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Public Sector the way we see it

Online Availability of
Public Services: How Is
Europe Progressing?
Web Based Survey on Electronic Public Services
Report of the 6th Measurement
June 2006
Contents

1 Management Summary 1

2 Introduction 3

3 The EC’s Benchmark Study: Electronic Public Services in Europe 4

4 Results & Analysis 6

5 The Future of eGovernment Measurement 15

6 Conclusion 18

7 Annex: Country File 19

8 Annex: Definitions of the 20 Public Services 56

9 Annex: Results by Country 68

10 Annex: Results per Service (Online Sophistication) 70

11 Annex: Overview of Non Relevant Services 78

12 Annex: Capgemini’s Web-Based Survey Method 81

13 Annex: The Four Service Clusters EU(28)—Growth 85

The opinions expressed in this study are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.

Capgemini
Patrick Wauters
patrick.wauters@capgemini.com

Graham Colclough
graham.colclough@capgemini.com
Public Sector the way we see it

1 Management Summary

Capgemini has measured the progress reached an overall score of 75% and
of the online public service delivery in the full availability online has reached
Europe for the sixth time. In fact almost 50%. Both indicators of the
Capgemini measures for the European survey have recorded a significant
Commission two indicators from a global progress of almost 10%—point
long list of indicators that was defined for the 28 countries surveyed.
to monitor the eEurope action plans:
the availability of public services Since 2001 the results have progressed,
online and the number of public rapidly in an early phase, slower the
services fully available online. last years.

These indicators where defined in the This is the second year of benchmarking
year 2000, when the objective of the eServices in the 10 new Member
eGovernment was defined as that States and therefore this 6th
Member States should ensure measurement is highly impacted by
“generalized electronic access to main the progresses made in these
basic public services”. countries. An eloquent example is that
the second and third ranking places
Twenty basic public services where have been allotted to two of the new
chosen by The European Commission Member States: Malta achieved the
and a survey framework was designed most outstanding progress recorded
to measure the online “sophistication” ever and moved from rank 16 to 2nd
of the services. The measurement was place while Estonia has moved from
carried out for the first time in 2001 8th to 3rd place and successfully
and in April 2006 the sixth entered the top 3, ex aequo with
measurement was launched. The Sweden. The common key success
Member States of the European factor in these leapfrogging countries
Union—thus also the 10 ‘new’ can be attributed to the centralized
Member States since 2004—plus political sponsorship of eGovernment
Norway, Iceland and Switzerland programmes that have been
participate in this study. implemented with great success these
last two years.
As stated by Professor Alabau, in his
work on the European Union and its Taking over the role of the leader in
e-government development policy, these providing eServices to its citizens and
are the only available data concerning businesses in the 20 measured
eGovernment “measured scientifically services, Austria heads the results in
over a longer period of time”1. both indicators (sophistication and
full availability). The Austrian
The 2006 survey registers new progress “eGovernment platform” is best in
in the overall results of the supply and class and has profiled the optimized
sophistication of eGovernment governmental eServices offering, almost
services in the EU. The online reaching the full sophistication level.
sophistication of public service
delivery in the EU Member States has

1 Alabau, A. (2004) The European Union and its eGovernment development policy following the Lisbon strategy, University
of Valencia, Spain, available at: aalabau@dcom.upv.es.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 1
Other major breakthroughs can be technological evolutions in order to procurement will be available
highlighted in the ranking of this year. deliver better, inclusive services for electronically, with 50% actual
For example, the Hungarian less. During the study few examples of usage5, with agreement on
government’s investment in different really innovative public service cooperation on further high-impact
initiatives has paid off. It is now delivery models where found. A good online citizen services;
ranked 14 moving up nine places example is the Swedish tax services, 4. Putting key enablers in
from last year. Slovenia as well made combining the online channel with place—enabling citizens and
significant progress and has entered phone and SMS services. businesses to benefit, by 2010,
the top 10, moving from the rank 15 from convenient, secure and
to 7 (+8). Online public service supply as it was interoperable authenticated access
defined 5–6 years ago is now a across Europe to public services;
This year’s results yet again show a mainstream service delivery model in
5. Strengthening participation and
wide gap in the performances in the the EU. We have reached the top of
democratic decision-making
public services for businesses the first S-curve, but a new one is
—demonstrating, by 2010, tools
(exceeding the two-way interaction in now emerging: the most advanced
for effective public debate and
most countries) against those for governments are developing
participation in democratic
citizens (some services still intelligent user centric e-services.
decision-making.
progressing in reaching the one-way
interaction). The score for online If the delivery models change,
Availability measurements will be
sophistication for businesses largely measurement models must change
combined with measurement of take
exceeds two-way interaction, both for with them. 2006 will be the last year
up and government transformation to
EU(10) as for EU(18). When talking that the eGovernment supply side will
allow the assessment of the impact of
about online sophistication for be measured the way it has been done
the i2010 eGovernment Action Plan.
citizens, this is not yet the case. Two until now. The new system will
thirds of the services for businesses combine historical continuity with a
are fully available online against one review of the sophistication
third for citizen services. framework, redefinition of some
services and the introduction of a
There is a slight tendency in the “old” user centricity index.
Member States to emphasize progresses
in servicing citizens—7%-point Another evolution is that the focus in
increase compared to 4%-points eGovernment has shifted from “supply
increase for services to businesses of services through the internet” over
regarding the online sophistication in “the uses of all these new delivery
EU (18). In the new Member States, models by citizens and special groups”
this increase is huge in both domains to “the impact of eGovernment
(16%-point increase for citizens and programmes in delivering better
17%-point for businesses). These services to the clients, more efficient
results are symptomatic of divergent in an inclusive society”.
concerns on where to focus the
efforts—either being a country The new i2010 eGovernment Action
accustomed to the exercise that Plan defines five priorities:
succeeded in “testing” its eServices 1. No citizen left behind: advancing
capabilities with businesses and is inclusion through eGovernment so
now taking up the challenge with that by 2010 all citizens benefit
citizens performances, or being a new from trusted, innovative services
member state that is making major and easy access for all;
progresses to aligning its eServices
2. Making efficiency and effectiveness
performances in general to those of
a reality—significantly contributing,
more experienced countries.
by 2010, to high user satisfaction,
transparency and accountability, a
Taking the qualitative aspects of the
lighter administrative burden and
survey separately, obvious progress is
efficiency gains;
made in developing new innovative
service delivery models but one could 3. Implementing high-impact key
wonder whether governments are services for citizens and businesses
ready to make full use of the recent —by 2010, 100% of public

2
Public Sector the way we see it

2 Introduction

This report presents the results of the In the following chapter, the context
sixth benchmarking exercise on the and scope of this study are elaborated
progress of online public services in upon. Afterwards, the results of the
Europe. Next to measuring the sixth measurement are presented,
percentage of online sophistication of together with the progress that has
basic public services available on the been achieved compared to the
Internet, this study also measures the previous measurements. A paragraph
percentage of public services fully has been added on non-quantitative
available online in the 25 EU Member results, while a country file,
States, plus Iceland, Norway and elaborating on the results of each
Switzerland. Since 2001, the survey is country can be found in Annex:
executed on a yearly basis. Due to Country File. In chapter 5, the future
administrative reasons, no of eGovernment measurement is
measurement has been carried out in touched.
2005. The 6th survey was therefore
executed in April 2006. Finally, the overall conclusions on
how Europe progressed since the last
The European Commission, measurement are summarized.
Directorate General for Information
Society and Media, ordered the survey
in the context of the eEurope program.
The main objective of the study,
conducted by Capgemini on behalf of
the European Commission, is enabling
participating countries to analyze
progress in the field of eGovernment
and to compare performance within
and between countries.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 3
3 The EC’s Benchmark Study:
Electronic Public Services in Europe

The Scope of the Survey within Concerning interactive public services
the European Information the objective was that “the Member
Society Policy States should have ensured that basic
The launch of the European strategy public services are interactive, where
for the development of e-government relevant, accessible for all, and exploit
was the “e-Europe 2002” initiative, both the potential of broadband
presented in March 2000 at the Lisbon networks and of multi-platform
European Council and approved at access”2. When the e-Europe
the Council of Feira (June 2000). programme was launched the
The main objective for e-government European Commission was aware that
being that Member States should the regulatory framework required to
ensure “generalized electronic access undertake the implementation of the
to main basic public services by 2003”. e-Europe initiative with any guarantee
Before the end of e-Europe 2002’s of success was lacking...The bulk of
effective period, the Commission the execution of any decisions that
presented the continuation of this might be adopted was going to
initiative as the “e-Europe 2005” depend on the actions of the Member
programme at the Seville European States. It was in this context that the
Council in June 2002. decision was adopted to apply the
Open Method of Coordination (OMC)
to follow up, to a certain degree, the
results of the proposals that were
going to be approved.

The Public Services

Citizens Businesses

Income Taxes Social Contribution for Employees

Job Search Corporate Tax

Social Security Benefits3 VAT

Personal Documents 4
Registration of a New Company

Car Registration Submission of Data to the Statistical Office

Application for Building Permission Custom Declaration

Declaration to the Police Environment-related Permits

Public Libraries Public Procurement

Birth and Marriage Certificates

Enrollment in Higher Education

Announcement of Moving

Health-related Service

2 (Com(2002) 263; eEurope 2005: An information society for all). 3 The service “social security benefits” is measured on
the basis of the following sub-services: unemployment benefits, child allowances, medical costs and student grants
4 The service “personal documents” is measured on the basis of the following sub-services: passports and driver’s license

4
Public Sector the way we see it

The Commission began the process of The Survey Framework ■ Stage 1—No full availability online
defining the indicators necessary to In order to measure the indicator ■ Stage 2—Full availability online

carry out the evaluation. A list of “availability of public services online”,
indicators was approved by the an e-service sophistication model was Stage 1 contains the stages 0 to 3 of
Council of Internal Market Ministers developed used This model illustrates the ‘sophistication’ framework.
in November 2000. This list included the different degrees of sophistication
only three indicators related to e- of online public services going from Stage 2 contains the stage 4 of the
government: ‘basic’ information provision over one- ‘sophistication’ framework.
■ Percentage of basic services available way and two way interaction to ‘full’
online. electronic case handling.
■ Public use of government online
The scoring framework (Fig.3) shows
services for information/for
the general framework that has been
submission of forms. Participating Countries
refined in the survey for each public
■ Percentage of public procurement
service. (See Annex 2 Definitions of A Austria LV Latvia
which can be carried out online. the 20 public services)6. B Belgium LT Lithuania
C Cyprus L Luxembourg
CZ Czech Republic MT Malta
In order to specify the way the The new indicator (number of public DK Denmark NL Netherlands
indicators “Percentage of basic public services fully available online) is EE Est onia NOR Norway
FIN Finland PL Poland
services available online” had to be measured on the basis of a two-level F France P Portugal
measured, the European Commission framework: D Germany E Spain
EL Greece CH Switzerland
developed and published a list of 20 HU Hungary SK Slovakia
public services that need detailed ISL Iceland SE Slovenia
IRL Ireland S Swede
survey: I Italy UK United Kingdom
■ For the e-Europe 2005 action plan

the eGovernment indicator was
reformulated as “No. of basic public
services fully available online”. Figure 1: The Survey Framework
■ Since 2001, the Commission has
Online
entrusted the measurement and Development
analysis of the evolution of these
indicators for the 20 services to Transaction
(full electronic case handling)
Capgemini.

This survey initially covered 17 Two-way interaction

countries: the 15 Member States of
the EU, Norway and Iceland.
One-way interaction
Switzerland joined the survey for the (downloadable forms)
second measurement, and for the 5th
measurement, the 10 new Member
Information
States were taken into account5.

Stage 0

5 In the legend of the graphs of this document, following abbreviations were used: EU(28) for all 28 countries included in the survey; EU(18) for the 15 initial Member States of the EU, plus
Iceland, Norway and Switzerland; EU(10) for the 10 new Member States. 6 For some services the maximum stage is limited to Stage 3: personal documents, declaration to the police,
certificates (birth and marriage), announcement of moving and submission of data to statistical offices.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 5
4 Results & Analysis

Introduction ■ Income-generating cluster: services
This paragraph will present the results where finance flows from citizens
of the sixth measurement. We break and businesses to the government
down the results in different categories, (mainly taxes and social
answering the following questions: contribution)
■ Registration cluster: services related
■ How many public authorities are to recording object- or person-
present online? related data as a result of
■ What is the maturity of online administrative obligations
public service delivery? ■ Returns cluster: public services

■ How many services are fully given to citizens and businesses in
transactional? return for taxes and contributions
■ How do individual member states ■ Permits and licenses cluster:

progress? documents provided by
■ Online sophistication governmental bodies giving
■ Percentage of services with full
permission to build a house, to run
a business etc.
availability online
■ What about the target groups:
Additionally, some research has been
performed on more qualitative aspects
Citizens versus business?
of e-services. Results of this research
■ Online sophistication
can be found in the paragraph on
■ Fully available online non-quantitative results.
■ How do public service clusters

evolve? How Many Public Authorities
Are Present Online?
To getter a better view on the
During this 6th survey, 12,590 service
evolution of services, we have
providers were recorded for the EU(28),
combined different services into
of which about 92% had a website.
clusters.
Compared to the previous measurement,
this is a global increase of 8%.
Figure 2: Service Providers Present Online A similar increase is noted for the
EU(18), where the percentage rises
from 87% to 95%. The EU(10) rise
EU(10) 84 about 6%-point, resulting in 84% of
the service providers present online.

This result is illustrated in Figure 4.
EU(28) 92

During the first measurement in 2001,
17 countries participated in the
EU(18) 95
survey (the 15 initial Member States
of the EU, plus Iceland and Norway).
0 25 50 75 100
Oct 2004 Apr 2006 The percentage of service providers
present online for those 17 countries

6
Public Sector the way we see it

Figure 3: Online Sophistication
back in 2001, compared to the result
in 2006 shows a remarkable increase
of 20%-point (74% in 2001 up to
Online 94% in 2006).
Sophistication

What Is the Maturity of Online
Transaction Public Service Delivery?
(full electronic case handling)
100% EU (18) Online sophistication
78% The level of online availability of the
Two-way interaction
EU (28)
basic public service.
(Electronic Forms)
75%
75%-100%
Fully available online
EU (10) The total number of basic public
One-way interaction
69%
(downloadable forms)
50%-75%
services that are fully (=100%)
available online.
Information
25%-50% The measurement of this year resulted
in a score for the online sophistication
No online service of 75%. This indicates a global
0% - 25% European maturity level of two-way
interaction, while the score of the
previous measurement still showed a
distance of 10% from that level.

The online sophistication of the
Figure 4: Online Sophistication—Growth EU(10) still is about 6%-point below
the EU(28), but exceeds already the
global European level during the fifth
100
measurement, which was 65%.
78
75
72
75 The EU(18) still shows a stable
66
69
59 65 growth of 6%-point; while EU(10)
increase with 16%-point. This is a
45 53
50
growth even more important then the
growth of the ‘old Europe’ between
25
2001 and 2002.

This suggests that New MS are
0 benefiting from the learning and
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
availability of ICT-enabled services
EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
and are ‘leapfrogging’ in progress.

How Many Services are Fully
Transactional?
In general, almost 50% of the public
services are fully available online.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 7
Figure 5: Full Availability Online
Also with this indicator, the score for
EU(10) exceeds the EU(28) score
during the fifth measurement.

For services, mostly delivered on a
national or regional level, the change
42 from low to fully transactional has
become easier because of more
Full availability online 48 advanced technological possibilities.
This is demonstrated in the clear
52 growth of more almost 45%-point of
this indicator for EU(10).

0 25 50 75 100
After a period with strong growth for
EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
EU(18) until 2003, a slower growth of
this indicator is noticeable. The
explanation is that services, provided
on a national level are more easily
“transformed”, compared to those
services provided on a regional level.
Figure 6: Full Availability Online—Growth

How do individual member
100
states progress?

Online sophistication
75 Figure 4 shows the online
sophistication of public services in the
52
46
different countries. Besides the country
50 42 48
42 value in the sixth measurement, it also
33 40
provides information on the growth,
29
25 20 compared to the fifth measurement7.

More than 50% of the participating
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 countries exceeded two-way interaction
EU(18) EU(28) EU(10) (75%). Only one country has a
maturity level below one-way
interaction (50%).

With a large increase compared to the
Figure 7: Online Results–Online Sophistication previous measurement, Austria leads
in the country ranking. The Austrian
100
‘eGovernment platform’ launched
75
different new e-service initiatives
resulting in a final score of almost
50
complete full sophistication.

25 What ia striking is the large increase
of almost every new Member State. As
0 a result, two new Member States take
second and third place in the country
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eGovernment leading country. With a
Oct 2004 Apr 2006 EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
growth of 16%-point they leapfrogged
from 8th to 3rd place in the ranking
(ex aequo with Sweden).

7 The scores in table format can be found in Annex 3.

8
Public Sector the way we see it

The country implemented an ICT What about the target groups:
evaluation and planning cycles under Citizens vs. Businesses?
the political leadership of the Minister
for Economic Affairs and Online sophistication
Communication, Edgar Savisaar. When looking at the breakdown of
online sophistication in the target
The spectacular jump Malta from 16th groups, we notice a similar pattern for
to 2nd place is due to a set of citizens and businesses.
different governmental action in the
field of eGovernment. In August 2005 The score for online sophistication for
the Maltese government launched a businesses largely exceeds two-way
new Wide Area Network and interaction, both for EU(10) as for
considered it as an important EU(18). When talking about online
milestone for further eGovernment sophistication for citizens, this is not
development. The government yet the case.
consolidated and centralised the ICT
organisation of the country (MIITS Because of a certain degree of
and CIMU). The government interaction, the score of online
introduced different new innovative sophistication for businesses seems to
services like an online vehicle level off. With online sophistication
registration renewal service. for citizens, there still is some room
for improvement.
The example of Malta shows that
smaller geographic entities (regions, Identical to the global graphs on
smaller countries) can progress online sophistication, also in this
rapidly when the right building blocks breakdown, the gap between EU(10)
are put in place. and EU(18) is reduced, compared to
the previous measurement (from 18%
Percentage of services with full to 9% for citizens, and from 20% to
availability online 7% for businesses).
Figure 6 shows the percentage of
public services with full availability
online in the different countries.
Besides the country value in the sixth Figure 8: Country Results—Full Availability Online
measurement, it also provides
information on the growth, compared
100
to the fifth measurement.

75
For about half of the participating
countries, more than 50% of the public
50
services have full availability online.

For Austria, Estonia and Malta, this 25

is even the case for 75% of their
public services. 0
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Compared to the previous measurement,
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the strong increase for Malta, Oct 2004 Apr 2006 EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)

Netherlands and Hungary is striking8.

