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Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store

in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

CHAPTER 1
PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Being independent in life by most of the people and along with competing the
time it has resulted in patronizing fast food stores. There are reasons why they prefer to
go at fast food stores such as convenience, fast foods taste, socialization with other
people, entertainment, and inexpensive offerings of fast food stores. Some people have
replaced their meals with quick meals. Consumers attitude, lifestyle, and eating
behaviour have changed because of their sedulous lifestyle.
Fast food is any type of food that can be acquired quickly and cheaply, usually
when people are on the go or need something to eat quickly. It requires only a little
preparation before being served. It refers to the food sold in fast food stores with
preheated or precooked ingredients.
Fast food stores sell preheated or precooked ingredients and served to
customers in packaged form for take-out or take-away. These are typically part of a
franchise operation, which provisions standardized ingredients and partially prepared
foods and supplies to each restaurant or store through controlled supply channels.
Consumer preferences are described as the choices of people when selecting a
product or service. It also explains how a consumer ranks a collection of goods or
services or prefers one collection over another. It assumes that consumers rank goods

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

or services by the amount of satisfaction, or utility afforded. Analyzing consumer


preferences help businesses target their products towards specific consumer groups,
develop new products, and become more successful than others. Such consumer
preferences in fast food stores that they consider are the quality of food, variety of food,
price of food, convenience of location, atmosphere or ambience, and service quality.
The study of consumer preferences employs assumptions about consumers behaviour
and how they decide preferences.
Background of the Study
Nowadays, people tend to buy their meals for their breakfast, lunch, snack and
even dinner at fast food stores because it serves packaged form meals. The
researchers come up with this study due to their earnest desire to evaluate the
preferences of consumers on fast food stores.
The researchers conducted their study on selected SM Malls in Metro Manila as
their geographical location. SM Malls are well known for having different stores
including fast food store, restaurants, and other food establishments. Moreover, the
researchers believed that this study would predetermine the factors that could be
improved for satisfaction of the customers. Some could improve in terms of services,
food preparation, and ambiance of their businesses.
The researchers believed that this study would determine the most preferred
factor that prompts the consumers in choosing fast food store. The researcher would
also show how often customers patronized to eat in a fast food store by knowing their
fast food consumption. Through the consumer-respondents answer, the researchers

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

would rank the factors and type of fast food to determine the most preferred fast food
and factors that influenced them to choose a fast food store that they were going to eat.
Theoretical Framework
According to Kotler (1997), Schiffman and Kanuk (1997), and Solomon (1996),
the consumer passes through five stages: problem recognition, information search,
evaluation and selection of alternatives, decision implementation, and post-purchase
evaluation.
According to McKinsey, one of the biggest players in the marketing consultancy
world, and they also believe that the traditional purchase funnel could do with a few
tweaks, awareness, familiarity, consideration, purchase and loyalty.
Engel et al (1995) has developed a model to explain consumer behaviour and
highlighted five stages of the decision making process:

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

Consumer Purchase Model by Engel et al. 1995

Problem
Recognition
Search Information
Evaluation of
Alternative

Purchase

Outcome

The model views the purchases as a process that goes through several steps
which problem recognition, search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and outcome.
Consumer decision making process starts with recognition of the problem, which lead to
a search for ways of solving the problem. The next step is evaluating and compares
each alternative that we had to get the possible solutions that suitable with the problem.
This will lead to a decision to buy one of them, afterward resulting in some kind
of output. All buying decision can be analyzed using these five steps, even the way they
materialize may differ enormously. This is simple model and widely used throughout the
consumer behaviour literature. It also is a good start for understanding how consumers
come to the final decision in choosing the fast food chain.

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

Conceptual Framework
The basis for conceptualizing the factors influencing consumers preferences on
choosing fast food stores.
INPUT

Customer Demographic
Analysis

Age
Civil Status
Gender
Occupational Status

PROCESS

Analysis in
consumers
preferences on
choosing fast
food chain

Fast Food Store motivators

Price
Service Quality
Food Quality
Ambience
Location
Variety

OUTPUT

Survey
Questionnaire
Statistical
Treatment

Percentage
Frequency
Ranking
Chi-square
Test

Feedback
Figure 1 Conceptual Paradigm

Importance
of
Consumer
Preferences
in Choosing
Fast Food
Store

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

Statement of the Problem


The research generally aims to explore and analyze the factors of consumers
preferences in choosing a fast food store.
Specifically, it aims to provide answers to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1
Age;
1.2
Gender;
1.3
Civil Status, and;
1.4
Occupational Status
2. What is the perception of the respondents to the following variables:
2.1
meal time
2.2
type of fast food
3. Is there significant relationship between age and frequency of fast food
consumption, preferred meal time, and type of fast food?
4. Is there significant relationship between gender and frequency of fast food
consumption, preferred meal time, and type of fast food?
5. Is there significant relationship between civil status and frequency of fast food
consumption, preferred meal time, and type of fast food?
6. Is there significant relationship between occupational status and frequency of fast
food consumption, preferred meal time, and type of fast food?
7. What is the perception of the respondents to the most and least important factors
in choosing fast food store?
8. Hypothesis
H1a: There is a significant relationship between the age and frequency of fast
food consumption.
H1b: There is a significant relationship between the age and meal time.
H1c: There is a significant relationship between the age and type of fast food.
H2a: There is a significant relationship between the gender and frequency of
fast food consumption.
H2b: There is a significant relationship between the gender and meal time.
H2c: There is a significant relationship between the gender and type of fast
food.

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

H3a: There is a significant relationship between the civil status and frequency
of fast food consumption.
H3b: There is a significant relationship between the civil status and meal time.
H3c: There is a significant relationship between the civil status and type of fast
food.
H4a: There is a significant relationship between the occupational status and
frequency of fast food consumption.
H4b: There is a significant relationship between the civil status and meal time.
H4c: There is a significant relationship between the occupational status and
type of fast food.

Significance of the Study


This study will increase the knowledge about the consumers preferences in
choosing their preferred fast food chain. Knowing this would be significant to the
following:

To fast food managers for improvement of factors that is primarily influences the

consumers on choosing fast food;


To marketing department of fast food companies that would be aware of the

certain factors in targeting market consumer;


To industry for perceiving the present concept about consumers preferences in

choosing fast food chain;


To other researchers for conducting another study targeting different area and
obtain a comparative study for the factors that influences the consumers on SM

Malls within Metro Manila and outside the area.


