You are on page 1of 31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Socialmedia
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Socialmediaarecomputermediatedtoolsthatallowpeopleto
create,shareorexchangeinformation,ideas,andpictures/videosin
virtualcommunitiesandnetworks.Socialmediaisdefinedas"a
groupofInternetbasedapplicationsthatbuildontheideological
andtechnologicalfoundationsofWeb2.0,andthatallowthe
creationandexchangeofusergeneratedcontent."[1]Furthermore,
socialmediadependonmobileandwebbasedtechnologiesto
createhighlyinteractiveplatformsthroughwhichindividualsand
communitiesshare,cocreate,discuss,andmodifyusergenerated
content.Theyintroducesubstantialandpervasivechangesto
communicationbetweenbusinesses,organizations,communities,and
individuals.[2]Thesechangesarethefocusoftheemergingfieldof
technoselfstudies.Socialmediaaredifferentfromtraditionalor
Diagramdepictingthemanydifferent
industrialmediainmanyways,includingquality,[3]reach,
typesofsocialmedia
frequency,usability,immediacy,andpermanence.Socialmedia
operatesinadialogictransmissionsystem,(manysourcestomany
receivers).[4]Thisisincontrasttotraditionalmediathatoperatesunderamonologictransmissionmodel
(onesourcetomanyreceivers).
Therearemanyeffectsthatstemfrominternetusage.AccordingtoNielsen,internetuserscontinueto
spendmoretimewithsocialmediasitesthananyothertypeofsite.Atthesametime,thetotaltimespent
onsocialmediaintheU.S.acrossPCandmobiledevicesincreasedby99percentto121billionminutesin
July2012comparedto66billionminutesinJuly2011.[5]Forcontentcontributors,thebenefitsof
participatinginsocialmediahavegonebeyondsimplysocialsharingtobuildingreputationandbringingin
careeropportunitiesandmonetaryincome,asdiscussedinTang,Gu,andWhinston(2012).[6]

Contents
1Classificationofsocialmedia
1.1Virality
1.2Mobilesocialmediaandbusinesspotential
2Distinctionfromothermedia
3Managingsocialmedia
3.1Honeycombframeworkofsocialmedia
4Building"socialauthority"andvanity
5Socialmediamining
6Globalusage
6.1Effectsofusingsocialmediafornewspurposes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

1/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

6.2Historyandmemoryeffects
7Criticismsofsocialmedia
7.1Disparity
7.2Trustworthiness
7.3Concentration
7.4Fewrealimpacts
7.5Reliability
7.6Ownershipofsocialmediacontent
7.7Privacy
7.8Effectsoninterpersonalrelationships
8Positiveeffectsofsocialmedia
9Employmentimpact
10CollegeAdmission
11Politicaleffectsofsocialmedia
12SocialMediaandtheLGBTQCommunity
13Patents
14Socialmediaintheclassroom
14.1Wikipedia
14.2Facebookandtheclassroom
14.3Twitter
14.4YouTube
15Advertisingonsocialmedia
15.1Tweetscontainingadvertising
16Censorshipincidents
17Seealso
18Notesandreferences
19Furtherreading
20Externallinks

Classificationofsocialmedia
Socialmediatechnologiestakeonmanydifferentformsincludingblogs,businessnetworks,enterprise
socialnetworks,forums,microblogs,photosharing,products/servicesreview,socialbookmarking,social
gaming,socialnetworks,videosharingandvirtualworlds.[7]

Virality
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

2/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Somesocialmediasiteshavegreaterviralitydefinedasagreaterlikelihood
thatuserswillresharecontentposted(byanotheruser)totheirsocialnetwork.
Manysocialmediasitesprovidespecificfunctionalitytohelpusersreshare
contentforexample,Twitter'sretweetbutton,PinterestpinorTumblr'sreblog
function.Businessesmayhaveaparticularinterestinviralmarketing
nonprofitorganisationsandactivistsmayhavesimilarinterestsinvirality.

Facebookanexample
ofasocialmediasite
hadoveronebillion
activeusersinOctober
2012.

Mobilesocialmediareferstothecombinationofmobiledevicesandsocial
media.Thisisagroupofmobilemarketingapplicationsthatallowthecreation
andexchangeofusergeneratedcontent.[8]Duetothefactthatmobilesocial
mediarunonmobiledevices,theydifferfromtraditionalsocialmediabyincorporatingnewfactorssuchas
thecurrentlocationoftheuser(locationsensitivity)orthetimedelaybetweensendingandreceiving
messages(timesensitivity).AccordingtoAndreasKaplan,mobilesocialmediaapplicationscanbe
differentiatedamongfourtypes:[8]
1. Spacetimers(locationandtimesensitive):Exchangeofmessageswithrelevanceforonespecific
locationatonespecificpointintime(e.g.FacebookPlacesFoursquare)
2. Spacelocators(onlylocationsensitive):Exchangeofmessages,withrelevanceforonespecific
location,whicharetaggedtoacertainplaceandreadlaterbyothers(e.g.YelpQype)
3. Quicktimers(onlytimesensitive):Transferoftraditionalsocialmediaapplicationstomobiledevices
toincreaseimmediacy(e.g.postingTwittermessagesorFacebookstatusupdates)
4. Slowtimers(neitherlocation,nortimesensitive):Transferoftraditionalsocialmediaapplicationsto
mobiledevices(e.g.watchingaYouTubevideoorreadingaWikipediaentry)

Mobilesocialmediaandbusinesspotential
Althoughtraditionalsocialmediaofferavarietyofopportunitiesforcompaniesinawiderangeofbusiness
sectors,EconomicSectormobilesocialmediamakesuseofthelocationandtimesensitivityaspectsofit
inordertoengageintomarketingresearch,communication,salespromotions/discounts,andrelationship
development/loyaltyprograms.[8]
Marketingresearch:Mobilesocialmediaapplicationsofferdataaboutofflineconsumermovements
atalevelofdetailheretoforelimitedtoonlinecompanies.Anyfirmcannowknowtheexacttimeat
whichacustomerenteredoneofitsoutlets,aswellascommentsmadeduringthevisit.[8]
Communication:Mobilesocialmediacommunicationtakestwoforms,thefirstofwhichiscompany
toconsumerinwhichacompanymayestablishaconnectiontoaconsumerbasedonitslocationand
providereviewsaboutlocationsnearby.Thesecondtypeofcommunicationisusergenerated
content.Forexample,McDonald'soffered$5and$10giftcardsto100usersrandomlyselected
amongthosecheckinginatoneoftherestaurants.Thispromotionincreasedcheckinsby33%(from
2,146to2,865),resultedinover50articlesandblogposts,andpromptedseveralhundredthousand
newsfeedsandTwittermessages.[8]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

3/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Salespromotionsanddiscounts:Althoughinthepastcustomershadtouseprintedcoupons,mobile
socialmediaallowscompaniestotailorpromotionstospecificusersatspecifictimes.Forexample,
whenlaunchingitsCaliforniaCancunservice,VirginAmericaoffereduserswhocheckedinthrough
LooptatoneofthreedesignatedBorderGrilltacotrucksinSanFranciscoandLosAngelesbetween
11amand3pmonAugust31,2010,twotacosfor$1andtwoflightstoMexicoforthepriceof
one.[8]
Relationshipdevelopmentandloyaltyprograms:Inordertoincreaselongtermrelationshipswith
customers,companiesareabletocreateloyaltyprogramsthatallowcustomerswhocheckin
regularlyatalocationtoearndiscountsorperks.Forexample,AmericanEagleOutfitters
remuneratessuchcustomerswithatiered10%,15%,or20%discountontheirtotalpurchase.[8]
ECommerce:MobilesocialmediaapplicationssuchasAmazon.comandPinterestareinfluencingan
upwardtrendinthepopularityandaccessibilityofecommerce,oronlinepurchases.[9]
AccordingtotheNielsenCompany's"TheU.S.DigitalConsumerReport",almosthalf(47%)of
smartphoneownersvisitsocialnetworkseverydayviamobileapplications.Withtherapidadoptionof
mobiledevices,socialmediahasasymbioticrelationshipwiththemobileconsumer.[10]

Distinctionfromothermedia
Ecommercebusinessesmayrefertosocialmediaasconsumergeneratedmedia(CGM).Acommonthread
runningthroughalldefinitionsofsocialmediaisablendingoftechnologyandsocialinteractionfortheco
creationofvalue.
Peopleobtaininformation,education,news,andotherdatafromelectronicandprintmedia.Socialmedia
aredistinctfromindustrialortraditionalmediasuchasnewspapers,television,andfilmastheyare
comparativelyinexpensiveandaccessible.Theyenableanyone(evenprivateindividuals)topublishor
accessinformation.Industrialmediagenerallyrequiresignificantresourcestopublishinformationasin
mostcasesthearticlesgoesthroughmanyrevisionsbeforebeingpublished.
Onecharacteristicsharedbybothsocialandindustrialmediaisthecapabilitytoreachsmallorlarge
audiencesforexample,eitherablogpostoratelevisionshowmayreachnopeopleormillionsofpeople.
Someofthepropertiesthathelpdescribethedifferencesbetweensocialandindustrialmediaare:
1. Quality:Inindustrial(traditional)publishingmediatedbyapublisherthetypicalrangeofquality
issubstantiallynarrowerthaninniche,unmediatedmarkets.Themainchallengeposedbycontentin
socialmediasitesisthefactthatthedistributionofqualityhashighvariance:fromveryhighquality
itemstolowquality,sometimesabusivecontent.[3]
2. Reach:Bothindustrialandsocialmediatechnologiesprovidescaleandarecapableofreachinga
globalaudience.Industrialmedia,however,typicallyuseacentralizedframeworkfororganization,
production,anddissemination,whereassocialmediaarebytheirverynaturemoredecentralized,less
hierarchical,anddistinguishedbymultiplepointsofproductionandutility.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

4/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

3. Frequency:Thenumberoftimesanadvertisementisdisplayedonsocialmediaplatforms.
4. Accessibility:Themeansofproductionforindustrialmediaaretypicallygovernmentand/or
corporate(privatelyowned)socialmediatoolsaregenerallyavailabletothepublicatlittleorno
cost.
5. Usability:Industrialmediaproductiontypicallyrequiresspecializedskillsandtraining.Conversely,
mostsocialmediaproductionrequiresonlymodestreinterpretationofexistingskillsintheory,
anyonewithaccesscanoperatethemeansofsocialmediaproduction.
6. Immediacy:Thetimelagbetweencommunicationsproducedbyindustrialmediacanbelong(days,
weeks,orevenmonths)comparedtosocialmedia(whichcanbecapableofvirtuallyinstantaneous
responses).
7. Permanence:Industrialmedia,oncecreated,cannotbealtered(onceamagazinearticleisprintedand
distributed,changescannotbemadetothatsamearticle)whereassocialmediacanbealteredalmost
instantaneouslybycommentsorediting.
Communitymediaconstituteahybridofindustrialandsocialmedia.Thoughcommunityowned,some
communityradio,TV,andnewspapersarerunbyprofessionalsandsomebyamateurs.Theyusebothsocial
andindustrialmediaframeworks.
Socialmediahavealsobeenrecognizedforthewaytheyhavechangedhowpublicrelationsprofessionals
conducttheirjobs.Theyhaveprovidedanopenarenawherepeoplearefreetoexchangeideason
companies,brands,andproducts.AsstatedbyDocSearlsandDavidWagner,twoauthoritiesontheeffects
ofInternetonmarketing,advertising,andPR,"ThebestofthepeopleinPRarenotPRtypesatall.They
understandthattherearen'tcensors,they'rethecompany'sbestconversationalists."[11]Socialmedia
providesanenvironmentwhereusersandPRprofessionalscanconverse,andwherePRprofessionalscan
promotetheirbrandandimprovetheircompany'simagebylisteningandrespondingtowhatthepublicis
sayingabouttheirproduct.

