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MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH

SPEED CAR- A CASE STUDY


Seminar ID: 636
A Technical Seminar Report
submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the B.Tech.
Under Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela.
Submitted By

RAJAT KUMAR SAMANTRAY

RollNo#MECH201110184

SEPTEMBER - 2014

Under the guidance of

Prof. Ramesh Chandra Das

APEX INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT


Pahala, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 752101, India
APEX INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT

Pahala, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 752101, India

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar work entitled MATERIAL
SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY is a bonafide
work being done by Rajat Kumar Samantray bearing Registration No.
1101314145 of MECHANICAL branch.
This seminar report is submitted in partial fulfillment for the
requirement of the B.Tech degree under Biju Patnaik University of
Technology, Rourkela, Odisha.

(Prof. RAMESH CHANDRA DAS)


Seminar Guide

(Mrs. T Mita Kumari)


Das)
B.Tech Seminar Coordinator

(Prof. Ramesh Chandra


PRINCIPAL

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is the earths natural heat available inside the earth. This thermal
energy contained in the rock and fluid that filled up fractures and pores in the earths
crust can profitably be used for various purposes. Heat from the Earth, or geothermal
Geo (Earth) + thermal (heat) energy can be and is accessed by drilling water or
steam wells in a process similar to drilling for oil. Geothermal energy is an enormous,
underused heat and power resource that is clean (emits little or no greenhouse gases),
reliable (average system availability of 95%), and homegrown (making us less
dependent on foreign oil). Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot
water and rock several miles below the Earth's surface, and even farther down to the
extremely hot molten rock called magma. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into
underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the
surface for use in a variety of applications.

ACKMOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my immense sense of gratitude to my guide, Prof. Ramesh
Chandra Das, for his valuable instructions, guidance and support throughout my
seminar.
I again owe my special thanks to Mrs. T. Mita Kumari, Technical Seminar
Coordinator for giving me an opportunity to do this report.
And finally thanks to Prof. Ramesh Chandra Das, Principal, Apex Institute of
Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar for his continued drive for better quality
in everything that happens at APEX. This report is a dedicated contribution towards
that greater goal.

RAJAT KUMAR SAMANTRAY


MECH201110184

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................i
ACKMOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................................ii
LIST OF TABLES.........................................................................................................iv
LIST OF GRAPHS.........................................................................................................v
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................6
1. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................1
2. HISTORY...................................................................................................................2
3. BASIC LOAD............................................................................................................3
3.1 Bending Case........................................................................................................3
3.2 Torsion Case.........................................................................................................3
3.3 Combined bending and torsion case.....................................................................4
3.4 Lateral Loading.....................................................................................................4
3.5 Fore and aft loading..............................................................................................4
4. ADVANCED MATERIALS USED...........................................................................6
4.1 Carbon Fiber.........................................................................................................7
4.2 Composite Material............................................................................................11
4.3 Ceramics in High speed car................................................................................14
4.4 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic.........................................................................17
4.4 Alloys..................................................................................................................20
5. MATERIAL AND CONSTUCTION-COMPONENT.............................................21
6. CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................23
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................24

iii

LIST OF TABLES
Table4. 1 Properties of Carbon Fiber....................................................................10

iv

LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph 3.2 Relationship between flaw size and failure stress of a material12

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.2.1 Composite Engine13
Figure 4.2.2 Composite Suspension System....13
Figure 4.4.1 Thermal Property.17
Figure 4.4.2 Comparison of Materials.....18
Figure 4.4.3 Composite Honeycomb Structure19

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MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

1. INTRODUCTION
High speed car or Formula One (F1) is arguably the most famous motor racing sport
in the world, with almost 10% of the world's population following the races. Due to
the fierce competition within the sport, coupled with the remarkable physical strain
the vehicles are put under, during a race (sometimes hitting speeds of up to 350 km/h),
the cars need to be constructed using the most cutting edge materials and processing
techniques.
This report looks at the important role that materials science plays in the construction
of these famous vehicles, and which materials are utilized.
The purpose of the project is to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of the
existing car chassis, without disturbing the shape, provided for engine mountings and
driver's space and other constraints provided by the existing chassis model
The increasing load demand in power systems without accompanying investments in
generation and transmission has affected the analysis of stability phenomena,
requiring more reliable and faster tools.

