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Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: pap14


Chapter Number: 21
Question type: Multiple Choice
1) Which of the following blood vessels carries blood away from the heart to other organs?
a) arteries
b) capillaries
c) venules
d) arterioles
e) veins
Answer: a
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.2 Outline the vessels through which the blood moves in its passage
from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
2) Which of the following blood vessels carries blood from the tissues back to the heart?
a) arteries
b) arterioles
c) aorta
d) veins
e) capillaries
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.2 Outline the vessels through which the blood moves in its passage
from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
3) Which layer of the arterial wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?

a) tunica interna
b) tunica media
c) tunica externa
d) tunica albuginea
e) tunica fascia
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
4) Which layer of the arterial wall is primarily composed of elastic and collagen fibers?
a) tunica interna
b) tunica media
c) tunica externa
d) tunica albuginea
e) tunica fascia
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
5) When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle layer contracts producing
a) tear in the vessel.
b) new vessel branching off the artery or arteriole.
c) a vascular spasm.
d) tetanus.
e) increased blood flow to the damaged vessel.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
6) Elastic arteries function as
a) vasodilators.
b) conduits to the tissues of the trunk only.
c) barriers to microcirculation.
d) pressure reservoirs.
e) vasoconstrictors.
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.3 Distinguish between pressure reservoirs and blood reservoirs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
7) In resting individuals, which vessels serve as a large blood reservoir from which blood can be
quickly diverted to other vessels as needed?
a) Arteries and arterioles
b) Arterioles and capillaries
c) Venules and capillaries
d) Veins and venules
e) Aorta and veins
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.3 Distinguish between pressure reservoirs and blood reservoirs.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
8) Which type of blood vessel plays a key role in regulating blood flow into capillaries?
a) arteries
b) arterioles

c) venules
d) veins
e) aorta
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
9) Which of the following structures are found in veins but NOT in arteries?
a) tunica externa
b) tunica media
c) tunica interna
d) valve
e) lumen
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
10) Capillaries are also referred to as
a) exchange vessels.
b) vasoconstrictors.
c) vasodilators.
d) pressure reservoirs.
e) distributing vessels.
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.

Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
11) Which of the following is the most important method of capillary exchange?
a) diffusion
b) transcytosis
c) bulk flow
d) primary active transport
e) secondary active transport
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.2 Discuss the pressures that cause movement of fluids between
capillaries and interstitial spaces.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.2 Capillary Exchange
12) Which of the following structures is used to control the flow of blood through a capillary
bed?
a) thoroughfare channels
b) precapillary sphincters
c) postcapillary sphincters
d) venules
e) valves in veins
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.2 Outline the vessels through which the blood moves in its passage
from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
13) Which of the following types of tissues contains continuous capillaries?
a) skeletal muscle
b) smooth muscle
c) connective tissue
d) lungs

e) all of these choices


Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
14) The alternate route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis is called
a) a thoroughfare channel.
b) a blood reservoir.
c) a detour route.
d) collateral circulation.
e) microcirculation.
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.2 Outline the vessels through which the blood moves in its passage
from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
15) The largest driving force for pulling fluid from the interstitial spaces back into the capillaries
is
a) interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure.
b) interstitial fluid osmotic pressure.
c) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
d) blood hydrostatic pressure.
e) glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.2 Discuss the pressures that cause movement of fluids between
capillaries and interstitial spaces.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.2 Capillary Exchange

16) The pressure-driven movement of fluids and solutes from blood into interstitial fluid is called
a) reabsorption.
b) filtration.
c) bulk flow.
d) osmosis.
e) transcytosis.
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.2 Discuss the pressures that cause movement of fluids between
capillaries and interstitial spaces.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.2 Capillary Exchange
17) The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic (or pulmonary) blood vessels per
minute is called
a) stroke volume.
b) tidal volume.
c) cardiac output.
d) cardiac reserve.
e) total peripheral resistance.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.3 Describe the relationship between blood volume, pressure and flow.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.3.1 Explain the factors that regulate the volume of blood flow.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
18) Cardiac output is dependent on both
a) heart rate and stroke volume.
b) stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance.
c) heart rate and systemic vascular resistance.
d) blood type and stroke volume.
e) blood pressure and heart rate
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.3 Describe the relationship between blood volume, pressure and flow.