Scope and Limitations

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

The study would limit the generalization of results from several factors. First, the
study would focus on analyzing consumers preferences in choosing among fast food
stores as perceived by consumers of selected SM Malls in Metro Manila. Second, in this
study, the researchers will take the age, gender, civil status and income status. They
could not consider all of the social, economic and cultural factors that might affect the
relationship between the consumersand their fast food chain preferences. Along with
those are determinant factors wherein the study will involve are the following: quality of
food, variety of food, price of food, convenience of location, atmosphere/ambience and
service quality of the fast food chain. Despite these limitations, the study would
assessed and evaluated main factors that plays critical role in determining consumers
fast food chain choices.
Definition of Terms
Ambience is another word for atmosphere in the sense of the mood a place or setting
has.
Consumer Preferences are described as the choices of people when selecting a
product or service.
Demographic the statistical data of a population, especially those showing average
age, income, education, etc.
Fast food refers to food sold in a food chain with preheated or precooked ingredients,
and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out or take-away.

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

Fast food storerefers to establishment that sells pre-heated and pre-cooked fast food
and served to consumers in a package form.
Food Quality is the quality characteristic of food that is acceptable to consumers.
This includes external factors as appearance, texture, and flavour.
Location a place where something is or could be located.
Price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in
return for goods or services.
Service Quality- is an assessment of how well a delivered service conforms to the
clients expectations.

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in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY
Foreign Literature
The powerful fragmentation of consumers nowadays, represents a tendency that
should be taken into consideration, in order to identify and improve the quality
dimensions of the products which are important for each category of consumers.
Young people are not concerned with food preparation and that is why, they
prefer to go out for their meals. They usually go to fast-food restaurants, especially
when there is nobody to cook for them (while they study away from home) and also
when they want to socialize.

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in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

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Although they have the necessary knowledge about the nutritional value of food
and its effects on their body, they dont act accordingly. Fast-food restaurants are
famous because they served the food very fast, they are cheap and they easily replace
homemade food. Although people, who are usually very busy working, find fast-foods
advantageous, we should all be aware of the fact that fast-food products are high in
calories, fats, sugar and salt. Even so, young people admit that it is very difficult for
them to change their food habits especially because they dont have time and discipline
to do it.
Fast-food is the fastest growing industry in the world and in Romania, especially
in the urban areas (big and small ones). However, there are only a few things written
about the consumers preferences regarding fast-food products, especially in Romania.
(Ispas, A. & Untaru, E. 2012)
Foreign Study
Differences in consumer Attitude towards Selective Fast Food Restaurants in
Bangladesh: An Implication of Multi attributes Attitude Model
Fast Food has increasingly become popular in Bangladesh with the effect of
globalization. Many people, specifically the younger generation are consuming various
types of fast foods everyday as these are convenient, time saving and tasty.
Consumers choice of a particular restaurant depends on many factors, i.e. quality,
variation, location, price, environment, and many more aspects. Thus the consumer
evaluation is important to explore why a consumer visits a particular restaurant. The
present study is an attempt to find out the differences in consumers attitude towards

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

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selective fast food restaurants in Bangladesh. To fulfil this objective, the study explores
the most frequent salient beliefs of consumers regarding the fast food restaurants in
Bangladesh, which are quality, price, quick service, and environment of the restaurants.
Based on the salient beliefs, multi attribute attitude model has been developed and
tested in four restaurants; these are Pizza Hut, KFC, Helvetia, and Western Grill, which
are found as most visited fast food restaurants according to the consumers. For this
study Fishbein multi-attribute attitude model is used. Structured questionnaire survey is
evaluation of salient beliefs. The result explores that consumers have the most
favourable towards Pizza Hut and the least favourable attitude towards Helvetia.
Significant differences are found among these four restaurants in terms of belief
evaluations about quality, price, quick service, and environment. It is also found that
consumers have most favourable evaluation about Pizza Huts food quality and
environment, and KFCs food prize and prompt services. At the end of the paper, some
recommendations are made based on study results. (Tabassum, A & Rahman, T May
2012)
According to Goyal A and Singh N.P (2007) research study, this paper seeks to
estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian
young consumers. The study applies multivariate statistical tools to estimate importance
of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. In
addition, the authors analysed the consumption patterns, impact of hygiene and
nutritional values, and rating of various attributes of McDonald's and Nirula's.Results
indicate that the young Indian consumer has passion for visiting fast food outlets for fun
and change but home food is their first choice. They feel homemade food is much better

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


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than food served at fast food outlets. They have the highest value for taste and quality
(nutritional values) followed by ambience and hygiene. Three dimensions (service and
delivery dimension, product dimension, and quality dimension) of fast food outlets'
attributes are identified based on factor analysis results. The two fast food outlets' rating
differs significantly on the seven attributes. McDonald's scores are higher on all
attributes except variety. Further, consumers feel that fast food outlets must provide
additional information on nutritional values and hygiene conditions inside kitchen. Fast
food providers need to focus on quality and variety of food besides other service
parameters. There is need to communicate the information about hygiene and nutrition
value of fast food which will help in building trust in the food provided by fast food
players. Originality/value, estimates importance of various factors affecting the choice of
fast food outlets by Indian young consumers.
Local Study
Statement of the problem, this study is focuses on the preferences of the BSBA
Marketing 3rd year students on how theyre going to decide of what fast food chain they
will choose in terms of: Product, Place, Price, Promotional Activities, and Service. Sub
problem, what is the demographic profile of the respondents?

Age, Gender Sub

problem, in what fast food chain they prefer to eat? Jollibee, McDonalds, Chowking,
KFC, Mang Inasal, Greenwich, Chic-boy. Sub problem, what factors that they take
consider in choosing a fast food chain? product, place, price, promotional activities,
service. Hypothesis of the study, There is a significance of knowing the factors in
choosing a fast food chain of BSBA - MM 3rd Year Students for them to be able to find
the rightful store that will suit their preferences. Significance of the study, this study

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

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aimed to determine the factors affecting the preferences of BSBA-Marketing 3rd year
students in choosing a fast food chain on selected area in Sta. Rosa. These studies with
benefits the following: For the students: for them to choose the right fast food chain that
will fit to their references. For the professor: To have an idea on what factors affecting
the preferences of the student in choosing a fast food chain. (Bebeba1234 August
2013)
Relevance of Related Literature and Study
The relevance of the related literature and study is that they were both discussing
what is the most preferred of the consumers in choosing fast food chain or the factors
they were going to look for to satisfy their needs and wants.
Differences in consumer Attitude towards Selective Fast Food Restaurants in
Bangladesh: An Implication of Multi attribute Attitude Model, discuss about consumers
attitude which affects them in choosing fast food restaurants they were going to eat.
Towards consumers attitude they will notice what is the type of fast food restaurants
they preferred to eat together of their family, friends or love ones. This topic also
discusses what are the factors affect them in choosing fast food chain also they are
going to analyze the different kinds of consumers attitude.
The powerful fragmentation of consumers nowadays, represents a tendency that
should be taken into consideration, in order to identify and improve the quality
dimensions of the products which are important for each category of consumers. It talks
about on consumers in the new generation that becomes busy and find fast food
restaurant advantageous for them. They preferred fast food restaurant because of it is