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

2. HISTORY
The history of Formula One has its roots in the European Grand Prix motor racing
(q.v. for pre-1947 history) of the 1920s and 1930s. However, the foundation of
Formula One began in 1946 with the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile's
(FIA's) standardization of rules. A World Drivers' Championship followed in
1950. The sport's history necessarily parallels the history of its technical
regulations; see Formula One regulation for a summary of the technical rule
changes. Although the world championship has always been the main focus of the
category, non-championship Formula One races were held for many years. Due to
the rising cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. National
championships existed in South Africa and the United kingdom in the 1960s and
1970s.
Today have been included to expand the following three reasons:
o A means for recognizing opportunities for overall weight reduction for better fuel
economy
o The means for determining centre of gravity (CG) location and polar moment of
inertia.
o Detail weight estimates provides target figure of cost estimates of all parts.
o To resist inertial loads under accelerations, accidents etc.

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

3. BASIC LOAD
The loads that experienced on a chassis are light commercial loads due to normal running
conditions are considered. That is caused as the vehicle transverses uneven ground as the driver
performs various manoeuvre. Basically there are five load cases to consider.
Bending case
Torsion case
Combined bending and torsion case
Lateral loading
Fore and aft loading

Longitudinal Loading

3.1 Bending Case


This type of loading is caused due to the weight of components distributed along the
frame of the vehicle in the vertical plane which causes the bending about y-axis. The
bending case depends mainly on the weight of the major components in the car and
the payload. First the static condition is considered by determining the load
distribution along the vehicle. The axle reaction loads are obtained by resolving the
forces and by taking the moments form the weights and positions of the components.

3.2 Torsion Case


The vehicle body is subjected to the moments applied at the axels centerlines by
applying both upward and downward loads are at the each axle in this case. Because
of this it results in a twisting action or torsion moment about x-axis of the vehicle.
The condition of pure torsion does not exist on its own because of the vertical loads
always exist due to gravity. However for the calculation purpose the pure torsion is
assumed. The maximum torsion moments are based on loads at the lighter loaded
axle, its value can be calculated by the wheel load on the lighter loaded axle
multiplied by the wheel track.

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

3.3 Combined bending and torsion case


In practice the torsion will not exist without bending as gravitational forces are
always present. So the two cases must be considered when representing a real
situation.

3.4 Lateral Loading


This type of loading is experienced by the vehicle at the corner or when it slides
against a curve, i.e. loads along the y-axis. The lateral loads are generated while
cornering at the tyre to ground contact patches which are balanced by the centrifugal
force MV2 / R, M stands for vehicle mass, V vehicle velocity , R is the radius of the
corner. The disaster occurs when the wheel reactions on the inside of the turn drop to
zero, that means that the vehicle ready to turn over. In this case vehicle will be
subjected to bending in x-y plane. The condition that applies to the roll over is shown
in the below figure and it also depends up on the height of the vehicle centre of gravity
and the track. At this particular condition the resultant of the centrifugal force and the
weight that passes along the outside wheels contact patch.
Curve bumping will cause high loads and will roll over in exceptional circumstances.
And also this high loads will cause in the bending in the x-y plane are not critical as
the width of the vehicle will provide the sufficient bending strength and stiffness.

3.5 Fore and aft loading


At the time of acceleration and breaking longitudinal forces will come into picture
along the x-axis. Traction and braking forces at the tyre to ground contact points are
reacted by mass time's acceleration inertia forces as shown in below figure. The
important cases such as bending, torsion, bending and torsion will come into play as
these determine the satisfactory structure (Pawlowski, 1964).

3.5.1 Longitudinal loading


At the time of vehicle accelerates or decelerates, the inertia forces are generated. The
loads generated can be transferred from one axle to another by the inertia forces as
the centre of gravity of the vehicle is above the road surface. While accelerating the
weight is transferred from front axle to the rear axle and vice versa at the time of
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MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

breaking and decelerating condition.


To have a clear picture of forces acting on the body a height of the centers of gravity
of all structures are required. And it's not so easy to determine. A simplified model
considering one inertia force generated at the vehicle centre of gravity can provide
useful information about the local loading at the axle positions due to breaking and
traction forces.