Study Objective 2: SO 21.3.1 Explain the factors that regulate the volume of blood flow.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
19) Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in arterial blood pressure?
a) Increased blood volume
b) Increased sympathetic stimulation
c) Increased heart rate
d) Increased stroke volume
e) Increased arteriolar vasodilation
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
20) Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in systemic vascular resistance?
a) Decreased diameter of systemic arterioles
b) Increased blood viscosity
c) Decreased length of the systemic circulatory route
d) Increased vasoconstriction of systemic arterioles
e) Increased red blood cell count
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.3 Describe the relationship between blood volume, pressure and flow.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.3.3 Describe the factors that determine mean arterial pressure and
systemic vascular resistance.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
21) Which of the following characteristics of blood depends mostly on the ratio of RBCs to
plasma volume?
a) total blood volume
b) blood viscosity
c) venous return
d) clotting time
e) immunoglobulin profile
Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.3 Describe the relationship between blood volume, pressure and flow.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.3.4 Describe the relationship between cross-sectional area and velocity
of blood flow.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
22) Which of the following is NOT a contribution of the cardiovascular system to other body
systems?
a) Blood delivers clotting factors and WBCs that aid in hemostasis when skin is damaged.
b) Blood delivers calcium and phosphate ions that are needed for building bone extracellular
matrix.
c) Blood carries carbon dioxide to body tissues and removes oxygen for use by other organs.
d) Blood carries newly absorbed nutrients and water to the liver.
e) Blood circulates cells and chemicals that carry out immune functions.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.22 Describe how the cardiovascular system contributes to homeostasis.
Section Reference 1: Focus on Homeostasis: The Cardiovascular System
23) The cardiovascular center is located
a) in the thoracic cavity.
b) in the cerebral cortex.
c) in the cerebellum.
d) in the medulla oblongata.
e) in the hypothalamus.
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
24) All of the following aid in venous return of blood to heart EXCEPT
a) the skeletal muscle pump.
b) the respiratory pump.
c) blood viscosity.
d) venoconstriction

e) venous valves.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
25) Which of the following would be a normal response of the cardiovascular system to a
decreased frequency of action potentials arising from the baroreceptors?
a) Increased systemic vascular resistance
b) Increased parasympathetic stimulation
c) Decreased heart rate
d) Decreased stroke volume
e) Decreased cardiac output
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
26) Which of the following hormones would NOT stimulate changes that lead to an increase in
arterial blood pressure?
a) Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)
b) Antidiuretic hormone(ADH)
c) Aldosterone
d) Angiotensin
e) Epinephrine
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
27) When chemoreceptors in blood vessels detect high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, they
stimulate all of the following changes EXCEPT
a) increased vasoconstriction of arterioles.
b) increased blood pressure.

c) decreased respiratory rate.


d) increased sympathetic stimulation of arterioles and veins.
e) increased vasoconstriction of veins.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
28) The myogenic response of smooth muscle results in
a) more forceful contractions when stretched.
b) more forceful contractions when relaxed
c) tetany.
d) relaxation of smooth muscle when stretched.
e) formation of new desmosomes.
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
29) In which of the following types of blood vessels is blood pressure NOT pulsing?
1. Arteries
2. Capillaries
3. Arterioles
4. Venules
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) 4 only
e) Both 2 and 4
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation

30) Abnormal conditions such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus cause an large
increase in the
a) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
b) central venous pressure.
c) pulse pressure.
d) venular hydrostatic pressure.
e) capillary hyrdostatic pressure.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation
31) This type of shock is due to decreased blood volume.
a) Hypovolemic
b) Cardiogenic
c) Vascular
d) Obstructive
e) Neurogenic
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.6 Describe the four types of shock and the negative feedback process
involved in the body's response.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.6.1 Define shock, and describe the four types of shock.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.6 Shock and Homeostasis