Specific details on every country
participating in the survey can be
found in “Annex: Country File”.

8 The scores in table format can be found in Annex 3.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 9
Figure 9: Online Sophistication

62
Public services
for citizens
68
71

81
Public services
for businesses
86
88

0 25 50 75 100

EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)

Figure 10: Online Sophistication—Growth

100
88
84
79 85
77 81
75 70 71
64 68
58 62
53 52 57
50
40 46

25

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Citizens EU(10) Citizens EU(18) Citizens EU(28)

Business EU(10) Business EU(18) Business EU(28)

Fully available online
Figure 11: Fully Available Online For this indicator, there is a clear
difference in breakdown between
citizens and businesses: a score of
around 2/3 for businesses, compared
33
Public services
to 1/3 for citizens.
for citizens 36

37 Looking at the historical data in figure
12, the score for fully available online
seems to level off for businesses. On
55
Public services
the other hand, citizens still show a
67
for businesses remarkable increase.
74

The difference between EU(10) and
0 25 50 75 100
EU(18) is much bigger for businesses
EU(18) EU(28) EU(10) (19%), compared to the same
difference for citizens (4%).

10
Public Sector the way we see it

Figure 12: Fully Available Online–Growth

100

74
75 68
61 67
58 55
49
50
41
37
31 29 31 36
33
22 27
25
12 20

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Citizens EU(10) Citizens EU(18) Citizens EU(28)

Business EU(10) Business EU(18) Business EU(28)

Figure 13: Income-generating Services

Online Sophistication
Fully Available Online
Income Taxes
100 Income Taxes
100
75
75
50
Social contribution 50
VAT Social contribution
25 for employees VAT
25 for employees
0
0

Corporate Tax Customs declaration
Corporate Tax Customs declaration

EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)

How do Public Service The usage of tax services is certainly
Clusters Evolve? an interesting topic for measuring in
Income-generating Cluster terms of impact.
The average for this cluster is 94%
for the EU(28). Although almost all of these services
get a maximum score for online
The score for the service “social sophistication, we still distinguish a
contribution for employees” is lower certain difference in quality for the
within the EU(10) for the indicator specific tax services (e.g. fill the data
“fully available online”. An in advance by the system, …), which
explanation for this can be built on is not taken into account in the
the hypothesis that as a general rule current measurement model.
these Member States are still working
on their social security platform. “Annex: The four service clusters
EU(28)—Growth” provides a
The number of income-generating historical comparison, comaring
services supplied online is high, but results for the fifth and the sixth
the question remains on the impact measurement on the service clusters.
thereof on the efficiency of these
services knowing that efficiency is
linked to its usage.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 11
Registration Cluster Figure 14: Registration Services
The average for this cluster is 72% for
the EU(28).
Online Sophistication Fully Available Online
Car registration Car registration
The ability for businesses to provide 100 100

75
data to the government through the 75

50 50
web is both for the EU(18) as for the Submission of data
to statistical offices 25
(Birth and marriage)
Certificates
Submission of data
to statistical offices 25
(Birth and marriage)
Certificates
EU(10) well developed (public 0 0

services to business).
Registration of a new Registration of a new
One exception that is rather low is car company
Announcement of moving company
Announcement of moving

registration. The reason therefore is EU(18) EU(28) EU(10) EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)

twofold: car registration is now often
handled automatically in the back
office when buying a car through a
dealer and this is not taken into
account in this measurement; besides
that, not many online applications are Figure 15: Returns
available for citizens to register a car
themselves. Online Sophistication Fully Available Online

Job search services Job search services
100 100
It is striking that for business related 75 75
Public procurement 50 Social security benefits Public procurement 50 Social security benefits
services of the registration cluster, the 25 25
EU(10) obtain an almost similar score 0 0

as the EU(18). Health related services Declaration to the police Health related services Declaration to the police

“Annex: The four service clusters Public libraries (catalogues, Public libraries (catalogues,
search tools)
search tools)
EU(28)—Growth” provides a EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
historical comparison, comaring
results for the fifth and the sixth
measurement on the service clusters.

Returns Cluster
The average for this cluster is 71% for
the EU(28). Job search services score rather well, service but unfortunately can not be
with an almost unnoticeable reflected in this kind of measurement.
Health related services still score difference between EU(18) and None of the EU(10) have a score for
rather poorly. The direct registration EU(10). Also in this case, there still this service on the indicator “fully
by patients of appointments with a can be a difference in case of a full available online”, which is likely
doctor is not relevant, because transactional service (such as with the linked to the maturity of the services
hospitals will not allow patients to tax services). A measurement of the around social contribution.
register appointments themselves, or impact to effectiveness and efficiency
the patient is referred to a specialist of this service could also provide Also for the service of public libraries,
by the General Practitioner (where the interesting results. the EU(10) have some catching up to do.
GP himself/herself makes the
appointment). This does not mean Public procurement scores high in all “Annex: The four service clusters
that no online transactional services Member States. The positive impact EU(28)—Growth” provides a
can exist to increase the comfort of has already been demonstrated in historical comparison, comaring
patients. For example the possibility other studies. Also for this service a results for the fifth and the sixth
to consult a patient’s history of measurement of impact to effectiveness measurement on the service clusters.
appointments in a hospital, or and efficiency can be interesting.
consultation of his/her invoices. In
spite of these possibilities, the score Social security benefits score poor
on this indicator will most likely (certainly for the indicator “fully
never increase to a high level. available online”), while this service is
perceived as important by the citizens.
Some countries have automated this

12
Public Sector the way we see it

Permits and Licenses Cluster Figure 16: Permits and Licenses
The average for this cluster is 61%.
Online Sophistication Fully Available Online
These services are mostly found on a Personal documents
100
Personal documents
100
decentralised level. This means that 75 75
50 50
the investment to reach a fully 25 25
transactional service is rather big. Environment-related
permits
0
Application
for building permission
Environment-related
permits
0
Application
for building permission
Moreover, the possibility to offer this
service centrally (e.g. through a
portal) is not very obvious. Enrollment in higher Enrollment in higher
education education

EU(18) EU(28) EU(10) EU(18) EU(28) EU(10)
As not many services already use
electronic signatures, many of these
services still require human interaction,
while interoperability of its systems is
not much developed either.
In some cases different new electronic Support and mediation
“Annex: The four service clusters channels are already being combined. On this topic, the question was
EU(28)—Growth” provides a As an example, Sweden can be whether the different eServices were
historical comparison, comaring mentioned: most Swedish taxpayers accompanied by mediation services;
results for the fifth and the sixth receive a pre-filled and pre-calculated are help-functionalities offered or
measurement on the service clusters. version of their tax return, that they resources available to help the citizen
can file online using a ‘soft electronic or business with this service?
Non-quantitative results ID’ (PIN and password provided by
During the survey some additional the Tax Board) or simply confirm by In most countries, fully transactional
research has been performed on more using the Tax Board’s telephone services are well supported, although
qualitative aspects of the e-services. service or via SMS. This service is there is still room for improvement.
Concretely, those e-service scoring offered by the Swedish National Tax No correlation has been found
stage 4 or full transactional level were Board (http://www.skatteverket.se/). between the score on an indicator and
assessed on aspects like: the presence of mediation services for
But these innovative combinations of a country.
■ multi-channel delivery,
channel still remain exceptional and
■ mediation and support,
one could wonder whether There is also an equal level of help
■ proactivity governments are ready to make full functionalities available for EU(10),
■ service integration, use of the recent new technological compared to EU(18).
■ tracking and tracing,
evolutions in order to deliver better
inclusive services for less.
■ accessibility .
9

This research does not provide an
exhaustive view, however it does
provide some insights on the quality
of online public services, further
referred to as “eServices”, that offers
qualitative evidence of good practises
from some of the more progressive States.

Multi-channel access
Apart from some exceptions (like the
tax declaration for businesses in
Denmark and Portugal), most of the
traditional channels are still in place,
and new parallel channels have As an example the Bundesministerium
been created. für Bildung Wissenschaft und Kultur
in Austria (http://www.stipendium.at/)
offers online help on student grants.
Also a hotline is available.
9 These additional questions are not taken into account for the final score.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 13
Proactivity
The goal of this subject was to
investigate whether the eService was
accompanied by proactive actions.
Are e.g. alerts generated, or pre-
populated files.

Except for tax services in some Member
States, the services are mostly still
reactive, which means that the action
must be initiated by the citizens.

An example of proactivity is
the tax service in France
(http://www.impots.gouv.fr/), where
tax declarations will be filled On the other hand, a lot of effort has This electronic system also offers:
in by the tax authorities and after been put in combining service ■ An instant electronic

verification of the information, bundling with multi-channel access acknowledgement for every single
citizens will simply have to sign and and PPP (public private partnership). application received,
return them.
■ An email (where applicable)
In different countries the registration
informing the applicant that the
of a car is organized via a back-office
certificate requested has been
connection between the car dealers
processed, and will be posted to him
and the registration office. The car
at the indicated address,
dealer also has the possibility to
■ An explanation when an application
register insurances.
for some reason has not been
Tracking and tracing accepted and consequently rejected.
The idea of tracking and tracing is
linked to the ‘Amazon’ principle: a Accessibility
customer can follow the main steps of The question was whether the full
the delivery process (acceptance, transactional services support access
treatment, shipping…) of the services for special groups, and to what extent
requested. Our research showed that compliancy with W3C or other
this principle is far from established in accessibility standards was available.
the public sector.
Service integration Surprisingly in the different countries
Service integration is the strategy An example of tracking and tracing none of the countries scored well on
where different services which could was found during our survey this subject.
be needed simultaneously are offered of Malta: through the website
in combination. http://www.certifikati.gov.mt/, A good example is again the Austrian
people all over the globe can request portal http://www.help.gv.at/ carrying
Bundling of services only occurs online Maltese birth, marriage and the W3C AAA icon, indicating
occasionally. Governmental portals can death certificates. conformance level “Triple-A”.
be found in different Member States.
Multi-lingual access
An example is the portal-website Although the positive result on the
http://www.help.gv.at/ in Austria that question “to what extent does a full
is organised on an event basis. transactional service provide multi-
lingual access” at this moment is
average, more and more effort is put
into supporting different languages
online. Especially the EU(10) try also to
offer online services in English next to
the national language(s) of the country.

14
Public Sector the way we see it

5 The Future of eGovernment
Measurement

New service delivery models discussion being now at the level of
As described in Chapter 3 this the ‘last mile’; connecting houses in
measurement framework was remote rural areas. In Europe, 50% of
developed at a time when households are connected to the
implementing eGovernment was still internet. As already demonstrated in
primarily looked upon as “bringing the measurements of previous years,
public services on the internet”. transactional online services became
National, regional and local public mature mainstream service delivery
service providers developed a new models, certainly in the more IT
delivery channel, first only to provide mature European countries.
information and later to facilitate
interactive service delivery to the New “disruptive technologies”
public, the citizens and the business. emerged, like intelligent agents and
interfaces, semantic web, web “2.0”,
At that time concepts like “inclusive ambient intelligence…New interfaces
design” of online services, “channel were tested: iDTV, mobile TV,
choice” and “take up” had not yet advanced mobile interfaces. These
shifted from the private to the public advanced technologies can
sector. The evaluation of the impact of differentiate services and delivery to
the eGovernment programmes in meet user needs and diversity. And
terms of public added value and governments are piloting them in
efficiency gains for the public sector eGovernment projects.
and most importantly for the users
were typically not centre-stage of the Even without waiting for these new
political agenda. Neither too was the technologies Governments developed
recognition that efficiency and user new service delivery models, using
value could be delivered by working multi-channel delivery systems
across public administrations to through public private partnerships
design seamless, ‘joined-up’, needs- and one stops shops. The service ‘car
based eservices. registration’ is a good example of this
evolution: different governments
This supply driven approach was developed systems where car-dealers,
certainly useful in these early days. insurance companies and public car
Member States were encouraged to registration offices make their back-
develop national eGovernment offices interoperable to provide
programmes and strategies. And the joined-up services: you buy a car and
measurement framework that was the car dealer has direct online access to
developed by Capgemini and the the registration office and to insurance
European Commission has proved to companies, so that he can deliver a
be a solid methodology to measure the bundled service and separate visits to
progress of this supply driven strategy. the other service providers are needles.

But meanwhile the world changed Advanced tax declaration services are
and the eGovernment paradigm no longer replicates of paper forms in
shifted. Broadband is available almost an electronic version but became
everywhere through different kinds of intelligent services gathering data
networks and technologies, the from different interoperable back

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 15
offices and providing the citizens a specific condition? Is it because the
proposition of a tax declaration that service providers are different?
they can accept or amend. The Interoperability of the back offices of
acceptance can be done not only via these service providers reduces this
the internet but also via other devices. need for redundant information
provision.
Social security benefits, rights that are
due to citizens on the basis of their eServices have in many cases
specific situation as a disabled, a transformed. The original
parent or an elderly, are in some measurement framework was not
countries more and more automated: designed to capture these new
citizens don’t have to apply for them, evolutions and thus a review of the
they receive them automatically. Why overall framework is required.
should a citizen be obliged to provide
five times the same information The world is not changed by
concerning their condition in order to technology…
receive different rights linked to that …Or by the supply of e-services, but
by those using them or not using
them. The issue of low take-up of
Figure 17: Comparision Between Supply and Use of Online Public Services for eServices is currently an important
Citizens11 question. Governments realize that
huge budgets are invested in
100
eGovernment programmes and e-
public services that are used by too
75
few people. When we compare the
results of the supply indicators with
50
the most recent (2005) available
Eurostat indicator on the use of online
25
public service, there seems to be a low
correlation between the availability and
0 the use of online services for citizens10.
m
Li urg

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Po a y
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De blic

Sl nia
Ic r y

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No s

Po l

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Because of a learning curve between
B

Ki
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Cz

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installation of the service, and take-up
E-government usage by individuals (2005) Online sophistication for citizens (2006)
by the citizens and businesses, some
caution must be taken into account
when comparing supply and usage.
Figure 18: Comparision Between Supply and Use of Online Public Services for
Businesses12 The sophistication of online services for
businesses is covered by a higher usage.

100 Impact measurement became an
important topic since a Commission
75
“eGovernment Communication”
(2003) underlined “the need for further
50
research into the economics of
eGovernment, for a better understanding
25
of costs and assessment of benefits
and performances”. The European
0
Commission ordered a study on an
m
Li urg

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Po a y
nd
De blic

Sl nia
Ic r y

Ire d

No s

Po l

Sw nd
Re ru s

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it z in
um

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th lta
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Fr d

xe Ita ly
Hu ce
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Fi a

ga
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eGovernment measurement
la
la
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framework, the “eGep project”. The
Cz

Un

E-government usage by enterprises (2005) Online sophistication for businesses (2006) project developed a measurement
model based on existing impact
measurement models and is a useful

10 For 2006 EUROSTAT will provide separate information on the use of each of the 20 basic pubic services, but this information will only be available by the end of the year. 11 No data
was available on “E-government usage by individuals (2005)” for Denmark, France, Germany, Malta, Spain and Switzerland. 12 No data was available on “E-government usage by
enterprises (2005)”for France, Iceland, Luxembourg and Switzerland.

16
Public Sector the way we see it

This is indeed a complex and moving
Figure 19: The Holistic Measurement Model landscape that certainly will influence
the format of the next edition of
Setting Delivery Change Use Impact
this study.

Service
Availability Gov. Take-up An adapted edition of the current
E-readiness & Quality Transformation & Adoption Impact
generic measurement model tries to
User
Leadership &
Strategy
Online
Availability
Back-Office
Integration
Participation &
Incentivisation Performance
put these different moves in perspective:
Structural
Landscape Service Service
Funding Citizens Effectiveness
Politics Integration Sharing
The logic behind the model is that
Society
Culture
People &
Capability
User
Centricity
Data
Management
Businesses Efficiency specifics of a nation, a region or a
History
Economy Citizen
local environment, should be taken
Technology &
E-Governance Relation Employees Democracy
Demographics Connectivity
Management into consideration by studying “the
Stakeholder
Involvement
structural landscape”. A readiness
assessment for eGovernment
Organisation &
Change programmes (national, local,
organisational) should cover different
Availability
Indicators technical and organisational building
Efficiency and effectiveness
User Centricity
Indicators (Lot2)
Indicators (eGap) blocks. The output should be
measured as a combination of supply
indicators (availability, accessibility
tool for performance measurement on secure and interoperable etc.), organisational indicators
a programme or organisational level. authenticated access across Europe (process redesign, data streamlining
It can also be used as a valuable tool to public services; etc.), use indicators. A combination of
for bench-learning when used in those indicators can provide insights
5. Strengthening participation and
parallel in different organisations. in the outcomes of the eGovernment
democratic decision-making—
programmes.
demonstrating, by 2010, tools for
In the mean time, on the 25th of April effective public debate and
2006, the European Commission The eGovernment indicator systems
participation in democratic
adopted the i2010 eGovernment described above are:
decision-making.
Action Plan (Accelerating
eGovernment in Europe for the ■ The actual availability indicators
The Commission requested the
Benefit of All). The Action Plan measured in this study are clearly
development of benchmark indicators
defines five priorities: supply output indicators
for each of these priorities. Currently
■ The ‘Lot 2’ indicators will be
a consultation process is taking place
1. No citizen left behind: advancing to address the implementation of those qualitative supply indicators,
inclusion through eGovernment so indicators in a measurement system. focusing on user-centricity
that by 2010 all citizens benefit ■ The ‘eGep’ indicators are supply,

from trusted, innovative services Piloting new indicators organisational and use indicators,
and easy access for all; In parallel with this 6th measurement meant to monitor the
2. Making efficiency and of the availability of public services implementation of the i2010
effectiveness a reality— online, a pilot study “to develop and eGovernment Action Plan.
significantly contributing, by 2010, improve the eGovernment indicators” ■ Data from the Eurostat Household s

to high user satisfaction, was launched. This study aims at the and Enterprises surveys monitor
transparency and accountability, a development and the testing of new take up of online public services.
lighter administrative burden and indicators focusing on the most
efficiency gains; determinant features for take up of The integration of these different
3. Implementing high-impact key online services by citizens and to systems in one measurement model
services for citizens and businesses contribute towards achieving better should be the outcome of the actual
—by 2010, 100% of public and more inclusive public services. European consultation process.
procurement will be available Also known as ‘LOT2’ this study
electronically, with 50% actual analyses existing national standards
usage5, with agreement on and guidelines and tries to extract
cooperation on further high-impact some common indicators concerning
online citizen services; accessibility and user centricity. It is
expected that the findings of this pilot
4. Putting key enablers in place—
will feed in to future editions of this
enabling citizens and businesses to
survey in some way or another.
benefit, by 2010, from convenient,

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 17
6 Conclusion
The survey, performed in 2006, has registered a new progress in the overall
results of the supply and sophistication of eGovernment services in the EU.