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

15

cheap, served the food very fast and easily replace home-made food. These are some
factors or we can say that this one of the factors on how they choose and preferred to
eat in a fast food restaurants. We notice that consumers tend to buy food for their
convenience and practicality, but they do not care much about health effects of it
because it becomes their habit.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter contains the discussion of the researcher design used,
selected population and sample size, description of the respondents, instrumentation
and procedures.
Research Method
The researchers used the Descriptive Research Method specifically the Survey
Method in obtaining facts and information for this study. In this study, the general and
specific problems centred on factors that influences the consumers in choosing fast
food.

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Descriptive research is one major category of the descriptive studies. It is


concerned with the analysis development of generalizations, extending its conclusions
beyond the sample observed. This definition led the researchers to use the method
which is the most in-depth of all the different types of activity under the descriptive
studies. The other two major categories which in point of fact do not show researchs
fullness are the assessment and evaluation. Unlike descriptive research, assessment
only describes the status of a phenomenon at a particular time without value judgement,
explanation of reasons or underlying causes, or recommendations for action. Different
also is the evaluation for the fact that it only adds to description or social utility and may
only suggest a course of action. Yet still, there are no generalizations after the
evaluation of the situation. (Best 1981; ERIC Digest 2003-2007)
Evaluative research is concerned with the assessment of policies, programs or
institutional frameworks. Evaluative research evaluates: it judges, assesses, or
measures something in relation to outcomes or requirements. If you want to know how
well a policy has worked, or how well a program is performing, or whether a practice is
effective or successful, or what the outcomes of a given policy are, youre doing
Evaluative research. Research questions in Evaluative research ask measurement or
performance questions like How much,how well,or outcome questions pertaining to
impact or results. Think of this paradigm as a scale or calculator, measuring
somethings characteristics, growth, or performance. (Research Paradigms, Lauren F.
Wollman, PhD)
This type of research design will help to give the nature and extent of
consumers preferences on choosing fast food chain. Through the descriptive research

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17

design, the study will broaden the discussion of the factors that influences consumers
on choosing fast food chain.
The researcher used descriptive-evaluative as a research design. It is focus in a
description of the consumer in terms of the age, gender, marital status as well as to their
income status. The researcher also considered evaluative research because it aimed to
measure the consumer preferences and factors upon choosing a fast food chain.
Population and Sample Size
The target population was the consumers from different selected SM Malls in
Metro Manila. The average population size based on the traffic count of selected SM
malls in Metro Manila are 40,000 in Southmall, 200,000 in SM Mall of Asia, 70,000 in
SM Makati, 180,000in SM Megamall and 240,000 in SM North Edsa. This study will be
using convenience sampling to obtain the sample size from the population size. The
sample size of the study is composed of 400 consumer-respondents.
The Slovins Formula was used to determine the sample size. The formula is:

S=

N
2
1+ N (e)

Where:

S = sample size
N= population size
e= marginal error of 0.05

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

The computation:

18

0.05
730,000
S=

1 + 730,000 ( 2

730,000
=400 respondents
1,826

Sampling Technique
The sampling procedures according to Ghauri & Gronhaug (2010) have
categorized the sampling method into two broad types which are probability and nonprobability samples. For our sampling procedures, we have chosen the non-probability
sample because it is not possible to make valid inferences about the population. We
have chosen a convenience sampling in order to save time and cost since we decide to
give the questionnaire randomly in selected SM malls.
Description of the Respondents
In this research, the respondents were consumers of both gender who
particularly buy and eat in fast food stores located in selected SM Malls in Metro Manila
including SM Mall of Asia, SM Makati, SM North Edsa, SM Megamall and SM
Southmall. These respondents who are students, employed and unemployed of different
age group.
Instrumentation
According to Ghauri & Gronhaug (2010) have cited the survey and
questionnaires are among the most popular in business studies and the major types of

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questionnaires are descriptive and analytical since different surveys lead to different
problems and issues
In this study, the researchers integrated the knowledge from the hypothesis in
order to formulate the questionnaire. Also the precise wording of questionnaire is
considered in achieving validity of survey information collected through direct asking the
questions.
The format of questionnaire the researchers had constructed are composed of
multiple choice or checklist and ranking. The part 1 of the questionnaire was to identify
the demographic profile of our respondents in order to know the significance of this
towards consumer preferences. The part 2 was the section applying with checklist in
order to ask people about their perspective, moreover this kind of questions helps to
know for the consumer eating pattern and able to analyze consumption behavior. The
part 3 aimed to level the variables through ranking in determining the most and least
important factors in choosing fast food stores.

Data Gathering and Procedures


The data collection methods were introduced to apply for gathering the data for
the study of choosing a fast food chain. The primary and secondary data were preferred
due to the reliability and efficiency of the data evaluation. The primary data were
collected from the survey questionnaire itself while the secondary data were collected
from the books, articles and/or internet.

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In this research, relevant data were collected from primary data which is the
survey questionnaires. The survey method is the gathering of data from a comparatively
large number of cases at a particular time. This does not give concern with the traits of
each case but with the generalized result or statistics abstracted from a number of
individual cases. Also, prior to that, it should first have clearly defined problem and
definite objectives. Then, it is one important type of study the researchers must not be
confused with the other data gathering techniques. (Best, 1981; ERIC Digest 20032007)
Moreover, another data gathering was through survey questionnaires comprising
of 3 questions which primarily focuses on respondents preferences in choosing fast
food stores. The questionnaires used to determine the preferences of respondents to
the fast food store. After the questionnaires validated by the professor, these were
countered in consumers from selected SM malls in Metro Manila. A good approach for
respondents was first observed. The researchers assured confidentiality of their survey
sheets. The researchers also understood that consumers consciousness may also
affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the researchers
gave the option of being anonymous. As well as the participants gave a time to respond.
Afterwards, the researchers collected the surveys as soon as it was finished by the
respondents. There were no incentives offered for participating in the research.
The secondary data were collected from books as well as related study and
literature of various local and/or foreign authors which provided different facts that can
be useful for this study. Internet helped the researcher in a way of providing related