32) Which of the labeled layers in the diagram of the arterial wall consists mainly of elastic
fibers and smooth muscle fibers?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) A and B
e) A, B and C
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

33) Which of the labeled layers in the diagram of the arterial wall is composed of a simple
squamous epithelium, a basement membrane and a layer of elastic tissue?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) A and B
e) A, B, and C
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

34) Which labeled structure in the figure is a metarteriole?

a) A
b) B
c) D
d) F
e) E
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

35) Which labeled structure in the figure is a capillary?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

36) Which labeled structure in the figure is precapillary sphincter?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

37) Which of the capillaries shown in the figure has an incomplete or absent basement
membrane?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) A and B
e) A, B, and C
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

38) Which of the types of capillaries shown in the figure is commonly found in the kidneys, villi
of the small intestine, choroid plexuses, and some endocrine glands?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) A and B
e) B and C
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels

39) What physiological process is depicted in this figure?

a) Venous blood blockage


b) Skeletal muscle pump
c) Respiratory pump
d) Thoroughfare channels
e) Anastomosis
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.3 Describe the relationship between blood volume, pressure and flow.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.3.1 Explain the factors that regulate the volume of blood flow.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
40) What do following arteries have in common: superficial temporal artery, brachial artery and
common carotid artery?
a) They are all areas where Korotkoff sounds cannot be heard.
b) They are all only found on the left side of the body.
c) They are all common pulse points.
d) They all contain baroreceptors.
e) They all deliver blood to structures in the head.
Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and define systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation
41) Which of the following would NOT occur in response to hypovolemic shock?
a) Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system.
b) Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
c) Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS.
d) Release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).
e) Release of local vasodilators.
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.6 Describe the four types of shock and the negative feedback process
involved in the body's response.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.6.2 Explain how the bodys response to shock is regulated by negative
feedback.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.6 Shock and Homeostasis
42) All the veins of the systemic circulation eventually drain into the
a) superior vena cava.
b) inferior vena cava.
c) coronary sinus.
d) superior and inferior vena cava.
e) superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.
Answer: e
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.7 Describe and compare the major routes that blood takes through
various regions of the body.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.7 Circulatory Routes
43) The pulmonary trunk divides into
a) brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery
b) right and left subclavain arteries.
c) right and left pulmonary veins.
d) right and left pulmonary arteries.

e) right and left common carotid arteries.


Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.7 Describe and compare the major routes that blood takes through
various regions of the body.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.7 Circulatory Routes
44) In fetal circulation, what is the opening between the right and left atria called?
a) Ductus venousus
b) Umbilicus
c) Fossa ovalis
d) Foramen ovale
e) Ductus arteriosus
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.7 Describe and compare the major routes that blood takes through
various regions of the body.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.7 Circulatory Routes
45) Which of the following vessels is a pulse point found at the wrist?
a) Radial artery
b) Subclavian artery
c) Axillary artery
d) Cephalic artery
e) Palmar artery
Answer: a
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and define systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation
46) Which of the following vessels supplies blood to the intestines?
a) Radial artery
b) Subclavian artery
c) Mesenteric artery

d) Coronary artery
e) Popliteal artery
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.12 Identify the visceral and parietal branches of the abdominal aorta
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.E Abdominal Aorta
47) Which of the following vessels supplies blood to the kidneys?
a) Hepatic artery
b) Renal artery
c) Mesenteric artery
d) Coronary artery
e) Popliteal artery
Answer: b
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.12 Identify the visceral and parietal branches of the abdominal aorta
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.E Abdominal Aorta
48) Which of the following vessels drains blood from the lower leg?
a) Jugular vein
b) Superior vena cava
c) Tibial vein
d) Coronary vein
e) Inferior mesenteric vein
Answer: c
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.19 Identify the principal superficial and deep veins that drain the lower
limbs.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.L Veins of the Lower Limbs
49) Which of the following vessels drains blood from the head and neck?
a) Median cubital vein
b) Inferior vena cava
c) Axillary vein