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

4. ADVANCED MATERIALS USED


Formula One (F1) is arguably the most famous motor racing sport in the world, with
almost 10% of the world's population following the races. Due to the fierce
competition within the sport, coupled with the remarkable physical strain the vehicles
are put under during a race (sometimes hitting speeds of up to 350 km/h), the cars
need to be constructed using the most cutting edge materials and processing
techniques.
This articles looks at the important role that materials science plays in the
construction of these famous vehicles, and which materials are utilized.
Line contingency and generator contingency are generally most common type of
contingencies. These contingencies mainly cause two types of violations.
Various advance material used in manufacturing of a high speed car:
o Carbon fibers
o Composites, Polymers,
o Ceramic
o Alloys
o Advance high strength steel
o C-C steel
o Carbon Fibres Reinforced Plastics

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

4.1 Carbon Fiber


Racing cars used to be made of the same sort of materials as road cars, that is steel,
aluminum and other metals. In the early 1980s, however, Formula 1 underwent the
beginnings of a revolution that has become its hallmark today: the use of carbon
composite materials to build the chassis.
Today, most of the racing car chassis - the monocoque, suspension, wings and engine
cover - is built with carbon fiber.

4.1.1 Physical properties of Carbon Fiber


1. High Strength to weight ratio
2. Good Rigidity
3. Corrosion resistant
4. Electrically Conductive
5. Fatigue Resistant
6. Good tensile strength but Brittle

7. High Thermal Conductivity in some forms


8. Low coefficient of thermal expansion
9. Self Lubricating
High Strength to weight ratio:
Strength of a material is the force per unit area at failure, divided by its density.
Any material that is strong and light has a favorable Strength/weight ratio.
Materials such as Aluminum, titanium, magnesium, Carbon and glass fiber,
high strength steel alloys all have good strength to weight ratios.
It is not surprising that Balsa wood comes in with a high strength to weight
ratio.
Strength and rigidity are different properties, strength is resistance to breaking,
and rigidity is resistance to bending or stretching.
Because of the way the crystals of carbon fiber orient in long flat ribbon or
narrow sheets of honeycomb crystals, the strength is higher running lengthwise
than across the fiber. That is why designers of carbon fiber objects specify the
direction the fiber should be laid to maximize strength in a specific direction.
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MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

The fiber being aligned with the direction of greatest stress.


Pan based precursor carbon fiber has higher strength than pitch based carbon
fiber which has higher stiffness.
Good Rigidity:

Rigidity or stiffness of a material is measured by its Young Modulus and


measures how much a material deflects under stress. Carbon fiber reinforced
plastic is over 4 times stiffer than Glass reinforced plastic, almost 20 times
more than pine, 2.5 times greater than aluminum
Corrosion Resistant:
Although carbon fiber themselves do not deteriorate measurably, Epoxy is
sensitive to sunlight and needs to be protected. Other matrices (whatever
the carbon fiber is imbedded in) might also be reactive. Composites made
from carbon fiber must either be made with UV resistant epoxy
(uncommon), or covered with a UV resistant finish such as varnishes.
Electrically Conductive:
This feature can either be useful or be a nuisance. In Boat building
conductivity has to be taken into account just as Aluminum conductivity
comes into play. Carbon fiber conductivity can facilitate Galvanic
Corrosion in fittings. Careful installation can reduce this problem. Carbon
Fiber dust can accumulate in a shop and cause sparks or short circuits in
electrical appliances and equipment.
Fatigue Resistance:
Resistance to Fatigue in Carbon Fiber Composites is good. However when
carbon fiber fails it usually fails catastrophically without significant
exterior signs to announce its imminent failure.
Damage in tensile fatigue is seen as reduction in stiffness with larger numbers
of stress cycles, (unless the temperature is high).
Test has shown that failure is unlikely to be a problem when cyclic stresses
coincide with the fiber orientation. Carbon fiber is superior to E glass in
fatigue and static strength as well as stiffness.
The orientation of the fibers and the different fiber layer orientation, have a
great deal of influence on how a composite will resist fatigue (as it has on
stiffness). The type of forces applied also result in different types of failures.
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Tension, Compression or Shear forces all result in markedly different failure