The online sophistication of public The survey reveals there is a modest Major breakthroughs can be
service delivery in the EU Member but constant growth in online highlighted in the ranking of this year
States has reached an overall score of sophistication of 6%-point in general in (apart from Malta which is
75% and the full availability online the “old” Member States while the overthrowing the scores). The
has reached almost 50%. Both growth in the new accessed Member Hungarian government has taken
indicators of the survey have recorded states is by 10%-point more important paying initiatives that led their
a significant global progress of almost (an average of 16%-point growth). The country from rank 23 to 14 (+9).
10%-point for the 28 surveyed common key success factor in these Slovenia as well made significant
countries. leapfrogging countries can be attributed progress and has entered the top 10,
to the centralized political sponsorship moving from the rank 15 to 7 (+8).
Online public service supply, as it was of eGovernment programmes that have
defined 5–6 years ago, is now a been implemented with great success Taking the qualitative aspects of the
mainstream service delivery model in these last two years. survey separately, obvious progress is
the EU. We reached the top of the made in developing new innovative
first S-curve; now a new one is This year again shows a deep gap in service delivery models, but one could
emerging: the most advanced the performances in the public services wonder whether governments are
governments are developing for businesses (exceeding the two-way ready to make full use of the recent
intelligent user centric e-services. interaction in most countries) against technological evolutions in order to
those for citizens (some services still deliver better inclusive service for less.
Taking over the role of the leader in progressing in reaching the one-way
providing eServices to its citizens and interaction). Nevertheless, although 2006 will probably be the last year
businesses in the 20 measured services, both categories are showing a rise in that the eGovernment supply side will
Austria is heading the results in both their results, there is a slight tendency be measured in the way it has been
indicators (sophistication and full in the “old” Member States to done until now. The new system will
availability). The Austrian emphasize progresses in servicing combine historical continuity with a
“eGovernment platform” is best in class citizens (7%-point increase compared review of the sophistication
and has profiled the optimized to 4%-points increase for services to framework, redefinition of some
governmental eServices offering, almost businesses regarding the online services and the introduction of a use
reaching the full sophistication level. sophistication in EU(18). In the new centricity index. Supply side
Member States, this increase is huge in measurement will be combined with
Being the second year of bench- both domains but maintains a similar measurement of take up and
marking the eServices in the 10 new effort invested (16%-point increase for government transformation to allow
Member States, this 6th measurement citizens and 17%-point for businesses). the assessment of the impact of the
is highly impacted by the progresses i2010 eGovernment Action Plan.
made in these recently joined These results are symptomatic of
countries. An eloquent example is the divergent concerns on where to focus
second and third ranking places that the efforts as either being a country
have been allotted to two of the new accustomed to the exercise that
Member States: Malta achieved the succeeded in “testing” its eServices
most outstanding progress recorded capabilities with businesses and is now
ever and moved from rank 16 to 2nd taking up the challenge with citizens
place while Estonia has moved from performances or being a new member
8th to 3rd place and successfully states that is going through making
entered the top 3, ex aequo with major progresses to aligning its
Sweden. eServices performances in general
to those of countries being longer in
the race.

18
Public Sector the way we see it

7 Annex: Country File
The country file provides more detailed information on every country that
participated in the survey.

The first part is a graphical Striving to offer better, easier, more
representation of the country results. complete services to their citizens, the
How is the country progressing countries have put a lot of effort in
throughout the measurements, and in improving the offered e-services.
comparison with the different global Their latest innovative e-service
European indicators EU(28), EU(18), developments certainly increased the
EU(10)? country result for online
sophistication.
The different services that are offered
online must be easily accessible and But also future initiatives are mostly in
secure at the same time. A paragraph place to improve online sophistication
on eAuthentication gives an indication and full availability online.
of the current country status.
Very valuable information on this
Detailed information on this subject subject was found in the
was found in the National IDM eGovernment news of the IDABC
Profiles of the Modinis-IDM website website (http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/
(https://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.be/m chapter/329 and
odinis-idm/twiki/bin/view.cgi/ http://europa.eu.int/idabc/egovo)
Main/NationalProfiles).

Services are continuously evolving, so
the information in this paragraph only
gives an indication of the present status.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 19
Austria (A)
Austria has improved the availability of public e-services significantly between
2002 and 2003 and has since then experienced a constant growth to become
Europe’s leading country.

Overall results
This success is built on established certificate, which enables citizens to
enablers such as a clear and explicit securely access electronic public
vision and strategy, a legal eGovernment services and complete administrative
Austria - Online Sophistication
framework, top-leadership, an procedures electronically. The
100
innovative eID system (Bürgerkarte). originality of the Austrian e-ID
75 concept is that there is not just one
50 According to Eurostat data, the use of single type of Citizen Card. In
25 e-government services by citizens in principle, any card which makes it
0
Austria is above the EU average (29% possible to sign electronically in a
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 against 22% EU) but stays far away secure form and to store personal data
Austria EU(18) EU(28) from the Scandinavian leading is suitable for use as a Citizen Card. In
countries (> 50%). Up-take by addition, a ‘light’ Citizen Card service
citizens seems to be a point of interest can also be used with mobile phones,
Austria - Fully Available Online
for further action. enabling Austrian citizens to digitally
100 sign documents and securely transact
75 The take up of e-services by with government via mobile phone.
50 businesses is high (75% against
25 57%EU) but stays also behind take up Initiatives for the future
0
in Scandinavian countries. The Federal Procurement Company
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 BBG (Bundesbeschaffung GmbH—
Austria EU(18) EU(28) Innovative e-service BBG) has launched E-shop, an
developments electronic catalogue purchase system.
The Austrian Electronic Data Registered users can browse
management system of the Ministry of catalogues of products and services
Environment allows a full based on the BBG’s framework
transactional online service for the agreements, and place orders directly
EU-ETS annual reporting of the online. The service is currently in
emissions, including verification by pilot phase. In addition, the BBG has
independent (third-party) verifiers created, in cooperation with the
newspaper Wiener Zeitung, an e-
tendering pilot service.

A central procurement portal is
planned for implementation in the
next two years.

http://www.umweltbundesamt.at/umwelt/abfall/service/meld
ung

eAuthentication
The Citizen Card (Bürgerkarte) is a
smart card embedded with an
electronic signature and a digital
https://bbg.portal.at/

20
Public Sector the way we see it

Belgium (B)
The Belgian scores for both indicators move closer to the EU(18) average. They
are comparable to the EU(28) value, or even higher in case of the indicator “fully
available online”.

Overall results
Belgium works hard on organisation eAuthentication
of the back office and enablers like The most significant IDM
the eID card. A number of services eGovernment project in Belgium is
Belgium - Online Sophistication
concerning social security have been the introduction of the Belgian
100 automated, but are not taken into Personal Identity Card (BELPIC), an
75 account and therefore not reflected in electronic identity card that should
50 the country result. facilitate access to eGovernment
25 services for all Belgian citizens.
0
Innovative e-service
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 developments It has the size of a bank card, and
Belgium EU(18) EU(28) Since 1/7/2003 the Commerce contains among other identification
Registry administered by the Federal data also a photo and the national
Belgium - Fully Available Online Public Service Justice has been registry number. Data is printed on
100 replaced by a Crossroads Bank for the card as well as integrated
75
Enterprises and a series of 10 electronically on a chip.
Enterprise Counters providing one-
50
stop shop services for businesses. The chip should also contain two
25
electronic key sets, allowing the
0 These Enterprise Counters are authentication of the citizen and the
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Belgium EU(18) EU(28) administered by accredited private use of a qualified electronic signature.
organisations. (e.g. chambers of
commerce) Most of them make it The eID card is being deployed since
possible to register a business online the second half of 2003, and rollout is
envisaged to be completed around the
The website is accessible via beginning of 2008.
http://www.kmodirect.be/evap/direct.k
modirect_home.show Along with this rollout, the
organisation of public services is also
undergoing reform to ensure efficient
and secure exchange of information,
and to increase the number of services
available to eID card holders.

Initiatives for the future
The Federal Public Service (Service
Public Fédéral—S.P.F.) for Social
Security has implemented a set of
special services for disabled persons in
Belgium that are under the
http://www.kmodirect.be/evap/direct.kmodirect_home.show
responsibility of the Directorate
General for the Disabled Persons. This
public institution aims to collect and
manage applications issued by
disabled citizens to obtain a medical
recognition and to receive social
benefits for disabled persons.
Obtaining that particular social help is

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 21
via a process of applications made at The application process can use the
the municipality where the applicant new electronic ID card to identify
has his or hers main residence. users online and will take advantage
of the civil servant LDAP from the
The Belgian government has Crossroad Bank for Social Security to
developed a computerized application give access to the users.
at the Disabled Persons DG that is
made accessible for all municipalities. The website is
This automated tool now allows an http://www.handicap.fgov.be/ and
immediate and effective two-way starting July 1st 2006 only the
interaction: electronic process will be authorized
■ In a first phase, the computerized to start the application process.
tool enables the disabled persons’
applications to be directly inserted
in the Federal Public Service for
Social Security, without being
required to enter other personal data
of the applicant (since the social
data’s of all Belgian citizens are
already included in the Crossroad
Bank for Social Security database).
■ Second phase will consist of

returning an acknowledgement
receipt of the application to the
municipalities as well as sending
over pre-filled in administrative and http://www.handicap.fgov.be/

medical forms with applicants’ data’s
held at the Crossroad Bank for the
applicant to fill in the remaining
details.

22
Public Sector the way we see it

Cyprus (C)
The increase for both indicators runs parallel to that of the EU(28). Online
sophistication in Cyprus almost reaches the same level as the EU(10) value.

Overall results Innovative e-service Initiatives for the future
developments A web-enabled system
The Road Transport System provides (http://www.grants.mof.gov.cy) will
Cyprus - online sophistication
services through the web regarding allow the public to submit their
100 car registration, car information and applications for child allowances and
75 driver’s license availability. Services to have access to related information
50 regarding the technical inspection of (e.g. application status) via the
25 the vehicles are also available through Internet. The web-enabled system is
0 the web as from January 2006. expected to be available through the
2004 2005 2006 Internet by mid 2006.
Cyprus EU(28) EU(10) The website is accessible at
http://rtd.mcw.gov.cy/ The Social Insurance information
system, which will provide services
Cyprus - Fully Available Online through the web regarding the
100
payment of social contributions for
employees or for the self-employed, is
75
expected to be available to the public
50
in June 2006.
25

0
2004 2005 2006
The implementation of an electronic
Cyprus EU(28) EU(10)
questionnaire is expected to be
completed by the end of 2006 which
will allow the submission of statistical
data electronically.

A study for an electronic procurement
http://rtd.mcw.gov.cy/ system is expected to be completed by
the end of 2006 and the
eAuthentication implementation of the system is due
In Cyprus, a single identification to be completed by 2007. The
number is assigned to every newborn, objective is to conduct a significant
every foreign worker in the Cyprus’ part of public procurement
labour market pension fund and transactions through electronic means
everybody who has to deal with by the end of 2007 and to achieve
tax affaires. generalised e-procurement by 2010.

This single identification number is
managed in the database of the
Cyprus Civil Registration System,
managed by the Civil Registry
Department under the authority of the
Ministry of Interior, and usually used
as primary key in almost every
governmental IT system.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 23
Czech Republic (CZ)
The score for the indicator “online sophistication” has slightly increased.
Compared to the EU(10) value, a decrease can be noticed.

Overall results
Innovative e-service
developments
Czech Republic - Online Sophistication
The customs administration of the
Czech Republic has created online
100
services to facilitate trade and custom
75 declarations.
50

25
The website is accessible at
http://www.cs.mfcr.cz/
0
2004 2005 2006
Czech Republic EU(28) EU(10)

Czech Republic - Fully Available Online

100

75

50

25

0
2004 2005 2006
Czech Republic EU(28) EU(10)

http://www.cs.mfcr.cz/

eAuthentication
Currently, each resident in the Czech
Republic is required to possess a
conventional identity card. Electronic
identity tokens for all citizens are not
yet in place.

The unique personal identification
number, issued by the Ministry of
Interior, is based on date of birth plus
a special number, making it unique.

The Czech Ministry of Labor and
Social Affairs is currently the only
state organisation using chip cards in
significant numbers. The ministerial
eIDs are mainly used for accessing the
ministry’s information system or
exchange of confidential information
within the ministry. For the future, a
governmental project is planned to
provide so-called “professional” chip
cards for public administrative staff.

24
Public Sector the way we see it

Denmark (DK)
The score for Denmark on both indicators stays above the EU(28) and EU(18)
values. There is a similar increase for the result of Denmark as compared to the
general European value EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments Denmark does not offer electronic ID
Citizens in Denmark can submit their cards or electronic identities, and has
Denmark - Online Sophistication
tax declaration online. The online tax shown no intention to do so. Since
100
services of the Customs and Tax February 2003, the Danish
75 Administration (ToldSkat) can be used government provides “free digital
50 with PIN or digital signature. signatures” to its citizens as a means
25 for user authentication. The concept is
0 The website is accessible at commonly referred to as the “public
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 http://www.tastselv.toldskat.dk/ digital signature”, allowing citizens to
Denmark EU(18) EU(28) make use of online public services in
a secure way.
Denmark - Fully Available Online
The 1st of February 2005 was the
100 second eDay for Denmark. From that
75 day on, all public administrations are
50 able to use digital signatures and
25 secure email, allowing all citizens to
0
communicate electronically and in a
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 secure way with government bodies.
Denmark EU(18) EU(28)

Since April 2006, some public
services are only available by
http://www.tastselv.toldskat.dk/ electronic means, obliging citizens to
use them online.
A growing number of public services
in Denmark can only be accessed
electronically. For the past year, for
example, companies dealing with
public administrations must submit
their invoices electronically—at the
risk of their bills remaining unpaid.
Also, Danish citizens must now
nominate a single bank account for all
their dealings with the state, and
electronic transfer is replacing cash or
cheques for the payment of state
benefits, pensions, etc.

The government is aware of the fact
that it is impossible to close down the
traditional channels without providing
adequate alternatives. Some solutions
to overcome the digital gap are
installing delivery models through
intermediaries, and providing the
service through community centers.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 25
Initiatives for the future OIO–Offentlig Information Online
Denmark is facing many challenges in (public information online) is a
the years from 2006 to 2010. The website and an electronic newsletter
multitude of challenges are met by a offering information, knowledge and
wide range of political initiatives that access to tools in relation to IT in the
are critical for the future development public sector as well as public sector
and operation of the public sector. In communication.
addition, several projects directly
influence how citizens and businesses OIO E-government Architecture is a
use information technology for cross-organizational enterprise
solving a number of tasks. Here are architecture focusing on the public
some examples: sector administration, service,
■ The Government’s modernization procurement and other public
program, which comprises a large sector activities.
number of projects
Strategy for OIO Architecture
■ The E-government Strategy,
describes where the public sector
including e-day and a number of
architecture needs to go, and sets a
digitalization projects
frame for the next five years of
■ Sector strategies such as the strategy
architecture and standardization work
for the health sector in the public sector.
■ The Danish Municipal Reform, by

which authorities will be combined More information can be found on the
and tasks will be transferred website http://www.oio.dk/
■ The Globalization Initiative, which

focuses on a wide range of strategic
efforts.
■ A large number of local development

and innovation projects within the
individual authorities, such as
consolidation of the IT portfolio at
enterprise level.

26
Public Sector the way we see it

Estonia (EE)
The score of Estonia on both indicators is significantly above the EU(10) value,
as well as above EU(28). The increase is comparable to that of the general
European indicator EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service You can enter SAIS with an Estonian
developments national ID-card or through one of the
Estonia - Online Sophistication
At the Estonian Population Register, it Estonian internet banks.
is possible to make the announcement
100
of moving by sending a digitally eAuthentication
75 signed document. In Estonia, the first steps to develop an
50 electronic ID card were taken in 1997.
25 By doing so, a person is automatically
0 identified, so there is no need to present The ID card is mandatory for Estonian
2004 2005 2006
any other identifying documents. residents and foreigners living in Estonia
Estonia EU(28) EU(10)
with a resident permit for at least one year.
Estonia - Fully Available Online The website can be accessed at http://
100 w3.andmevara.ee/index.php?lang=rar The main functionalities include the
75
regular identity document, an
electronic identity and the possibility
50
to generate digital signatures.
25

0 Other possible applications are buying
2004 2005 2006
Estonia EU(28) EU(10) e-tickets, driver’s permit verification,
or even Internet voting in 2005.

Initiatives for the future
The newly released annual report of
the Estonian Ministry of Economic
Affairs and Communications—‘IT in
http://w3.andmevara.ee/index.php?lang=rar
public administration of Estonia 2005’
—presents the main achievements in
An online system 2005, latest figures, and the government’s
(https://www.sais.ee/index_en.html) is 2006 Information Policy Action Plan.
in place for enrollment in higher
education, where you can see The Plan sets out 16 priority action
immediately if you have been accepted areas in which the government would
to a university. This is possible because like to see significant progress in
the results of high school examinations 2006, including the further
are already in the online database. development of geo-information
services (eGIS), increasing the share of
electronic document management and
digital archiving in government
departments, and development of a
coordinated social welfare information
and service system. Many of these
projects have been supported, since
2005, by the European Structural
Funds. Efforts will also be made to
improve interoperability with other
https://www.sais.ee/index_en.html EU information systems.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 27
Finland (FIN)
The score for Finland on both indicators is above the EU(18) and EU(28) value.
A certain degree of stabilisation in the development of online services can be
noticed. The decrease for the indicator fully available online is due to re-
evaluation of the service “Public Procurement”.

Overall results
Innovative e-service Indeed, the single address change
developments notification can be submitted:
Finland - Online Sophistication
According to the Population Register ■ Online, via the joint service website.

Centre in Finland, all births in This requires electronic identity
100
maternity hospitals in Finland now verification, based on a Post user
75
are recorded electronically in the name, an online banking user ID, or
50 national population information a national electronic ID card.
25 system. This takes less than a day, and ■ Over the telephone, by calling a

0 improves among other issues the
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 special number.
child’s data handling in the hospitals.
Finland EU(18) EU(28) ■ Over the counter, at a post office.