d) Femoral vein
e) Jugular vein
Answer: e
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.15 Identify the three major veins that drain blood from the head.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.H Veins of the Head and Neck
50) Which of the following vessels carries the venous blood from the lower body into the right
atrium?
a) Inferior vena cava
b) Superior vena cava
c) Tibial vein
d) Coronary vein
e) Iliac vein
Answer: a
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.14 Identify the three systemic veins that return deoxygenated blood to
the heart.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.G Veins of the Systemic Circulation
51) When the umbilical cord is tied after birth, the umbilical arteries close by filling in with
a) placental fluid.
b) platelet plugs.
c) connective tissue.
d) smooth muscle.
e) epithelial tissue.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.7 Describe and compare the major routes that blood takes through
various regions of the body.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.7 Circulatory Routes
Question type: Essay

52) Describe the vessel wall characteristics of the five main types of blood vessels that blood
travels through from the time it leaves the left ventricle until it returns to the right atrium.
Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.1 Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules, and veins.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
Solution: Blood is carried away from the heart in arteries. All arteries have an outer tunica
externa (mostly elastic and collagen fibers), an inner tunica media (mostly smooth muscle and
elastic fibers) and a lining called the tunica interna (endothelial tissue). Large diameter arteries
have more elastic fibers than smooth muscle in their walls and conduct blood to regions of the
body, e.g. the subclavian artery carries blood toward the upper extremity. As arteries enter a body
region, they branch and their diameters decrease. Their walls have proportionately more smooth
muscle than elastic tissue. These arteries are called muscular or distributing arteries, e.g. the
radial artery. Branching of the blood vessels continues until the vessels are nearly microscopic
arterioles. Arterioles have little elastic tissue, but can change diameter quickly because of the
smooth muscle in their wall. Thus, they are the major sites of regulation of blood pressure and
distribution. Arterioles feed into capillary beds. Capillaries are the sites of exchange between the
tissues and the blood. Venules drain the capillaries and begin the path back to the heart. Venules
merge to form veins (and ultimately, vena cava) that carry the blood to the heart. Veins have
much less smooth muscle than arteries. Vein also have valves that help prevent backflow of
blood.
53) In a freak accident, an overheated and dehydrated roofer falls off the roof and onto a mirror
that is being brought into a construction site. The mirror breaks and cuts several blood vessels,
including the femoral artery. What will happen to the roofers NFP in his capillary beds? Why?
Answer:
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 21.2 Discuss the pressures that cause movement of fluids between
capillaries and interstitial spaces.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.2 Capillary Exchange
Solution: If the roofer overheated, he probably had already lost a significant volume of body
fluid through perspiration as his body tried to cool off. That loss would account for the
dehydration. Loss of fluid without significant loss of solutes causes the blood colloidal osmotic
pressure (BCOP) to increase. The cuts the roofer suffered would cause hemorrhaging and a loss
of blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP). If the BHP goes down and the BCOP goes up, the net
filtration pressure (NFP) should decrease because NFP = (BHP + IFOP) BCOP. [IFOP is the
interstitial fluid osmotic pressure, which is so much smaller than the BHP or BCOP that it
usually doesnt change NFP.]

