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Efficient Updated-Lagrangian Simulations in Forming Processes

Diego Canales1,a , Adrien Leygue1,b , Francisco Chinesta1,c , Elas Cueto2,d ,Eric

Feulvarch3,e ,Jean-Michel Bergheau3,f , Yannick Vincent4,g , Frederic Boitout4,h ,
1 GeM,

cole Centrale de Nantes, 1 rue de la Ne, 44300 Nantes, France

2 I3A,

University of Zaragoza, Mara de Luna, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain


ENISE, 58, rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne, France


Group, France, b,
c, d, e,
f, g,
Keywords: PGD, updated-Lagrangian, Forming processes.

Abstract. A new efficient udated-Lagrangian strategy for numerical simulations of material forming
processes is presented in this work. The basic ingredients are the in-plane-out-of-plane PGD-based
decomposition and the use of a robust numerical integration technique (the Stabilized Conforming
Nodal Integration). This strategy is of general purpose, although it is especially well suited for plateshape geometries. This paper is devoted to show the feasibility of the technique through some simple
numerical examples.
The numerical simulation of material forming processes is a fundamental tool in the industry. It allows
reducing the design cycle time and optimizing the process without the need for costly and time consuming test campaigns. However, it is a very challenging task, even for the high performance computation
available nowadays. The simulation of processes such as co-extrusion, friction stir welding (FSW) or
resin transfer moulding (RTM) involves some inherent difficulties: thermomechanical coupled formulations, large deformations or the need for computing the thermomechanical path of the material
particles to compute important quantities of interest (such as residual stresses or the microstructure).
Despite the fact that accurate simulations tools are available, the actual industry demands more
efficient solutions to improve its competitiveness. With this aim, efforts have been made to apply
different reduced order modeling methods to these simulations. Among others, we can highlight the
contributions of the Proper Generalized Decomposition in this field [REF libro procesos].
Proposed strategy
The proposed strategy can be seen as the natural extension of the in-plane-out-of-plane based on the
Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) for an updated-Lagrangian framework. This technique,
developed by B.Bognet et al [REF], has been used in Eulerian frameworks to simulate solids an nonNewtonian fluids [REF] with impressive saving of computational cost compared with traditional FE
The main idea of our approach is to take advantage of updated-Lagrangian methods, very convenient for material forming simulations, but with a significant reduction of its computational complexity
using the in-plane-out-of-plane PGD-based decomposition. The material particles positions and the
physical values are projected into a plane and into an axis. Using these nodal projections two functional spaces are constructed, 2D and 1D respectively. Then, the thermomechanical problem is solved
as a succession of problems 2D and 1D in these spaces thanks to the in-plane-out-of-plane PGD-based

formulation. In the 2D space the projected mesh could be, eventually, very distorted. For a better performance of the PGD, the Stabilized Conforming Nodal Integration (SCNI) is introduced to compute
the 2D PGD operators. Once the solution is obtained, the primary variables can be reconstructed in the
material particles of the 3D domain and update their positions. This reconstruction does not involve
any interpolation or projection stage, avoiding the numerical diffusion and other numerical difficulties. After the updating step, these steps are repeated until the end of the simulation. In the Fig. 1, a
general scheme of the strategy is shown.

Fig. 1: General scheme of the proposed strategy

The main ingredients of the proposed strategy, the in-plane-out-of-plane decomposition and the
SCNI are presented in detail below. A general flow model for material forming processes with linear
and non-linear behaviors laws is used.
The In-plane-out-of-plane Decomposition in an Updated-Lagrangian Framework. Let us describe this updated-Lagrangian strategy through a generic model of a material forming process which
involves a material flow, such as co-extrusion or FSW. In first approximation, we neglect the elastic
behavior assuming a purely viscoplastic constitutive equation. This assumption is known as the flow
formulation in the forming processes community [REF].
The balance of momentum and mass equations without inertia and the assumed incompressibility
of the flow read:
= 0, v = 0
To study the evolution and distribution of temperatures, the rigid-plastic material equations are
coupled with the following heat transfer equation:
(kT ) + r (cp T ) = 0


The rate of heat generation due to plastic deformation is calculated as

r = : d


where , the fraction of mechanical energy transformed to heat and d the strain rate tensor. Together
with these equations, a behavior law and the appropriate boundary conditions should be considered.
The mechanical and thermal problem will be solved iteratively.

Considering a plate-shape domain = I, this technique assumes the next separated approximation of the velocity field

uxy (x, y) uiz (z)
u(x, y, z)

(x, y) vzi (z) ,
v(x, y, z) = v(x, y, z)
w(x, y, z)
wxy (x, y) wzi (z)
where uxy (x, y), vxy (x, y) and wxy (x, y) are function of the in-plane coordinates whereas uz (z), vzi (z)
and wz (z) are functions involving the thickness coordinate. Similarly, the strain rate tensor can be
expressed in separated way. For intensive variables, such as the viscosity, an SVD decomposition
should be perform in order to obtained its in-plane-out-of-plane separation:
(x, y, z) =

k (x, y)k (z).