Managingsocialmedia
Thereisanincreasingtrendtowardsusingsocialmediamonitoringtoolsthatallowmarketerstosearch,
track,andanalyzeconversationonthewebabouttheirbrandorabouttopicsofinterest.[12]Thiscanbe
usefulinPRmanagementandcampaigntracking,allowingtheusertomeasurereturnoninvestment,
competitorauditing,andgeneralpublicengagement.Toolsrangefromfree,basicapplicationsto
subscriptionbased,moreindepthtools.
Thehoneycombframeworkdefineshowsocialmediaservicesfocusonsomeorallofsevenfunctional
buildingblocks.[2]Thesebuildingblockshelpexplaintheengagementneedsofthesocialmediaaudience.
Forinstance,LinkedInusersarethoughttocaremostlyaboutidentity,reputation,andrelationships,
whereasYouTube'sprimaryfeaturesaresharing,conversations,groups,andreputation.Manycompanies
buildtheirownsocialcontainersthatattempttolinkthesevenfunctionalbuildingblocksaroundtheir
brands.Theseareprivatecommunitiesthatengagepeoplearoundamorenarrowtheme,asinarounda
particularbrand,vocationorhobby,ratherthansocialmediacontainerssuchasGoogle+,Facebook,and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

5/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Twitter.PRdepartmentsfacesignificantchallengesindealingwithviralnegativesentimentdirectedat
organizationsorindividualsonsocialmediaplatforms(dubbed"sentimentitis"),whichmaybeareactionto
anannouncementorevent.[13]

Honeycombframeworkofsocialmedia
Ina2011article,[2]JanH.Kietzmann,KristopherHermkens,IanP.McCarthyandBrunoS.Silvestre
presentaframeworkthatdefinessocialmediabyusingsevenfunctionalbuildingblocks:
identity,conversations,sharing,presence,relationships,reputation,andgroups.
Identity:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichusersrevealtheiridentitiesinasocialmedia
setting.Thiscanincludedisclosinginformationsuchasname,age,gender,profession,location,and
alsoinformationthatportraysusersincertainways.[2]
Conversations:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichuserscommunicatewithotherusersina
socialmediasetting.Manysocialmediasitesaredesignedprimarilytofacilitateconversations
amongindividualsandgroups.Theseconversationshappenforallsortsofreasons.Peopletweet,
blog,etceteratomeetnewlikemindedpeople,tondtruelove,tobuildtheirselfesteem,ortobe
onthecuttingedgeofnewideasortrendingtopics.Yetothersseesocialmediaasawayofmaking
theirmessageheardandpositivelyimpactinghumanitariancauses,environmentalproblems,
economicissues,orpoliticaldebates.[2]
Sharing:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichusersexchange,distribute,andreceivecontent.
Thetermsocialoftenimpliesthatexchangesbetweenpeoplearecrucial.Inmanycases,however,
socialityisabouttheobjectsthatmediatethesetiesbetweenpeoplethereasonswhytheymeet
onlineandassociatewitheachother.[2]
Presence:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichuserscanknowifotherusersareaccessible.It
includesknowingwhereothersare,inthevirtualworldand/orintherealworld,andwhethertheyare
available.[2]
Relationships:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichuserscanberelatedtootherusers.Twoor
moreusershavesomeformofassociationthatleadsthemtoconverse,shareobjectsofsociality,
meetup,orsimplyjustlisteachotherasafriendorfan.[2]
Reputation:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichuserscanidentifythestandingofothers,
includingthemselves,inasocialmediasetting.Reputationcanhavedifferentmeaningsonsocial
mediaplatforms.Inmostcases,reputationisamatteroftrust,butbecauseinformationtechnologies
arenotyetgoodatdeterminingsuchhighlyqualitativecriteria,socialmediasitesrelyonmechanical
Turks:toolsthatautomaticallyaggregateusergeneratedinformationtodeterminetrustworthiness.[2]
Reputationmanagementisanotheraspectanduseofsocialmedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

6/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Groups:Thisblockrepresentstheextenttowhichuserscanformcommunitiesandsubcommunities.
Themoresocialanetworkbecomes,thebiggerthegroupoffriends,followers,andcontacts.[2]

Building"socialauthority"andvanity
Itisthroughthisprocessof"buildingsocialauthority"thatsocialmediabecomeseffective.Oneofthe
foundationalconceptsinsocialmediahasbecomethatyoucannotcompletelycontrolyourmessage
throughsocialmediabutratheryoucansimplybegintoparticipateinthe"conversation"expectingthatyou
canachieveasignificantinfluenceinthatconversation.[14]
However,thisconversationparticipationmustbecleverlyexecutedbecausealthoughpeopleareresistantto
marketingingeneral,theyareevenmoreresistanttodirectorovertmarketingthroughsocialmedia
platforms.Thismayseemcounterintuitivebutitisthemainreasonbuildingsocialauthoritywithcredibility
issoimportant.Amarketercangenerallynotexpectpeopletobereceptivetoamarketingmessageinand
ofitself.IntheEdelmanTrustBarometerreport(http://www.edelman.com/trust/2008/)in2008,the
majority(58%)oftherespondentsreportedtheymosttrustedcompanyorproductinformationcomingfrom
"peoplelikeme"inferredtobeinformationfromsomeonetheytrusted.Inthe2010TrustReport
(http://www.slideshare.net/slides_eoi/edelmantrustbarometer2010),themajorityswitchedto64%
preferringtheirinformationfromindustryexpertsandacademics.AccordingtoInc.Technology'sBrent
Leary,"Thislossoftrust,andtheaccompanyingturntowardsexpertsandauthorities,seemstobe
coincidingwiththeriseofsocialmediaandnetworks."[15][16]

Socialmediamining
SocialMediaMiningistheprocessofrepresenting,analyzing,andextractingactionablepatternsfrom
socialmediadata.SocialMediaMining,introducesbasicconceptsandprincipalalgorithmssuitablefor
investigatingmassivesocialmediadataitdiscussestheoriesandmethodologiesfromdifferentdisciplines
suchascomputerscience,datamining,machinelearning,socialnetworkanalysis,networkscience,
sociology,ethnography,statistics,optimization,andmathematics.Itencompassesthetoolstoformally
represent,measure,model,andminemeaningfulpatternsfromlargescalesocialmediadata.[17]

Globalusage
Accordingtothearticle"TheEmergingRoleofSocialMediainPoliticalandRegimeChange"byRita
Safranek,"TheMiddleEastandNorthAfricaregionhasoneofthemostyouthfulpopulationsintheworld,
withpeopleunder25makingupbetween3545%ofthepopulationineachcountry.Theymakeupthe
majorityofsocialmediausers,includingabout17millionFacebookusers,25,000Twitteraccountsand
40,000activeblogs,accordingtotheArabAdvisorsGroup.[18]

Effectsofusingsocialmediafornewspurposes
Justastelevisionturnedanationofpeoplewholistenedtomediacontentintowatchersofmediacontent,
theemergenceofsocialmediahascreatedanationofmediacontentcreators.Accordingto2011Pew
Researchdata,nearly80%ofAmericanadultsareonlineandnearly60%ofthemusesocialnetworking
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

7/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

sites.[19]MoreAmericansgettheirnewsviatheInternetthanfromnewspapersorradio,aswellasthree
fourthswhosaytheygetnewsfromemailorsocialmediasitesupdates,accordingtoareportpublishedby
CNN.ThesurveysuggeststhatFacebookandTwittermakenewsamoreparticipatoryexperiencethan
beforeaspeoplesharenewsarticlesandcommentonotherpeople'sposts.AccordingtoCNN,in201075%
ofpeoplegottheirnewsforwardedthroughemailorsocialmediaposts,whereas37%ofpeopleshareda
newsitemviaFacebookorTwitter.[20]
IntheUnitedStates,81%ofpeoplesaytheylookonlinefornewsoftheweather,firstandforemost.
Nationalnewsat73%,52%forsportsnews,and41%forentertainmentorcelebritynews.Basedonthis
study,doneforthePewCenter,twothirdsofthesamplesonlinenewsuserswereyoungerthan50,and
30%wereyoungerthan30.Thesurveyinvolvedtrackingdailythehabitsof2,259adults18orolder.[21]
33%ofyoungadultsgetnewsfromsocialnetworks.34%watchedTVnewsand13%readprintordigital
content.19%ofAmericansgotnewsfromFacebook,Google+,orLinkedIn.36%ofthosewhogetnews
fromsocialnetworkgotityesterdayfromsurvey.Morethan36%ofTwitterusersuseaccountstofollow
newsorganizationsorjournalists.19%ofuserssaytheygotinformationfromnewsorganizationsof
journalists.TVremainsmostpopularsourceofnews,butaudienceisaging(only34%ofyoungpeople).
29%ofthoseyoungerthat25saytheygotnonewsyesterdayeitherdigitallyortraditionalnewsplatforms.
Only5%under30saytheyfollownewsaboutpoliticalfiguresandeventsinDC.Only14%ofresponders
couldanswerallfourquestionsaboutwhichpartycontrolstheHouse,currentunemploymentrate,what
nationAngelaMerkelleads,andwhichpresidentialcandidatefavorstaxinghigherincomeAmericans.
FacebookandTwitternowpathwaystonews,butarenotreplacementsfortraditionalones.70%getsocial
medianewsfromfriendsandfamilyonFacebook.[22]
Socialmediafosterscommunication.Aninternetresearchcompany,PewResearchCenter,claimsthat
morethanhalfofinternetusers(52%)usetwoormoreofthesocialmediasitesmeasured(Facebook,
Twitter,Instagram,Pinterest)tocommunicatewiththeirfamilyorfriends[23]
Forchildren,usingsocialmediasitescanhelppromotecreativity,interaction,andlearning.Itcanalsohelp
themwithhomeworkandclasswork.Moreover,socialmediaenablethemtostayconnectedwiththeir
peers,andhelpthemtointeractwitheachother.Somecangetinvolvedwithdevelopingfundraising
campaignsandpoliticalevents.Howeveritcanimpactonsocialskillsduetotheabsenceoffacetoface
contact.[24]Socialmediacanaffectmentalhealthofteens.TeenswhouseFacebookfrequentlyandwho
especiallysusceptiblemaybecomemorenarcissistic,antisocial,andaggressive.Teensbecomestrongly
influencedbyadvertising,anditinfluencesbuyinghabitsforthefuture.SincethecreationofFacebookin
2004,ithasbecomeadistractionandawaytowastetimeformanyusers.[25]
Inarecentstudyconducted,highschoolstudentsages18andyoungerwereexaminedinanefforttofind
theirpreferenceforreceivingnews.Basedoninterviewswith61teenagers,conductedfromDecember
2007toFebruary2011,mostoftheteenparticipantsreportedreadingprintnewspapersonlysometimes,
withfewerthan10%readingthemdaily.Theteenagersinsteadreportedlearningaboutcurrenteventsfrom
socialmediasitessuchasFacebook,MySpace,YouTube,andblogs.[26]Anotherstudyshowedthatsocial
mediausersreadasetofnewsthatisdifferentfromwhatnewspapereditorsfeatureintheprintpress.[27]
Usingnanotechnologyasanexample,Rungeetal.(2013)[28]studiedtweetsfromTwitterandfoundthat
some41%ofthediscourseaboutnanotechnologyfocusedonitsnegativeimpacts,suggestingthataportion
ofthepublicmaybeconcernedwithhowvariousformsofnanotechnologyareusedinthefuture.Although
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

8/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

optimisticsoundingandneutralsoundingtweetswereequallylikelytoexpresscertaintyoruncertainty,the
pessimistictweetswerenearlytwiceaslikelytoappearcertainofanoutcomethanuncertain.Theseresults
implythepossibilityofapreconceivednegativeperceptionofmanynewsarticlesassociatedwith
nanotechnology.Alternatively,theseresultscouldalsoimplythatpostsofamorepessimisticnaturethatare
alsowrittenwithanairofcertaintyaremorelikelytobesharedorotherwisepermeategroupsonTwitter.
Similarbiasesneedtobeconsideredwhentheutilityofnewmediaisaddressed,asthepotentialforhuman
opiniontooveremphasizeanyparticularnewsstoryisgreaterdespitethegeneralimprovementin
addressedpotentialuncertaintyandbiasinnewsarticlesthanintraditionalmedia.[29]
OnOctober2,2013,themostcommonhashtagthroughoutthecountrywas#governmentshutdown,as
wellasonesfocusingonpoliticalparties,Obama,andhealthcare.MostnewssourceshaveTwitter,and
Facebook,pages,likeCNNandtheNewYorkTimes,providinglinkstotheironlinearticles,gettingan
increasedreadership.Additionally,severalcollegenewsorganizationsandadministratorshaveTwitter
pagesasawaytosharenewsandconnecttostudents.[30]
Accordingto"ReutersInstituteDigitalNewsReport2013",[31]intheUS,amongthosewhousesocial
mediatofindnews,47%ofthesepeopleareunder45yearsold,and23%areabove45yearsold.However
socialmediaasamainnewsgatewaydoesnotfollowthesamepatternacrosscountries.Forexample,in
thisreport,inBrazil,60%oftherespondentssaidsocialmediawasoneofthefivemostimportantwaysto
findnewsonline,45%inSpain,17%intheUK,38%inItaly,14%inFrance,22%inDenmark,30%inthe
U.S.,and12%inJapan.[31]Moreover,therearedifferencesamongcountriesaboutcommentingonnewsin
socialnetworks,38%oftherespondentsinBrazilsaidtheycommentedonnewsinsocialnetworkina
week.Thesepercentagesare21%intheU.S.and10%intheUK.Theauthorsarguedthatdifferences
amongcountriesmaybeduetoculturedifferenceratherthandifferentlevelsofaccesstotechnicaltools.[31]