results.
Good Tensile Strength:
Tensile strength or ultimate strength is the maximum stress that a material can
withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, or failing. Necking is
when the sample cross-section starts to significantly contract. If you take a strip
of plastic bag, it will stretch and at one point will start getting narrow. This is
necking. It is measured in Force per Unit area. Brittle materials such as carbon
fiber do not always fail at the same stress level because of internal flaws. They
fail at small strains. (in other words there is not a lot of bending or stretching
before catastrophic failure) Weibull modulus of brittle materials
Testing involves taking a sample with a fixed cross-section area, and then
pulling it gradually increasing the force until the sample changes shape or
breaks. Fibers, such as carbon fibers, being only 2/10,000th of an inch in
diameter, are made into composites of appropriate shapes in order to test.
High Thermal Conductivity:
Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit
thickness, in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, because of a unit
temperature gradient, under steady conditions. In other words it's a measure of
how easily heat flows through a material.
There are a number of systems of measures depending on metric or imperial
units.
Fiber has been specifically designed for high or low thermal conductivity.
There are also efforts to enhance this feature.
Low coefficient of thermal expansion: Carbon fiber can have a broad range of
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion's, -1 to 8+, depending on the direction
measured, the fabric weave, the precursor material, Pan based (high strength,
higher CTE) or Pitch based (high modulus/stiffness, lower CTE).
In a high enough mast differences in Coefficients of thermal expansion of
various materials can slightly modify the rig tensions.
Low Coefficient of Thermal expansion makes carbon fiber suitable for
applications where small movements can be critical.
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Table 1 Table4.1 Properties of Carbon Fiber

We can define Carbon Fiber as follows:


Standard Modulus

up to 250GPa

Intermediate Modulus

250-350GPa

High Modulus m
Ultra High Modulus

350-500Gpa
greater than 500GPa

4.1.2 Carbon Fiber Sheets


The first step along the way to making a carbon fiber car looks more like a clothing
factory than a car factory. In each Formula 1 team factory is a room with large tables
on which vast sheets of what looks like cloth are laid out and cut to size. Taken from
large textile-like rolls, these sheets are highly pliable, flexible, and unlike textiles, will
end up looking nothing like their original form.

4.1.3 Carbon Fiber Molds


Once the material is cut out from the cloth-like roll, it is taken to a design room
and placed into molds. The position of the cloth within the mold is important, as
it affects the strength of the final component.
Many of the carbon fiber components are built with a light aluminum honeycomb
interior, around which the cloth is wrapped, to strengthen the final component.

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

4.2 Composite Material


Composites are defined as materials in which two or more constituents have been
brought together to produce a new material consisting of at least two chemically
distinct components, with resultant properties significantly different to those of the
individual constituents. A more complete description also demands that the
constituents must also be present in reasonable proportions. The material must
furthermore be considered to be man made. That is to say it must be produced
deliberately by intimate mixing of the constituents.
An alloy which forms a distinct two phase microstructure as a consequence of
solidification or heat treatment would not therefore be considered as a composite. If
on the other hand, ceramic fibers or particles were to be mixed with a metal to
produce a material consisting of a dispersion of the ceramic within the metal, this
would be regarded as a composite.
On a microscopic scale composites have two or more chemically distinct phases
separated by a distinct interface. This interface has a major influence on the properties
of the composite. The continuous phase is known as the matrix. Generally the
properties of the matrix are greatly improved by incorporating another constituent to
produce a composite. A composite may have a ceramic, metallic or polymeric matrix.
The second phase is referred to as the reinforcement as it enhances the properties of
the matrix and in most cases the reinforcement is harder, stronger and stiffer than the
matrix (1). The measured strengths of materials are several orders of magnitudes less
than those calculated theoretically. Furthermore the stress at which nominally
identical specimens fail is subject to a marked variability. This is believed to be due to
the presence of inherent flaws within the material (2). There is always a distribution in
the size of the flaws and failure under load initiates at the largest of these.
Griffith derived an expression relating failure stress to flaw size (a).