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information and different thoughts and ideas from random people through the feedbacks
that they are giving.
Statistical Treatment of Data
1. Percentage. This is used to determine and describe the demographic profile
of the consumer-respondents of selected SM Malls in Metro Manila as well as
their fast food consumption. The formula is:
f
P= x 100
n
Where:

P = Percentage
f = frequency
n = number of respondents
2. Frequency. This is the ratio of the actual number of the favourable events to
the total possible number of events.
3. Ranking. This is used to determine the total order of the factors from the
most to least important factors.
4. Chi-Square Test of Association. This is used to establish the independence
of variables as well as determine the significance of the relationship between
two variables. Cross tabulation of the two variables in question is taken.
Expected frequencies (E) are calculated using the formula:
( row total x column total)
Expected Frequency=
grand total

The formula for Chi-Square Statistic:

X 2=

Where:

(OE)
E

O = observed frequencies
E= expected frequencies

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CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
This chapter presents the

different tables and

graphs, analysis and

interpretations of the organized data collected from the consumer-respondents in


selected SM smalls. Each set of data was analyzed and interpreted in the context of the
study that aimed to evaluate the factors that influences the consumers in choosing fast
food chain. The corresponding tables were presented in sequence to give further clarity
on data presentation and analysis. The questionnaire is attached as Appendix A.

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The association of variables stated in proposed hypotheses is tested suing the


Chi-square test. The exact calculated chi-square values and the comparison with table
values, as against the given significant level and degrees of freedom are given in the
respective tables of the appendix.
1. The demographic profile of the consumer-respondents, according to:
1.1 Age;
1.2 Gender;
1.3 Civil Status, and;
1.4 Occupational Status

Table 1
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Age
Category

Frequency

Percentage

Adolescence (13-19)

121

30.25

Young Adult (20-39)

241

60.25

Middle Adult (40-59)

34

8.50

Senior Citizen (60 and above)

1.00

400

100.00

Total

Table 1 presented the profile of the respondents in terms of age. Data showed
that majority of the respondents (about 60.25%) are young adult consumers. There
were about 30.25% who are adolescence, 8.50% who were middle adult and 1.00%
who were senior citizen. Moreover, it implied that the consumers comprising the
population sample of this study fits the rationality of the consumers.
Table 2

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Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Gender


Category
Female
Male
Total

Frequency
228
172
400

Percentage
57.00
43.00
100.00

Shown in Table 2 is the profile of respondents in terms of gender. There are


about 57.00% of female consumers that comprised the population sample while the
remaining 43.00% are males. Further, it shows that there are more females than males
who responded in this study.
Table 3
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Civil Status
Category
Single
Married
Separated
Widowed
Total

Frequency
298
86
12
4
400

Percentage
74.50
21.50
3.00
1.00
100.00

Table 3 displayed the profile of respondents in terms of civil status. Majority of the
respondents were about 74.50% who were single while there were 21.50% who were
married, 3.00% who were separated and 1.00% who were widowed. Moreover, there
are more single than the others who involved in the population sample who answered in
this study.
Table 4
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Occupational Status
Category
Employed
Unemployed
Student
Total

Frequency
187
52
161
400

Percentage
46.75
13.00
40.25
100.00

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Showed in Table 4 is the profile of the respondents in terms of their occupational


status. There were about 46.75% consumers were employed that comprised the
population sample while the remaining 13.00% and 40.25% where unemployed and
student, respectively. Further, it showed that there are more employed than unemployed
and student who responded in this study.

Question #1. How often do you eat on a fast food store?


Figure 1
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Age
160
140
120
100

Frequency

80
60
40
20
0

Adolescence

Young Adult

Middle Adult

Senior

Exhibited in Figure 1 is the manifestation of the frequency of the consumers in


fast food consumption in terms of age. Majority of the respondents in every age bracket

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tend to eat in a fast food chain once a week. There are about 62.81% (76 out of 121) of
adolescents, 60.59% (146 out of 241) of young adult, 61.76% (21 out of 34) of middle
adult and all the seniors replied once a week.
Through the chi-square statistic for the sample data falls within the critical limit while
observing the independence of age groups and the frequency of fast food consumption,
the cross tabulation reveals significant facts.
1. Hypothesis Testing
Ho: age = consumption
H1: age consumption
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (4-1)(3-1)=6; c.v. = 12.592
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 12.592
Accept Ho if Xobs 12.592
5. Computation:
O

O-E

(O-E)2

76
40
5
146
81
14
21
9
4
4
0
0

74.718
39.325
6.958
148.818
78.325
13.858
20.995
11.05
1.955
2.47
1.3
0.23

1.282
0.675
-1.958
-2.818
2.675
0.142
0.005
-2.05
2.045
1.53
-1.3
-0.23

1.644
0.456
3.834
7.941
7.156
0.020
0.000
4.203
4.182025
2.3409
1.69
0.0529

-0.002

4E-06

( O-E)2
E
0.022
0.012
0.551
0.053
0.091
0.001
1E-06
0.38
2.139
0.948
1.3
0.23
( O-E)2
=
E
5.7

28

X2= 5.728
X=5.728

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

27

X=2.393
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (2.393) is less than the critical
value (12.592). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the age and fast food
consumption of the consumers.
8. Interpretation: Therefore, the age of the consumer respondents doesnt affect
their fast food consumption.

Figure 2
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Gender

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

28

160
140
120
100
Frequency

80
60
40
20
0

Male

Female

Exhibited in Figure 2 showed the Males dont usually eat on a fast food because
61.63% (106 out of 172) of the male respondents answered once a week as well as the
majority of the female respondents which is 61.84% (141 out of 228).
1. Hypothesis Testing
Ho: gender = consumption
H1: gender consumption
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (2-1)(3-1)=2; c.v. = 5.991
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 5.991
Accept Ho if Xobs 5.991
5. Computation:
2

O-E

(O-E)

141
75
12
106
55
11

140.79
74.1
13.11
106.21
55.9
9.89

0.21
0.9
-1.11
-0.21
-0.9
1.11

0.044
0.810
1.232
0.044
0.810
1.232

( O-E)
E

3E-04
0.011
0.094
4E-04
0.014
0.125

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

2.1E-14

4.172

29

( O-E)2
=
E
0.2

45

X2= 0.245
X=0.245
X=0.495
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (0.495) is less than the critical
value (5.991). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the gender and fast food
consumption of the respondents.
8. Interpretation: Therefore, the gender of the consumer doesnt affect their fast
food consumption

Figure 3
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Civil Status

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

30

200
180
160
140
120
Frequency

100
80
60
40
20
0

Single

Married

Separated

Widowed

Figure 3 presents the fast food consumption according to their civil status. There
are the majority of 57.72% (172 out of 298) of singles, 73.26% (63 out of 86) of married,
100.00% (4 out of 4) of separated and 66.67 (8 out of 12) of widowed.