Historyandmemoryeffects
NewsmediaandtelevisionjournalismhavebeeninstrumentalintheshapingofAmericancollective
memoryformuchofthetwentiethcentury.[32][33]Indeed,sincetheUnitedStates'colonialera,newsmedia
hasinfluencedcollectivememoryanddiscourseaboutnationaldevelopmentandtrauma.Inmanyways,
mainstreamjournalistshavemaintainedanauthoritativevoiceasthestorytellersoftheAmericanpast.
Theirdocumentarystylenarratives,detailedexposes,andtheirpositionsinthepresentmakethemprime
sourcesforpublicmemory.Specifically,newsmediajournalistshaveshapedcollectivememoryonnearly
everymajornationaleventfromthedeathsofsocialandpoliticalfigurestotheprogressionofpolitical
hopefuls.JournalistsprovideelaboratedescriptionsofcommemorativeeventsinU.S.historyand
contemporarypopularculturalsensations.ManyAmericanslearnthesignificanceofhistoricaleventsand
politicalissuesthroughnewsmedia,astheyarepresentedonpopularnewsstations.[34]However,
journalisticinfluenceisgrowinglessimportant,whereassocialnetworkingsitessuchasFacebook,
YouTubeandTwitter,provideaconstantsupplyofalternativenewssourcesforusers.
Associalnetworkingbecomesmorepopularamongolderandyoungergenerations,sitessuchasFacebook
andYouTube,graduallyunderminethetraditionallyauthoritativevoicesofnewsmedia.Forexample,
Americancitizenscontestmediacoverageofvarioussocialandpoliticaleventsastheyseefit,inserting
theirvoicesintothenarrativesaboutAmerica'spastandpresentandshapingtheirowncollective
memories.[35][36]AnexampleofthisisthepublicexplosionoftheTrayvonMartinshootinginSanford,
Florida.Newsmediacoverageoftheincidentwasminimaluntilsocialmediausersmadethestory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

9/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

recognizablethroughtheirconstantdiscussionofthecase.Approximatelyonemonthafterthefatal
shootingofTrayvonMartin,itsonlinecoveragebyeverydayAmericansgarnerednationalattentionfrom
mainstreammediajournalists,inturnexemplifyingmediaactivism.Insomeways,thespreadofthistragic
eventthroughalternativenewssourcesparallelsthatoftheEmmittTillwhosemurderbecameanational
storyafteritcirculatedAfricanAmericanandCommunistsnewspapers.Socialmediawasalsoinfluentialin
thewidespreadattentiongiventotherevolutionaryoutbreaksintheMiddleEastandNorthAfricaduring
2011.[37][38][39]However,thereissomedebateabouttheextenttowhichsocialmediafacilitatedthiskindof
change.[40]AnotherexampleofthisshiftisintheongoingKony2012campaign,whichsurfacedfirston
YouTubeandlatergarneredagreatamountofattentionfrommainstreamnewsmediajournalists.These
journalistsnowmonitorsocialmediasitestoinformtheirreportsonthemovement.Lastly,inthepast
coupleofpresidentialelections,theuseofsocialmediasitessuchasFacebookandTwitterwereusedto
predictelectionresults.U.S.PresidentBarackObamawasmorelikedonFacebookthanhisopponentMitt
RomneyanditwasfoundbyastudydonebyOxfordInstituteInternetExperimentthatmorepeoplelikedto
tweetaboutcommentsofPresidentObamaratherthanRomney.[41]

Criticismsofsocialmedia
Criticismsofsocialmediarangefromcriticismsoftheeaseofuseofspecificplatformsandtheir
capabilities,disparityofinformationavailable,issueswithtrustworthinessandreliabilityofinformation
presented,[42]theimpactofsocialmediauseonanindividual'sconcentration,[43]ownershipofmedia
content,andthemeaningofinteractionscreatedbysocialmedia.Althoughsomesocialmediaplatforms
offeruserstheopportunitytocrosspostsimultaneously,somesocialnetworkplatformshavebeen
criticizedforpoorinteroperabilitybetweenplatforms,whichleadstothecreationofinformationsilos
isolatedpocketsofdatacontainedinonesocialmediaplatform[44]However,itisalsoarguedthatsocial
mediahavepositiveeffectssuchasallowingthedemocratizationoftheinternet[45]whilealsoallowing
individualstoadvertisethemselvesandformfriendships.[46]Others[47]havenotedthattheterm"Social"
cannotaccountfortechnologicalfeaturesofaplatformalone,hencethelevelofsociabilityshould
determinedbytheactualperformancesofitsusers.
Duetotheincreaseinsocialmediawebsites,thereseemstobeapositivecorrelationbetweentheusageof
suchmediawithcyberbullying,onlinesexualpredators,andthedecreaseinfacetofaceinteractions.
Socialmediamayexposechildrentoimagesofalcohol,tobacco,andsexualbehaviors.[48]
Twitterisincreasinglyatargetofheavyactivityofmarketers.Theiractions,focusedongainingmassive
numbersoffollowers,includeuseofadvancedscriptsandmanipulationtechniquesthatdistorttheprime
ideaofsocialmediabyabusinghumantrustfulness.[49]
BritishAmericanentrepreneurandauthorAndrewKeencriticizessocialmediainhisbookTheCultofthe
Amateur,writing,"Outofthisanarchy,itsuddenlybecameclearthatwhatwasgoverningtheinfinite
monkeysnowinputtingawayontheInternetwasthelawofdigitalDarwinism,thesurvivaloftheloudest
andmostopinionated.Undertheserules,theonlywaytointellectuallyprevailisbyinfinite
filibustering."[50]Thisisalsorelativetotheissue"justice"inthesocialnetwork.Forexample,the
phenomenonHumanfleshsearchengineinAsiaraisedthediscussionof"privatelaw"broughtbysocial
networkplatform.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

10/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ComparativeMediaprofessorJosvanDijckcontendsinherbook"TheCultureofConnectivity"(2013)
thattounderstandthefullweightofsocialmedia,theirtechnologicaldimensionsshouldbeconnectedtothe
socialandthecultural.Shecriticallydescribessixsocialmediaplatforms.Oneofherfindingsistheway
Facebookhadbeensuccessfulinframingtheterm'sharing'insuchawaythatthirdpartyuseofuserdatais
neglectedinfavourofintrauserconnectedness.

Disparity
EricEhrmanncontendsthatsocialmediaintheformofpublicdiplomacycreateapatinaofinclusiveness
thatcovers[51]traditionaleconomicintereststhatarestructuredtoensurethatwealthispumpeduptothe
topoftheeconomicpyramid,perpetuatingthedigitaldivideandpostMarxianclassconflict.Healsovoices
concernoverthetrendthatfindssocialutilitiesoperatinginaquasilibertarianglobalenvironmentof
oligopolythatrequiresusersineconomicallychallengednationstospendhighpercentagesofannual
incometopayfordevicesandservicestoparticipateinthesocialmedialifestyle.
Thephrase"Digitaldivide"wascoinedin1996byLloydMorrlsett,afounderoftheChildren'sTelevision
WorkshopandPresidentoftheMarkleFoundation,todescribethechasmthatpurportedlyseparates
informationtechnology(IT)havesfromhavenotsintheUS.AsVirginiaEubanksexplainsthedigital
divideintermsofsocialstructurethathavenotsideusersdon'thavemuchconsumerpowerbutthehave
sidehavethepower.Moneyandlaborsgofromthehavenottohave.
NeilPostmanalsocontendsthatsocialmediawillincreaseaninformationdisparitybetweenwinnerswho
areabletousethesocialmediaactivelyandloserswhoarenotfamiliarwithmoderntechnologies.

Trustworthiness
Becauselargescalecollaborativecocreationisoneofthemainwaysofforminginformationinthesocial
network,theusergeneratedcontentissometimesviewedwithskepticismreadersdonottrustitisasa
reliablesourceofinformation.AniketKittur,BongowonSuhandEdH.Chitookwikisunderexamination
andindicatedthat,"Onepossibilityisthatdistrustofwikicontentisnotduetotheinherentlymutable
natureofthesystembutinsteadtothelackofavailableinformationforjudgingtrustworthiness."[52]Tobe
morespecific,theauthorsmentionthatreasonsfordistrustingcollaborativesystemswithusergenerated
content,suchasWikipedia,includealackofinformationregardingaccuracyofcontents,motivesand
expertiseofeditors,stabilityofcontent,coverageoftopicsandtheabsenceofsources.[53]
Socialmediaarealsoimportantsourcesofnews.Accordingto'ReutersInstituteDigitalNewsReport2013',
socialmediaareoneofthemostimportantwaysforpeoplefindnewsonline(theothersbeingtraditional
brands,searchenginesandnewsaggregators).[31]ThereportsuggestedthatintheUnitedKingdom,trustin
newswhichcomesfromsocialmediasourcesislow,comparedtonewsfromothersources(e.g.online
newsfromtraditionalbroadcasteroronlinenewsfromnationalnewspapers).Peoplewhoagedat2435
trustsocialmediamost,whereastrustdeclinedwiththeincreaseofage.
RainieandWellmanhavearguedthatmediamakingnowhasbecomeaparticipationwork,[54]which
changescommunicationsystems.Thecenterofpowerisshiftedfromonlythemedia(asthegatekeeper)to
theperipheralarea,whichmayincludegovernment,organizations,andouttotheedge,theindividual.[55]
Thesechangesincommunicationsystemsraiseempiricalquestionsabouttrusttomediaeffect.Prior
empiricalstudieshaveshownthattrustininformationsourcesplaysamajorroleinpeoplesdecision
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

11/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

making.[56]People'sattitudesmoreeasilychangewhentheyhearmessagesfromtrustworthysources.Inthe
Reutersreport,27%ofrespondentsagreethattheyworryabouttheaccuracyofastoryonablog.[31]
However,40%ofthembelievethestoriesonblogsaremorebalancedthantraditionalpapersbecausethey
areprovidedwitharangeofopinions.Recentresearchhasshownthatinthenewsocialmedia
communicationenvironment,theciviloruncivilnatureofcommentswillbiaspeople'sinformation
processingevenifthemessageisfromatrustworthysource,[57]whichbringthepracticalandethical
questionabouttheresponsibilityofcommunicatorinthesocialmediaenvironment.

Concentration
Somehavesaidthat"fast(social)mediaanddeepslowthoughtdon'tmixwell."FromNicholasCarr,"As
mediatheoristMarshallMcLuhanpointedoutinthe1960s,mediaarenotjustpassivechannelsof
information.Theysupplythestuffofthought,buttheyalsoshapetheprocessofthought.AndwhattheNet
seemstobedoingischippingawaymycapacityforconcentrationandcontemplation."However,thereare
severalbenefitsbroughtfromdeepreading.Forexample,"ourabilitytointerprettext,tomaketherich
mentalconnectionthatformwhenwereaddeeplyandwithoutdistraction,remainslargelydisengaged."But
needsforconvenienceoftenmakeitdifficulttochoosethisslower,moredeliberateway.[58]

Fewrealimpacts
ForMalcolmGladwell,theroleofsocialmedia,suchasTwitterandFacebook,inrevolutionsandprotests
isoverstated.[59]Ontheonehand,socialmediamakeiteasierforindividuals,andinthiscaseactivists,to
expressthemselves.Ontheotherhand,itisharderforthatexpressiontohaveanimpact.[59]
Gladwelldistinguishesbetweensocialmediaactivismandhighriskactivism,whichbringsrealchanges.
Activismandespeciallyhighriskactivisminvolvesstrongtierelationships,hierarchies,coordination,
motivation,exposingoneselftohighrisks,makingsacrifices.[59]
Gladwelldiscussesthatsocialmediaarebuiltaroundweaktiesandhearguesthat"socialnetworksare
effectiveatincreasingparticipationbylesseningthelevelofmotivationthatparticipationrequires.[59]
AccordingtohimFacebookactivismsucceedsnotbymotivatingpeopletomakearealsacrifice,butby
motivatingthemtodothethingsthatpeopledowhentheyarenotmotivatedenoughtomakeareal
sacrifice.[59]
Furthermore,socialmediasroleindemocratizingmediaparticipationmayfallshortofideals.Socialmedia
hasbeenchampionedasallowinganyonewithanInternetconnectiontobecomeacontentcreator[46]and
empoweringtheactiveaudience.[60]Butinternationalsurveydatasuggestonlinemediaaudience
membersarelargelypassiveconsumers,whilecontentcreationisdominatedbythefew.[31]:78
Accordingtothe"ReutersInstituteDigitalNewsReport2013"thepercentofonlinenewsuserswhoblog
aboutnewsissuesrangesfrom15%.Greaterpercentagesusesocialmediatocommentonnews,with
participationrangingfrom8%inGermanyto38%inBrazil.Butonlinenewsusersaremostlikelytojust
talkaboutonlinenewswithfriendsofflineorusesocialmediatosharestorieswithoutcreating
content.[31]:78