In Finland the service ‘Announcement
of moving’ is facilitated by a joint The address change information is
Finland - Fully Available Online
e-service recently launched by the then automatically sent to both the
100
Finnish Post and the Population Population Information System (Local
75
Register Centre, and enables citizens Register Office) and the Finnish Post’s
50 to submit a single address change address information system. This
25 notification online to a great number ensures that a wide number of
0 of public and private organisations. government bodies (such as the
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
This convenient service helps users vehicle administration, the Social
Finland EU(18) EU(28)
make sure that they keep receiving Insurance Institution, the tax
their mail and keep benefiting from administration and the Finnish
important services after moving to a Defence Forces) as well as private
new residence. For increased sector service providers—including
accessibility, the service is delivered banks, insurance companies and
across multiple channels. pension institutions—will also receive
the new address and update their
records accordingly.

28
Public Sector the way we see it

eAuthentication Initiatives for the future
The Finnish system is based on a Electronic voting will be tested in
concept of a Citizen Certificate, 2007 for Parliamentary elections in
consisting of first name and last name the cities of Karkkila, Kauniainen, and
of the citizen, together with a unique Vihti, and should be available in the
electronic user ID, called electronic whole of Finland in 2009.
client identifier (SATU). The Citizen
Certificate can be used for strong Finland’s Tax Administration (TA)
authentication, for creation of legally prepares a new range of online
binding electronic signature and for services that will make it far easier
the encryption of emails and and more convenient for taxpayers to
documents. file and modify their tax declarations.
By mid-2006, it aims to enable users
The Finnish Population Register to modify their tax identification
Centre (PRC or VRK) is responsible details and, in the longer term, their
for the Citizen Certificate, as well as pre-completed tax declaration forms
for the electronic ID card (rollout via the internet.
started in December 1999). In April
2002, the portal http://suomi.fi was Thanks to a new service platform the
launched, grouping all kinds of public TA is bringing online many services
services available to Finnish citizens. whose implementation previously
Since 2004, the eID can be used to required a phone call, correspondence
access municipal services. by post or visits to a tax office. For
example, the ability of employees to
change their withholding allowance
certificates, known as tax cards, will be
the first service available online this
spring, followed by online amendments
to pre-completed tax returns.

https://www.verkkoposti.com/e3/Identification

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 29
France (F)
On the 5th measurement, the value of both indicators was almost equal to that of
the EU(18). In this measurement, there is a significant increase noticeable
compared to both EU(18) and EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service Initiatives for the future
developments Most of the current forms nowadays
Now in its second year, the system for can be accessed and downloaded by
France - Online Sophistication
the online declaration of tax in France the users. Filling out the form and
100
has been expanded and improved. sending it back to the correct
75 administration however in most cases
50 As with the paper version, the electronic still follows the traditional path.
25 tax declaration form will be completed
0
by the tax authorities before being The project of the forms server,
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
sent out, but taxpayers will be able to started at the end of 2005 under the
France EU(18) EU(28)
modify or add information online. An colours of the DGME in France, will
additional advantage of the online put at the disposal of all public
France - Fully Available Online declaration is that no supporting services a mutual system, allowing
100 documents are needed and you are systematic digitalization of
75 told immediately how much tax you administrative forms, as well as
50
will have to pay. This service will go dematerialization of the corresponding
live at the beginning of May. procedures. The electronic signature
25
can be added to complete the form.
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 The website is accessible at
France EU(18) EU(28) http://www.impots.gouv.fr The whole project will realise a bigger
transparency for the user, combined
with an increased simplification of the
administrative steps online.

The forms could be offered both on
the national portal (http://
www.service-public.fr) and the site of
the ministries concerned.

http://www.impots.gouv.fr

eAuthentication
The electronic health insurance ID card,
Vitale, was introduced in 1998, and is
now being updated. The new updated
cards will be rolled out in 2006.

Separately, plans for an eID card, called http:// www.service-public.fr
CNIE (Carte Nationale d’Identité
Electronique), were first announced in A list of priority forms has been created
2003, as part of the INES programme in 2005. The platform will be operational
(Identification Nationale Electronique in September 2006, to allow a
Sécurisée). The rollout phase is progressive integration of the forms.
expected to begin in 2006.

30
Public Sector the way we see it

Germany (D)
Both for “online sophistication” and “fully available online”, an increase is
noticeable. The complexity in government structure in Germany prohibits a strong
increase for online sophistication as measured at this moment.

Overall results
Both for “online sophistication” and eAuthentication
“fully available online”, an increase Germany has adopted the European
Germany - Online Sophistication is noticeable. Directive on Electronic Signatures in
the year 2001 through the German
100
The complexity in government structure Electronic Signature Act.
75
in Germany prohibits a strong
50 increase for online sophistication as In 2004, the Ministry of Internal
25 measured at this moment. Affairs announced a new generation of
0 identity cards, which would also be
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Innovative e-service based on smart cards and hold
Germany EU(18) EU(28)
developments biometric data of the cardholder.
BundOnline 2005, the e-government
Germany - Fully Available Online programme of the German federal In 2005, the German Federal
100
administration, was in 2005 in its Government started an initiative
final year. called “E-Card Strategy”, which aims
75
to force a consistent usage of smart
50
Considered a success by federal cards within eGovernment, eBusiness
25 authorities, the initiative has delivered and legal relations.
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
impressive results: over 340 services
were already available online in April Initiatives for the future
Germany EU(18) EU(28)
2005. Take-up is also increasing Another eID related initiative is the
significantly, the government said, German health card project, which
with over 14 million accesses to the should result in a nationwide rollout
websites and services of 900 public by 2007.
bodies through the federal portal
http://www.bund.de/ in the second This health card should be the key
half of 2004. element in German health
applications.

The card holds given name, last name,
date of birth, personal identification
number of the cardholder, sex,
country, city and city code. Storing of
further data is possible, e.g. a set of
emergency data can also be stored on
the card.

http://www.bund.de/

As a consequence, the Cabinet of
Ministers decided on 9 March to
guarantee the funding of key e-
government infrastructure services
and components developed under
BundOnline.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 31
Greece (EL)
A smaller increase in online sophistication is noticed for Greece,
as compared to the EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service Community framework for electronic
developments signatures. It defines electronic
Greece - Online Sophistication
The Citizen Service Centres (KEP in signatures and advanced electronic
Greek) is an initiative of the Hellenic signatures. It also deals with the legal
100
Ministry of the Interior, Public consequences of electronic signatures,
75
Administration and Decentralization. liability of suppliers of certification,
50 The Citizen Service Centre obligation to protect personal
25 (http://www.kep.gov.gr/) is the official information, terms in effect for
0 site of administrative one-stop shops, recognised certificates and suppliers,
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
where citizens can have access to assurance of the liability of the
Greece EU(18) EU(28)
public service information and to a creation of a signature and
number of standardised administrative recommendations for the verification
Greece - Fully Available Online procedures. of the signature.
100

75 Initiatives for the future
50
In March 2005, a 3-year programme
“Politeia 2005–2007” was launched
25
for the ‘re-establishment of Public
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Administration’. The objectives of the
Greece EU(18) EU(28) programme are to better serve all
citizens by focusing on their real
needs, increasing transparency in
public administration, implementing
eGovernment in all administrative
levels (central and regional
administration, municipalities),
restructuring agencies an processes,
http://www.kep.gov.gr/ protecting citizen’s privacy and
consolidating the Rule of Law.
The service is complemented by a
24-hour administrative information
call centre (four-digit 1564 telephone
service), and by a ‘Telephone
Application System’ (1502) where
citizens can request almost 60
different certificates.

eAuthentication
There is currently no central
e-identification infrastructure for
e-government in Greece. In particular,
no plans for e-ID cards have
been issued.

Presidential Decree 150/2001 of 25
June 2001 implements the European
Directive of 13 December 1999 on a

32
Public Sector the way we see it

Hungary (HU)
A very strong increase for Hungary on both indicators puts their value
above that of the EU(10) and EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service Initiatives for the future
developments The Hungarian Act on public
Hungary - Online Sophistication The Act on the registration and administration procedures which
100
publicity of businesses and the came into effect in autumn 2005,
80
Business Court proceedings allows allowed the local authorities to create
60 procedures with the Business Court to e-services.
40 be conducted electronically from
20 September 2005. The town of Szeged, in the south of
0 Hungary was the first to offer user
2004 2005 2006
A number of business registration and identification and log in to the
Hungary EU(28) EU(10)
related services will gradually be made Governmental Portal
Hungary - Fully Available Online available through the e-services (http://www.magyarorszag.hu/).
100
platform of the Governmental Portal According to schedule, the system is
(http://www.magyarorszag.hu/ugyfelka now in operation as of 10 April 2006,
75
pu/), based on the National Business which means that the citizens of
50 Registration and Business Information Szeged have the possibility to manage
25 System of the Ministry of Justice. their official affairs—from changing
0 their identity cards to rectifying
2004 2005 2006
eAuthentication licences—online from home.
Hungary EU(28) EU(10)
Hungary has adopted the European
Directive on Electronic Signatures as a To use the system it is necessary to
legal basis for using electronic issue an electronic personal
signatures in the year 2001 through identification from the competent
the Hungarian Act on Electronic public administration office.
Signatures.
Presently, the affairs manageable
In Hungary, no central ID through the client gate in an
infrastructure is in place at this electronic way lie in the
moment. It however has a common following fields:
identification/authentication ■ Social affairs, family protection

framework in place. This multi-level ■ Vehicle administration
security framework provides for
■ Personal data and address register
different applications appropriate
http://www.magyarorszag.hu/ugyfelkapu/ mechanisms for identification and ■ Enterprise license

authentication. ■ Registration of birth, marriage

and death
The Hungarian Administrative ■ Driving license
Procedure Act and its executive orders
■ Identity card
define the identification and
authentication processes for different ■ Passport

services of the public administration. ■ Population registry

Two different cases can be identified: ■ Building authorities (submission of
authentication by password, or
complaints)
authentication by digital certificate.

http://www.magyarorszag.hu/

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 33
Iceland (ISL)
eService developments apprear to have stalled in Iceland.

Innovative e-service Another good example of a successful Responsibility
developments online public service is the tax reporting Leaders in every area of society must
Through the police website in Iceland system (e-Tax) which has been in use shoulder responsibility and cooperate so
(http://www.police.is), you can submit for several years and is now used by that information technology will be
your inquiries. 91% of tax payers. used for the benefit of citizens and so
that diverse individuals will be able to
The police scans incoming mail or eAuthentication benefit from it.
inquiries submitted through the Electronic identification plays a key role Security
standard inquiry form, and responds in providing electronic services to the
either by phone or by visiting a given citizens. Therefore this project has a Citizens and companies shall be
address. This has to be followed up by a high priority and the policy of the guaranteed access to a secure, reliable,
formal written report. Government of Iceland on the high-speed network at competitive
Information Society for 2004-2007, prices. The security of information and
“Resources to Serve Everyone”, aims for the protection of personal privacy shall
Overall results general and widespread use of electronic be guiding principles in developing the
certification by 2007. information society.
Iceland - Online Sophistication

100 Initiatives for the future Quality of Life
75 Iceland scores well concerning ICT Added quality of life and a richer
50 connections (like the amount of society shall be supported by exploiting
computers at home or access to the the potential of information technology
25
internet). On the service delivery side, a in education, culture and health, along
0 stagnation is noticeable. with other community sectors.
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Iceland EU(18) EU(28)
It is the intention of the Government of The most important project and the
Iceland to keep up the high records and biggest project of the policy is the
Iceland - Fully Available Online
continue to be among the most development of an information and
100 service portal, “Island.is”. The portal
successful countries regarding the
75 Information Society and e-Government. will play a key role in providing
50 The policy of the Government of information and services to individuals
Iceland on the Information Society for and companies which communicate
25
2004-2007, “Resources to Serve with government organizations. The
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Everyone”, is highly ambitious and objective is to facilitate access to public
Iceland EU(18) EU(28)
liable to keep Iceland at the forefront in services in such a way that the user will
the near future. not need to know in advance which
The individual, his or her opportunities organization provides the service he or
and welfare in society, are the guiding she requires.
principles of the policy. The future
vision consists of four key factors: Many other projects will be carried out
as part of the portal. They concern
Opportunity
development of new sophisticated
Individuals and companies shall be services and also further development of
provided with increased opportunities many of the services measured in this
for exchanging and seeking knowledge, survey. The government has also
communicating, and conducting ongoing projects which aim at
business wherever and whenever they wish. strengthening the back office systems
and preparing for better internal
communication between public
institutions at all levels.
http://www.police.is

34
Public Sector the way we see it

Ireland (IRL)
Online development continues to be stagnated.

Overall results
Innovative e-service for any new electronic public service.
developments It provides an interface between
Ireland - Online Sophistication In February 2005, an SMS enquiry beneficiary and public service (in
service was launched, allowing person, over the phone or through
100
citizens to claim tax credits and a self-service electronic channel).
75
request a number of tax forms and
50 information leaflets by sending text An enhanced version of the Irish
25 messages from their mobile phones. eGovernment portal reachservices
0 All they have to do is send a message went live in May 2005, making use
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
to a dedicated number—51829— of the first phase of the Public
Ireland EU(18) EU(28)
including their personal identification Services Broker (PSB) system.
(i.e. their ‘Personal and Public Service
Ireland - Fully Available Online Number’) and a relevant service code. The rollout of a Public Service Card
100 (PSC), using the PPSN is also planned,
75 The Office of the Revenue which will bundle the functions of
50
Commissioners several cards, like a medical card,
(http://www.revenue.ie/), Ireland’s tax social services card, etc.
25
collection agency, is now receiving as
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 many enquiries by text message (SMS) Initiatives for the future
Ireland EU(18) EU(28) as by telephone. Work is ongoing on the production of
the third Irish Government Action Plan
A further stagnation of both indicators is noticed.
on the Information Society. This Action
Plan will build on the experiences of the
first two Action Plans, taking account
of international developments and the
pace of technological change.

It is envisaged that the central focus of
the third Action Plan will be the citizen
and that the Plan will include provisions
dealing with governance, benefits
measurement, intellectual property
management and other important
http://www.revenue.ie/
cross-cutting issues.

eAuthentication It is also expected that the new Action
The Irish Government’s electronic Plan will deal with the larger issues
identity management structure is regarding the joining up of Government
currently built around two core services and will address cultural and
concepts: the Personal Public Service organisational issues as well as
Number (PPSN) and the Public improved records management.
Services Broker (PSB).

PPSN is a unique identifier which
is now mandatory assigned to every
Irish child at birth. The PSB function
is an electronic broker/helper/assistant

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 35
Italy (I)
A stronger increase for both overall indicators puts Italy above the average of
EU(28) and EU(18).

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments The Italian Electronic Identity Card
Italy - Online Sophistication
The crime reporting service Denuncia (“Carta d’identitá elettronica” or CIE)
100 vi@ Web (‘Report a crime vi@ the web’) will fullfill three main tasks: it will not
75 enables the public to report lost or only replace the paper-based identity
50 stolen property online. It is currently card, but will also be an international
25
on trial in a number of areas, and will travelling document, and enable
be extended gradually across the entire authentication or identification in
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 country. The aim of the service is to eGovernment applications.
Italy EU(18) EU(28) simplify procedures for filing crime
reports, and to ensure a policing The final phase of the rollout of CIE
service that best meets citizens’ needs. started in 2005, and the goal is to
Italy - Fully Available Online The website is accessible at provide the card to every Italian
100 https://www.denunceviaweb.poliziadis citizen older than 15 years between
75 tato.it/ 2005 and 2009.
50
The Italian Electronic Identity Card
25
can only be used by Italians living in
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Italy. The experimental phase for the
Italy EU(18) EU(28) CIE for Italians living abroad is in
progress and can already be used for
some services in the application range
of eVoting.

The PSE (“Permission for Electronic
Accomodation”) is a card with similar
characteristics as the CIE, and will be
issued after the experimental phase of
the project to non-Italians.
https://www.denunceviaweb.poliziadistato.it/

36
Public Sector the way we see it

Initiatives for the future The six digital programmes are aimed
The Italian Minister for Innovation at harnessing the power of new
and Technology has announced plans information and communication
for the completion of the ‘digital technologies in key areas of society,
reform’ begun in 2001. including:
■ Schools: innovation in teaching, new

The government’s action plan focuses digital content
on eight key priorities: ■ Healthcare: electronic medical

■ Development of an innovation
results, tele-monitoring and tele-
culture consultation
■ Transfer from conventional format to
■ Justice and Security: reducing

digital content procedural time and cost, facilitating
■ Emphasis on eGovernment access to documents, etc.
■ Six big digital programmes (see ■ Infomobility and Logistics:

below) information sharing
■ Italian enterprise ■ Tourism: expanding the ‘talia.it’

■ Treating the South as an innovation tourism portal
engine ■ Culture: digitalisation of Italy’s

■ Italian ICT cultural heritage
■ higher international profile for Italy

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 37
Latvia (LV)
The increase for both indicators for Latvia is almost similar to the increase for
EU(28). However, the current values for “online sophistication” and “fully available
online” put Latvia still below EU(10).

Overall results
Innovative e-service In March 2006, the Ministry of
developments Foreign Affairs launched a new
Latvia - Online Sophistication
An eGovernment portal internet portal (http://www.latviesi.com)
100 (http://www.eparvalde.lv) for Latvian citizens living or working
75 provides information to citizens. abroad. The portal contains information
50 about Latvian organisations and
25
communities abroad.
0
2004 2005 2006
Latvia EU(28) EU(10)

Latvia - Fully Available Online

100

75

50

25
http://www.eparvalde.lv
0
2004 2005 2006
Latvia EU(28) EU(10)
http://www.latviesi.com

eAuthentication
The Latvian government started a
project to issue electronic ID cards,
but up until now, no cards have been
issued yet.

An infrastructure for electronic
signatures is not yet in place.

38
Public Sector the way we see it

Lithuania (LT)
An increase in online sophistication, almost similar to the increase for EU(28) puts
Lithuania on a level, almost comparable to that of EU(10).

Overall results
Innovative e-service Initiatives for the future
developments Passport applications are handled by
Lithuania - Online Sophistication
For Lithuania, an electronic gateway local police branches. The Ministry of
100 to the government exists the Interior, together with the Migration
75 (http://www.govonline.lt/). It serves as Department, the Residents’ Register
50 a portal to redirect citizens and Service, the Personalization of Identity
25
businesses to the appropriate website Documents Centre and the Klaipeda
of public administrations. municipality, is implementing a
0
2004 2005 2006 project on “The transfer of the service
Lithuania EU(28) EU(10) for personal documents (passport) to
an electronic environment” (feasibility
study), which is supported by EU
Lithuania - Fully Available Online Structural funds and will last until
100 the 4th quarter of 2006.
75

50
The website is accessible via the
following link: http://www.migracija.lt/
25

0
2004 2005 2006
Lithuania EU(28) EU(10)

http://www.govonline.lt/

eAuthentication
The Lithuanian government did not
issue any electronic ID cards yet. The
government has focussed more on the
elaboration of an eGovernment
infrastructure in the back-office.