Hypothesis Testing

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

31

1. Ho: c.s. = consumption


H1: c.s. consumption
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (4-1)(3-1)=6; c.v. = 12.592
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 12.592
Accept Ho if Xobs 12.592
5. Computation:
2

O-E

(O-E)

172
107
19
63
19
4
8
4
0
4
0
0

184.015
96.85
17.135
53.105
27.95
4.945
7.41
3.9
0.67
2.47
1.3
0.23

-12.015
10.15
1.865
9.895
-8.95
-0.945
0.59
0.1
-0.67
1.53
-1.3
-0.23

144.360
103.023
3.478
97.911
80.103
0.893
0.348
0.010
0.4489
2.3409
1.69
0.0529

0.02

0.0004

( O-E)2
E
0.785
1.064
0.203
1.844
2.866
0.181
0.047
0.003
0.67
0.948
1.3
0.23
( O-E)2
=
E
10.

14

X2= 10.14
X=10.14
X=3.184
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (3.184) is less than the critical
value (12.592). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the civil status and fast
food consumption of the respondents.
8. Interpretation: Therefore, the civil status of the consumer doesnt affect their fast
food consumption

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

32

Figure 4
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Occupational Status
120

100

80

Frequency

60

40

20

Employed

Unemployed

Student

Presented in Figure 4 is the profile of the respondents according to their


occupational status. Most of the respondents tend to eat once a week wherein 57.75%
(108 out of 187) of employed, 73.08% (37 out of 52) of unemployed and 62.73% of
students replied.

Hypothesis Testing
1. Ho: o.s. = consumption
H1: o.s. consumption
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (3-1)(3-1)=4; c.v. = 9.488
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 9.488

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

33

Accept Ho if Xobs 9.488


5. Computation:
O

O-E

(O-E)2

108
66
13
38
12
2
101
52
8

115.473
60.775
10.753
32.11
16.9
2.99
99.418
52.325
9.258

-7.473
5.225
2.247
5.89
-4.9
-0.99
1.582
-0.325
-1.258

55.846
27.301
5.049
34.692
24.010
0.980
2.503
0.106
1.582564

-0.002

4E-06

( O-E)
E

0.484
0.449
0.47
1.08
1.421
0.328
0.025
0.002
0.171
2
( O-E)
=
E
4.4

29

X2= 4.429
X=4.429
X=2.105
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (2.105) is less than the critical
value of 9.488. Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between occupational status and
fast food consumption of the consumers.
8. Interpretation: therefore, the occupational status of the consumer respondents
doesnt affect their fastfood consumption

Question 2. Which meal are you most likely to eat on a fast food store?

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

34

Figure 5
Frequency of Preferred Meal Time According to Age

140

120

100

80

Frequency
60

40

20

Adolescence

Young Adult

Middle Adult

Seniors

Based on the data gathered from the survey questionnaires, larger percentage
preferred lunch as their meal time for fast food consumption having 50.21% (121 of 241)
of young adult, 50.00% (17 of 34) of middle adult, 75.00% (3 out of 4) of middle adult as
well the adolescence 35.00% ( 42 of 121).

Hypothesis Testing
1. Ho: age = mealtime
H1: age mealtime
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (4-1)(4-1)=9; c.v. = 16.919
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 16.919
Accept Ho if Xobs 16.919
5. Computation:

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

O-E

(O-E)2

9
42
41
29
18
121
57
45
0
17
7
10
0
3
1
0

8.168
55.358
32.065
25.41
16.268
110.258
62.865
50.61
2.295
15.555
9.01
7.14
0.27
1.83
1.06
0.84

0.832
-13.358
8.935
3.59
1.732
10.742
-5.865
-5.61
-2.295
1.445
-2.01
2.86
-0.27
1.17
-0.06
-0.84

0.692
178.436
79.834
12.888
3.000
115.391
34.398
31.472
5.267
2.088
4.040
8.180
0.073
1.369
0.004
0.7056

0.998

0.996004

35

( O-E)2
E
0.085
3.223
2.49
0.507
0.184
1.047
0.547
0.622
2.295
0.134
0.448
1.146
0.27
0.748
0.003
0.84
( O-E)2
=
E
14.

59

X2= 14.59
X=14.59
X=3.82
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (3.82) is less than the critical value
(16.919). Therefore reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the age and the meal
time preferred of the consumer-respondents.
8. Interpretation: Therefore, the age of the consumer respondents doesnt affect
their meal time preferences.
Figure 6
Frequency of Preferred Meal Time According to Gender

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

36

120

100

80

Frequency

60

40

20

Male

Female

In terms of Gender, majority of the respondents preferred lunch as meal time for
fast food as shown in Figure 6. Majority of male respondents with 47.09% answered
Lunch followed by snack (24.42%), dinner (21.51%) and breakfast (6.98). Also, most of
the female respondents chose lunch (44.74%) followed by snack(28.07%) , dinner
(20.61%), and breakfast (6.58%).

Hypothesis Testing
1. Ho: gender = mealtime
H1: gender mealtime
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (2-1)(4-1)=3; c.v. = 7.815
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 7.815
Accept Ho if Xobs 7.815
5. Computation:

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

O-E

(O-E)2

15
102
64
47
12
81
42
37

15.39
104.31
60.42
47.88
11.61
78.69
45.58
36.12

-0.39
-2.31
3.58
-0.88
0.39
2.31
-3.58
0.88

0.152
5.336
12.816
0.774
0.152
5.336
12.816
0.774

37

( O-E)2
E
0.01
0.051
0.212
0.016
0.013
0.068
0.281
0.021
( O-E)2
=
E
0.6

73

X2= 0.673
X=0.673
X=0.259
6. Decision: Accept H0 since the computed value (0.259) is less than the critical
value (7.815). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the gender and the meal
time of the consumers in choosing fast food store.
8. Interpretation:Therefore, the gender of the consumer respondents doesnt affect
their meal time preferences.

Figure 7
Frequency of Preferred Meal Time According to Civil Status

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

38

140

120

100

80

Frequency
60

40

20

Single

Married

Separated

Widowed

In terms of Civil Status, most of the respondents answered Lunch as their


preferred meal time to have fast food aside from separated respondents that have
equally preferred lunch and dinner presented in Figure 7. Single respondents
answered lunch followed by snack, dinner and breakfast. Married respondents
answered lunch over dinner, snack and breakfast. Widowed respondents preferred
first is during lunch followed by snack time.