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

12/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Reliability
EvgenyMorozov,20092010YahoofellowatGeorgetownUniversitycontendsthattheinformation
uploadedtoTwittermayhavelittlerelevancetotherestofthepeoplewhodonotuseTwitter.Inthearticle
"Iran:DownsidetotheTwitterRevolutioninthemagazineDissent,[61]hesays:
"Twitteronlyaddstothenoise:itssimplyimpossibletopackmuchcontextintoits140
characters.Allotherbiasesarepresentaswell:inacountrylikeIranitsmostlyproWestern,
technologyfriendlyandiPodcarryingyoungpeoplewhoarethenaturalandmostfrequent
usersofTwitter.Theyareatinyand,mostimportant,extremelyuntypicalsegmentofthe
Iranianpopulation(thenumberofTwitterusersinIranacountryofmorethanseventy
millionpeople.)
EvenintheUnitedStates,thebirthcountryofTwitter,in2012thesocialnetworkhadonly107.7million
accounts.[62]Becausetherearelikelytobemanymultiaccountusers,andtheUnitedStatesin2012hada
populationof314.7million,[63]theadoptionofTwitterissomewhatlimited.
ProfessorMatthewAuerofBatesCollegecastsdoubtontheconventionalwisdomthatsocialmediaare
openandparticipatory.Healsospeculatesontheemergenceof"antisocialmedia"usedas"instrumentsof
purecontrol."[64]

Ownershipofsocialmediacontent
Socialmediacontentisgeneratedthroughsocialmediainteractionsdonebytheusersthroughthesite.
Therehasalwaysbeenahugedebateontheownershipofthecontentonsocialmediaplatformsbecauseit
isgeneratedbytheusersandhostedbythecompany.Addedtothisisthedangertosecurityofinformation,
whichcanbeleakedtothirdpartieswitheconomicinterestsintheplatform,orparasiteswhocombthedata
fortheirowndatabases.[65]TheauthorofSocialMediaIsBullshit,BrandonMendelson,claimsthatthe
"true"ownersofcontentcreatedonsocialmediasitesonlybenefitsthelargecorporationswhoownthose
sitesandrarelytheusersthatcreatedthem.[66]

Privacy
Privacyrightsadvocateswarnusersaboutusesfortheinformationthatcanbegatheredthroughsocial
media.Someinformationiscapturedwithouttheuser'sknowledgeorconsent,suchasthroughelectronic
trackingandthirdpartyapplicationonsocialnetworks.Othersincludelawenforcementandgovernmental
useofthisinformation,[67]includingthegatheringofsocalledsocialmediaintelligencethroughdata
miningtechniques.[68]
Additionalprivacyconcernsrelatetotheimpactofsocialmediamonitoringbyemployerswhosepolicies
includeprohibitionsagainstworkers'postingsonsocialnetworkingsites.[69]Asurveydonein2010from
differentuniversitiesrevealedthattherearelinesdrawnbetweenpersonalandprofessionallives.Manyof

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

13/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

theuserssurveyedadmittedtomisrepresentingthemselvesonline.[70]Employeescanbeconcernedbecause
theirsocialmediasitesreflecttheirpersonallivesandnottheirprofessionallives,butyetemployersare
censoringthemontheinternet.
Otherprivacyconcernswithemployersandsocialmediaarewhenemployersusesocialmediaasatoolto
screenaprospectiveemployee.Thisissueraisesmanyethicalquestionsthatsomeconsideranemployers
rightandothersconsiderdiscrimination.ExceptinthestatesofCalifornia,Maryland,andIllinois,thereare
nolawsthatprohibitemployersfromusingsocialmediaprofilesasabasisofwhetherornotsomeone
shouldbehired.[71]TitleVIIalsoprohibitsdiscriminationduringanyaspectofemploymentincluding
hiringorfiring,recruitment,ortesting.[72]
Socialmediahasbeenintegratingitselfintotheworkplaceandthishasledtoconflictswithinemployees
andemployers.Particularly,Facebookhasbeenseenasapopularplatformforemployerstoinvestigatein
ordertolearnmoreaboutpotentialemployees.ThisconflictfirststartedinMarylandwhenanemployer
requestedandreceivedanemployeesFacebookusernameandpassword.Statelawmakersfirstintroduced
legislationin2012toprohibitemployersfromrequestingpasswordstopersonalsocialaccountsinorderto
getajobortokeepajob.ThisledtoCanada,Germany,theU.S.Congressand11U.S.statestopassor
proposelegislationthatpreventsemployersaccesstoprivatesocialaccountsofemployees.[73]
ManyWesternEuropeancountrieshavealreadyimplementedlawsthatrestricttheregulationofsocial
mediaintheworkplace.StatesincludingArkansas,California,Colorado,Illinois,Maryland,Michigan,
Nevada,NewJersey,NewMexico,Utah,WashingtonandWisconsinhavepassedlegislationthatprotects
potentialemployeesandcurrentemployeesfromemployersthatdemandthemtogiveforththeirusername
orpasswordforasocialmediaaccount.[74]Lawsthatforbidemployersfromdisciplininganemployee
basedonactivityoffthejobonsocialmediasiteshavealsobeenputintoactinstatesincludingCalifornia,
Colorado,Connecticut,NorthDakotaandNewYork.Severalstateshavesimilarlawsthatprotectstudents
incollegesanduniversitiesfromhavingtograntaccesstotheirsocialmediaaccounts.Eightstateshave
passedthelawthatprohibitspostsecondaryinstitutionsfromdemandingsocialmedialogininformation
fromanyprospectiveorcurrentstudentsandprivacylegislationhasbeenintroducedorispendinginat
least36statesasofJuly2013.[75]
AsofMay2014,legislationhasbeenintroducedandisintheprocessofpendinginatleast28statesand
hasbeenenactedinMaineandWisconsin.[76]Inaddition,theNationalLaborRelationsBoardhasbeen
devotingalotoftheirattentiontoattackingemployerpoliciesregardingsocialmediathatcandiscipline
employeeswhoseektospeakandpostfreelyonsocialmediasites.[77]

Effectsoninterpersonalrelationships
Datasuggestthatparticipantsusesocialmediatofulfillperceivedsocialneeds,butaretypically
disappointed.[78]LonelyindividualsaredrawntotheInternetforemotionalsupport.Thiscausesproblems
asitinterfereswithreallifesocializing.[79]SomeoftheseviewsaresummedupinanAtlanticarticleby
StephenMarchetitled,IsFacebookMakingUsLonely?inwhichtheauthorarguesthatsocialmedia
providesmorebreadth,butnotthedepthofrelationshipsthathumansrequire.[80]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

14/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

SherryTurkleexploressimilarissuesinherbookAloneTogetherasshediscusseshowpeopleconfuse
socialmediausagewithauthenticcommunication.Peopletendtoactdifferentlyonlineandarelessafraid
tohurteachothersfeelings.Someonlinebehaviorscausestressandanxiety,muchofthisassociatedwith
friendsandthepermanenceofonlineposts.Thisanxietyisalsoassociatedwiththefearofbeinghackedor
ofcollegesandemployersexploringsocialmediapagesandfindingunsavorythingsposted.Turklealso
speculatesthatpeoplearebeginningtoprefertextingtofacetofacecommunication,whichcancontribute
tofeelingsofloneliness.[81]
Someresearchershavealsofoundthatonlyexchangesthatinvolveddirectcommunicationand
reciprocationofmessagestoeachotherincreasedfeelingsofconnectedness.However,passivelyusing
socialmediawithoutsendingorreceivingmessagestoindividualsdoesnotmakepeoplefeellesslonely
unlesstheywerelonelytobeginwith.[82]
AstudypublishedinthePublicLibraryofSciencein2013revealedthattheperceptionofFacebookbeing
animportantresourceforsocialconnectionwasdiminishedbythenumberofpeoplefoundtohave
developedlowselfesteem,andthemoretheyusedthenetworkthelowertheirlevelofselfesteem.[83]
Acurrentcontroversialtopiciswhetherornotsocialmediaaddictionshouldbeexplicitlycategorizedasa
psychologicalailment.[84]ExtendeduseofsocialmediahasledtoincreasedInternetaddiction,
cyberbullying,sexting,sleepdeprivation,andthedeclineoffacetofaceinteraction.[85]Severalclinicsin
theUKclassifysocialmediaaddictionisacertifiablemedicalconditionwithonepsychiatricconsultant
claimingthathetreatsasmanyasonehundredcasesayear.[86]

Positiveeffectsofsocialmedia
InthebookNetworkedThenewsocialoperatingsystembyLeeRainieandBarryWellman,thetwo
authorsreflectonmainlypositiveeffectsofsocialmediaandotherinternetbasedsocialnetworks.
Accordingtotheauthors,socialmediaareusedtodocumentmemories,learnaboutandexplorethings,
advertiseoneselfandformfriendships.Forinstance,theyclaimthatthecommunicationthroughinternet
basedservicescanbedonemoreprivatelythaninreallife.Furthermore,RainieandWellmandiscussthat
everybodyhasthepossibilitytobecomeacontentcreator.Contentcreationprovidesnetworkedindividuals
opportunitiestoreachwideraudiences.Moreover,itcanpositivelyaffecttheirsocialstandingandgain
politicalsupport.Thiscanleadtoinfluenceonissuesthatareimportantforsomeone.Asaconcrete
exampleofthepositiveeffectsofsocialmedia,theauthorsusetheTunisianrevolutionin2011,where
peopleusedFacebooktogathermeetings,protestactions,etc.[46]
RainieandWellman(Ibid)alsodiscussthatcontentcreationisavoluntaryandparticipatoryact.Whatis
importantisthatnetworkedindividualscreate,editandmanagecontentincollaborationwithother
networkedindividuals.Thiswaytheycontributeinexpandingknowledge.Wikisareexamplesof
collaborativecontentcreation.

Employmentimpact
Useofsocialmediabyyoungpeoplehascausedsignificantproblemsforsomepeoplewhentheyentered
thejobmarket.Asurveyof17,000youngpeopleinsixcountriesin2013foundthat1in10peopleaged16
to34havebeenrejectedforajobbecauseofonlinecomments.[87]A2014surveyofrecruitersfoundthat
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

15/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

93%ofthemcheckcandidates'socialmediapostings.[88]
Thesecaseshavecreatedsomeprivacyimplicationsastowhetherornotcompaniesshouldhavetherightto
lookatemployeesFacebookprofiles.InMarch2012,Facebookdecidedtheymighttakelegalaction
againstemployersforgainingaccesstoemployeesprofilesthroughtheirpasswords.[89]Accordingto
FacebookChiefPrivacyOfficerforpolicy,ErinEgan,thecompanyhasworkedhardtogiveitsusersthe
toolstocontrolwhoseestheirinformation.Healsosaidusersshouldntbeforcedtoshareprivate
informationandcommunicationsjusttogetajob.AccordingtothenetworksStatementofRightsand
Responsibilities,sharingorsolicitingapasswordisaviolationtoFacebook.Employeesmaystillgivetheir
passwordinformationouttogetajob,butaccordingtoErinEgan,Facebookwillcontinuetodotheirpart
toprotecttheprivacyandsecurityoftheirusers.[90]

CollegeAdmission
Beforesocialmedia,admissionsofficialsintheUnitedStatesusedSATscores,extracurricularactivities,
lettersofrecommendation,andhighschoolGPA'stodeterminewhethertoacceptordenyanapplicant.
AccordingtoKaplan,Inc,acorporationthatprovideshighereducationpreparation,in201227%of
admissionsofficersusedGoogletolearnmoreaboutanapplicant,with26%checkingFacebook.[91]