Two different behavior laws have been considered, a linear behavior,

p = ( v)
where is the fluid viscosity, and a Power Law,
p = T



where the extra-stress tensor for power-law fluids writes:

T = 2K d


with K and n two rheological parameters. The equivalent strain rate d given by:

d = 2(d : d)



where " : " denotes the tensor product twice contracted.

To circumvent the issue related to stable mixed formulations (LBB conditions) within the separated
representation used in what follows, we consider a penalty formulation that modifies the mass balance
by introducing a penalty coefficient small enough
v + p = 0.


The Stabilized Conforming Nodal Integration. In the proposed strategy, after updating the nodal
position, their orthogonal projections into a plane and an axis constitute the nodal position of the
interpolant spaces used for the PGD solution. One problem we have face is that the 2D mesh will be,
eventually, very distorted and the numerical integration of the discrete operators may be not accurate
Chen et al. [?] introduced the SCNI technique to perform an accurate nodal integration in meshless
methods. However, it is very interesting that SCNI can be incorporated into traditional FE interpolants
to produce a very robust method to deal with distorted mesh.
The SCNI is based on the assumed strain method, in which a modified gradient is introduced at
the integration point (node):

v(x) d,
v(xi ) =

where xi are the coordinates of node ni . The cell i is one element of any partition of the domain.
Typically a Voronoi tessellation is used.

The modified strain rate tensor is given by

i) = 1

d(x)d =




1 u











Applying the divergence theorem, it results:

(u(x)ny + v(x)nx )

(u(x)ny + v(x)nx )
d(xi ) =
z + w(x)ny )

( u
( z
1 v
2 z






+ w(x)nx )
+ w(x)ny ) d.
After the discretization, the derivates of the shape functions are computed through the value of the
shape functions itself in certain integration points. These integration points are distributed along the
boundaries of the elements of the partition.

Validation of the strategy

A simple model of co-extrusion. Let us assume a simple model of co-extrusion, two immiscible
fluids, with very different viscosities, entering in a squared pipe. The interface between the fluids is,
at the enter, in the middle of the section as it is shown in the figure . But this is not an equilibrium
situation, the less viscous fluid advances faster and, due the conservation of mass, the interface moves
to diminish the effective flow section.

Fig. 2: Scheme of the co-extrusion

In the Fig. 3, the equilibrium position of the interface for two fluids with a given viscosity ratio is
presented. This plot has been obtained solving the analytical solution of two Stokes' flow between two
parallel plates. On the upper and bottom plates the sticking condition was imposed and in the interface
the velocities and tangential forces were equaled.
The results, even when only a few nodes were used (around 800), are in very good agreement with
the qualitative expected behavior. In the Fig. 4, it can be seen that the flow section of the blue fluid
has diminished in approximately the predicted quantity.
FSW kinematic like example.FSW is a solid state welding technique which since its invention in
1991 is of great interest to the industry [?].The FSW welding process is conceptually simple. A nonconsumable rotating tool with a specially designed pin and shoulder is inserted into the abutting edges
of sheets or plates to be joined and traversed along the line of joint. The tool heats the workpiece ant
its stir movement produces the joint.
In this work a simplified model of this process has been tested with the proposed strategy. Even
when neither the real technological parameters and geometry of the tools are not implemented, we

Interface position in equilibrium



Viscosity ratio 1 /2


Fig. 3: Analytical solution of the position of the interface

Fig. 4: PGD solution at the equilibrium


proved the feasibility of the numerical algorithm: we can solve a 3D flow model in an updatedLagrangian framework with a computational cost in the order of several 2D problems. Moreover,
the thermomechanical history of the material particles is computed directly from the simulation. For
instance, we can study the evolution of the viscosity of a particle during the process. In the Fig. 5,
we can observe how the viscosity of the particle decrease of the when it passes through the area of
the tool, where the strain ratios are high due to the rotation of the pin. A picture of this simulation is
presented in the Fig. 6, where the system of reference is attached to the pin axis.

Fig. 5: Evolution of the viscosity a material particle near the pin

Fig. 6: FSW example

Conclusions and perspectives

The simulation of material forming processes is one of these scenarios where the traditional simulations have many difficulties. These issues are not only numerical but also determined by the requirements of the most advanced industries. Recently, the PGD has been demonstrated as a very efficient
reduced order modeling method and a particularly efficient solver for the simulation of material forming processes. In this work we show that it is possible to combine the PGD with robust interpolants to
create efficient updated-Lagrangian simulations suitable for material forming processes.
The examples presented just prove the feasibility of the technique but does not represent any particular simulation at the moment. The consideration of more realistic and complex processes with
specific industrial application is a work in progress.
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