms (3ms), 84 s (3ms), 85 w
(3ms), 88 t.t (3fs), 90 t.t (3fs), 103 bjn (3pl), 107 q (3ms), 107
h.w (3ms), 111 w (3ms), 114 pr (3ms), 117 bjn (3pl), 119 tm
(3pl), 120 wn (3pl), 122 zp (3ms), 12324 w (3ms), 127 wn
(3ms), 12728 tp.kw (1s), 141 jt (3ms), 142 n (3ms, or participle), 144 (3ms)
SUBJECTstative: 5, 1718, 28, 36, 3637, 47, 49, 63, 71, 88, 90,
103, 107 (2), 111, 114, 117, 11819, 120, 12627, 12728
Subject
preposed: 56, 6062, 104
unstated: 2, 6 (2), 10, 81, 12324
Vocative: 52 b.j sn.j, 14849 nsw pn sn

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INDEX
This index contains references to major themes (Section One) and to
other texts translated or discussed (Section Two). In the general index, references to grammatical forms and constructions are minimal;
for these, see also the comprehensive list in Appendix Five, above.
Egyptian terms in transliteration are listed according to the English
alphabet, after other references with the same initial consonant.
1. general index
Adjectival predicate125 n. 8, 126 n. 10
Adjective126 n. 10
Adultery85
Adverb112
Afterlife6, 138, 14142, 153
Alliteration13031
Amduat39
Amenemhat III8
Antithesis13132, 141, 145
Aorist67, 11718
Assonance131
Audience3, 30, 134, 13738
Basee Soul
Basin71
Circumstantial clause11819
Clitic12425
Coffin53
Cola122
Contrastsee Antithesis
Coptic12425
Copying111
Corrections1216
Damned138
Date8, 120

Dative, pronominal126 n. 9, 197


Direct address142
Dittography17
Divisions of the text18
Drowning55, 65
Duat138
Eel80
Emphatic construction52, 64, 73, 92,
114
Execution107, 154
Festival68
First Present11718, 124, 19596
Fowling28, 8283, 133
Funeral34, 6061, 138, 14145
Future53, 114; see also Prospective
Gapping119
Heart34, 6
Hegel155
Homosexuality87
Hyperbole74
Imperfect118
Inundation57, 102, 152
Irony63, 140

256

INDEX

Judgment46, 39, 134, 136, 13940

Reversal of roles142, 145, 147, 155

Khonsu40, 140

Sarcophagus61
Scribal errors1617
Simile104, 132, 152
Soul36, 6 n. 6, 134
representation of3 n. 4, 28
Spelling16, 25, 44 n. 41, 64 n. 73
Stative114
of result62
Suicide1, 32, 138, 156
Subject, nominal126 n. 10
Sm.f, imperfective11719
Sm.f, perfective113
Sm.f, prospective53, 11316
Sm.f, subjunctive115, 117
Sm.n.f114

Lexeme112
Litany12128, 132, 14854
Literature121, 15657
Metaphor3233, 49, 89, 101, 104 n.
125, 133, 138, 14647, 149,
15354
Metathesis131
Metricssee Versification
Negation32, 44, 7172
Night146
Nisbe112
Noun112
Osiris2, 140
Paleography1012, 195
Papyrus (pBerlin 3024)810
Participle114
Particle11213
Preposition11213
Pronoun11213
Prospective11517
Quantifier11213, 126 n. 10
Reconciliation154
Relative, non-attributive114
Repetition131

Temple106
Tercet12122, 12930
Third Future11617
Thoth39, 140
Thought couplet12728
Tomb biography138
Verb11213
Versification12130, 17693
Vocalization131
Woman8485
Word division1112

2. other texts
Admonitions (Adm.)
2, 2156
5, 34150
5, 910150
5, 1213151
6, 595 n. 115
6, 1213151 n. 6
Badawy, Nyhetep-Ptah
Pl. 6142 n. 36
Book of the Dead (BD)
18140
9948

Caminos, Literary Fragments


Pl. 13A, 728 n. 10
Coffin Texts (CT)
III, 391e66 n. 77
IV, 45j66 n. 77
IV, 54de49
VI, 209df140
Destruction of Mankind
2577 n. 88
Herdsman9
Eloquent Peasant8
B1 1262744 n. 41

INDEX
(Eloquent Peasant)
B1 1343593
B1 153/15448
B1 1989990
B1 27068 n. 79
Harpers Song
BM 10060 6, 4914445
Hatnub
Gr. 9, 863 n. 71
Heqanakht
I vo. 245
I vo. 9136 n. 1
II 2645
II 2835 n. 24
II 4358 n. 65
Khakheperre-seneb
ro. 74
ro. 13144
vo. 14
vo. 564
Louvre C1
171929 n. 12
oGardiner 36921, 19497
pBerlin 8869
1139 n. 29

pUCL 32157
2, 1858 n. 63
Poe, The Raven135
Ptahhotep
95/96/107104 n. 125
1848540 n. 31
6242559 n. 66
Pyramid Texts
Pyr. 587c126 n. 9
Shipwrecked Sailor (ShS)
212329 n. 12
707253
Sinuhe8, 44 n. 41
B 38103
B 5888 n. 107
B 6229 n. 11
B 13055 n. 56
B 1484930
B 2023031
B 230 31
B 2333455 n. 58
B 24831 n. 18
B 252567
B 2556 n. 6
B 26431 n. 18

257