Politicaleffectsofsocialmedia
Thepopularityofgettingpoliticalnewsfromsocialmediaplatformsisgreatlyincreasing.A2014study
showedthat62%ofwebusersturntoFacebooktofindpoliticalnews.[92]Thissocialphenomenonallows
forpoliticalinformation,trueornot,tospreadquicklyandeasilyamongpeernetworks.Furthermore,social
mediasitesarenowencouragingpoliticalinvolvementbyunitinglikemindedpeople,remindingusersto
voteinelections,andanalyzinguserspoliticalaffiliationdatatofindculturalsimilaritiesand
differences.[93]
Socialmediacanhelptaintthereputationofpoliticalfiguresfairlyquicklywithinformationthatmayor
maynotbetrue.Informationspreadslikewildfireandbeforeapoliticiancanevengetanopportunityto
addresstheinformation,eithertoconfirm,deny,orexplain,thepublichasalreadyformedanopinionabout
thepoliticianbasedonthatinformation.However,whenconductedonpurpose,thespreadofinformation
onsocialmediaforpoliticalmeanscanhelpcampaignsimmensely.TheBarackObamapresidential
campaign,2008,isconsideredtobeoneofthemostsuccessfulintermsofsocialmedia.Ontheotherhand,
negativewordofmouthinsocialmediaconcerningapoliticalfigurecanbeveryunfortunatefora
politicianandcancostthepoliticianhis/hercareeriftheinformationisverydamaging.[94]Forexample,
AnthonyWeinersmisuseofthesocialmediaplatform,Twitter,eventuallyledtohisresignationfromU.S.
Congress.[95]
Openforumsonlinehavealsobeentherootofnegativeeffectsinthepoliticalsphere.Somepoliticians
havemadethemistakeofusingopenforumstotryandreachabroaderaudienceandthusmorepotential
voters.Whattheyforgottoaccountforwasthattheforumswouldbeopentoeveryone,includingthosein
opposition.Havingnocontrolthecommentsbeingposted,negativeincluded,hasbeendamagingforsome
withunfortunateoversight.Additionally,aconstraintofsocialmediaasatoolforpublicpoliticaldiscourse
isthatifoppressivegovernmentsrecognizetheabilitysocialmediahastocausechange,theyshutit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

16/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

down.[96]DuringthepeakoftheEgyptianRevolutionof2011,theinternetandsocialmediaplayedahuge
roleinfacilitatinginformation.Atthattime,HosniMubarakwasthepresidentofEgyptandheadthe
regimeforalmost30years.Mubarakwassothreatenedbytheimmensepowerthattheinternetandsocial
mediagavethepeoplethatthegovernmentsuccessfullyshutdowntheinternet,usingtheRamses
Exchange,foraperiodoftimeinFebruary2011.[97]
Socialmediaasanopenforumgivesavoicetothosewhohavepreviouslynothadtheabilitytoheard.in
2015,somecountriesarestillbecomingequippedwithinternetaccessibilityandothertechnologies.Social
mediaisgivingeveryoneavoicetospeakoutagainstgovernmentregimes.In2014,theruralareasin
Paraguaywereonlyjustreceivingaccesstosocialmedia,suchasFacebook.Incongruencewiththeusers
worldwide,teensandyoungadultsinParaguayaredrawntoFacebookandotherstypesofsocialmediaasa
meanstoselfexpress.Socialmediaisbecomingamainconduitforsocialmobilizationandgovernment
critiquesbecause,"thegovernmentcan'tcontrolwhatwesayontheinternet."[98]
Youngergenerationsarebecomingmoreinvolvedinpoliticsduetotheincreaseofpoliticalnewspostedon
varioustypesofsocialmedia.Duetotheheavieruseofsocialmediaamongyoungergenerations,theyare
exposedtopoliticsmorefrequently,andinawaythatisintegratedintotheironlinesociallives.While
informingyoungergenerationsofpoliticalnewsisimportant,therearemanybiaseswithintherealmsof
socialmedia.Itcanbedifficultforoutsiderstotrulyunderstandtheconditionsofdissentwhentheyare
removedfromdirectinvolvement.[99]Socialmediacancreateafalsesenseofunderstandingamongpeople
whoarenotdirectlyinvolvedintheissue.Anexampleofsocialmediacreatingmisconceptionscanbeseen
duringtheArabSpringprotests.Today'sgenerationrelyheavilyonsocialmediatounderstandwhatis
happeningintheworld,anconsequentlypeopleareexposedtobothtrueandfalseinformation.For
example,AmericanshaveseveralmisconceptionssurroundingtheeventsoftheArabSprings
movement.[100]
Socialmediacanbeusedtocreatepoliticalchange,bothmajorandminor.Forexample,in2011Egyptians
usedFacebook,Twitter,andYouTubeasameanstocommunicateandorganizedemonstrationsandrallies
tooverthrowPresidentHosniMubarak.StatisticsshowthatduringthistimetherateofTweetsfromEgypt
increasedfrom2,300to230,000perdayandthetop23protestvideoshadapproximately5.5millionviews
[101]Thisnotonlyallowedfororganizationamongprotesters,butalsoallowedtheuprisingtogainthe
attentionofpeoplearoundtheworld.

SocialMediaandtheLGBTQCommunity
SocialmediahashadalargeimpactontheLGBTQcommunity.Socialmediacreatesadigitalcommunity
inwhichLGBTQindividualsareabletocommunicatewitheachother,regardlessofgeographicdistance.
SeveralsocialmediaappshavebeendevelopedthataretargetedspecificallyfortheLGBTQcommunity.
GrindrisanexampleofaformofsocialmediathatwascreatedspecificallyfortheLGBTQcommunity.
Grindrisanappthatusesthehostphonesgeolocationtolocateothermenusingtheappincloseproximity.
GrindrwasthefirstgaygeosocialapptolaunchintheiTunesAppStoreandhassincebecomethelargest
andmostpopulargaymobileappintheworld.Thereareapproximately5millionusersofGrindrin192
countries.Approximately10,000downloadtheappeveryday[102]WhileGrindrismainlyusedasadating
app,theGrindrleadershiphasdemonstratedthattheywouldliketohelpachievemoreequalityforthe
LGBTQcommunity.JoelSimkhai,thefounderofGrindrsaidinaninterview"Wedon'thavethesame
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

17/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

rightsaseveryoneelse,Weareauniquecompanywhere100percentofmyaudiencedoesnothave
equality."[103]HebelievesGrindrhasaresponsibilitytoimprovethequalityoflifebyachievingequality
foritsmembers.
In2011,aninitiativewasstartedcalled"GrindrForEquality."Thegoalof"Equality"istoraisepublic
awarenessofissuesfacingtheLGBTQcommunity.[104]Usersareencouragedtosubmitinformationtothe
GrindrwebsitewhentheyhearaboutissuesrelatingtotheLGBTQcommunityintheirarea.Whenusers
logontoGrindr,theyarepresentedwithanotificationcontaininginformationabouttheissue.Forexample,
GrindrforEqualitysentabroadcastmessagetoallGrindruserstoraiseawarenessandcelebratetherepeal
oftheU.S.militarysDontAsk,DontTellpolicyinSeptember2011.Themessageincludedalinktoa
donationpagefortheServicemembersLegalDefenseNetwork.Morethan5,000Grindrusersclicked
throughtothatpage[104]whisperisanotherappthathasalargeeffectontheLGBTQpopulation.Users
selectabackgroundphotofortheirpost,andthenwriteashortcaptionwiththeirmessageThepurposeof
theappisforuserstoanonymouslysharesecrets,orthingstheywouldntfeelcomfortablesharingpublicly,
andtheypostitontheappsmainpage.Whatattractsmostpeopletotheappisitspromiseofanonymity
[105]ThisanonymityisespeciallyusefulforLGBTQmemberswhohavenotpubliclyannouncedtheir
sexuality,becauseitallowsthemtoconfideinasupportivedigitalcommunitywithouthavingtoreveal
theiridentity.WhisperalsoincludesasectiondedicatedtotheLGBTQcommunitywhichoftencontains
Comingoutstories.
ManyLGBTQcivilrightsgroupsareactiveonsocialmedia,suchasHumanrightsorganizationandThe
InternationalGay&LesbianHumanRightsCommission.Socialmediaallowscivilrightsgroupstospread
theirmessagetoalarge,diverseaudience,whichisusefulincreatingawarenessofissuesfacedbythe
LGBTQcommunity[106]

Patents
TherehasbeenrapidgrowthinthenumberofUSpatent
applicationsthatcovernewtechnologiesrelatedtosocialmedia,and
thenumberofthemthatarepublishedhasbeengrowingrapidly
overthepastfiveyears.Therearenowover2000publishedpatent
applications.[108]Asmanyas7000applicationsmaybecurrentlyon
fileincludingthosethathaven'tbeenpublishedyet.Onlyslightly
over100oftheseapplicationshaveissuedaspatents,however,
largelyduetothemultiyearbackloginexaminationofbusiness
methodpatents,patentswhichoutlineandclaimnewmethodsof
doingbusiness.[109]

Socialmediaintheclassroom

NumberofUSsocialnetworkpatent
applicationspublishedandpatents
issuedperyearsince2003. [107]

Havingsocialmediaintheclassroomhasbeenacontroversialtopic
forthelastseveralyears.Manyparentsandeducatorshavebeenfearfuloftherepercussionsofhaving
socialmediaintheclassroom.[110]Asresult,cellphoneshavebeenbannedfromclassroomandschools
haveblockedmanypopularsocialmediawebsites.However,despiteadultsapprehensions,studentsare(or
willbe)usingsocialmedia.Asaresultofthat,schoolshaverealizedthattheyneedtoincorporatethese
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

18/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

toolsintotheclassroombecausetherulesarechanging.ThePeelDistrictSchoolBoard(PDSB)inOntario
isoneofmanyschoolboardsthathasbeguntoaccepttheuseofsocialmediaintheclassroom.In2013,the
PDSBintroducedaBringYourOwnDevice(BYOD)policyandhaveunblockedmanysocialmedia
sites.[111]FewkesandMcCabe(2012)haveresearchedaboutthebenefitsofusingFacebookinthe
classroom.[112]

Wikipedia
Inearly2013,SteveJoordens,aprofessorattheUniversityofToronto,encouragedthe1,900students
enrolledinhisintroductorypsychologycoursetoaddcontenttoWikipediapagesfeaturingcontentthat
relatedtothecourse.Likeothereducators,[113]Joordensarguedthattheassignmentwouldnotonly
strengthenthesitespsychologyrelatedcontent,butalsoprovideanopportunityforstudentstoengagein
criticalreflectionaboutthenegotiationsinvolvedincollaborativeknowledgeproduction.However,
Wikipediasallvolunteereditorialstaffcomplainedthatthestudentscontributionsresultedinan
overwhelmingnumberofadditionstothesite,andthatsomeofthecontributionswereinaccurate.[114]

Facebookandtheclassroom
Facebookrepresentsapotentiallyusefultoolineducationalcontexts.Itallowsforbothanasynchronous
andsynchronous,opendialogueviaafamiliarandregularlyaccessedmedium,andsupportstheintegration
ofmultimodalcontentsuchasstudentcreatedphotographsandvideoandURLstoothertexts,inaplatform
thatmanystudentsarealreadyfamiliarwith.Further,itallowsstudentstoaskmoreminorquestionsthat
theymightnototherwisefeelmotivatedtovisitaprofessorinpersonduringofficehourstoask.[115]Italso
allowsstudentstomanagetheirownprivacysettings,andoftenworkwiththeprivacysettingstheyhave
alreadyestablishedasregisteredusers.
Facebookisonealternativemeansforshyerstudentstobeabletovoicetheirthoughtsinandoutsideofthe
classroom.Itallowsstudentstocollecttheirthoughtsandarticulatetheminwritingbeforecommittingto
theirexpression.[115]Further,thelevelofinformalitytypicaltoFacebookcanalsoaidstudentsinself
expressionandencouragemorefrequentstudentandinstructorandstudentandstudentcommunication.At
thesametime,TownerandMunoznotethatthisinformalitymayactuallydrivemanyeducatorsand
studentsawayfromusingFacebookforeducationalpurposes.
Fromacoursemanagementperspective,Facebookmaybelessefficientasareplacementformore
conventionalcoursemanagementsystems,bothbecauseofitslimitationswithregardstouploading
assignmentsandduetosomestudents(andeducators)resistancetoitsuseineducation.Specifically,there
arefeaturesofstudenttostudentcollaborationthatmaybeconductedmoreefficientlyondedicatedcourse
managementsystems,suchastheorganizationofpostsinanestedandlinkedformat.Thatsaid,anumber
ofstudiessuggestthatstudentsposttodiscussionforumsmorefrequentlyandaregenerallymoreactive
discussantsonFacebookpostsversusconventionalcoursemanagementsystemslikeWebCTorBlackboard
(ChuandMeulemans,2008Salaway,etal.,2008SchroederandGreenbowe,2009).[116][117][118]
Additionally,Facebooksprivacysettingscanbedifficulttounderstandandmanage,leavingsomepotential
usersparticularlyfemalesandolderstudentsuncomfortableaboutthelevelofprivacyandsafety
affordedthem.[117]Further,familiarityandcomfortabilitywithFacebookisoftendividedbysocio
economicclass,withstudentswhoseparentsobtainedacollegedegree,oratleasthavingattendedcollege
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