Hypothesis Testing
1. Ho: c.s.= mealtime
H1: c.s. mealtime
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (4-1)(4-1)=9; c.v. = 16.919
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 16.919
Accept Ho if Xobs 16.919
5. Computation:

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

O-E

(O-E)

25
132
84
57
2
41
18
25
0
8
3
1
0
2
0
2

20.115
136.335
78.225
63.325
5.805
39.345
22.575
18.275
0.81
5.49
3.15
2.55
0.27
1.83
1.05
0.85

4.885
-4.335
5.775
-6.325
-3.805
1.655
-4.575
6.725
-0.81
2.51
-0.15
-1.55
-0.27
0.17
-1.05
1.15

23.863
18.792
33.351
40.006
14.478
2.739
20.931
45.226
0.656
6.300
0.023
2.403
0.073
0.029
1.103
1.3225

39

( O-E)2
E
1.186
0.138
0.426
0.632
2.494
0.07
0.927
2.475
0.81
1.148
0.007
0.942
0.27
0.016
1.05
1.556
( O-E)2
=
E
14.

15

X2= 14.15
X=14.15
X=3.762
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (3.762) is less than the critical
value of (16.919). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the civil status and
preferred meal time in choosing fast food store.
8. Interpretation: The civil status of consumer respondents doesnt affect the meal
preferences.
Figure 8
Frequency of Preferred Meal Time According to Occupational Status

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

40

100
90
80
70
60

Frequency

50
40
30
20
10
0

Employed

Unemployed

Student

In terms of occupational status, employed, unemployed and studentsrespondents replied Lunch as time for fast food. Employed chose lunch over dinner,
snack and breakfast while unemployed and students answered lunch first over snack,
dinner and breakfast exhibited in Figure 8.

Hypothesis Thesis
1. Ho: o.s. = mealtime
H1: o.s. mealtime
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (3-1)(4-1)=6; c.v. = 12.592
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 12.592
Accept Ho if Xobs 12.592
5. Computation:
O

O-E

(O-E)

( O-E)2
E

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis
92
28
24
17
22
1
3
27
6
8
2
7
1
1
55
27
25
38
13
1
2

81.345
28.518
26.648
26.648
19.635
1.403
2.805
22.62
7.93
7.41
7.41
5.46
0.39
0.78
70.035
24.553
22.943
22.943
16.905
1.208
2.415

10.655
-0.518
-2.648
-9.648
2.365
-0.403
0.195
4.38
-1.93
0.59
-5.41
1.54
0.61
0.22
-15.035
2.447
2.057
15.057
-3.905
-0.208
-0.415

113.529
0.268
7.012
93.084
5.593
0.162
0.038
19.184
3.725
0.348
29.268
2.372
0.372
0.048
226.051
5.987809
4.231249
226.7132
15.24903
0.043264
0.172225

-0.004

1.6E-05

41

1.396
0.009
0.263
3.493
0.285
0.116
0.014
0.848
0.47
0.047
3.95
0.434
0.954
0.062
3.228
0.244
0.184
9.882
0.902
0.036
0.071
( O-E)2
=
E
26.

89

X2= 20.29
X=20.29
X=4.504
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (4.504) is less than the critical
value of 12.592. Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between occupational status and
preferred meal time of consumer in choosing fast food store.
8. Interpretation: the occupational status of consumer respondent doesnt affect
their meal time preference

Question # 3. Which fast food does you preferred most on a fast food store?
Figure 9
Frequency of Preferred Fast Food According to Age

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

42

120

100

80

Frequency

60

40

20

Adolescence

Young Adult

Middle Adult

Seniors

The data gathered showed in Figure 9 is the preferred fast food in a store
according to their age. Adolescence chose chicken over fries, pizza, burger and pasta.
Young Adult preferred most chicken followed by pizza, burger, pasta, fries, others aside
from given and hotdog. Middle Adult-respondents answered chicken than burger, pasta,
pizza, fires and others. Seniors preferred chicken followed by pizza and hotdog.
Moreover, most of the respondents even in different age groups preferred Chicken as
fast food in choosing fast food store.

Hypothesis Testing
1. Ho: age = fastfood
H1: age fastfood
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (4-1)(7-1)=18; c.v. = 28.869

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis
4. Decision rule:

43

Reject Ho if Xobs 28.869


Accept Ho if Xobs 28.869

5. Computation:
O

O-E

(O-E)2

43
19
18
32
8
0
1
113
38
32
24
28
2
4
16
3
7
1
6
0
1
2
1
0
0
0
1
0

52.635
18.453
17.243
17.243
12.705
0.908
1.815
104.835
36.753
34.343
34.343
25.305
1.808
3.615
14.79
5.185
4.845
4.845
3.57
0.255
0.51
1.74
0.61
0.57
0.57
0.42
0.03
0.06

-9.635
0.547
0.757
14.757
-4.705
-0.908
-0.815
8.165
1.247
-2.343
-10.343
2.695
0.192
0.385
1.21
-2.185
2.155
-3.845
2.43
-0.255
0.49
0.26
0.39
-0.57
-0.57
-0.42
0.97
-0.06

92.833
0.299
0.573
217.769
22.137
0.824
0.664
66.667
1.555
5.490
106.978
7.263
0.037
0.148
1.464
4.774225
4.644025
14.78403
5.9049
0.065025
0.2401
0.0676
0.1521
0.3249
0.3249
0.1764
0.9409
0.0036

-0.004

1.6E-05

( O-E)
E

1.764
0.016
0.033
12.63
1.742
0.908
0.366
0.636
0.042
0.16
3.115
0.287
0.02
0.041
0.099
0.921
0.959
3.051
1.654
0.255
0.471
0.039
0.249
0.57
0.57
0.42
31.36
0.06

( O-E)2
=
E

62.

44

X2= 62.44
X=62.44
X=7.902
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (7.902) is less than the critical
value (28.869). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the age and fast food
preferred by consumers in a fast food store.
8. Interpretation: Therefore, the age of the consumer respondent doesnt affect their
most preferred fast food.

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

44

Figure 10
Frequency of Preferred Fast Food According to Gender

100
90
80
70
60

Frequency

50
40
30
20
10
0

Male

Female

As shown in Figure 10, preferred fast food in a store is tabulated according to


their gender. Most Male-respondents considered Chicken as their most preferred
fast food followed by burger, pizza, fries, pasta, others aside from the given fast food
and last is hotdog. Also, female-respondents answered chicken as their preferred
fast food followed by fries, pizza, pasta, burger, others and hotdog.