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Graph 4.2: Relationship between flaw size and failure stress of a material
Composites can be divided into two classes: those with long fibers (continuous fibers
reinforced composites) and those with short fibers (discontinuous fibers reinforced
composites).
In a discontinuous fibers composite, the material properties are affected by the fibers
length, whereas in a continuous fibers composite it is assumed that the load is
transferred directly to the fibers and that the fibers in the direction of the applied load
are the principal load-bearing constituent.
Polymeric materials are the most common matrices for fibers reinforced composites.
They can be subdivided into two distinct types: thermosetting and thermoplastic.
Thermosetting polymers are resins which cross-link during curing into a glassy
brittle solid, examples being polyesters and epoxies.
Thermoplastic polymers are high molecular weight, long chain molecules
which can either become entangled (amorphous) such as polycarbonate, or
partially crystalline, such as nylon, at room temperature to provide strength and
shape.
In common with all structural applications of polymer matrix composites, Formula 1
is dominated by those based on thermoset resins, particularly epoxies.
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In addition to the obvious weight savings, composite push rods and wishbones etc.
have almost infinite fatigue durability and so can be made far more cost effective than
the steel parts which they replaced.
The latest innovation was the introduction of a composite gearbox by the Arrows and
Stewart teams in 1998 although the true potential of these structures was only fully
realized from 2004 by the BAR-Honda team.
Composite gearboxes are significantly lighter than traditional alloy boxes, up to 25%
stiffer, can be operated at higher temperatures and are easy to modify and repair. The
design and logistics etc are not insignificant such that to this day they are not
universally used on the F1 grid.

Figure 4.2 Composite Suspension System


Figure 4.1 Composite Engine

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4.3 Ceramics in High speed car


In Metal Engine: The choice of metal as the material from which heat engines are
made is an unfortunate one. This is because metals are relatively low temperature
materials for heat engines and they are also good thermal conductors, two properties
that are detrimental to efficient combustion.
The maximum service temperature of many metals is less than 600 C, and thus metal
engines are required to operate at temperatures too low for fuel to be burnt
completely. Also, as metals are good thermal conductors, the heat generated within
the metallic combustion chamber is easily conducted through the metallic casing.
Liquid cooling is thus required to prevent the metallic engine from overheating and
this hastens heat loss (about 30% of the heat generated is lost to the coolant or radiator
water). Furthermore, resulting incomplete combustion products are discarded through
the exhaust adding to airborne pollution.
This temperature trade-offs required of metallic internal combustion engines result in
low combustion and low thermal efficiencies. Thus, metallic internal combustion
engines suffer primarily from three problems: 1. Low combustion efficiency (due to
the lower operating temperatures of metals), 2. Substantial heat loss (due to the high
thermal conductivity of metals), and 3. Some wear (resulting in some limited metal
component life).
Ceramic Engine:
As ceramics are high temperature materials, a ceramic engine should be able to
operate at higher temperatures enabling combustion of fuel to be more complete
resulting in increased combustion efficiency. This should increase performance,
decrease fuel consumption and reduce pollution. This should also enable various fuels
to be used (i.e. multi-fuel capability).
Some ceramics are
Silicon Nitride
Alumina
Zirconias
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4.3.1 Silicon Nitride


Among the various engineering ceramics that have been developed over the
decades, silicon nitride has received the most attention for use in internal
combustion engines and turbines. It has good thermal shock resistance (T ~ 600
C) and good creep resistance. Though very desirable as an engine material, their
poor mechanical strength (low fracture toughness) has precluded their use in loadbearing applications. As the brittleness of silicon- based ceramics is considered an
intrinsic characteristic of such materials by virtue of their strong bonding,
covalent and ionic, only limited increases in the fracture toughness of silicon
nitride is believed to be attainable. The development of ceramic matrix
composites (CMC) is considered to be a more attractive alternative , but success
in this approach has been limited.
Although some progress has been made over the years, the processing of silicon
nitride remains a problem and larger higher-strength silicon nitride components
have yet to be fabricated. Silicon nitride cannot be heated over 1850 C to densify
because it dissociates into silicon and nitrogen. Also its covalent bonding does not
allow it to easily sinter and fully densify.
Furthermore, silicon nitride ceramics in a hot, corrosive and humid oxidizing
atmosphere (such as during fuel- air combustion in internal combustion and
turbine engines) are prone to degradation. When they are subject to oxidation,
water vapour and high temperatures they form a thermally-grown silicon oxide
layer which continually volatilizes as hydroxide species affecting the integrity of
the silicon-based ceramic surface.