It is expected that in the future, the
http://www.migracija.lt/
Lithuanian government will refocus
on the development of an electronic
identity card.

The electronic signature infrastructure
has been used to support the
exchange of electronic documents in
the public sector.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 39
17 Luxembourg (L)
Even though the value of “online sophistication” increases compared to the
previous measurement, Luxembourg still performs below the EU(28) score.

Overall results
Innovative e-service http://www.cedies.public.lu/FINANCE
developments MENT/index.html
Luxembourg - Online Sophistication
CEDIES (Centre de Documentation
100 et d’ Information sur l’ Enseignement eAuthentication
75 Superieur) has put in place for a few The Luxembourg public administration
50 years an online solution to request has an ambitious eGovernment strategy
25
financial help for highschool education in place, consisting mainly of the
or for an encouragement fee. The eLuxembourg Action Plan. Details
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 inserted data is transmitted to the of this strategy can be found on
Luxembourg EU(18) EU(28) backoffice of CEDIES. http://www.eluxembourg.lu.

To guarantee the authenticity of the Citizens, as well as legal persons
Luxembourg - Fully Available Online requestor, the system generates a letter established in Luxembourg, are
100 with a reference, which needs to be issued a unique identifier, and
75 signed and sent through the post, citizens also have a traditional ID
50
including the justifying items. card. No electronic IDM projects
have reached a significant stage
25
The generated letter has resolved the so far.
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 issue on absence of authenticity proof.
Luxembourg EU(18) EU(28) By enabling Luxtrust (PKI), the Initiatives for the future
authenticity proof can be simplified Currently, in Luxembourg, two
(electronic signature). projects are ongoing that aim
to propose a transactional procedure.
One is situated in the domain of
“public procurement”, the other
one on the service “Registration
of a new company”.

Actions are also ongoing concerning
the service of “Birth and marriage
certificates”, where downloadable forms
will become available to the citizens
on the websites of all municipalities
which are responsible in the matter.

http://www.cedies.public.lu/FINANCEMENT/index.html

On the other hand, similar to
declaration of taxes, no solution
is in place to electronically submit
the justifying items.

The application of CEDIES allows
follow-up of by the requestor.

The website is accessible through the
following link:

40
Public Sector the way we see it

Malta (MT)
A very strong increase on both indicators puts Malta largely above
EU(10) and EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service connection such as a local council.
developments Once the system verifies that the
Malta - Online Sophistication
The online Renewal of Licences is a driver has an updated insurance
100 web application that allows Maltese policy, a VRT positive result and no
75 citizens to renew their vehicle road pending contraventions, it allows the
50 licences online, to pay any driver or his insurance agent to renew
25
outstanding contraventions, to the license and print the license
upgrade the road license to entrance document on the spot, using the
0
2004 2005 2006 to the capital city and to check their secure Electronic Payment Gateway.
Malta EU(28) EU(10) next Vehicle Roadworthiness Test As such the online Renewal of
(VRT) from any place with an Licences is a secure, integrated,
Internet connection. interoperable and user-friendly service
Malta - Fully Available Online that drastically improves service
100 Furthermore, the web application is delivery while delivering efficiency
75 integrated with the Local Enforcement gains to its delivering agency.
50
System which allows traffic wardens
located in any street in Malta to
25
register and manage traffic
0
2004 2005 2006 contraventions of various kinds. The
Malta EU(28) EU(10) application allows the VRT stations to
submit the VRT details and update the
central database with the updated
VRT results. Insurance Agencies and
Brokers also have the facility to
update the ADT database with
insurance policy details and to renew
and issue the road license document
from their office in real time.
http://www.maltatransport.com

Users of the service can log on to the
website http://www.licenzji-
vetturi.gov.mt.

The Maltese Government is planning
more public-private partnerships of
this sort and will develop other online
services, such as the renewal of
driving licences and the registration
of new vehicles.

http://www.licenzji-vetturi.gov.mt
The eVERA system may be accessed
online via the ADT’s website:
The driver may choose to renew his http://www.maltatransport.com
vehicle license either from an
insurance agency or from home or
any other place with an internet

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 41
eAuthentication Business. The Client’s contact is
Additional to the traditional ID cards through the e-Government Services
provided to its citizens, the Maltese Portal (http://www.mygov.mt), which
government also issues electronic is being launched in the coming weeks.
identities (eIDs) to its citizens in the
form of certificates, which can be used The four key objectives of the
for a variety of eGovernment services. Government of Malta to deploy e-ID
and the supporting www.mygov.mt
2004 saw the launch of Malta’s Portal are:
electronic identity, based on an ■ To deliver information and services

internationally accepted four-tier to all organizations, citizens and
model of identity authentication businesses;
assurance levels for e-Government ■ To reduce the Government of Malta’s
transactions. Each assurance level
operating costs in delivering
describes the degree of certainty that
information and services;
the identity credential presented by
■ To provide the Government of
the user actually refers to his/her real-
world identity. These levels may be Malta’s information and services any
described as follows: time anywhere;
■ To leverage existing IT investments
■ Level 0: No Authentication

for the Government of Malta.
■ Level 1: Restricted Authentication

(Username and Password + PIN)
The project’s main focus is directed
■ Level 2: Confidential Authentication
towards the provision of an e-inclusive
(Digital Certificate) e-Government framework, which
■ Level 3: Maximum Authentication encompasses:
(Qualified Digital Certificate) ■ Citizen and Business (or

Organisation)-Centric e-Services;
Current applications on eID related ■ Capability to cater for multiple
services include VAT related services,
Citizen and Organization Profiles;
tax related services, company-related
■ One-Time Registration, Unique
services, social services, online
passport requesting or online Portal for all e-Services and a Single-
ePayment Gateway. Sign-On secure authentication
through an electronic identity;
The Maltese government was also ■ Framework that will provide e-

one of the first to begin deploying Services Registration, Approval and
m-government or mobile government Access which demands identity
services. credentials depending on the degree
of confidence required;
Initiatives for the future ■ Framework that will enable

The e-ID is part of the horizontal interoperability between distinct
infrastructure supporting all of Government functions / departments
e-Government. It complements
the electronic payment gateway in
providing a layer for the development
of e-Services to both Citizens and

42
Public Sector the way we see it

Netherlands (NL)
A strong increase (especially for the indicator “fully available online”) results for
the Netherlands in a score, almost comparable to that of EU(18). This puts the
Netherlands on a score of two-way interaction.

Overall results
Innovative e-service The Dutch Government also created
developments a sophisticated system to measure
Netherlands - Online Sophistication
The Netherlands introduced the DigiD and monitor the development of
100 (national authentication mechanism). eGovernment services, accessible
75 through the following link:
50 As a consequence, unemployed http://www.advies.overheid.nl/
25
citizens can, by means of DigiD,
register as jobseeker and apply
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 for unemployment benefits.
Netherlands EU(18) EU(28)

The website is accessible through
the following link:
Netherlands - Fully Available Online https://intake.werk.nl/eintake/index.html
100

75

50

25

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
http://www.advies.overheid.nl/
Netherlands EU(18) EU(28)

eAuthentication
In 2003, DigiD development started in
the Netherlands. This system allows the
electronic identification of persons on
the internet.
https://intake.werk.nl/eintake/index.html
On a separate level, the Dutch
government has taken the first steps
of introducing a so-called Citizen
Service Number (CSN), which aims to
assign a unique identity number to
each natural person (equalling the
current social security number or
“sofi-number”). Introduction was set
for January 2006. In a later phase, a
Companies and Institutions Number
(CIN) will be assigned to each legal
person (based on the existing Register
of Companies). Rollout of CIN will
follow in a later stage.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 43
In parallel with these programmes, Within the European Research
the introduction of an eID card, Framework Programme, some
provisionally named eNIK FP6 projects specifically relating
(Elektronische Nederlandse to e-government are identified in
Identiteitskaart—Electronic Dutch which the Netherlands is directly
Identity Card) is planned for late participating. One of these projects
2006, early 2007. is called SAFIR (Speech Automatic
Friendly Interface Research). The
Initiatives for the future project started in 2004, and will
The central government and local end in 2008.
authorities in the Netherlands decided
in April 2006 to invest €55.5 million This project will offer the possibility
in improving eGovernment services to citizens to request and fill
targeted at citizens and businesses. eGovernment forms and transactions,
simply by speaking to his TV or GSM.
The planned investment will help to
reduce the administrative burden for More information can be found
citizens and enterprises, eOverheid, at the following website:
the Netherlands’ eGovernment news http://www.safir-fp6.org/
service reported. eGovernment
services need to be made more
accessible and more user-friendly.

Both local and national authorities
prioritised the realisation of certain
basic provisions, such as DigiD,
which can be used by citizens to
communicate electronically with
and use the services of various
Dutch ministries and government
authorities, eForms, citizen service
numbers, smart identity cards, etc.
Special implementation teams
(I-teams) will take care of the
complex and time-consuming
ICT operations required to put
the new systems in place.

44
Public Sector the way we see it

Norway (NOR)
An strong increase (certainly of the indicator “fully available online”) puts both
indicators largely above the EU(28) and EU(18) scores.

Overall results
Innovative e-service Initiatives for the future
developments eNorway 2009, the Norwegian new
Norway - Online Sophistication
Through the website of the police in eGovernment strategy, was launched
100 Norway (http://www.politi.no/), you 27 June 2005.
75 can make a declaration to the police.
50 The main targets set in the new
25
This declaration is in the form a strategy are as follows:
pdf document, which can be filled ■ A personalized and secure version
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 out, printed and sent to the police. of the one stop services portal Norge.
Norway EU(18) EU(28)
no will be available to all citizens by
end 2005 (in Section 4 “Innovative
e-service developments”).
Norway - Fully Available Online
■ Before the end of 2007, all
100
communication between the
75
authorities and the citizens will
50 be electronic for those who wish.
25 ■ By 2009, all relevant public services

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
to the citizens will be available on
Norway EU(18) EU(28)
the Internet.
■ Before the end of 2009, all

information that is not too sensitive
will be communicated electronically
within the public sector. For the
http://www.politi.no/ Ministries, the deadline is 2007.
■ All reports from businesses to the

One of the targets of the Norwegian public sector will be capable of being
eGovernment strategy “eNorway made electronically as of 2008.
2009” was the creation by end 2005 ■ Access to public data will be made
of a personalized and secure version
easier by the end of 2008, with free
of the one stop services portal
access as the basic principle.
http://norge.no/
■ Computer systems in the public sector

will be based on open standards.
“Proprietary formats will no longer
be acceptable in communication
between citizens and government”,
declared Minister of Modernisation
Morten Andreas Meyer.
■ Before the end of 2009, all

authorities will have made
arrangements for enabling
citizens to retrieve their own
personal data in a simple and
secure way.

http://norge.no/

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 45
Poland (PL)
A stronger increase, compared to EU(10) and EU(28) is noticed.
Score for both indicators for Poland however remain below the EU(10)
and EU(28) values.
Innovative e-service Initiatives for the future
Overall results developments In April 2005, the Polish Ministry
Poland - Online Sophistication
An eGovernment portal of Finance unveiled plans for the
(http://www.egov.pl/) provides access to introduction of e-tax filing services.
100
public administration information, and Priority will be given to corporate
75
is intended for citizens and businesses. taxpayers, which will be able to file
50 tax returns and pay taxes online as
25 An online system allowing Polish of 2006.
0 citizens to sign on for unemployment
2004 2005 2006
benefit and register for government The heart of the proposed system
Poland EU(28) EU(10)
employment services was accepted will be a long awaited online tax
by the State Office for Employment declaration application for businesses.
in February 2006. The planned implementation schedule
Poland - Fully Available Online presented by the Ministry of Finance
100 The new system should simplify the is as follows:
75 work of desk officers and also reduce ■ Q3 of 2006: electronic corporate

unemployment, since inscription will income tax declaration; automatic
50
now take only five minutes. acknowledgement of delivery of
25
declaration;
0
2004 2005 2006 ■ Q4 of 2006: electronic VAT and
Poland EU(28) EU(10)
excise tax declarations;
■ Q1 of 2007: electronic application

forms for VAT number, online
browsing of declarations sent, use
of general electronic applications;
■ Q2 of 2007: full electronic

communications with corporate
taxpayers.

The full implementation of e-tax
http://www.egov.pl/ services for citizens is planned in
2012 only.

eAuthentication The Finance Ministry considers its
In September 2001, the Polish e-tax (’e-podatki’) project as one of
Parliament approved the Law on the the strategic steps in order to raise
electronic signature, and its regulation the quality of state tax services for
was put into practise in August 2002. businesses and citizens. So far only
limited experiments of e-tax services
Poland currently does not have any have been made in Poland.
electronic ID card or electronic
identities in the form of digital
certificates and it seems like it is not
planning to do so in the near future.

46
Public Sector the way we see it

Portugal (P)
Compared to the 5th measurement, Portugal has done an overtaking manoeuvre.
This puts both indicators just above EU(18).

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments In early 2004, a new Citizen’s
Portugal - Online Sophistication
The Portuguese government has Portal (‘Portal do Cidadão’,
100 adopted a package of measures http://www.portaldocidadao.pt/PORTA
75 aimed at facilitating and encouraging L/pt) was launched, which replaced
50 electronic submission of personal the earlier INFOCID Portal. This portal
25
income statements or IRS (‘Imposto was for businesses and citizens.
sobre o rendimento das pessoas
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 singulares’). New measures include In April 2005 the Portuguese
Portugal EU(18) EU(28) an e-mail alert service for early government initiated the citizen
detection of errors. card project (Cartão do Cidadão—
http://www.cartaodocidadao.pt/).
Portugal - Fully Available Online The system will allow citizens to The card is currently undergoing
100 correct possible mistakes in their proof of concept testing, and the
75 declarations and avoid reimbursement first results were presented the
50
delays. It applies to so-called ‘Modelo beginning of March 2006.
3’ income tax declarations of IRS.
25
Initiatives for the future
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 In addition, as from 1 January The new Portuguese Electronic
Portugal EU(18) EU(28) 2006, all IRC (‘Imposto sobre o Passport (PEP) fulfils the modernity
rendimento das pessoas colectivas’) patterns, both technical and artistic
and accountant declarations for legal
entities will need to be submitted It represents in Portugal the beginning
electronically. Paper declarations will of a new generation of electronic ID
no longer be accepted, according to documents, respecting the most
the ministry. rigorous security patterns, in terms of
the materials used, paper and ink, and
More information can be found at the also in terms of security graphic
portal http://www.e-financas.gov.pt, processing of the document.

http://www.pep.pt/

http://www.e-financas.gov.pt
More information can be found at
http://www.pep.pt/

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 47
Spain (E)
The increase for the indicator “online sophistication” for Spain is comparable to
that of EU(18). The Spanish score for “fully available online” remains above EU(28)
and EU(18).

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments 2001 can be considered as the year in
Spain - Online Sophistication
Registration of a new company in which Spain first set out the general
100 Spain improved significantly with principles of its eGovernment policies.
75 the introduction of the New The Spanish Certification Authority
50 Enterprise CIRCE project. (CERtificación ESpañola—CERES—
25
http://www.cert.fnmt.es/) was
The portal is accessible at the following established as a part of the National
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 link: http://www.circe.es/portal/ Mint. CERES’ main purpose is the
Spain EU(18) EU(28) creation and management of digital
identities to citizens, in order to allow
them to authenticate themselves when
Spain - Fully Available Online communicating with public
100 institutions.
75

50
The same year, citizen service portal
Administracion.es, which provides an
25
overview of and access to a wide
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 variety electronic services offered by
Spain EU(18) EU(28) the Spanish government, was
launched. Certain services require the
use of PKI through a certificate issued
by CERES.
http://www.circe.es/portal/

A second portal, Ciudadano.es,
focusing specifically on citizen
services, will go live in 2006.

The Spanish Government’s most
recent eGovernment strategy is the so-
called “Plan Conecta”, the first version
of which was presented in September
2004. A key component of this plan is
the introduction of an electronic
national identity card by the name of
DNI Electronico, which will gradually
replace the traditional Spanish
identity card. The Spanish eID will
contain two certificates: one for
eAuthentication, and one for
eSignatures. Roll-out of the new card
has started in March 2006.

48
Public Sector the way we see it

Initiatives for the future The Advisory Council—which should
In March 2006, the Spanish Ministry meet at least once a month, and
for Public Administration announced includes experts from the public
the creation of the Advisory Council sector, industry and civil society—is a
for Public Administration (Consejo first step in this new direction. Other
Asesor de Administración Pública). measures in the pipeline include:
The objectives of this new body are putting in place a single electronic
to assess the potential role of new registry; enabling electronic payments;
information and communication providing for secure electronic data
technologies in transforming public transfer; and making more than 800
administration in Spain, to identify administrative forms available online.
the major gaps and obstacles, and
to assist in developing an integrated In his speech to the Senate, Jordi
strategy for future development. Sevilla also unveiled some of the key
points of the future Law on Electronic
As Jordi Sevilla, Minister for Public Administration, whose founding
Administration, argued at the principle is the recognition of the
beginning of March, Spain is ‘right’ of the citizen to access public
“at a crossroads with regard to the services electronically.
development of eAdministration” and
“needs a new model, different from
the one developed so far”—a model in
which the coordination between
different administrative bodies is
improved so as to avoid the
developing pattern of emerging
‘islands’ of isolated services.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 49
Switzerland (CH)
There is a slight improvement on both indicators, but no overtaking manoeuvre
can be noticed.