Hypothesis Testing

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

45

1. Ho: gender = fastfood


H1: gender fastfood
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (2-1)(7-1)=6; c.v. = 12.592
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 12.592
Accept Ho if Xobs 12.592
5. Computation:
2

O-E

(O-E)

84
38
27
44
30
2
3
90
23
30
13
12
1
3

99.18
34.77
32.49
32.49
23.94
1.71
3.42
74.82
26.23
24.51
24.51
18.06
1.29
2.58

-15.18
3.23
-5.49
11.51
6.06
0.29
-0.42
15.18
-3.23
5.49
-11.51
-6.06
-0.29
0.42

230.432
10.433
30.140
132.480
36.724
0.084
0.176
230.432
10.433
30.140
132.480
36.724
0.084
0.176

400

880.939

( O-E)2
E
2.323
0.3
0.928
4.078
1.534
0.049
0.052
3.08
0.398
1.23
5.405
2.033
0.065
0.068
( O-E)2
=
E
21.

54

X2= 21.54
X=21.54
X=4.641
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (4.641) is less than the critical
value (12.592). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the gender and fast food
preferred of the consumers in choosing fast food store.
8. Interpretation: Therefore, the gender of the consumer respondent doesnt affect
their most preferred fastfood

Figure 11

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

46

Frequency of Preferred Fast Food According to Civil Status

140

120

100

80

Frequency
60

40

20

Single

Married

Separated

Widowed

Showed in Figure 11 is the preferred fast food according to civil status. Singlesrespondents chose chicken over fries, pizza, burger, pasta and others. Marriedrespondents mostly answered Chicken followed by pizza, others, burger and fries.
All separated-respondents preferred Chicken as fast food as well as the widowedrespondents. Furthermore, it can be implied that Chicken is the most preferred fast
food in choosing a store by respondents in terms of civil status.

Hypothesis Testing
1. Ho: c.s. = fastfood
H1: c.s. fastfood
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (4-1)(7-1)=18; c.v. = 28.869

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis
4. Decision rule:

47

Reject Ho if Xobs 28.869


Accept Ho if Xobs 28.869

5. Computation:
( O-E)
E

0.245
0.046
0.007
2.141
0.168
0.682
0.063
0.068
0.635
0.045
4.295
0.977
0.195
1.29
1.481
0.376
0.295
1.71
1.26
9.201
3.736
0.912
0.61
0.57
0.57
0.801
0.03
0.06

O-E

(O-E)

124
44
43
52
29
1
5
39
16
13
5
12
1
0
8
1
1
0
0
1
1
3
0
0
0
1
0
0

129.63
45.445
42.465
42.465
31.29
2.235
4.47
37.41
13.115
12.255
12.255
9.03
0.645
1.29
5.22
1.83
1.71
1.71
1.26
0.09
0.18
1.74
0.61
0.57
0.57
0.42
0.03
0.06

-5.63
-1.445
0.535
9.535
-2.29
-1.235
0.53
1.59
2.885
0.745
-7.255
2.97
0.355
-1.29
2.78
-0.83
-0.71
-1.71
-1.26
0.91
0.82
1.26
-0.61
-0.57
-0.57
0.58
-0.03
-0.06

31.697
2.088
0.286
90.916
5.244
1.525
0.281
2.528
8.323
0.555
52.635
8.821
0.126
1.664
7.728
0.6889
0.5041
2.9241
1.5876
0.8281
0.6724
1.5876
0.3721
0.3249
0.3249
0.3364
0.0009
0.0036

8.6E-16

7.4E-31

( O-E)2
=
E
32

.47

X = 32.47
X=32.47
X=5.698
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (5.698) is less than the critical
value (28.869). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the civil status and the
choice of fast food in choosing fast food store by the consumers.
8. Interpretation:Therefore, the civil status of the consumer respondent doesnt
affect their most preffered fast food.
Figure 12
Frequency of Preferred Fast Food According to Occupational Status

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

48

100
90
80
70
60

Frequency

50
40
30
20
10
0

Employed

Unemployed

Student

Manifested in Figure 12 is the preferred fast food in terms of occupational status.


Majority of the Employed-respondents answered Chicken followed by pizza, burger,
pasta, fries, others and hotdog. Unemployed-respondents chose chicken over burger,
pasta, pizza, fries, hotdog and others. Student-respondents replied chicken followed by
Fries, Pizza, Burger, Pasta, others and hotdog. Moreover, Chicken is the preferred fast
food by the employed, unemployed and students.

Hypothesis Testing

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


in Selected SM Malls in Metro Manila: An Analysis

49

1. Ho: o.s. = fastfood


H1: o.s. fastfood
2. Statistical test: Chi-square test of association
3. = 0.05 level: df= (3-1)(7-1)=12; c.v. = 21.026
4. Decision rule:
Reject Ho if Xobs 21.026
Accept Ho if Xobs 21.026
5. Computation:
2

O-E

(O-E)

92
28
24
17
22
1
3
27
6
8
2
7
1
1
55
27
25
38
13
1
2

81.345
28.518
26.648
26.648
19.635
1.403
2.805
22.62
7.93
7.41
7.41
5.46
0.39
0.78
70.035
24.553
22.943
22.943
16.905
1.208
2.415

10.655
-0.518
-2.648
-9.648
2.365
-0.403
0.195
4.38
-1.93
0.59
-5.41
1.54
0.61
0.22
-15.035
2.447
2.057
15.057
-3.905
-0.208
-0.415

113.529
0.268
7.012
93.084
5.593
0.162
0.038
19.184
3.725
0.348
29.268
2.372
0.372
0.048
226.051
5.987809
4.231249
226.7132
15.24903
0.043264
0.172225

-0.004

1.6E-05

( O-E)2
E
1.396
0.009
0.263
3.493
0.285
0.116
0.014
0.848
0.47
0.047
3.95
0.434
0.954
0.062
3.228
0.244
0.184
9.882
0.902
0.036
0.071
( O-E)2
=
E
26

.89

X2= 26.89
X=26.89
X=5.186
6. Decision: Accept Ho since the computed value (5.186) is less than the critical
value (21.026). Therefore, reject H1.
7. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the occupational status
and the choice of fast food in choosing fast food store by the consumers.

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


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50

8. Interpretation: Therefore, the occupational status of consumer respondent


doesnt affect their most preferred fast food.

