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Competence: Determine position and the accuracy of
resultant position fix by any means (ML)
Position determination in all conditions using Modern
Electronic Navigational Aids
4.1.1. Modern electronic navigational aids with specific
knowledge of their operating principles, limitations, sources of
error, detection of misrepresentation of information and
methods of correction to obtain accurate position fixing
Note: METIs and instructors should include refresher topics
about the principles, operation, limitations and errors of
electronic navigational aids for Officers in charge of a
Navigational Watch, such as Loran C, e-Loran, GNSS including
GPS and augmented satellite systems, Echo Sounders and
Speed Measurement systems, before proceeding to main
content of this module.




ensures that the most appropriate electronic systems

and electronic navigation aids are used for position
monitoring in any area given the information the system
may provide and the limitations, errors and accuracy of
the available system
verifies that each electronic navigation aid used is set
up and operated effectively
provides guidance and support to cadets and
watchkeeping officers in the correct set up and use of
electronic navigation aids
assesses the accuracy of position monitoring using
electronic navigation aids
ensures that the vessel position is determined at
appropriate frequencies and monitored continuously
using the most appropriate electronic navigation aids
available and this is cross checked with terrestrial or
celestial observations where these are possible.

4.1.2. Integrated Navigation system (INS) and Integrated Bridge

system (IBS)

briefly describe that Integrated Navigation system (INS)

supports safety of navigation by evaluating inputs from
several independent and different sensors, combining
them to provide information giving timely warnings of
potential dangers and degradation of integrity of this


evaluate the three categories of INS as defined by IMO,

INS(A), which as a minimum provide the
information of position, speed, heading and time,
each clearly marked with an indication of integrity
INS(B), which automatically, continually and
graphically indicates the ships position, speed
and heading and, where available, depth in
relation to the planned route as well as to known
and detected hazards
INS(C), which provides means to automatically
control heading, track or speed and monitor the
performance and status of these controls,


states that Integrity monitoring is an intrinsic function of

the INS and that in the INS the integrity of information is
verified by comparison of the data derived from two or
more sources if available,


states that in Integrity monitoring by the INS, the

integrity is verified before essential information is
displayed or used and Information with doubtful integrity
should be clearly marked by the INS and not used for
automatic control systems,


explains that the Integrated Bridge Systems (IBS) is a

combination of systems which are interconnected in order
to allow centralized access to sensor information or
command/control workstations, with the aim of increasing
safe and efficient ships management by suitably
qualified personnel,


states that IBS recommendation apply to a system

performing two or more operations, namely: passage
execution; communication; machinery control; loading,
discharging and cargo control; and safety and security,


describes the limitations of the systems