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments After the Swiss parliament approved
Switzerland - Online Sophistication
The federal government wants to the relevant legal foundations, a new
100 reduce the administrative burden social insurance number will be
75 imposed on Swiss businesses. One established in 2008. This 13-digit
50 of the measures it is using to do this “non-speaking” number will replace
25
is the new Internet portal for small and the currently used identification
medium-sized enterprises (SME) that number of the system of the “old age”
0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 can be accessed at www.kmu.admin.ch. insurance, which no longer meets the
Switzerland EU(18) EU(28) The site gives detailed information on criteria of data protection. All
starting up and managing a business, individuals of the resident population
combined with the possibility of will be identifiable through this new
Switzerland - Fully Available Online registering a new business online. number, which will be used by a
100 The entrepreneur is being guided number of official registers. This will
75 through the different steps of the be the basis for the harmonisation of
50
registration and has access to all some 2800 federal, cantonal and
necessary government services municipal registers. This will also
25
through one central portal. allow a simplification of statistical
0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 process, as for the population census
Switzerland EU(18) EU(28) planned for 2010. More information
is to be found at:
http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/fr/i
ndex/news/00/00.html

Initiatives for the future
The approach towards
implementation of eGovernment in
Switzerland is largely decentralised,
reflecting the federal political
http://www.kmu.admin.ch/
organisation. Recognising the need for
a common strategic approach within
this context, the federal government
has decided to develop a national
eGovernment-Strategy, in close
collaboration with the cantons and
with a large consultation of
municipalities and other stakeholders.
The strategy is due to be presented to
the government by the end of 2006.
More information:
http://www.isb.admin.ch/internet/egov
ernment

50
Public Sector the way we see it

Slovakia (SK)
An increase can be noticed, comparable to that of the EU(28) indicator.
Both Slovakian indicators however remain below EU(10) as well as EU(28).

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments Slovakia has already transposed
Slovakia - Online Sophistication
A number of new e-government the European Directive on Electronic
100 services have been launched in Signatures by the law on E-Signatures,
75 Slovakia since early 2005. which entered into force in May 2002.
50

25
As one of those services, citizens and In Slovakia, there are two systems for
businesses now have the possibility issuing and holding unique personal
0
2004 2005 2006 to submit all tax forms to the Tax identifiers: Up to now, Slovakia still
Slovakia EU(28) EU(10) Directorate uses unique identifiers for citizens,
(http://www.drsr.sk/wps/portal) which are used within all sectors
electronically without having to use a of applications.
Slovakia - Fully Available Online certified electronic signature. The new
100 system uses secured communication For the future, a new system has
75 with specifically-issues PIN codes. been planned, which will create new
50
personal identifiers (so called BIFO)
using cryptographic algorithms. This
25
new identifier is no more unique for
0
2004 2005 2006 all sectors of applications, but will be
Slovakia EU(28) EU(10) state sector oriented.

http://www.drsr.sk/wps/portal

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 51
Slovenia (SE)
Compared to the previous 5th measurement, Slovenia reports a bigger increase
on both indicators. This results in an online sophistication for Slovenia above
two-way authentication.

Overall results
Innovative e-service no PRN but have to exercise some
developments rights or duties in Slovenia also
Slovenia - Online Sophistication
The portal e-VEM become registered with the CRP.
100 (http://evem.gov.si/sp/)—Slovenia’s
75 online one stop shop for business Slovenia has started to develop eID
50 entities—has been in operation cards in February 2003. The eID
25
since 1 July 2005. card is not obligatory. The concept
is a combination of a signature card
0
2004 2005 2006 The basic purpose of the e-VEM and a conventional, visual ID card.
Slovenia EU(28) EU(10) project is to provide a suitable
information support for the future Individuals, registered at the CRP,
entrepreneur and enable him/her to can request a Slovenian eID card. The
Slovenia - Fully Available Online start with business operations in the governmental certification authority
100 shortest time possible. SIGEN-CA issues qualified certificates
75 for the individual.
50
Initiatives for the future
25
In April 2006, the Slovenian
0
2004 2005 2006 government adopted a new
Slovenia EU(28) EU(10) ‘eAdministration Strategy’ which
presents a strategic vision for the
development of eAdministration in
Slovenia and outlines the main actions
to be taken in this area in the period
2006-2010.

The eAdministration Strategy provides
an overview of the situation to date in
http://evem.gov.si/sp/ Slovenia with regard to the
development of eGovernment
eAuthentication solutions, and presents strategic
Slovenia has adopted the EU Directive orientations for the coming four-year
on electronic signatures by the Act on period. A number of specific goals are
Electronic Commerce and Electronic set for the 2010 target date. The
Signatures (ZEPEP) in the year 2000. Strategy also outlines the necessary
In 2004, a further act amending on conditions that need to be in place if
Electronic Commerce and Electronic these goals are to be met.
Signature was set into force in order
to create a legal basis for an upcoming The main emphasis of the Strategy is
eID card project. on consumer satisfaction, the
rationalisation of public
Every Slovenian citizen becomes administration and the delivery of
registered with the Slovenian Central up-to-date eServices for citizens and
Register of Population (CRP) and businesses. The aim is to achieve a
receives a unique Personal Registration better quality of life and improved
Number (PRN; Slovenian abbreviation: relations with public sector
EMŠO). Other individuals who have departments and agencies.

52
Public Sector the way we see it

Sweden (S)
Online sophistication is showing smaller growth, and seems to be leveling off.
Both indicators for Sweden remain largely above EU(28) and EU(18) scores.

Overall results
Innovative e-service eAuthentication
developments The Act on Qualified Electronic
Slovenia - Fully Available Online
More and more Swedish citizens Signature, which implements the
100 use the electronic services offered European Directive on Electronic
75 by the National Tax Board Signatures (1999/93/EC), was
50 (http://www.skatteverket.se/) voted by the Swedish Parliament
25
to file their income tax returns in November 2000 and entered
year over year. into force on 1 January 2001.
0
2004 2005 2006
Slovenia EU(28) EU(10) Most Swedish taxpayers receive a In 1998, the SIS (Swedish Standards
pre-filled and pre-calculated version Institute) approved standards
of their tax return, which they can file regarding electronic ID as proposed
Sweden - Online Sophistication online using a ‘soft electronic ID’ by the SEIS (Secured Electronic
100 (PIN and password provided by Information in Society) association.
75 the Tax Board) or simply confirm
50
by using the Tax Board’s telephone Electronic ID Cards based on these
service or via SMS. standards are sold by the Swedish
25
Post acting as a Certification Authority
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 (the Post’s CA business was taken over
Sweden EU(18) EU(28) by telecom company TeliaSonera in
September 2003).

Following a framework agreement
signed between the Swedish Agency
for Public Management and digital
certificates suppliers, software-based
electronic IDs (in particular the
BankID developed by the largest
Swedish banks) can also be used for
certain e-government services.
http://www.skatteverket.se/
For the future, the government has
plans to introduce an “official”
electronic ID card containing
biometric identifiers.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 53
Initiatives for the future eCommerce Strategy for ICT
Interactive service The Swedish Administrative in the healthcare sector
In the next years, one of the important Development Agency has written an In spring 2006 the Ministry of Health
areas that the Swedish Administrative action program to increase the use of and Social Affairs and the healthcare
Development Agency shall work with eCommerce in the public sector. An organizations in Sweden launched
is to create good conditions for the important area is to implement the a national strategy for ICT in the
public sector to develop interactive common used standards for eInvoice healthcare sector. The main areas
services to citizens and companies. in public sector. The work to inform that the strategy pinpoints were:
the public sector of the advantages ■ Harmonized legislation to increased

This will be done by stressing the with eCommerce are also important ICT-use
usability of the services. Among others to increase the use of eCommerce, ■ Create a common information
the guideline for contents and usability the knowledge today of eCommerce
structure
of public sector websites (Vägledningen is low. To help the public sector to
■ Create a common technical
24-timmarswebben 2.0) that the use eCommerce, guidelines for
Swedish Agency for Public implementing eCommerce will infrastructure
Management developed will be developed. The work is done in ■ Ease the information flow between

be updated. collaboration with the private sector. organizations
■ Create easily accessible information

A critical condition to increase the eProcurement and services to the citizens
possibilities to improve the development There is a workgroup led by the
of interactive services is that a common Swedish Administrative Development R&D programme
technical infrastructure is available in Agency that shall work to improve the for the ICT and telecom sector
the public sector. In collaboration with use of eProcurement in public sector. The Swedish Governmental Agency
the local authorities technical standards The group shall inform about the for Innovation Systems has an
will be developed that shall be used in new EU-directives for procurement, assignment to develop an R&D
the whole public sector. develop demands and requirements programme for the ICT and telecom
for technical and security solutions sector. The programme shall
To be able to use interactive services for the electronic procurements and strengthen the Swedish ICT and
it is important to secure the services evaluate the consequences the telecom sector and strengthen the
so that misuse of the services will not improved use of eProcurement Swedish participation in the work
be possible. The government has will have for the public sector. with the EU eMobility technical
suggested a three-year programme to platform. The proposed actions in
promote the use of eIdentification in the programme shall be financed by
the public sector. The programme shall the public and private sector together.
finance parts of the investments in
eIdentification solutions that small
agencies and local authorities need to
do to develop new interactive services.

54
Public Sector the way we see it

United Kingdom (UK)
There is a similar increase for both indicators, compared to the EU(18) scores.
The values remain well above EU(28) and EU(18).

Overall results
Another innovative e-service eAuthentication
Kolorado helpis du vojoj, kaj multaj
development in the United Kingdom radioj
The havas
most nau katoj,
generic central sed
UKLudviko
Sweden - Fully Available Online
is the eAdmissions project: Jointly trinkis tri tre flava
identification telefonoj,
platform is the kaj kvar
100 sponsored by the Office of the Deputy sxipoj stulte pripensis
Government Gateway nau rapida
75 Prime Minister (ODPM) and the birdoj, sed kvar malbela kalkuliloj
(http://www.gateway.gov.uk) On this
50 Department for Education and Skills vere malbone
portal, users may trinkis ses libroj.
choose to applyDufor
25
(DfES), the eAdmissions project aims bona kalkuliloj
either veturas blinde.
a userID/password, or a digital
to support local authorities (LAs) certificate. Once these credentials
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 in putting their school admissions Kvar radioj
received, promenos,
they can enrolkaj fornau
the tre
Sweden EU(18) EU(28) process online. malalta domoj
desired gajnas kvar
eGovernment libroj.
services
Multaj vere malbona
(sometimes bierojan
after receiving falis. Du
United Kingdom - Online Sophistication Initial take-up of these services has arboj kuris.PIN
activation Kvin bieroj gajnas nau
code).
100 been high and a recent nationwide arboj, sed kvin hundoj kuris, kaj tri
75 survey conducted by the project malbela
The UK telefonoj
Government acxetis
alsonau arboj. a
provides
confirms the positive reaction of Multaj malpura
general eGovernment radiojinformation
veturas. portal
50
parents and carers. Denvero http://www.direct.gov.uk.
through malvarme igxis la malrapida
25
libro, sed du katoj batos kvin tre eta
0 By September 2006, 150 LAs in domoj,
The UKkaj Ludviko parolis,
Government has been sed
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
United Kingdom EU(18) EU(28) England will be required to offer Denvero promenos,
planning to introduce kaj:
a biometry
an online school admissions system. based eID card,
■ Body-Text Bulletbut+ currently does
Content-Bullet.
The project, which was launched in not have a mandatory eID programme
Nau bona bieroj malrapide acxetis la
February 2004, has so far seen 58 for the general
hundoj, public. gajnas kvin
sed Londono
authorities develop an online facility. malbona bildoj, kaj multaj bela
Innovative e-service Initiatives
developments
The remainder expect to be online in birdoj igxisfor sesthe future
libroj, sed kvin
time to meet the September deadline. Inmalbela
November 2005, Transformational
telefonoj kuris.
The Planning Portal Government set out the UK
(http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/) Government’s vision for a long-term
is accessible for general public, transformation of public services to
professionals and government provide efficient, effective services that
users. It allows users to apply citizens want. The scale of the change,
for a building permission. as set out in the strategy, will not be
completed overnight.

A Timetable for Change issued by the
Cabinet Office defines a broad timing
for three phases of work:
■ phase 1: November 2005 to July 2007

■ phase 2: August 2007 to 2011

■ phase 3: beyond 2011
http://www.eadmissions.org/OnlineSchools/

More information on the
http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/ Implementation Plan can be found at
http://www.cio.gov.uk/documents/pdf/
transgov/transgovt.pdf
The implementation of this Portal
increased the score for this service
in the United Kigdom.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 55
8 Annex: Definitions of the 20 Public
Services

1. Income taxes
Definition of the public service
Income taxes: declaration, notification
of assessment

Research definition

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to declare income taxes of an employee is available on a publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to declare income taxes of an employee in a non electronic
way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to declare income taxes of an
employee.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to completely treat the declaration of income taxes of an employee via the website.
The complete income tax declaration and notification of assessment can be treated via the website. No other formal
procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”.

56
Public Sector the way we see it

2. Job search
Definition of the public service
Job search services by labour offices

Research definition
Standard procedure to obtain job
offerings as organised by official
labour offices, no private market
initiatives.

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain job offerings is available on a publicly accessible website
managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to receive job offerings in a non-electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to consult databases with job offerings.

Although for this service the tender of
the European Commission predefined
a maximal stage 3, we took into
account stage 4. Following the
structure of the stages as defined in
the same document by the European
Commission and by analogy of the
developments in the field of e-
commerce, one can define a stage 4
where the common public service is
fully electronically supplied to the
applicant. In this case we can define
stage 4 as:

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic supply of pre-selected jobs related to the given profile of the job searcher.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 57
3. Social security benefits • Child allowance: standard procedure
Definition of the public service to obtain child allowance
Social security benefits: • Medical costs: standard procedure
to obtain reimbursement of costs
■ Unemployment benefits covered by obligatory medical
■ Child allowances insurance
■ Medical costs (reimbursement or • Student grants: standard procedure
direct settlement) to obtain student grants for higher
■ Student grants education

Research definition In the following table, only the
Standard procedure to obtain social definition of the public service
security benefits “Unemployment benefit” is fully
developed, the other three have the
• Unemployment benefit: standard same structure.
procedure to obtain replacement
income in case of unemployment

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or this website
managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the
stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain unemployment benefits is available on a publicly accessible
website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to obtain unemployment benefits in a non-electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to obtain unemployment benefits.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to completely treat the demand for unemployment benefits via the website. Case handling, decision and
delivery (ex. payment) of the standard procedure to obtain unemployment benefits are completely treated via the web.
No other formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”.

58
Public Sector the way we see it

4. Personal documents for a personal vehicle not for
Definition of the public service professional use:
Personal documents: passport and
driver's license In the following table, only the case of
the passport-delivery is fully
Research definition developed, the driver's license-service
Standard procedure to obtain an has the same structure.
international passport and standard
procedure to obtain a driver’s license

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain an international passport is available on a publicly accessible
website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to obtain an international passport in a non-electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to obtain an international
passport.

Stage 4 NOT APPLICABLE

5. Car registration
Definition of the public service
Car registration (new, used, imported cars)

Research definition
Standard procedure to register a new,
used or imported car.

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to register a new, used or imported car is available on a publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to register a new, used or imported car in a non electronic
way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to register a new, used or
imported car.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to completely treat the registration of new, used or imported cars via the website. Case handling, decision
and delivery of a standard procedure to register a new, used or imported car can completely be treated via the web. No
other formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 59
6. Building permission
Definition of the public service
Application for building permission

Research definition
Standard procedure to obtain a
building or renovation permission for
a personal building (regular, initial
request, i.e. not taking into
consideration contesting and appeal).

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain a building or renovation permission is available on a publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to obtain a building or renovation permission in a non
electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to obtain a building or renovation
permission.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to completely treat a building or renovation permission via the website. Case handling, decision and delivery
of a standard procedure to obtain a building or renovation permission can be treated via the web. No other formal
procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”

7. Declaration to the police
Definition of the public service
Declaration to the police (e.g. in case
of theft)

Research definition
Standard procedure to officially
declare a theft of personal goods (ex.
car or home burglary) to a local
police office.

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 3.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to make an official declaration of theft of personal goods to the local
police is available on a publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to make an official declaration of theft of personal goods to
the local police in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to make an official declaration to
the local police.

Stage 4 NOT APPLICABLE

60
Public Sector the way we see it

8. Public libraries
Definition of the public service
Public libraries (availability of
catalogues, search tools)

Research definition
Standard procedure to consult the
catalogue(s) of a public library to
obtain specific information regarding
a specific carrier (Book, CD, …).

Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible website or the publicly
accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level does not qualify for any
of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to consult the catalogues of a public library to obtain a specific
information carrier is available on a publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the
administrative responsible level.

Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to obtain the paper form to start the procedure to consult the catalogues of a public library to obtain a
specific title in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to search for a specific information carrier (book, CD…).

Although for this service the tender of
the European Commission predefined
a maximal stage 3, we took into
account stage 4. Following the
structure of the stages as defined in
the same document by the European
Commission and by analogy of the
developments in the field of e-
commerce, one can define the
following stage 4 for public libraries:

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility to search for a specific title (book, CD…) and to make an electronic reservation or to obtain an electronic copy.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 61
9. Certificates Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a public accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Certificates (birth and marriage): managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 3.
request and delivery
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain a birth or
Research definition marriage certificate is available on a publicly accessible website managed
Standard procedure to obtain a birth by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.
or marriage certificate (can be one
document out of the National register Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
of persons in some countries). the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to obtain a birth or marriage
certificate in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an
electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure
to obtain a birth or marriage certificate.

Stage 4 NOT APPLICABLE

10. Enrollment in higher Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
education have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
Definition of the public service level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.
enrollment in higher
education/university Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to enrol students in a
university or another institution of higher education is available on a
publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the
Research definition administrative responsible level.
Standard procedure to enrol students
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
in a university or another institution the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
of higher education subsidised by paper form to start the procedure to enrol students in a university or
another institution of higher education in a non electronic way.
an official administrative body in
the country. Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an
electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure
to enrol students in a university or another institution of higher
education.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the enrollment of students in a university or another institution of
higher education via the website. Case handling, decision and delivery
of a standard procedure to enrol students in a university or another
institution of higher education can be treated via the web. No other
formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”

62
Public Sector the way we see it

11. Announcement of moving Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Announcement of moving (change of managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 3.
address)

Research definition Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to officially announce a
change of address is available on a publicly accessible website managed
Standard procedure for the by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.
announcement of change of address
of a private person moving within
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the country. the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to officially announce a change of
address in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to officially
announce a change of address.

Stage 4 NOT APPLICABLE

12. Health related services
Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Health related services (interactive managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.
advice on the availability of services in
different hospitals; appointments for
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain an appointment
hospitals) at a hospital is available on a publicly accessible website managed by
the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.
Research definition
Standard procedure to obtain an Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
appointment at a hospital officially the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to obtain an appointment at a hospital
recognised by a national, regional or in a non-electronic way.
local authority.
Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to obtain an
appointment at a hospital.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the demand of an appointment via the website. Case handling,
decision and delivery of a standard procedure to obtain an appointment
at a hospital can be treated via the web. No other formal procedure is
necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 63
13. Social contributions Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Social contributions for employees managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Research definition
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to declare social
Standard procedure to declare social contributions for employees is available on a publicly accessible
contributions for employees affected website managed by the service provider or by the administrative
responsible level.
by corporations
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to declare social contributions for
employees in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to declare
social contributions for employees.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the declaration of social contributions for employees via the
website. Case handling, decision and delivery of a standard procedure
to declare social contributions for employees can be treated via the
web. No other formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via
“paperwork”.