Question # 4. Based on the following factors, rank the given, in which 1 is the most
important and 6 is the least important in your preferred fast food store.
Table 5
Quality of Food
Variety of Food
Price of Food
Convenience of Location
Ambience/ Atmosphere
Service Quality

Total

Rank

234
21
82
18
9
36

96
64
115
23
27
75

40
108
73
49
33
97

17
83
47
71
92
90

8
57
43
123
117
52

5
67
40
116
122
50

684
1492
1174
1806
1847
1397

1
4
2
5
6
3

In Table 5, it showed the ranking of the consumer-respondents to the given


factors that quality of food is the most influential factor that affects the consumer in
choosing their preferred fast food chain followed by the price of the food, service quality,
variety of food, convenience of food, and with the least which is ambience/ atmosphere.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarizes the study by highlighting the research conducted on the
topic. The conclusions given were drawn from the outcomes of the questionnaires and
evaluation on the top factor that highly considered by consumers on choosing fast food
chain. Moreover, recommendations were based from the findings and conclusion of the
study.

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General Summary of the Study


This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the most and least
important factor of the consumers in choosing a fast food store, as well as their
preferences in terms on their demographic profile, and perception. Consistently, the
inquiry delved to prove if there is significant relationship between: occupational status
and frequency of fast food consumption; gender and frequency of fast food
consumption; age and frequency of fast food consumption; as well as civil status and
frequency of fast food consumption. The study is a descriptive and evaluative research.
Convenience sampling was used to obtain the sample size from the population
size. Further, the sample size was composed of 400 respondents, who were considered
as a consumer in selected SM malls within Metro Manila. Moreover, questionnaire was
served as an instrument to collect the data that were needed. However, all relevant data
were also gathered from books, as well as the related study and literature of various
local and/or foreign authors. Furthermore, through the use of the internet, minor
information regarding this research were accumulated appropriately. Also, ranking,
frequency, percentage, and chi-square were the statistical treatments applied for the
study.
The inquisition was conducted during the year 2014-2015.
Summary of Findings
This research analyzes the factors that influence the consumers in choosing fast
food store. The general purpose of this study was covered on how to evaluate the
factors that could be improved and developed for the satisfaction of the consumers as

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


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52

well as perceiving the present concept about consumers preferences in choosing fast
food chain.
1. What is the frequency of fast food consumption of the consumer-respondents in
terms of:
1.1
Age
Majority of the respondents in every age bracket tend to eat in a fast food
chain once a week. There are about 61.79% (76 out of 123) of adolescents,
60.42% (145 out of 240) of young adult, 63.64% (21 out of 33) of middle adult
and all the seniors replied once a week.
1.2

Gender
The data showed the Males dont usually eat on a fast food store because

57.53% (107 out of 186) of the male respondents answered once a week as well
as the majority of the female respondents which is 64.95% (139 out of 214).
1.3
Civil Status
There are the majority of 58.11% (172 out of 296) of singles, 69.67% (62
out of 89) of married, 75.00% (9 out of 12) of separated and 100% (3 out of 3) of
widowed.
1.4

Occupational Status
There are the majority of 58.11% (172 out of 296) of singles, 69.67% (62

out of 89) of married, 75.00% (9 out of 12) of separated and 100% (3 out of 3) of
widowed.
2. What is the preferred meal time that consumers tend to eat in fast food chain?
The data showed that 46% (184 of 400) among respondents tend to eat
on fast food chain for lunch. This shows a greater percentage than the 26.25%
(105 of 400) for lunch; 21.25% (85 of 400) for dinner and 6.5% (26 of 400) for
breakfast.
3. What is the preferred fast food of the consumers?

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The data gathered shows that 43% (172 of 400) of the respondents
preferred chicken in a fast food. Both pizza and fries got 15% (60 of 400) among
respondents choice. Also,14% (56 of 400) and 10% (40 of 400). However, 1% (4
of 400) answered while 2% (8 of 400) for others.
4. What is the most and least important factor to consumers in choosing fast food
store?
The data showed quality of food is the most influential factor that affects the
consumer in choosing their preferred fast food chain followed by the price of the
food, service quality, variety of food, convenience of food, and with the least which is
ambience/ atmosphere as the respondents ranked it.
Conclusions
The researchers were able to arrive at these conclusions based on the findings
of the study.
1. The demographic profile of the respondents are as follows:
1.1 In terms of age, majority of consumer-respondents are young adult.
1.2 When it comes to gender, most respondents who participated in this study
are female.
1.3 A great number of respondents, in terms of civil status, are single.
1.4 Most of consumer-respondents when it comes to occupational status are
employed. However, its not far to the number of students who also
participated.
2. The perception of the respondents along with the following variables are as
follows:
2.1 A great number of consumer-respondents preferred to eat in a fast food chain
once a week.

Consumers Preferences in Choosing Fast Food Store


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54

2.2 There are a lot among of consumer-respondents who participated in this


study tend to eat in a fast food chain during lunch time.
2.3 Most of consumer-respondents looks for fast food chain that offers chicken
3.

meals.
Based on the study, age, frequency of fast food consumption, preferred meal

time, and type of fast food are not related to each other.
4. From the results, gender has nothing to do with the frequency of fast food
consumption, preferred meal time, and type of fast food.
5. The findings stated that civil status has no significant relationship with the
frequency of fast food consumption, preferred meal time, and type of fast food.
6. For the majority consumer-respondents, the most important factor to consider in
choosing fast food chain is the food quality while the least important factor for
them is the ambience.
Recommendations
Based on the foregoing findings of the study, the following recommendations are
presented:
1. To fast food stores to come up with promotional and advertising activities that
consider young adults as their main prospect.
2. To fast food stores to include chicken dishes in their menu since the result stated
that chicken is the most preferred fast food by the consumers. Also, they should offer
great meals primarily during lunch time since this is the meal time that consumer
prefer most when going to a fast food chain.
3. To fast food stores to focused more on food quality primarily as consumers
emphasized on this study as the most important factor in choosing fast food store.
Though ambience is the least important, fast food stores should still have
considerations with ambience. Moreover, they must also be aware on the other
certain

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55

points and factors such as price and service quality. This might help to increase the
relationship towards consumers.
4. To students to be aware on different consumer behavior that affect their buying
behavior.
5. To fast food managers for improvement of factors that is primarily influences the
consumers on choosing fast food;
6. To marketing department of fast food companies that would be aware of the certain
factors in targeting market consumer;
7. To industry for perceiving the present concept about consumers preferences in
choosing fast food chain;
8. To other researchers for conducting another study targeting different area and obtain
a comparative study for the factors that influences the consumers on SM Malls
within Metro Manila and outside the area.