4.3.2 Silicon Carbide


A material with a very high hardness, silicon carbide has, in the last few years,
been receiving some attention from the Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems
(MEMS) community in their quest to develop a miniature engine. However, the
same problems that plague silicon nitride would also apply to silicon carbide, and
the fracture toughness of silicon carbide is even lower than that of silicon nitride.
Silicon carbide still has many other uses that do not require mechanical integrity
and strength

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4.3.3 Aluminas
A much used ceramic, mainly as electrical insulators, they have seldom been
considered as suitable materials for engines possibly because of their low fracture
toughness and high thermal conductivity. However, there has been some recent
interest in fabricating alumina components for micro-engines.

4.3.4 Zirconias
These engineering ceramics were once dubbed "ceramic steels" because of their
very high fracture toughness among ceramics. Also, zirconia ceramics have one of
the highest maximum service temperatures (~2000 C) among all of the ceramics
and they retain some of their mechanical strength close to their melting point
(2750 C). However, their low creep resistance and their low thermal shock
resistance (T ~ 350 C) could pose a problem.
Zirconia ceramics have been used in heat engines because of two very notable
properties they possess: a high temperature capability and a low thermal
conductivity. None of the other ceramics possess a thermal conductivity as low as
the zirconias. This means that engines made out of zirconia would retain much of
the heat generated in the combustion chamber instead of losing it to the
surroundings (approaching near adiabatic conditions). Thus the need for a cooling
system could also be eliminated.

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4.4 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic


Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP), is a very strong, light and expensive
composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. Similar to glass-reinforced plastic,
sometimes known by the name fiberglass, the composite material is commonly
referred to by the name of its reinforcing fibers (carbon fiber, glass fiber). The plastic
is most often epoxy, but other plastics, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are
also sometimes used.
Some composites contain both carbon fiber and other fibers such as kevlar, aluminum
and fiberglass reinforcement. They are known as hybrid composites.
The terms graphite-reinforced plastic or graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) are
also used but less commonly, since glass-(fibre)-reinforced plastic can also be called
GFRP.
Carbon fiber composite has many applications in aerospace and automotive fields, as
well as in sailboats, and notably in modern bicycles, motorcycles and sport cars,
where these qualities are of importance. Improved manufacturing techniques are
reducing the costs and time to manufacture making it increasingly common in small
consumer goods as well, such as laptop computers, tripods, fishing rods, racquet
sports frames.

Figure4.3 Thermal Property


Comparison of thermal characteristics:
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1. GFRP Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics


2. CFRP Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics
3. AFRP Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Figure4.4 Comparison of materials


Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is superior to steel or glass fiber reinforced
plastics (GFRP) in its specific tensile strength and specific elastic modulus (specific
rigidity). That is to say, CFRP is "Light in Weight and Strong" in its mechanical
performances. Composites are largely unrivalled as a material for impact absorption,
with a specific energy absorption (SEA, measured in kJ per kg of material used) far
higher than their metallic counterparts providing sufficient optimization.
The decision to use CFRP for impact absorption is a fairly easy one. Comparing
the SEA-s of various materials, steels achieve about 12 kJ/kg while aluminum
reaches around 20k J/kg. However, a well-optimized carbon fiber structure (one
with an optimized lay-up/fiber orientation and component geometry) can absorb
anything from 40 kJ/kg up to 70 kJ/kg in a highly refined and tested design.
Suffice to say, from a safety perspective, CFRP does not look likely to be superseded
as Formula Ones material of choice any time soon.
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Figure4.5 Composite honeycomb structure

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4.4 Alloys
The metals used in the production of light alloy wheels are aluminium and
magnesium.

4.4.1Aluminium alloys
Aluminium is one of the lightest metals (specific weight 2.7 kg/cm 3). Used as an alloy
and hardened and subsequently aged, it maintains its main characteristic, namely,
lightness, and improves its mechanical and technological properties, such as tensile
strength, dynamic stress resistance and resistance against corrosion.