19/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

forsomespanoftime,beingmorelikelytoalreadybeactiveusers.[119]Instructorsoughttoseriously
considerandrespectthesehesitancies,andrefrainfromforcingFacebookontheirstudentsforacademic
purposes.[120][121]InstructorsalsooughttoconsiderthatrenderingFacebookoptional,butcontinuingto
providecontentthroughittostudentswhoelecttouseit,placesanunfairburdenonhesitantstudents,who
thenareforcedtochoosebetweenusingatechnologytheyareuncomfortablewithandparticipatingfullyin
thecourse.Arelatedlimitation,particularlyatthelevelofK12schooling,isthedistrust(andinsome
cases,outrightdisallowal)oftheuseofFacebookinformalclassroomsettingsinmanyeducational
jurisdictions.
However,thishesitancytowardsFacebookuseiscontinuallydiminishingintheUnitedStates,asthePew
Internet&AmericanLifeProjectsannualreportfor2012showsthatthelikelihoodofapersontobea
registeredFacebookuseronlyfluctuatesby13percentbetweendifferentlevelsofeducationalattainment,9
percentbetweenurban,suburban,andruralusers,only5percentbetweendifferenthouseholdincome
brackets.Thelargestgapoccursbetweenagebrackets,with86percentof1829yearoldsreportedas
registeredusersasopposedtoonly35percentof65andupyearoldusers.[122]

Twitter
Twitteralsopromotessocialconnectionsamongstudents.Itcanbeusedtoenhancecommunication
buildingandcriticalthinking.Domizi(2013)utilizedTwitterinagraduateseminarrequiringstudentsto
postweeklytweetstoextendclassroomdiscussions.StudentsreportedlyusedTwittertoconnectwith
contentandotherstudents.Additionally,studentsfoundittobeusefulprofessionallyandpersonally[123]
Junco,Heibergert,andLoken(2011)completedastudyof132studentstoexaminethelinkbetweensocial
mediaandstudentengagementandsocialmediaandgrades.Theydividedthestudentsintotwogroups,one
usedTwitterandtheotherdidnot.Twitterwasusedtodiscussmaterial,organizestudygroups,postclass
announcements,andconnectwithclassmates.Juncoandhiscolleagues(2011)foundthatthestudentsinthe
TwittergrouphadhigherGPAsandgreaterengagementscoresthanthecontrolgroup[124]Gao,Luo,and
Zhang(2012)reviewedliteratureaboutTwitterpublishedbetween2008and2011.Theyconcludedthat
Twitterallowedstudentstoparticipatewitheachotherinclass(backchannel),andextenddiscussion
outsideofclass.TheyalsoreportedthatstudentsusedTwittertogetuptodatenewsandconnectwith
professionalsintheirfield.Studentsreportedthatmicrobloggingencouragedstudentstoparticipateata
higherlevel[125]Becausethepostscannotexceed140characters,studentswererequiredtoexpressideas,
reflect,andfocusonimportantconceptsinaconcisemanner.Somestudentsfoundthisverybeneficial.
Otherstudentsdidnotlikethecharacterlimit.Also,somestudentsfoundmicrobloggingtobe
overwhelming(informationoverload).Theresearchindicatedthatmanystudentsdidnotactually
participateinthediscussions,theyjustlurked[126]

YouTube
YouTubeisthemostfrequentlyusedsocialmediatoolintheclassroom.[127]Studentscanwatchvideos,
answerquestions,anddiscusscontent.Additionally,studentscancreatevideostosharewithothers.Sherer
andShea(2011)claimedthatYouTubeincreasedparticipation,personalization(customization),and
productivity.YouTubealsoimprovedstudentsdigitalskillsandprovidedopportunityforpeerlearningand
problemsolving[128](2012)foundthatvideoskeptstudentsattention,generatedinterestinthesubject,and
clarifiedcoursecontent[129]Additionally,thestudentsreportedthatthevideoshelpedthemrecall
informationandvisualizerealworldapplicationsofcourseconcepts.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

20/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Advertisingonsocialmedia
Tweetscontainingadvertising
In2013,theUnitedKingdomAdvertisingStandardsAuthority(ASA)begantoadvisecelebritiesand
sportstarstomakeitcleariftheyhadbeenpaidtotweetaboutaproductorservicebyusingthehashtag
#sponor#adwithintweetscontainingendorsements.InJuly2013,WayneRooneywasaccusedof
misleadingfollowersbynotincludingeitherofthesetagsinatweetpromotingNike.Thetweetread:
"Thepitcheschange.Thekillerinstinctdoesnt.Owntheturf,anywhere.@NikeFootball
#myground."[130]
ThetweetwasinvestigatedbytheASAbutnochargeswerepressed.TheASAstatedthatWeconsidered
thereferencetoNikeFootballwasprominentandclearlylinkedthetweetwiththeNikebrand."[130]When
askedaboutwhetherthenumberofcomplaintsregardingmisleadingsocialadvertisinghadincreased,the
ASAstatedthatthenumberofcomplaintshadrisenmarginallysince2011butthatcomplaintswere"very
low"inthe"grandscheme."[131]

Censorshipincidents
Socialmediaoftenfeaturesinpolitical
strugglestocontrolpublicperception
andonlineactivity.
Forexample,in2013socialmediawas
bannedinTurkeyaftertheTaksimGezi
Parkprotests.BothTwitterand
YouTubewereclosedincountrywith
Turkishcourtsdecision.Andanew
law,passedbyTurkishParliament,has
grantedimmunitytoTurkeys
TelecommunicationsDirectorate(TB)
personnel.TheTBwasalsogiventhe
authoritytoblockaccesstospecific
websiteswithouttheneedforacourt
order.[132]
BannerinBangkok,observedonthe30thofJune2014,informing
Morerecently,inthe2014Thaicoup
theThaipublicthat'like'or'share'violentorillegalactivityonsocial
d'tat,thepublicwasexplicitly
mediaisunacceptabletoThaiculture.
instructednotto'share'or'like'
dissentingviewsonsocialmediaorface
prison.InJulythatsameyear,inresponsetoWikileaks'releaseofasecretsuppressionordermadebythe
VictorianSupremeCourt,medialawyerswerequotedintheAustralianmediatotheeffectthat"anyone
whotweetsalinktotheWikileaksreport,postsitonFacebook,orsharesitinanywayonlinecouldalso
facecharges".[133]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

21/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Seealso
Brandinfiltration
Citizenmedia
CokeZeroFacialProfiler
Connectivism(learningtheory)
HumanimpactofInternetuse
Internetandpoliticalrevolutions
Listofphotosharingwebsites
Listofvideosharingwebsites
Listofsocialnetworkingwebsites
Mediapsychology
Metcalfe'slaw
MMORPG
Networkedlearning
Newmedia
Onlinepresencemanagement
Onlineresearchcommunity
Participatorymedia
Socialmediamarketing
Socialmediaoptimization
Socialmediasurgery
Socialmediamining

Notesandreferences
1. KaplanAndreasM.,HaenleinMichael(2010)."Usersoftheworld,unite!Thechallengesandopportunitiesof
socialmedia".BusinessHorizons53(1).p.61.doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bushor.2009.09.003).
2. H.Kietzmann,JanKristopherHermkens(2011)."Socialmedia?Getserious!Understandingthefunctional
buildingblocksofsocialmedia".BusinessHorizons54:241251.doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bushor.2011.01.005).
3. Agichtein,EugeneCarlosCastillo.DeboraDonatoAristidesGionisGiladMishne(2008)."Findinghigh
qualitycontentinsocialmedia".WISDOMProceedingsofthe2008InternationalConferenceonWebSearch
andDataMining:183193.
4. Pavlik&MacIntoch,JohnandShawn(2015).ConvergingMedia4thEdition.NewYork,NY:OxfordUniversity
Press.p.189.ISBN9780199342303.
5. "Stateofthemedia:Thesocialmediareport2012"(http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/social/2012/).Featured
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

22/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Insights,Global,Media+Entertainment.Nielsen.Retrieved9December2012.
6. Tang,QianGu,BinWhinston,AndrewB.(2012)."ContentContributionforRevenueSharingandReputation
inSocialMedia:ADynamicStructuralModel".JournalofManagementInformationSystems29:4175.
doi:10.2753/mis07421222290203(https://dx.doi.org/10.2753%2Fmis07421222290203).
7. Aichner,T.andJacob,F.(March2015)."MeasuringtheDegreeofCorporateSocialMediaUse".International
JournalofMarketResearch57(2):257275.
8. Kaplan,AndreasM.(MarchApril2012)."Ifyoulovesomething,letitgomobile:Mobilemarketingandmobile
socialmedia4x4"(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007681311001558).BusinessHorizons55
(2):129139.doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.10.009(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bushor.2011.10.009).Retrieved
9December2012.
9. Dunay,Paul(20120418)."gyroVoice:10ECommercePredictionsFor2013"
(http://www.forbes.com/sites/gyro/2012/12/24/10ecommercepredictionsfor2013/).Forbes.Retrieved
20130616.
10. "TheU.S.DigitalConsumerReport"(http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2014/theusdigital
consumerreport.html).20141002.Retrieved20141125.
11. R.Levine,C.Locke,D.Searls,&D.Weinberger,Marketsareconversations
(http://www.cluetrain.com/book/markets.html),NewYork:Perseus,retrieved20121022
12. Nowlin,Watson(17December2013).tools/"SocialMediaTools"(http://watsonnowlin.com/topsocial).
watsonnowlin.com.Retrieved21December2013.
13. Dhami,Nav."Outbreaksofsentimentitisridingthesocialmediatiger"(http://www.isentia.com/en
nz/blog/outbreaksofsentimentitisridingthesocialmediatiger).GlobalConnections.Retrieved12December
2012.
14. "ResearchSurvey"(http://mprcenter.org/blog/2010/08/04/researchsurveylaunchedsocialmediaandinfluence
ofphotosonbodyimage/).Mprcenter.org.Retrieved24April2012.
15. "Inc.TechnologyBrentLearyArticle"(http://nathalielussier.com/blog/businessbranding/socialmediavstrust).
Technology.inc.com.22March2010.Archivedfromtheoriginal
(http://technology.inc.com/internet/articles/201003/leary.html)on20120208.Retrieved20140209.
16. "Edelman2010TrustBarometerStudy"(http://www.edelman.com/trust/2010/).Edelman.com.Retrieved
24April2012.
17. Zafarani,RezaAbbasi,MohammadAliLiu,Huan(2014)."SocialMediaMining:AnIntroduction"
(http://dmml.asu.edu/smm).Retrieved15November2014.
18. Safranak,R."TheEmergingRoleofSocialMediainRegimeChange"
(http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/social_media/review.pdf).ProquestDiscoveryGuides.Retrieved19March
2013.
19. http://stateofthemedia.org/printchapter/?print_id=5546
20. Survey:MoreAmericansgetnewsfromInternetthannewspapersorradio
(http://www.cnn.com/2010/TECH/03/01/social.network.news/index.html)
21. http://www.poynter.org/latestnews/mediawire/189776/onethirdofadultsunder30getnewsonsocial
networksnow/
22. http://www.poynter.org/latestnews/mediawire/189819/pewtvviewinghabitgraysasdigitalnewsconsumption
topsprintradio/
23. "FrequencyofSocialMediaUse"(http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/01/09/frequencyofsocialmediause2/).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