54) Identify and discuss the factors that contribute to systemic vascular resistance.
Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.3 Describe the relationship between blood volume, pressure and flow.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.3.3 Describe the factors that determine mean arterial pressure and
systemic vascular resistance.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
Solution: 1) Blood viscosity is dependent on the ratio of formed elements and proteins to plasma.
In general, increased viscosity, via increased formed elements or decreasing plasma volume,
increases resistance. 2) Total blood vessel length is directly proportional to resistance; thus,
increasing length of circuit (by adding new blood vessels to serve added tissue) increases
resistance. 3) Diameter/radius of blood vessels, which is primarily controlled by ANS, has a
major effect on resistance. Increased vessel diameter decreases resistance, thus increasing flow.
In general, changes in the diameter of small vessels (e.g. arterioles) have greater effect because
more surface area is in contact with blood.
55) Describe the route of an RBC traveling from the heart to the left elbow and back to the heart.
Answer:
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 21.1 Describe the pressure and volume relationships of the vessels as
blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.1.2 Outline the vessels through which the blood moves in its passage
from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
Solution: From the heart, the RBC will enter the ascending aorta and then the aortic arch. The
RBC will exit the aorta through the left subclavian artery, continue on that route through the
axillary artery and into the brachial artery. At the elbow, the blood cell will exit into one of the
small distributing arteries, move into a capillary bed, and then into venules in the elbow region.
The RBC will then probably enter the median cubital vein and move into either the basilic or the
cephalic vein. The basilic vein drains into the brachial vein, which drains into the axillary vein.
The cephalic vein drains directly into the axillary vein. From axillary vein, the RBC will travel
into the subclavian and brachiocephalic veins before entering the superior vena cava. The SVC
will take the RBC back to the heart.

56) Which vessel in the figure is labeled B?

a) right ulnar artery


b) right subclavian artery
c) right radial artery
d) right brachial artery
e) right axillary artery
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.8 Describe the four principal aortic divisions and the arterial branches
that arise from each.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.8.1 Identify the four principal divisions of the aorta.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.A The Aorta and Its Branches

57) Which vessel in the figure is labeled A?

a) right subclavian artery


b) right radial artery
c) right common carotid artery
d) right brachial artery
e) right axillary artery
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.8 Describe the four principal aortic divisions and the arterial branches
that arise from each.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.8.1 Identify the four principal divisions of the aorta.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.A The Aorta and Its Branches

58) Which vessel in the figure is labeled B?

a) left femoral vein


b) left great saphenous vein
c) left popliteal vein
d) left anterior tibial vein
e) left fibular vein
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.14 Identify the three systemic veins that return deoxygenated blood to
the heart.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.G Veins of the Systemic Circulation

59) Which vessel in the figure is labeled C?

a) left femoral vein


b) left great saphenous vein
c) left popliteal vein
d) left anterior tibial vein
e) left fibular vein
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.14 Identify the three systemic veins that return deoxygenated blood to
the heart.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.G Veins of the Systemic Circulation

60) Which vessel in the figure is labeled F?

a) left femoral vein


b) left great saphenous vein
c) left popliteal vein
d) left anterior tibial vein
e) left small saphenous vein
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.14 Identify the three systemic veins that return deoxygenated blood to
the heart.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.G Veins of the Systemic Circulation

61) Which vessel in the figure is labeled C?

a) accessory hemiazygos vein


b) hemiazygos vein
c) left gonadal vein
d) right renal vein
e) right suprarenal vein
Answer: c
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 21.18 Identify the principal veins that drain the abdomen and pelvis.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.K Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis

62) Which vessel in the figure is labeled D?

a) accessory hemiazygos vein


b) hemiazygos vein
c) right renal vein
d) right suprarenal vein
e) pericardial vein
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.18 Identify the principal veins that drain the abdomen and pelvis.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.K Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis

63) Which vessel in the figure is labeled G?

a) accessory hemiazygos vein


b) hemiazygos vein
c) right suprarenal vein
d) pericardial vein
e) azygos vein
Answer: e
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 21.17 Identify the components of the azygos system of veins.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.J Veins of the Thorax
Question type: Essay
64) What is the main difference between the pulmonary and systemic circulations with respect to
their autoregulatory response to changes in blood O2 level?
Answer:
Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 21.4 Describe how blood pressure is regulated.