14. Corporate tax Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
Corporate tax: declaration, level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.
notification
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to declare corporate
tax is available on a publicly accessible website managed by the service
Research definition provider or by the administrative responsible level.
Standard procedure to declare
corporate tax for income from normal Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
activities of a corporation the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to declare corporate tax in a non
electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to declare
corporate tax.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the declaration of corporate tax via the website. Case handling,
decision and delivery of a standard procedure to declare corporate tax
can be treated via the web. No other formal procedure is necessary for
the applicant via “paperwork”.

64
Public Sector the way we see it

15. VAT Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
VAT: declaration, notification managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Research definition
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to declare VAT is
Standard procedure for VAT available on a publicly accessible website managed by the service
declaration and/or notification for provider or by the administrative responsible level.
transactions regarding normal
activities of a corporation Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to declare VAT in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to declare VAT.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the declaration of VAT via the website. Case handling, decision and
delivery of a standard procedure to declare VAT can be treated via the
web. No other formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via
“paperwork”.

16. Company registration Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of public service as have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
mentioned in the tender of the EC managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.
Registration of a new company
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to register a new
company is available on a publicly accessible website managed by the
Research definition service provider or by the administrative responsible level.
Most important registration procedure
to start a new company Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to register a new company in a non-
electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to register a
new company.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the declaration of a new company via the website. Case handling,
decision and delivery of a standard procedure to register a new
company can be treated via the web. No other formal procedure is
necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 65
17. Statistical data Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Submission of data to statistical offices managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 3.

Research definition Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to submit at least one
Standard procedure to submit at least statistical questionnaire to the National Institute for Statistics is
one statistical questionnaire with data available on a publicly accessible website managed by the service
provider or by the administrative responsible level.
to the National Institute for Statistics
of the country.
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to submit at least one statistical questionnaire to the
National Institute for Statistics in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to submit at least one statistical
questionnaire to the National Institute for Statistics.

Stage 4 NOT APPLICABLE

18. Customs declarations
Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Customs declarations managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Research definition Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to declare customs is
Standard procedure for customs available on a publicly accessible website managed by the service
provider or by the administrative responsible level.
declarations related to the normal
activities of a corporation.
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to declare customs in a non
electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or
by the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an
electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure
to declare customs.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the declaration of customs via the website. Case handling,
decision and delivery of a standard procedure to declare customs can
be treated via the web. No other formal procedure is necessary for the
applicant via “paperwork”.

66
Public Sector the way we see it

19. Environment-related permits Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a publicly accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Environment-related permits (incl. managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.
reporting)
Stage 1 The information necessary to start the procedure to obtain an
Research definition environment-related permit is available on a publicly accessible website
managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.
Standard procedure to obtain at least
one environment-related permit,
delivered at the lowest administrative Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
level, concerning the start of a the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to start the procedure to obtain an environment-related
corporate activity (not taking into permit in a non electronic way.
consideration contesting and appeal).
Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to obtain an
environment-related permit.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the delivery of environment-related permit via the website. Case
handling, decision and delivery of a standard procedure to obtain an
environment-related permit can be treated via the web. No other formal
procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”.

20. Public procurement Stage 0 The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not
Definition of the public service have a public accessible website or the publicly accessible website
Public procurement managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible
level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4.

Research definition
Standard procedure for a tender for Stage 1 The information about the tender is available on a publicly accessible
website managed by the service provider or by the administrative
public procurement, subject to responsible level.
national public announcement
Stage 2 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to obtain the
paper form to tender in a non electronic way.

Stage 3 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility of an electronic
intake with an official electronic form to tender.

Stage 4 The publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by
the administrative responsible level offers the possibility to completely
treat the tender via the website. Case handling, decision and delivery of
a standard procedure to tender can be treated via the web. No other
formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 67
9 Annex: Results by Country
For all countries participating in the survey, find below the score on the indicator
“Online Sophistication”.

Online Sophistication

Apr 2006 Oct 2004 Oct 2003 Oct 2002 Oct 2001

Austria A 95 87 83 56 40

Malta MT 92 67

Estonia EE 90 78

Sweden S 90 89 87 87 61

Norway NOR 90 82 75 66 63

United Kingdom UK 89 84 71 62 50

Slovenia SE 87 68

Denmark DK 85 81 86 82 59

Finland FIN 85 83 80 76 66

France F 85 74 73 63 49

Ireland IRL 84 84 86 85 68

Portugal P 83 68 65 58 51

Hungary HU 81 50

Italy I 80 72 59 57 39

Spain E 79 73 68 64 50

Netherlands NL 79 70 65 54 37

Iceland ISL 78 76 56 53 38

Belgium B 74 67 58 47 23

Germany D 74 66 52 48 40

Lithuania LT 68 59

Cyprus C 66 52

Switzerland CH 62 60 55 49

Greece EL 62 61 54 52 39

Czech Republic CZ 61 57

Luxemburg L 60 53 47 32 15

Poland PL 53 36

Slovakia SK 51 40

Latvia LV 47 33

68
Public Sector the way we see it

For all countries, participating in the survey, find below the score on the indicator
“Fully Available Online”.

Fully Available Online

Apr 2006 Oct 2004 Oct 2003 Oct 2002 Oct 2001

Austria A 83 72 68 20 15

Estonia EE 79 63

Malta MT 75 40

Sweden S 74 74 67 67 28

Norway NOR 72 56 47 35 35

United Kingdom UK 71 59 50 33 24

France F 65 50 45 35 25

Slovenia SE 65 45

Denmark DK 63 58 72 61 32

Finland FIN 61 67 61 50 33

Portugal P 60 40 37 32 32

Italy I 58 53 45 35 15

Spain E 55 55 50 40 30

Netherlands NL 53 32 26 21 5

Hungary HU 50 15

Ireland IRL 50 50 56 50 22

Belgium B 47 35 35 25 0

Germany D 47 47 40 35 20

Iceland ISL 47 50 28 28 11

Lithuania LT 40 40

Cyprus C 35 25

Czech Republic CZ 30 30

Greece EL 30 32 32 32 11

Luxemburg L 25 20 15 5 5

Poland PL 20 10

Slovakia SK 20 15

Switzerland CH 11 6 0 0

Latvia LV 10 5

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 69
70
0
25
50
75
100
Au
st

0
25
50
75
100
Au ria
B

0
25
50
75
100
st Au
ri el
gi st
Fi a ria
nl um B
an Cy el
d gi
Fr p um
an De ru s Cz Cy
Sophistication)

ce nm ec
h pru
ar Re s
Ita Es k pu
ly to
M ni De blic
al a nm
Fi
t nl ar
No a an
rw d Es k
Fr to
Po a y an ni
rtu G c a
er e Fi
nl
ga m an
l an d
Sp
G y Fr
a re an
S w in ec G c
ed e er e
Ic m
De en el an
nm an
G y
d re
ar Ire e
Ic k la Hu ce
el nd
an La ng
Un d ar
ite Ire Li tvia Ic y
d la th el
K nd ua an
in ni d
gd a Ire
B om Ne Ma la
el nd
gi th lta
um er It
la
Cy nd Li a ly
pr th
u No s
rw
ua
ni
Es s
to a a
G nia Po y Ne Ma
er la th lta
m
Income Taxes

an Po nd
Job Search Services er
la
G y rtu nd
re ga No s
e Sl
ov l rw
Hu ce en
Lu n g Un S w ia
Po a y
xe ar y rtu
ite ed
m d en
ga
bo K Sl
ov l
ur in ak
g gd
om Sl ia
Ne La Cz ov
th tvia ec en

Social Security Benefits - Unemployment Benefits
er h Ita ia
Sw lan Re ly Sp
it z d s pu a
er b Un S w in
la Hu lic ite ed
Sl nd ng d en
ov ar K
en y in
Cz Sl ia S Sw gd
Sw pa
ec ov itz om
h a it z in
e Lu er la
Re kia Lu rl xe n
pu xe and
m m d
bo bo
Li blic ur
th ur
ua Sl g Po g
ni ov la
10 Annex: Results Per Service (Online

Po a ak nd
la ia
nd La
tv
ia
Cz Cz

0
25
50
75
100
ec ec Aus
h h t

0
25
50
75
100
Au Re Re ria
s

0
25
50
75
100
pu pu
De tria b bl
nm E s lic E s ic
ar to to
ni
Fr k ni a
an F a Fr
Ge ce Lu ra an
rm xe nce ce
m Ire
an bo la
y nd

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing?
M Sl urg
ov
al
t en Ne It
No a th a ly
rw I c ia er
ay el la
Un an nd
ite Sp d Un s
d La ite Sp
Ki ain t d
ng B v ia Ki ain
ng
do el
m gi do
F u m
Ne inla Cy m
th n p La
tv
er d
la
G ru s
er ia
nd m M

Slovakia and United Kingdom.
Li
th s a al
t
Hu ny Cy a
Sw ua n
it z ia
ng p
ar G ru s
er er
la Po y m
la an
Be nd n
lg G d G y
iu re re
m ec e
Cy e Hu ce
pr
u Ne It Lu ng
Gr s th a ly xe ar y
m
ee er
ce la bo
I nd Li urg
Lu rela Au s th
xe n s ua
m d De tria ni
bo nm No a
ur rw
g a
La Fi rk Po a y
t nl rtu
P o v ia an ga
rtu d Po l
Ire
ga l la
Social Security Benefits - Child Allowances

Li an d

Social Security Benefits - Student Grants
Po l Sl nd
la th ov
ua en
Social Security Benefits - Medical Costs

Sw nd ni ia
ed a Sl
o
M Sw va k
al
Public Sector

Sl en

This service is not relevant for Czech Republic and Iceland.
ov No ta it z ia
en er
ia rw la
nd
Po a y B
Ita rtu el
Hu ly gi
ga De um
ng l nm
ar
Sl y Sw Sp ar
ov itz ain Fi k
ak er nl
Cz la an
ec
E s ia
to Sw nd d
h Ic
n ed el
Re ia a
Un S en

This service is not relevant for Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy,
pu Sw nd
bl ite lov
d a ed
I c ic K kia en
el in
an gd
d om

Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
This service is not relevant for Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden.

71
the way we see it
72
0
25
50
75
100
Cy
pr Es Es

0
25
50
75
100
0
25
50
75
100
u to to
Fr s ni
an Un Li nia
t Un a
ce i
te hua i
te M
d d a
M K nia K lt a
al in in
Sw ta gd gd
o
ed G m Po om
re rtu
Hu en e ga
ng De ce B
ar nm el l
y gi
Ire G ark De um
la er n
Sl n d m Ne m
ov an th ark
e Cy y er
De nia pr la
nm u G nd s
Fr s er
ar an m
Es k ce an
to Cy y
ni Ire
a Lu l pr
Ic xe an d u
Lu ela m Ic s
xe n bo el
m d u an
bo d
u No rg
rw
Ire
No rg la
nd
rw Po a y
Po a y Sw rtug It
rtu it z a l Li a ly
ga er th
ua
Un l la n
ite Sp Sw nd
d ai No ia
K n ed rw
in ay
gd Sl en G
o ov re
G m en ec
r i
Sw e e
c Po a Au e

Car Registration
it z e la st
ri
er
la B nd
n el Po a
Po d
Ne gi
u la
nd
la Cz th e m Fr
nd ec rla
Personal Documents - Passports

h n Sw a n

This service is not relevant for Austria and Malta.
La Re d s itz ce
tv pu er
ia la
Cz Ge b
ec r m Cz Hu nd
h a Fi l i c
Personal Documents - Driver's Licence
nl ec ng
Re ny a h a
pu Hu nd Re r y
Li blic ng pu
th ar b
Ne ua Ic y Fi l i c
th nia el nl
er an an
la d d
n La
Sl d s Ita tv
ov ly ia
ak
i La Sp
Au a tv a
st ia S l in
ria Sp ov
B e

This service is not relevant for Austria, Belgium, Finland and Italy.
el a
gi S l in Sl nia
um ov ov
Fi ak ak
nl i S w ia
an Au a
d st Lu e
ria xe d en
Ita m
ly M bo
al ur
ta g
0
25
50
75
100
M

0
25
50
75
100
Au
al
Es t

0
25
50
75
100
st
De ria to No a
ni
nm a rw
Fi
ar nl
a Un Sl a y
o
Es k G nd ite ve
to er d
ni m K nia
Fi a a in
gd
nl Hu ny
an ng o
d ar Au m
Fr y

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing?
an st
ria
c Ita Fr
Ic e
el ly an
an M c
d Ne a Sw e
th lta ed
Ita er
Li ly la De en
nd nm
th Sl s
Lu ua ar
xe nia
ov
en k
m Un ia Ita
bo
ur ite Sp B ly
g d ai el
Ki n gi
Ne Ma n G um
th lta Sw gd o er
er it z m m
la er an
nd
la Es y
No s De nd Ne ton
rw nm th ia
Po a y ar er
rtu k la
Au nd
ga st Cy s
Sl ria
ov l pr
en No u
ia rw Fi s
a nl
Sp Ic y an
ai el G d
Un S n an re
ite we d e
d de Ire
K n la Hu ce
n

Public Libraries
in Po d Lu ng
gd xe ar y
om rtu m
g

Declaration to the Police
Ire Sw a l bo
la ed
ur
nd
B en Ire g
el
gi Fr la
u nd
Application for Building Permission

an P
Hu m ce
B Sw ola
Sw nga el itz nd
it z r y gi
um er
er la
la Po n
G n la Ic d
n
Public Sector

er d el
m G d an
an re Li
ec th d
Cy y Cz e ua
pr Cy ni
u ec pr Cz Sl a
Po s h ec ova
la
Re u s
pu h k
nd Re ia
Cz Sl bl pu
ic
ec ova b
h k La P o lic
Re ia tv rtu
pu Li
t h ia ga
bl Lu u a l
G ic xe nia Sp
re m ai
ec bo n
e ur La
La Sl g tv
tv ov ia
ia ak
ia

73
the way we see it
74
0
25
50
75
100
Au

0
25
50
75
100
st Au

0
25
50
75
100
Au
De ria st st
nm De ria ria
ar nm Fr
ar an
Es k
to Es k Hu ce
ni to ng
Fi a ni ar
nl Fi a Ic y
an nl
d an el
an
Fr Hu d d
an ng M
Hu ce ar al
ng y Po ta
Ire
ar la rtu
y nd ga
M Sl
al ov l
t Ita en
No a l ia
rw No y
rw Sp
Po a y
Sl a y a
rtu ov Un S w in
g en ite ed
Sw a l
S ia d en
ed Un K
in
Li e ite we
d de gd
th n K n om
ua in
ni gd
It
Ic a om
De a ly
el
an Sp nm
G d ai
re n ar
ec Fr G k
re
e an
c ec
Ne La t
Li
th e e
Cy
th via Ne ua pr
er th nia us
Sw lan er Ire
la la
it z d s nd
er G s B
nd
la er e
m
B nd an Ne lgi
el Ic y th um
gi er
G um el
an Sw an l
er
m d

Announcement of Moving
Cz it z d s
an ec M er
h al la
Po y Re ta G n

Enrolment in Higher Education
la er d
pu m
Birth and Marriage Certificates

nd an
bl
y
This service is not relevant for Finland and Norway.

Ita Cy ic Po
Cz l pr la
Cy y nd
ec Po u s E
h pru rtu
Re s ga
Lu sto
n
pu P l Cz xem ia
b Lu ola ec bo
S l lic
ov xe n h u
ak m d Re rg

This service is not relevant for Ireland and United Kingdom.
pu
Sl ia Sw bo b
ov itz urg S l lic
en er ov
ia la ak
B nd Li i
Lu Sp el th a
xe ain gi ua
m um ni
a
bo G
re La
Un
ur
g e tv
ite Irel Sl ce Fi i a
d a ov nl
K nd ak
ia
an
in
gd La No d
om tv rw
ia ay
0
25
50
75
100
Au

0
25
50
75
100
Au

0
25
50
75
100
st st M
ria r
B B e ia al
el lg Po ta
gi iu
um m rtu
Cz Cy Es g
ec to Hu a l
h pru ni ng
Re s a ar
Fi
pu nl y
an Sp
De blic d ai
nm Fr
an n

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing?
ar G c Ita
Es k er e
m l
to an Fi y
ni nl
G y an
Fi a
nl re Sl d
an ec ov
d e en
Fr Ic Li i
an el th a
an
G c d ua
er e Ire De nia
m la nm
an nd
G y ar
re B k
e Lu I el
xe ta ly gi
Hu ce m um
ng bo Cy
ar ur
g pr
Ic y us
el Ne Ma G
an
d th lta Lu re e
Ire er xe c
la m e
la nd bo
nd
No s u
Ita rw Cz Slo rg
ly a ec va
Po y h k

This service is not relevant for Denmark.
La la Re ia
Li tvia n pu
Po d bl
th rtu ic
ua
ni g La

Corporate Tax
a Sl a l tv
ov i
Ne Ma en Po a
th lta ia la
er Sp nd
la
a Fr
Health Related Services

nd an
No s Un
ite
S w in c
rw ed
d
Social Contribution for Employees Au e
e st
Po a y Cz Kin n ri
rtu ec gd Es a
ga h o to
Sl Re m
ov l pu G nia
er
ak
ia
bl
ic m
Sl an
ov La
Public Sector

en Ic y
ia Li tvia el
th an
Sp ua d
a n I
S l ia Ne rela
Un S w in ov th n
ite ed ak er d
d en la
K Hu ia nd
in
Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden and United Kingdom.