23/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

23. "FrequencyofSocialMediaUse"(http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/01/09/frequencyofsocialmediause2/).
PewResearchCenter'sInternet&AmericanLifeProject.
24. "Developmentofsocialskillsinchildrenhamperedbydigitalmediasaysstudy"
(http://www.losangelesnews.net/index.php/sid/225040619).LosAngelesNews.Net.23August2014.Retrieved
23August2014.
25. http://sites.ewu.edu/cmst496stafford/2012/06/06/theeffectsofsocialmediaonchildren/
26. WithFacebook,Blogs,andFakeNews,TeensRejectJournalistic"Objectivity."JournalofCommunication
Inquiry
27. Bastos,M.T.2014."Shares,Pins,andTweets:Newsreadershipfromdailypaperstosocialmedia.Journalism
Studies.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1461670X.2014.891857
28. Runge,KristenK.andCoauthors,2013.Tweetingnano:howpublicdiscoursesaboutnanotechnologydevelopin
socialmediaenvironments.JNanopartRes.,15:1381DOI10.1007/s1105101213818
29. Gerhards,Jrgen,andMikeSchfer,2010.Istheinternetabetterpublicsphere?Comparingoldandnewmedia
intheUSAandGermany.newmedia&society,12(1)143160.DOI:10.1177/1461444809341444
30. http://stateofthemedia.org/2012/mobiledevicesandnewsconsumptionsomegoodsignsforjournalism/what
facebookandtwittermeanfornews/
31. Newman,N.&Levy,D.(2013).ReutersInstituteDigitalNewsReport2013
(https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Working_Papers/Digital_News_Report
_2013.pdf)
32. Kitch,Carolyn."AnniversaryJournalism,CollectiveMemory,andtheCulturalAuthoritytoTelltheStoryofthe
AmericanPast."JournalofPopularCulture,2002:4467.
33. Edy,Jill"JournalisticUsesofCollectiveMemory"JournalofCommunication1999:7185
34. Pajala,Mary."TelevisionasanArchiveofMemory?"CriticalStudiesinTelevision,2010:133145.
35. MottiNeiger,OrenMeyersandEyalZandberg.OnMediaMemory:CollectiveMemoryinaNewMediaAge.
NewYork:PalgraveMacMillan,2011
36. Barnhurst,Kevin,andEllenWartella."YoungCitizens,AmericanTVNewscastsandtheCollectiveMemory."
CriticalStudiesinMassMedia,1998:279305.
37. Anderson,NateTechnica,Ars(14January2011)."TweetingTyrantsOutofTunisia:GlobalInternetatItsBest"
(http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/tunisia/).Wired.
38. Kirkpatrick,DavidD.(9February2011)."WiredandShrewd,YoungEgyptiansGuideRevolt"
(http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/10/world/middleeast/10youth.html?_r=1).TheNewYorkTimes.
39. 23February2011(23February2011)."TheArabUprising'sCascadingEffects"(http://www.miller
mccune.com/politics/thecascadingeffectsofthearabspring28575/).Millermccune.com.Retrieved24April
2012.
40. Gladwell,Malcolm(1March2011)."MalcolmGladwellandClayShirkyonSocialMediaandRevolution,
ForeignAffairsMarch/April2011"(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67325/malcolmgladwellandclay
shirky/frominnovationtorevolution).Foreignaffairs.com.Retrieved24April2012.
41. Fitzgerald,B.(12November2012)."DisappearingRomney"
(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/12/disappearingromneywebsite_n_2117165.html).TheHuffington
Post.Retrieved25March2013.
42. Flanigin,AndrewJMetzger,Miriam(2007)."Theroleofsitefeatures,userattributes,andinformation
verificationbehaviorsontheperceivedcredibilityofwebbasedinformation."

(http://www.annehelmond.nl/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2007/04/319.pdf).NewMediaandSociety9(2):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

24/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

(http://www.annehelmond.nl/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2007/04/319.pdf).NewMediaandSociety9(2):
319342.doi:10.1177/1461444807075015(https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F1461444807075015).Retrieved
15February2014.
43. nAliyasPaul,HopeM.Baker,JustinDanielCochran,Effectofonlinesocialnetworkingonstudentacademic
performance,ComputersinHumanBehavior,Volume28,Issue6,November2012,Pages21172127,ISSN
07475632,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.016.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563212001665)
44. Hinchiffe,Don."Aresocialmediasilosholdingbackbusiness"(http://www.zdnet.com/aresocialmediasilos
holdingbackbusinessresults7000017227/).ZDNet.com.Retrieved15February2014.
45. KaplanAndreasM.,HaenleinMichael(2010)."Usersoftheworld,unite!Thechallengesandopportunitiesof
socialmedia".BusinessHorizons53(1).p.67.doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bushor.2009.09.003).
46. Wellman,Barry(2012).Networked:TheNewSocialOperatingSystem.MIT.ISBN0262017199.
47. Ariel,YaronAvidar,Ruth(2014)."Information,Interactivity,andSocialMedia.".AtlanticJournalof
Communication23(1):1930.doi:10.1080/15456870.2015.972404
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F15456870.2015.972404).
48. Ray,Munni."EffectofElectronicMediaonChildren"(http://www.lib.umich.edu/articles/details/FETCH
LOGICALc114177ca8b617088157d8525719159302e357cc9e8ca93e520729bdfdadbf588ffcd1).SpringerVerlag.
Retrieved4February2013.
49. Koralewski,Greg."7MarketingMythsAboutTwitter"(http://weanimate.co.uk/marketingmythsontwitter/).
WeAnimateBlog.Retrieved14October2014.
50. Keen,Andrew.TheCultoftheAmateur.RandomHouse.p.15.ISBN9780385520812.
51. "EricEhrmann:UruguayProddedbyG20toEndBankSecrecy"(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/eric
ehrmann/uruguayproddedtoendba_b_1144833.html).Huffingtonpost.com.14December2011.Retrieved
20130616.
52. "AniketKittur,BongowonSuh,EdH.Chi(2008)Canyouevertrustawiki?:Impactingperceived
trustworthinessinwikipedia"(http://kittur.org/files/Kittur_2008_CSCW_TrustWiki.pdf)(PDF).Retrieved
15November2012.
53. Dennings,P.,HorningJ.,Parnas,D.andWeinstein,L.(2005).Wikipediarisks,CACM48(12):152
54. Rainie,LeeandWellman,Barry.Networked:TheNewSocialOperatingSystem
(http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=bYJGna0AhdAC).
55. Rosen,Jay(30June2006)."ThePeopleFormerlyKnownastheAudience"(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jay
rosen/thepeopleformerlyknown_1_b_24113.html).HuffingtonPost.
56. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/9789400919525_10#page1
57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3752175/
58. "NicholasCarr,"IsGoogleMakingUsStupid?WhattheInternetisdoingtoourbrains" "
(http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/07/isgooglemakingusstupid/306868/).Retrieved
15November2012.
59. MalcolmGladwell(4October2010)."SmallChangesWhytherevolutionwillnotbetweeted"
(http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/10/04/smallchange3).Retrieved15November2012.
60. Rosen,Jay."ThePeopleFormallyKnownasthAudience"
(http://archive.pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html).PressThink.Retrieved27January2015.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

25/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

61. "EvgenyMorozov,Dissent,Vol56,Number4,Fall2009,page1013"(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?
auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/dss/v056/56.4.morozov.html).Retrieved15November2012.
62. (MediaBistro,2012)
63. (U.S.POPClockProjection".U.S.CensusBureau.,2012)
64. "Auer,MatthewR."ThePolicySciencesofSocialMedia".PolicyStudiesJournal39(4):709736"
(http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1974080).Papers.ssrn.com.Retrieved24April2012.
65. "Jones,Soltren,Facebook:ThreatstoPrivacy,MIT2005"
(http://www.mortgagecalculatorx.ca/mac/c/6.805/studentpapers/fall05papers/facebook.pdf)(PDF).Retrieved
24April2012.
66. "Chapter5:ThereIsNothingNewUnderTheSun(ExcerptFromSocialMediaIsBullshit)"
(http://socialmediaisbs.com/2013/06/26/therevisededitionchapterfiveofsocialmediaisbs/).
67. "SocialNetworkingPrivacy:HowtobeSafe,Secure,andSocial"(http://www.privacyrights.org/social
networkingprivacy).PrivacyRightsClearinghouse.Retrieved8February2013.
68. Omand,DavidBartlett,JamieMiller,Carl(2012).#Intelligence
(http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/intelligence).London,England:Demos.ISBN9781909037083.
69. "SocialMediaMonitoring"(http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs7work.htm#socialmedia).PrivacyRights
Clearinghouse.Retrieved8February2013.
70. "UsingFacebooktoAssessCandidatesDuringtheRecruitingProcess:EthicalImplications"
(https://www.class.umn.edu/crimson/dependancies/multimedia/Facebook_in_Hiring_Ethical_Implications.pdf).
PrivacyRightsClearinghouse.Retrieved6November2013.
71. "Thirtysevenpercentofcompaniesusesocialnetworkstoresearchpotentialjobcandidates,accordingtonew
CareerBuilderSurvey"(http://www.careerbuilder.com/share/aboutus/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?
id=pr691&sd=4/18/2012&ed=4/18/2099).Retrieved6November2013.
72. "SocialMediaandEmploymentScreening"(http://www.slideshare.net/americanangel/socialmediaand
employmentscreening).Retrieved6November2013.
73. Poerio,Mark,J,andLauraE.Bain.(September2012)."SocialMediaintheWorkplace:EmployerProtections
versusEmployeePrivacy."
(http://www.americanbar.org/publications/international_law_news/2012/fall/social_media_workplace_employer_pr
otections_versus_employee_privacy.html).AmericanBarAssociation.Retrieved21May2014.
74. "FactSheet7:WorkplacePrivacyandEmployeeMonitoring"(https://www.privacyrights.org/workplaceprivacy
andemployeemonitoring#socialmedia).PrivacyRightsClearingHouse.May2014.Retrieved22May2014.
75. Baum,Margaret,andSamanthaVicent(September2013)."StatesMakesMovestoProtectStudents'Rightsto
OnlinePrivacy"(http://www.splc.org/news/report_detail.asp?id=1692&edition=62).StudentPressLawCenter.
Retrieved10June2014.
76. "EmployerAccesstoSocialMediaUsernamesandPasswords"
(http://www.ncsl.org/research/telecommunicationsandinformationtechnology/employeraccesstosocialmedia
passwords2013.aspx).NationalConferenceofStateLegislatures.2014.Retrieved20May2014.
77. Arnold,MichaelS.(2014)."UnitedStates:FiveEmploymentRelatedPrivacyIssuesWeAreTrackingIn2014"
(http://www.mondaq.com/unitedstates/x/287040/Data+Protection+Privacy/Five+EmploymentRelated+Privacy+Iss
ues+We+Are+Tracking+in+2014).Mondaq.Retrieved21May2014.
78. Wang,Z.,Tchernev,J.M.,&Solloway,T.(2012).Adynamiclongitudinalexaminationofsocialmediause,
needs,andgratificationsamongcollegestudents.ComputersinHumanBehavior,28(5),18291839.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

26/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

needs,andgratificationsamongcollegestudents.ComputersinHumanBehavior,28(5),18291839.
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.001(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.chb.2012.05.001)

79. MorahanMartin,J.,&Schumacher,P.(2003).Lonelinessandsocialusesoftheinternet.ComputersinHuman
Behavior,19(6),659671.doi:10.1016/S07475632(03)000402(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0747
5632%2803%29000402)
80. Marche,S.(2012).IsFacebookMakingUsLonely?TheAtlantic.RetrievedJuly12,2013.
81. Turkle,S.(2012).Alonetogether:Whyweexpectmorefromtechnologyandlessfromeachother.NewYork,
NY:BasicBooks.
82. Burke,M.,Kraut,R.&MarlowC.(2011).SocialcapitalonFacebook:Differentiatingusesandusers.
ConferenceonHumanFactorsinComputingSystems.79.doi:10.1.1.227.6644
83. "UseofSocialMediaasaBullyingToolSubjectsManySriLankanTeenstoCripplingFear,Shame"
(http://www.srilankasource.com/index.php/sid/224972463).SriLankaSource.21August2014.Retrieved
23August2014.
84. Christakis,D.A.,&MorenoM.A.TrappedintheNet:WillInternetAddictionBecomea21stCentury
Epidemic?.ArchPediatrAdolescMed.2009163(10):959960.doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.162
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1001%2Farchpediatrics.2009.162)
85. OKeefe,G.S.,&ClarkePearson,K.,(2011).TheImpactofSocialMediaonChildren,Adolescents,and
Families.AmericanAcademyofPediatrics,127,800804.doi:10.1542/peds.20110054
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1542%2Fpeds.20110054)
86. Socialmediaaddictionrecognisedasofficialcondition.(2013,February12).RaidiTeilifsireannNews.
Retrievedfromhttp://www.rte.ie/news/specialreports/2013/0212/367408socialmediaaddictionrecognisedas
officialcondition/
87. ElaineBurkeforSiliconRepublic.30May20131in10youngpeoplelosingoutonjobsbecauseofpicsand
commentsonsocialmedia(http://www.siliconrepublic.com/careers/item/328801in10youngpeoplelosing)
88. SusiePoppickforMoneyMagazine.Sept.5,201410SocialMediaBlundersThatCostaMillennialaJobor
Worse(http://time.com/money/3019899/10facebooktwittermistakeslostjobmillennialsviral/)
89. [1](http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2012/03/23/facebooksaysitmaylaunchlegalactionagainstemployers
whoaskforuserpasswords/)
90. [2](https://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=326598317390057)
91. [3](http://press.kaptest.com/pressreleases/kaplantestprepsurveymorecollegeadmissionsofficerschecking
applicantsdigitaltrailsbutmoststudentsunconcerned/)
92. http://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/section2socialmediapoliticalnewsandideology/
93. https://www.facebook.com/notes/facebookdatascience/politicsandcultureonfacebookinthe2014midterm
elections/10152598396348859
94. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13527266.2013.797778#.VGZ5PFPF868
95. http://www.cnn.com/2011/TECH/social.media/06/14/twitter.decision.weiner.wired/index.html
96. Shirky,Clay(2011)."ThePoliticalPowerofSocialMedia:Technology,thePublicSphere,andPolitical
Change."(http://www.jstor.org/stable/25800379).ForeignAffairs90(1):2841.
97. Brym,RobertGodbout,MelissaHoffbouer,AndreasMenard,GabeZhang,Tony(2014)."SocialMediainthe
2011EgyptianUprising.".TheBritishJournalofSociology.doi:10.1111/14684446.12080
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2F14684446.12080).
98. Illich,BriAnn(2014)."Awareness,Agency,andAlternatives:OpportunitiesandChallengesforCONAMURI
andtheParaguayanWomensFoodSovereigntyMovementinanAgeofSocialMedia."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