Section Reference 1: Sec 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
Solution: In systemic circulation, low O2 causes dilation of the blood vessel walls. This will lead
to increase in O2 delivery to tissues. In pulmonary circulation, the opposite occurs in response to
low levels of O2. The pulmonary vessels constrict to ensure blood only goes to those alveoli that
are receiving rich O2 supply and avoids poorly ventilated sacs.
Question type: Multiple Choice
65) During embryonic development, blood vessels are formed by
a) endodermal cells.
b) pluripotent stem cells.
c) angioblasts.
d) fibroblasts.
e) osteoblasts.
Answer: c
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.20 Describe the development of blood vessels and blood, and explain
the effects of aging and disorders on the cardiovascular system.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.20.1 Describe the development of blood vessels and blood.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.8 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood
66) During embryonic development, blood cells are formed from
a) endodermal cells.
b) pluripotent stem cells.
c) angioblasts.
d) fibroblasts.
e) osteoblasts.
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.20 Describe the development of blood vessels and blood, and explain
the effects of aging and disorders on the cardiovascular system.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.20.1 Describe the development of blood vessels and blood.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.8 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood
Question type: Essay

67) What is a portal vein? Describe the hepatic portal circulation.


Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.18 Identify the principal veins that drain the abdomen and pelvis.
Section Reference 1: Exhibit 21.K Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis
Solution: A vein that carries blood from one capillary network to another is called a portal vein.
The hepatic portal circulation carries venous blood from the gastrointestinal organs and spleen to
the liver. It receives blood from GI organs and the spleen and delivers it to the liver. After a meal
it is very rich in nutrients absorbed from the GI tract.
Question type: Multiple Choice
68) Normal blood pressure for a young adult male is
a) 120/80.
b) 130/90.
c) 80/120.
d) 100/80.
e) 150/85.
Answer: a
Difficulty: Easy
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and define systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation
69) Which of the following types of blood vessels have high pulsing blood pressure?
a) arterioles
b) capillaries
c) venules
d) veins
e) vena cavae
Answer: a
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and define systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation

70) What would the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure be for an individual with a blood
pressure of 120/80?
a) 40; 100
b) 40; 93.3
c) 40; 103.3
d) 200; 100
e) 100; 200
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.5 Define pulse, and define systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.5 Checking Circulation
71) Which of the following effectors would NOT be activated as described below in response to
hypovolemic shock?
a) Adrenal cortex releases aldosterone.
b) Kidneys conserve salt and water.
c) Heart rate increases.
d) Systemic arterioles vasodilate.
e) Heart contractility increases.
Answer: d
Difficulty: Hard
Study Objective 1: SO 21.6 Describe the four types of shock and the negative feedback process
involved in the body's response.
Study Objective 2: SO 21.6.2 Explain how the bodys response to shock is regulated by negative
feedback.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.6 Shock and Homeostasis
72) The pulmonary circulatory route carries blood from the
a) right atrium to the right ventricle .
b) right ventricle to the left atrium.
c) left atrium to the left ventricle.
d) left ventricle to the right atrium.
e) left ventricle to the coronary sinus.
Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.7 Describe and compare the major routes that blood takes through
various regions of the body.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.7 Circulatory Routes
73) All of the following changes are commonly observed in the cardiovascular system in
response to aging EXCEPT
a) decreased cardiac output.
b) increased compliance of the aorta.
c) loss of cardiac muscle strength.
d) decline in maximum heart rate.
e) increased systolic blood pressure.
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.21 Explain the effects of aging on the cardiovascular system.
Section Reference 1: Sec 21.9 Aging and the Cardiovascular System
74) Which of the following categories would an individual with a blood pressure of 145/95 be
placed in?
a) Normal
b) High normal
c) Prehypertension
d) Stage 1 hypertension
e) Stage 2 hypertension
Answer: d
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.23 Describe the disorders that affect blood vessels.
Section Reference 1: Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect the Cardiovascular System
75) Which of the following categories of hypertension drugs lower blood pressure by blocking
formation of angiotensin II, which results in vasodilation and decreased aldosterone secretion?
a) Diuretics
b) ACE inhibitors
c) Beta blockers
d) Calcium channel blockers

e) Anabolic steroids
Answer: b
Difficulty: Medium
Study Objective 1: SO 21.23 Describe the disorders that affect blood vessels.
Section Reference 1: Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect the Cardiovascular System