Sw gd Sw nga No s
itz om it z r y rw
er
Lu er la la Sw a y
xe n nd
m d Cy Sw ed
bo pr Un itz en
ur De u s ite er l
d an
Po g nm K
la ar in d
This service is not relevant for Austria, Estonia, Germany, Iceland, Ireland,

nd k gd
om

75
the way we see it
76
0
25
50
75
100
Au

0
25
50
75
100
Au

0
25
50
75
100
Au st st
st ria ria
ria B B
B el
gi el
gi
el
gi De um um
um Cz Cy
Cz Cy nm ec
ec ar h pru
h pru Es k Re s
Re s to pu
pu n
Hu ia De blic
De blic ng nm
nm ar ar
ar y Es k
Es k Ita to
to ly ni
ni
Fi a M Fi a
nl
al an
nl
an t d
d No a Fr
Fr rw an
an G c
G c Po a y
er e
er e rtu m
m ga an
a Sl G y
Hu ny ov l re
ng en ec
ar ia Hu e
Ic y Sp ng
el a ar
an S w in
d Ic y
Ire ed el
la e an
nd Cz Cy n d
ec Ire
h pru la
It Re s nd
Li a ly pu
th Ita
bl
Ne ua
Fi i c Li ly
th nia th
VAT

er nl Lu ua
la an
nd d xe nia
Fr m
No s Sw a n bo
rw ur
a
Un itz ce g
ite er l
Po y d an Ne Ma
la K th lta
Po nd in d er
gd la

This service is not relevant for United Kingdom.
rtu om nd
ga Po No s
Registration of a New Company
Sl la rw
ov l n
en
ia G d Po a y
re rtu
Sp ec
e ga

Submission of Data to Statistical Offices
a Ic Sl
ov l
S w in el
an ak
Sw ed d Sl ia
itz en Ire ov
er la en
la nd ia
nd La Sp
Lu La ai
xe tvia
Li tvia
th Un S n
m Lu ua ite we
bo xe nia d de
ur m K n
g in
Ne bo gd
M th urg om
al er
Sl ta la La
ov n Sw tv
ak Sl d s it z ia
ia ov
Un G ak
er
la
ite re G n
d e er ia
K ce m Po d
in an la
gd y nd
om
0
25
50
75
100
Au

0
25
50
75
100
st Au
ria st
B

0
25
50
75
100
Au ria
Cz
ec elg st B
el
h iu De ria gi
Re m nm um
pu Cz Cy
ar ec
De blic Es k h pru
nm to Re s
ni
ar a pu
Es k Ire De blic
to la
ni n nm
a Fi d ar

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing?
Fr nl Es k
an an
c to
G Hu d ni
er e ng
m a Fi a
nl
an Sl r y an
y ov d
It en Fr
B ia an
Li a ly
th el G c
gi er e
Ne ua um m
th nia an
er Sp G y
la ai re
nd ec
Cy n
No s e
rw
pr
u Ic
el
Fr s an
Po a y
rtu an d
c Ire
la
Sl
ga G e nd
ov l re
ec
ak
ia e It
Sl Ic Li a ly
ov Lu ela th
en xe n Lu ua
ia m d xe nia
Sp bo m
a ur
g bo
S w in M ur
g
e al
Sw d t Ne Ma
itz en No a th lta
er rw er
la la
n

Public Procurement
Po a y nd
Customs Declaration

Fi d
nl Sw rtug No s
an rw
d Un itz a l
a
Ic ite er l
el d an Po y
an
d K la
Ire in d Environment-Related Permits
gd Po nd
la rtu
nd Sw om ga
La ed l
tv G e Sp
ia er n ai
M Ne ma Un S n
al ite we
ta Cz th e ny d de
Public Sector

Po ec rla K n
la h n in
n Re d s gd
G d pu
re Hu om
e bl
ic ng
Hu ce ar
Lu ng
La y
a Li tvia La
Un xem r y th tv
ite bo ua Sl ia
d ni
a
ov
K urg Sl Sw e n
in ov it z ia
gd ak er
o i la
Cy m Po a Sl nd
pr la ov
us nd ak
ia
Ita
ly

77
the way we see it
11 Annex: Overview of Non Relevant
Services

Some of the public service providers Services through intermediaries
are classified as “not relevant” for Car registration
certain countries due to the legal ■ Austria: The car registration has

context and administrative been privatised and is handled by
organisation of that specific country. private insurance companies. So the
Non-relevant services are not included insurance brokers are intermediaries
in the calculation of the scores. for the car owners. Therefore this
service is not relevant.
The overall score of a country is then ■ Finland: This service is not relevant

calculated as the average of the relevant for Finland, where cars are not
services. This Annex provides an registered by individuals but by
overview of the non-relevant services. third parties (insurance companies
Thanks to a more thorough and car dealers). Registrations are
communication with the member states processed by the Finnish Vehicle
during the different steps in the project, Administration (AKE).
we received more detailed information ■ Italy: This service is not relevant for
about the non-relevant services.
Italy. Car registration is provided
directly by the car dealers, which are
Fully automatic services
connected by a private network to
Social security benefits—Child
the Ministry of Transport and the
allowances
■ Finland: Child allowances are paid
Public Car Register (PRA). The
network includes about 6,000 desk
automatically by the Social
points across the country. All the
Insurance Institution
desk points are connected to the
(KELA—http://www.kela.fi/) as soon
procedures for car registration by a
as a child’s birth is registered by the
unified online access point
hospital to the Population Register
(Sportello telematico cooperante).
Centre, and until the end of the
■ Belgium: The service has been
month in which the child reaches
the age of 17. integrated.
■ Iceland: To obtain benefits for

children no application is necessary. Health-related services
■ Austria: In Austria, it is the general
■ Sweden: After a child is born and

registered in the national population practitioner that makes an
registration books, the Swedish appointment in a hospital, not the
Social Insurance Agency pays the patient himself.
child allowance to the parents ■ Estonia: This service is not relevant

automatically. for Estonia, where it is the general
■ Belgium: The service is fully practitioner that books hospital and
automated. specialist appointments, not the
■ Denmark: No application is
patients themselves.
■ Iceland: It is the general practitioner
necessary.
that makes an appointment in a
hospital, not the patient himself.
Patients are referred to hospitals by
GPs or by their local health care
centers. The service was considered

78
Public Sector the way we see it

irrelevant due to this intermediary. Non-existing services (hospitals, local health agencies,
■ Ireland: It is not possible for an Social security benefits—Medical pharmacies, etc.), which is not
individual to obtain an appointment. costs refundable.
■ Austria: Costs for medical treatment
Hospital appointments/referrals are ■ Lithuania: This service is not

obtained via one’s doctor (General and medecine are usually covered by relevant for Lithuania. There is no
Practitioner—GP), and not by obligatory health insurance and need for Lithuanian residents to ask
citizen. Therefore this service may there is usually no need for citizen for any reimbursement. Costs for
not be relevant/appropriate. to ask for any reimbursement. some medicine are covered by
■ Netherlands: Appointments are
Pharmacies settle up the costs for mandatory health insurance and
medicine with the social security Lithuanian residents pay only part of
managed by individual hospitals.
institutions using electronic standard the cost for such medicine, which is
They are requested by individual
procedures. The Austrian Social not reimbursed. Pharmacies register
patients or their referral physician.
Security has a project to issue all every such purchase and provide
■ Norway: The Norwegian health
Austrian citizen with smart health appropriate information to the State
system stipulates that each referred insurance cards (e-Card), which
patient are booked into there nearest Patient Fund and are directly
country-wide distribution is due to reimbursed.
hospital via the primary physician. start in 2005.
■ Malta: Maltese citizens are entitled
■ United Kingdom: Although patients
■ Denmark: No application is

are entitled to book online an to free health services provided by
necessary. the Government in numerous public
appointment at the hospital and
■ Finland: No application is necessary.
time of their choice on the “Book hospitals and health care centres. As
and Choose” website, a general ■ Ireland: This service is not relevant a result, the citizens of Malta are not
practitioner must provide them with for Ireland, where healthcare is free obliged by law to insure themselves
a prior authorization and reference at the point of delivery in pubic medically. As a result, there is no
number to have the appointment health services. Persons insured for need for such an eService.
finalized with the hospital. public health in Ireland receive a ■ Netherlands: New system is in

■ Sweden: Appointments are made by
medical card issued by the Health place since January 1st. Everybody
Service Executive (HSE) Area, which must be insured by a basic insurance
general practitioners.
gives them access to a number of at a private insurer.
■ Switzerland: Appointments are
health services either free of charge ■ Norway: For the patient treatment is
made by general practitioners. or subsidised: GP (family doctor) free of charge and therefore has no
services; prescribed drugs and need for reimbursement of costs.
Personal documents—Driver’s medicines (with some exceptions); The National insurance
license in-patient public hospital services; administration reimburses the
■ Austria: Citizens do not have to out-patient services; dental, optical hospitals directly after treatments
apply for a driving license anymore. and aural services; medical have been made to patients.
The application is handled by the appliances; maternity and infant
■ Portugal: Following the legislation,
driving schools. The license is care services.
health care is usually free, based on
automatically issued when the ■ Italy: This service is not relevant for
the economic and social conditions
driving school confirms online that a Italy. Citizens do not have to apply of the person. For each treatment or
customer has successfully passed the for reimbursement of medical costs. appointment the user must pay a fee
driving test. The citizen receives his The National Health Service (SSN) is called “Moderate Tax”.
driving license smartcard one week administered by the Regions and is
■ Spain: Medical treatment is free at
after the driving test by mail. free at the point of delivery. Citizens
pay, in some case, a contribution the point of delivery in the public
■ Malta: The service is requested

(ticket) for care directly at the cash health service, and costs outside the
through intermediaries. public health service are not
desk of the health organisations
reimbursed.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 79
■ Slovakia: Slovak citizens do not pay Announcement of moving
for medical services covered by the ■ Ireland: This service is not relevant

mandatory insurance system. for Ireland, where there is no
■ Sweden: All Swedish citizens are obligation to inform the authorities
automatically covered by the of a change of address.
national health insurances, including ■ United Kingdom: There is no

a coverage of medical costs. obligation on citizens to formally
■ Switzerland: Health insurance is inform government authorities of a
privately organised in Switzerland change of address. There is currently
and therefore no eGovernment- a private and independent website
Service. “I’m moving” organizing moving
announcement to governmental
■ United Kingdom: Most treatment in
entities and others.
the National Health Service (NHS) is
free at the point of delivery. There
Submission of statistical data
can be charges for some things (NHS ■ United Kingdom: In the UK, where
prescription and dental charges,
businesses are not obliged to submit
optical and hospital travel costs), for
data to the national statistical office.
which help with some health costs is
limited to people living on a low
annual income (maximum amount is
decided for each tax year).

Social security benefits—Student
grants
■ Czech Republic: There is no public

system of student grants in the
Czech Republic. A type of ‘student
loan’ is offered by banks.
■ Iceland: Services that are available

only propose loans. No system is in
place in Iceland to offer real student
grants.

Birth and marriage certificates
■Finland: This service is not relevant
in Finland, where birth and marriage
certificates are not commonly used
and therefore not needed by citizens.
Public authorities have direct access
to the Population Register if they
need information on a person’s
family status.

80
Public Sector the way we see it

12 Annex: Capgemini’s Web-Based
Survey Method

The survey-process developed by the Module 1—Political
Capgemini team contains 4 modules: Landscaping: Screening the
■ Landscaping of the governmental governmental structure of the
structure of the countries participating countries and
■ Sampling of the multiple service
listing the service providers
The Capgemini team opted for a
providers & identification of URL’s
bottom-up approach in elaborating
■ Web-based survey and scoring of the
the research methodology. The
websites formulated initial question was, from
■ Analysis of the results the point of view of an applicant
(individual citizen or business): “What
The process chart below demonstrates is the responsible service provider for
the different modules: the delivery of a particular public
service in a specific country?” The
websites of these service providers
Figure 19: Survey Process were then defined as the observation
units of the research.

Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 In the first phase of the research the
network of government experts from
Survey Political Lists of URLs Web Search Provisional the Directorate General for Information
Process Landscaping
Sampling of Web-based
Results Society and Media in each of the 28
Landscaping of services survey Analysis of the countries was consulted to obtain an
the providers & URL and scoring scoring results
governmental search overview of the different ways in
structures which the 20 public services are
organized and of the variety of internet
applications being developed in Europe.
Input from a A statistical A web-based Validation of
network of methodology scoring tool to results by the
governmental combining carry out web network of The screening provided a complete
How? contact persons different surveys with governmental
in 28 countries statistical built-in checks contact persons overview of the organization of the
via web enabled methods + a well and controls
tool defined search
Analysis and service providers to be evaluated. For
reporting
strategy the 6th measurement, the responsible
contact persons for each Member
State have been invited to use a
TeamRoom to interact with the
In the following paragraphs the different eGovernment Research Team. Each
modules will be further described. Member State was allocated with a
personalised web page were all
Generally there has been a stronger information regarding the survey for
emphasis on thorough validation of their countries were provided.
the preparation and final results by
the member states in the 6th Every participant in the network of
measurement. How this was achieved is government experts had the
described in the following paragraphs. possibility to access the services for
their respective country after they had
been granted with a Login ID and a
personal password.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 81
The responsible contact persons when
accessing the TeamRoom for their
country could get an interactive overview
of all the e-government services
together with the names of all other
participants for their respective countries:

It was required that citizen and ■ (If yes) which public authority is
business services had to be checked providing the service and at what
and validated by the responsible level is it providing it?
contact persons. ■ Are there intermediaries between the

provider and the customer?
Each service was launched on a
separate page for which a set of 4
The following screen provides an
questions had to be answered:
example of the description of a service
■ Does the service exist?
(Corporate tax in Belgium) and the
■ (If yes) are there reasons why this steps to follow in order to complete
service should be considered the political landscaping for this
irrelevant in your country? eService and validate the results

The different categories of service
providers taken into account are:

■ National governmental units
■ Regional governmental units
■ Cities and municipalities

■ Specific multiple service providers:

■ Public libraries

■ Hospitals

■ Universities/Institutes of higher

education
■ Police offices.

■ Public insurance companies

82
Public Sector the way we see it

Also the URLs were validated by the Module 4—Provisional Results:
Module 2—List of URLs: Member States after the consultation Analyzing and reporting
Sampling of multiple service phase of the TeamRoom for their About 12,590 search actions were
providers and URL identification countries. realised corresponding to the number
As a fully exhaustive survey of the of service providers identified.
complete lists of all the multiple Module 3—Web Search:
service providers was not feasible due Web-based survey and scoring The database with results is organised
to logistics, Capgemini elaborated a of the websites on the basis of results measured from
statistical methodology to draw a The URLs of the service providers the websites of the public services
representative sample in cases where were documented in a relational providers. The structure of the data
the number of units was too large. database. This database fed a web- allows the analysis per service and per
This methodology combines different based scoring tool developed by country as well as by cluster of
statistical methods, depending on the Capgemini to carry out web-surveys. services (such as registration or
size and character of the service returns) or super-cluster (Government
providers: The research team executing the to Citizen, Government to Business).
■ Stratification content analysis and scoring of the
URL’s used this web-enabled The scoring tool recalculates the
■ Systematic sampling with unequal
application. As the number of URLs to scoring of the individual websites as a
probability
score per country is extensive and the percentage of the maximum score per
■ Random sampling
exact interpretation of the different public service. When a service is
stages is crucial, the tool contains a organised on different levels, the final
A combination of stratification and very precise and structured procedure. result for each service can not be lower
systematic sampling was used for The scoring tool guides the researcher than the average of the regional websites
those service providers organised on a through a well-defined path that leads or the result on a national level.
specific regional base: to a score per service.
■ Municipalities The figure below schematises the
■ Regional authorities Checks and controls are built in and analysis structure:
■ Local police offices
performed at various stages in this
research tool to guarantee a maximum
■ Libraries
level of accuracy in the results.

The weighing methodology that was
developed for the systematic sampling
also allows the calculation of a Figure 20: The Aggregation Score per Service
scientifically valid aggregate score for
the individual websites of multiple
service providers.
Input Scoring Output
The sampling procedure was repeated
for each measurement: The overall
scores of public services provided by 12,590
Score per
Public Service
multiple service providers were based Service Provider
Providers
on new samples. % of
achievement as
National Highest compared to the
The next step in the set-up of the reference model
web-survey was the identification of per service per
the URLs of the multiple service Weighted country (stages
Regional of maturity in
providers. To be able to give a Average
eGovernment
maximum guarantee that service service provision)
providers which were selected to Weighted
Local
Average
participate in the research and manage
an official website participated
effectively, Capgemini developed a
search strategy that offered a
maximum guarantee that each website
was found.

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 83
The stages per url/service are The calculation of the percentages is
recalculated to an overall percentage then as follows:
of online sophistication per service:
Average Stage Final Score
Average Stage Final Score
0-0.99 0%–32%

0-0.99 0%–24%
1–1.99 33%–65%

1–1.99 25%–49%
2–2.99 66%–99%

2–2.99 50%–74%
4 100%

3–3.99 75%–99%

4 100% The final percentage per country is
calculated as the average of the
percentages of the 20 services for that
For certain services the maximum country. The percentage per country
stage was limited to Stage 3: personal for public services for citizens is the
documents, declaration to the police, average of the percentage of the
certificates (birth and marriage), services 1 to 12. The percentage per
announcement of moving and country for public services for
submission of data to statistical offices. business is the average of the
percentage of the services 13 to 20.

Translating the scoring results in the
binary framework the indicator fully
available online is recalculated.
Services receiving the maximum stage
(4 or 3) score 1; services marked at a
lower level score 0. The indicator is
then calculated as the percentage of
services scored as 1 on the total
number of analysed services.

The results were proposed for
validation to each member state.

84
Head-Sector/Discipline/Alliance the way we see it

13 Annex: The Four Service Clusters
EU(28)—Growth

Income-generating Cluster

Figure 21: Income–generating services

Online Sophistication
Fully Available Online
Income Taxes
100 Income Taxes
100
75
75
50
Social contribution 50
VAT Social contribution
25 for employees VAT
25 for employees
0
0

Corporate Tax Customs declaration
Customs declaration Corporate Tax

Apr 2006 Oct 2004
Apr 2006 Oct 2004

Registration Cluster

Figure 22: Registration Services

Online Sophistication
Car registration
Car registration
100 100

75 75

50 50
Submission of data (Birth and marriage)
Submission of data (Birth and marriage)
to statistical offices 25 Certificates to statistical offices 25 Certificates

0 0

Registration of a new
Registration of a new Announcement of moving
Announcement of moving company
company

Apr 2006 Oct 2004
Apr 2006 Oct 2004

Online Availability of Public Services: How Is Europe Progressing? 85
Return Clusters

Figure 22: Returns

Online Sophistication Full Available Online
Job search services Job search services
100 100
75 75
Public procurement 50 Social security benefits Public procurement 50 Social security benefits

25 25
0 0

Health related services Declaration to the police Health related services Declaration to the police

Public libraries Public libraries
(catalogues, search tools) (catalogues, search tools)

Apr 2006 Oct 2004 Apr 2006 Oct 2004

Permits and Licenses Cluster

Figure 23: Permits and Licenses

Online Sophistication Fully Available Online
Personal documents Personal documents
100 100
75 75
50 50
25 25
Environment-related Application Environment-related Application
0 0
permits for building permission
permits for building permission

Enrolment in higher Enrolment in higher
education
education
Apr 2006 Oct 2004 Apr 2006 Oct 2004

86
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