27/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

andtheParaguayanWomensFoodSovereigntyMovementinanAgeofSocialMedia."
(http://digitalcommons.colby.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1724&context=honorstheses).DigitalCommons,
ColbyCollege.
99. Bennett,W.L.(2012)."ThePersonalizationofPolitics:PoliticalIdentity,SocialMedia,andChangingPatterns
ofParticipation.".TheANNALSoftheAmericanAcademyofPoliticalandSocialScience644(1):2039.
doi:10.1177/0002716212451428(https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F0002716212451428).
100. Hardy,Roger(3December2011)."ArabSpringMyths:misconceptionsabouttheuprisings"
(http://www.bbc.com/news/worldmiddleeast15971986).BBCNews.
101. http://www.washington.edu/news/2011/09/12/newstudyquantifiesuseofsocialmediainarabspring/
102. http://grindr.com
103. http://mashable.com/2012/09/08/grindrceoequality
104. http://grindr.com/equality
105. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/05/whisperapprevealslgbt_n_3389502.html?
106. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/6/6/781
107. "MarkNowotarski,"DonotStealMyAvatar!ChallengesofSocialNetworkPatents,IPWatchdog,January23,
2011"(http://ipwatchdog.com/2011/01/23/dontstealmyavatarchallengesofsocialnetworking
patents/id=14531/).Ipwatchdog.com.23January2011.Retrieved24April2012.
108. "USPTOsearchonpublishedpatentapplicationsmentioning"socialmedia" "(http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph
Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch
adv.html&r=0&p=1&f=S&l=50&Query=spec%2F%22social+media%22&d=PG01).Appft.uspto.gov.Retrieved
24April2012.
109. "USPTOsearchonissuedpatentsmentioning"socialmedia" "(http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nphParser?
Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch
adv.htm&r=0&p=1&f=S&l=50&Query=spec%2F%22social+media%22&d=PTXT).Patft.uspto.gov.Retrieved
24April2012.
110. Kist,W.(2012).Classgetreadytotweet:Socialmediaintheclassroom.Ourchildren.Retrievedfrom
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ991339.pdf
111. PeelDistrictSchoolBoard.(2014)BYOD.Retrievedfrom
http://www.peelschools.org/aboutus/21stCentury/byod/Pages/default.aspx
112. Fewkes,A.andMcCabe,M.(2012).Facebook:LearningToolorDistraction?JournalofDigitalLearningin
TeacherEducation,28(3),Retrievedfromhttp://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ972449
113. http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/05/30/canwikipediaimprovestudentswork/
114. http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/04/07/torontoprofessorlearnsnotalleditorsarewelcomeonwikipedia
whenclassassignmentbackfires/
115. Moody,M.(2010).TeachingTwitterandBeyond:TipforIncorporatingSocialMediainTraditionalCourses.
JournalofMagazine&NewMediaResearch11(2):pp.19.
116. M.ChuandY.Meulemans,2008."TheproblemsandpotentialofMySpaceandFacebookusageinacademic
libraries,"InternetReferenceServicesQuarterly,volume13,number1,pp.6985.
117. G.Salaway,J.Caruso,andR.Mark,2008.TheECARstudyofundergraduatestudentsandinformation
technology,2008.Boulder,Colo.:EDUCAUSECenterforAppliedResearch,athttp://www.educause.edu/ecar,
accessed15November2011.
118. J.SchroederandT.J.Greenbowe,2009."ThechemistryofFacebook:Usingsocialnetworkingtocreateanonline
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

28/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

communityfortheorganicchemistrylaboratory,"Innovate,volume5,number4,
athttp://www.uh.cu/static/documents/AL/The%20Chemistry%20of%20Facebook.pdf,accessed14September
2011.
119. E.Hargittai,2007."Whosespace?Differencesamongusersandnonusersofsocialnetworksites,"Journalof
ComputerMediatedCommunication,volume13,number1,article14,at
http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/hargittai.html,accessed14September2011.
120. T.TownerandC.Muoz,inpress."Facebookvs.Webcourseware:Acomparison,"In:C.Cheal,J.Coughlin,
andS.Moore(editors).Transformationinteaching:Socialmediastrategiesinhighereducation.SantaRosa,
Calif.:InformingScienceInstitute.
121. C.Madge,J.Meek,J.Wellens,andT.Hooley,2009."Facebook,socialintegrationandinformallearningat
university:Itismoreforsocialisingandtalkingtofriendsaboutworkthanforactuallydoingwork,"Learning,
MediaandTechnology,volume34,number2,pp.141155.
122. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Socialmediausers/SocialNetworkingSiteUsers/Demoportrait.aspx
123. <Domizi,D.P.(2013).Microbloggingtofosterconnectionsandcommunityinaweeklygraduateseminarcourse.
TechTrends,57(1),4351..
124. <Junco,R.,Heiberger,G.,&Loken,E.(2011).TheeffectofTwitteroncollegestudentengagementandgrades.
JournalofComputerAssistedLearning,27(2),119132..
125. <Gao,F.,Luo,T.,&Zhang,K.(2012).Tweetingforlearning:Acriticalanalysisofresearchonmicroblogging
ineducationpublishedin20082011.BritishJournalofEducationalTechnology,43(5),783801.
126. <Gao,F.,Luo,T.,&Zhang,K.(2012).Tweetingforlearning:Acriticalanalysisofresearchonmicroblogging
ineducationpublishedin20082011.BritishJournalofEducationalTechnology,43(5),783801.
127. Moran,M.,Seaman,J.,TintiKane,H.(2012).Howtodayshighereducationfacultyusesocialmedia.Retrieved
fromhttp://www.pearsonlearningsolutions.com/assets/downloads/pdfs/pearsonsocialmediasurvey2012
color.pdf
128. Sherer,P.&Shea,T.(2011).Usingonlinevideotosupportstudentlearningandengagement.CollegeTeaching,
59(2),5659.
129. Eick,C.J.&King,D.T.(2012).NonsciencemajorsperceptionsontheuseofYouTubevideotosupport
learninginanintegratedsciencelecture.JournalofCollegeScienceTeaching,42(1),2630.
130. Sherwin,Adam(4September2013)."Styleoversubstance:WayneRooneyclearedofNikeTwitterplug"
(http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/advertising/styleoversubstancewaynerooneyclearedofnike
twitterplug8797109.html).TheIndependent(London).
131. http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/nikerooneytwitterpromoescapescensure/4007808.article
132. SalihSarkaya(30October2014)."SocialMediaBanInTurkey:WhatDoesItMean?bySalihSarkaya"
(http://www.salihsarikaya.com/en/socialmediabaninturkeywhatdoesitmeanbysalihsarikaya/).
133. MexCooper(30July2014)."SocialmediauserscouldbechargedforsharingWikileaksstory"
(http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/socialmediauserscouldbechargedforsharingwikileaksstory
20140730zye0b.html).BrisbaneTimes.

Furtherreading
Benkler,Yochai(2006).TheWealthofNetworks.NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress.ISBN0300
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

29/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

110561.OCLC61881089(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/61881089).
Gentle,Anne(2012).ConversationandCommunity:TheSocialWebforDocumentation(2nded.).
LagunaHills,CA:XMLPress.ISBN9781937434106.OCLC794490599
(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794490599).
Johnson,StevenBerlin(2005).EverythingBadIsGoodforYou.NewYork:RiverheadBooks.
ISBN1573223077.OCLC57514882(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/57514882).
Jue,ArthurL.,JackieAlcaldeMarr,MaryEllenKassotakis(2010).Socialmediaatwork:how
networkingtoolspropelorganizationalperformance(1sted.).SanFrancisco,CA:JosseyBass.
ISBN9780470405437.
Lardi,KamalesFuchs,Rainer(2013).SocialMediaStrategyAstepbystepguidetobuildingyour
socialbusiness(1sted.).Zurich:vdf.ISBN9783728135575.
Li,CharleneBernoff,Josh(2008).Groundswell:WinninginaWorldTransformedbySocial
Technologies.Boston:HarvardBusinessPress.ISBN9781422125007.OCLC423555651
(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/423555651).
McHale,RobertGarulay,Eric(2012).NavigatingSocialMediaLegalRisks:SafeguardingYour
Business(http://books.slashdot.org/story/12/08/13/1315256/bookreviewnavigatingsocialmedia
legalrisks/).Que.ISBN9780789749536.
Piskorski,MikoajJan(2014).ASocialStrategy:HowWeProfitfromSocialMedia.Princeton,NJ:
PrincetonUniversityPress.ISBN9780691153391.
Powell,GuyR.Groves,StevenW.Dimos,Jerry(2011).ROIofSocialMedia:Howtoimprovethe
returnonyoursocialmarketinginvestment.NewYork:JohnWiley&Sons.ISBN978047082741
3.OCLC0470827416(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/0470827416).
Rheingold,Howard(2002).Smartmobs:Thenextsocialrevolution
(http://www.amazon.co.uk/SmartMobsNextSocialRevolution/dp/0738206083)(1stprintinged.).
Cambridge,MA:PerseusPub.p.288.ISBN9780738206080.
Scoble,RobertIsrael,Shel(2006).NakedConversations:HowBlogsareChangingtheWay
BusinessesTalkwithCustomers.Hoboken,N.J:JohnWiley.ISBN047174719X.OCLC61757953
(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/61757953).
Shirky,Clay(2008).HereComesEverybody.NewYork:PenguinPress.ISBN9781594201530.
OCLC458788924(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/458788924).
Surowiecki,James(2004).TheWisdomofCrowds.NewYork:AnchorBooks.ISBN0385721706.
OCLC156770258(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/156770258).
Tapscott,DonWilliams,AnthonyD.(2006).Wikinomics.NewYork:Portfolio.ISBN159184138
0.OCLC318389282(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/318389282).
VanDijck,Jos(2013).TheCultureofConnectivity:ACriticalHistoryofSocialMedia.Oxford:
OxfordUniversityPress.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

30/31

4/5/2015

SocialmediaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Watts,DuncanJ.(2003).Sixdegrees:Thescienceofaconnectedage(http://www.amazon.co.uk/Six
DegreesScienceConnectedAge/dp/0099444968).London:Vintage.p.368.ISBN978009
9444961.
Tedesco,LauraAnne.TheMetropolitanMuseumofArt.2002013.12022014
<http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/lasc/hd_lasc.htm>.
Agozzino,Alisa."BuildingAPersonalRelationshipThroughSocialMedia:AStudyOfMillennial
Students'BrandEngagement."OhioCommunicationJournal50.(2012):181204.Communication
Abstracts.Web.3Dec.2013.
Schoen,Harald,etal."ThePowerOfPredictionWithSocialMedia."InternetResearch23.5(2013):
528543.CommunicationAbstracts.Web.3Dec.2013.
Mateus,Samuel(2012)."SocialNetworksScopophilicdimensionsocialbelongingthrough
spectatorship"(https://www.academia.edu/3248766/Social_Networks_Scopophilic_dimension_
_social_belonging_through_spectatorship).

Externallinks
SocialMedia:EstablishingCriteriaforLawEnforcementUse
(http://www.fbi.gov/statsservices/publications/law
enforcementbulletin/2013/february/socialmedia

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoSocial
media.

establishingcriteriaforlawenforcementuse?utm_campaign=email
Immediate&utm_content=175293),FBI
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Social_media&oldid=654987229"
Categories: Collaborativeprojects Socialmedia Massmedia Revolutionarytactics
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon5April2015,at01:20.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media

31/31