4.4.2Magnesium alloys
Magnesium is the lightest among structural metals (specific weight 1.74 kg/cm3, thus
35% less than aluminium). Magnesium alloys are characterized by extreme lightness,
high resistance to impact and vibration, they do not stretch nor are they damaged
superficially by friction: this is another characteristic that makes them particularly
appropriate for the production of racing wheels. But they are hard to manufacture. The
wheel thickness specifications are mainly in place for strength and safety, as thin
layers of magnesium are highly flammable and could be a threat for the driver's
safety.Incase of an accident. Federation Internationale de l'Automobile(FIA)
technical

regulation

are

limiting

19

use

of

any

lighter

material.

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

5. MATERIAL AND CONSTUCTIONCOMPONENT


5.1 Piston
Pistons must be manufactured from an aluminum alloy which is either Al-Si, Al-Cu,
or Al-Mg or Al-Zn based.

5.2 Piston Pin


Piston pins must be manufactured from an iron based alloy and must be machined
from a single piece of material

5.3 Connecting Rod


Connecting rods must be manufactured from iron or titanium based alloys and must
be machined from a single piece of material with no welded or joined assemblies
(other than a bolted big end cap or an interfered small end bush).

5.4 Crank Shaft


Crankshafts

must

be

manufactured

from

an

iron

based

alloy.

No welding is permitted between the front and rear main bearing journals.
No material with a density exceeding 19,000kg/m3 may be assembled to the
crankshaft.

5.5 Valves
Valves must be manufactured from alloys based on Iron, Nickel, Cobalt or Titanium.
Hollow structures cooled by sodium, lithium or similar are permitted.

5.5 Reciprocating and rotating component


Reciprocating and rotating components must not be manufactured from
graphitic matrix, metal matrix composites or ceramic materials. This
restriction does not apply to the clutch and any seals.
Rolling elements of rolling element bearings must be manufactured from an
iron based alloy
Timing gears between the crankshaft and camshafts (including hubs) must be
manufactured from an iron based alloy.

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MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

5.6 Static Component


Engine crankcases and cylinder heads must be manufactured from cast or
wrought aluminum alloys.
No composite materials or metal matrix composites are permitted either for
the whole component or locally.
Any metallic structure whose primary or secondary function is to retain

lubricant or coolant within the engine must be manufactured from an iron


based alloy or an aluminum alloy of the Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Zn or Al-Mg
alloying systems.
All threaded fasteners must be manufactured from an alloy based
on Cobalt, Iron or Nickel.
Composite materials are not permitted.
Valve seat inserts, valve guides and any other bearing component may be

manufactured from metallic infiltrated pre-forms with other phases which are
not used for reinforcement.

5.7 Wheels
Formula One car must have four, uncovered wheels, all made of the same metallic
material, which must be one of two magnesium alloys specified by the FIA. Front
wheels must be between 305 and 355mm wide, the rears between 365 and 380mm.
With tyres fitted the wheels must be no more than 660mm in diameter (670mm with
wet-weather tyres). Measurements are taken with tyres inflated to 1.4 bar. Tyres may
only be inflated with air or nitrogen.
Wheels must be made from an homogeneous metallic material with a minimum
density of 1.74g/cm3 at 20C.

6. CONCLUSION
21

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

Advanced materials used in the construction of automobiles are carbon fibers,


composites, polymers, ceramics, metals & alloys.

Carbon fiber is the most widely used construction materials in racing car
(around 70%).

Composites materials have polymer, metal or ceramics matrix component & a


second component in shape of fiber or particulate (reinforcing).

REFERENCES
22

MATERIAL SELECTION IN HIGH SPEED CAR-A CASE STUDY

[1]

Nigel Bannett,Inspired to Design:-F1 Cars,Indycars & Racing Tyres, Veloce


Publishing,U.S.A,pp20-25, 1982.

[2]

http://www.ukessays.com/services/example-essays/mechanics/stiffness-carchassis.php

[3]

http://www.f1technical.net/features/3

[4]

Keith Collantine,Legendary Race Cars,Material for Race Cars pp 95-103.

[5]

Girogoi Piola,Formula 1:Technical AnalysisRed Bull Racing Track, UK,


pp 147-155, 2012/2013

[6]

http://www.formula1.com/news/features/2013/8/14875.htm

[7]

Nigel Mac Knight,Technology of F1 Car, Hazleton Pub Ltd, United


Kingdom, pp205-211.1998

23