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University of Roehampton

Referencing Style Guide:


Harvard Version 2014

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Contents
What is referencing? .................................................................................. 7
What is referencing, and why should I do it? .................................................... 7
Paraphrasing .......................................................................................... 7
Quoting ................................................................................................ 8
Punctuation and Quotations........................................................................ 8
Quotations and Turnitin ............................................................................ 8
Citations .............................................................................................. 9
Bibliographies or Cited Works/Reference List ................................................... 9
Avoiding plagiarism ................................................................................. 10
Which style do I use? ............................................................................... 12
Harvard ............................................................................................ 12
RefWorks .......................................................................................... 12
Harvard in-text citations ........................................................................ 13
Layout for quotations............................................................................ 13
Examples of in-text citation: 1 author ........................................................ 14
Examples of in-text citation: 2 authors ....................................................... 15
Examples of in-text citations: 3 or more authors ........................................... 15
Bibliography or Cited Works/Reference List ....................................................16
Common Issues ........................................................................................17
Multiple authors and et al. ...................................................................... 17
Multiple places of publication .................................................................... 17
Reprint, copyright or published date ............................................................ 17
Published, printed or produced by ............................................................... 17
No date ............................................................................................... 17
No author ............................................................................................ 18
Secondary referencing ............................................................................. 18

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Books & ebooks .......................................................................................19


Book with one author .............................................................................. 19
Book with two authors ............................................................................. 19
Book with more than two authors ................................................................ 19
Book with editor .................................................................................... 19
Chapter in edited book ............................................................................ 19
Electronic book (ebook) ........................................................................... 20
Ebook on reader, Kindle, Sony ebook ............................................................ 20
Book revised and updated by a different author ............................................... 20
Book republished with a different title.......................................................... 20
Poem/play within an anthology .................................................................. 21
Edited play........................................................................................... 21
The Classics .......................................................................................... 21
Religious texts....................................................................................... 21
Dictionaries/encyclopaedias, individual entry ................................................. 22
Book review in journal ............................................................................. 22
Foreign language works .............................................................................23
Translated work ..................................................................................... 23
Works in other languages .......................................................................... 23
Works in other alphabets .......................................................................... 23
Works in dual languages ........................................................................... 23
Journals, magazines & newspapers ...............................................................24
Article from print journal ......................................................................... 24
Article from electronic journal ................................................................... 24
Article from online journal with DOI ............................................................. 24
Article from print newspaper or magazine...................................................... 24

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Webpages, social media & personal communications .........................................25


Website .............................................................................................. 25
Wiki/Wikipedia ...................................................................................... 25
Blog ................................................................................................... 25
Facebook ............................................................................................. 25
Twitter ............................................................................................... 26
Personal Communications: emails/text messages/faxes...................................... 26
Interviews, in person ............................................................................... 26
Audio-visual ...........................................................................................27
Film, viewed at cinema/DVD ..................................................................... 27
Film, viewed online ................................................................................ 27
Television programme ............................................................................. 27
Extract from a television programme............................................................ 27
Episode from a TV series, viewed on TV/DVD/online ......................................... 28
Radio programmes .................................................................................. 28
Interview, Broadcast ............................................................................... 28
Audio, CD ............................................................................................ 28
Audio, track from CD ............................................................................... 29
Song lyrics ........................................................................................... 29
Classical recording.................................................................................. 29
Music score .......................................................................................... 29
Audio download ..................................................................................... 29
Youtube .............................................................................................. 30
Podcast ............................................................................................... 30
Audiobook ............................................................................................ 30
Television advertisement .......................................................................... 30

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Art, images & maps...................................................................................31


Works of Art ......................................................................................... 31
Museum Exhibition .................................................................................. 31
Photography, personal collection ................................................................ 31
Photography, online ................................................................................ 31
Figures, Diagrams, Tables ......................................................................... 31
Posters & Pamphlets ............................................................................... 32
Ordnance Survey Maps ............................................................................. 32
Performance ...........................................................................................33
Classical music, live performance ................................................................ 33
Play, live performance ............................................................................. 33
Dance, live performance .......................................................................... 33
Parliamentary acts, papers & reports ............................................................34
Acts of Parliament .................................................................................. 34
White and Green Papers ........................................................................... 34
Government publications .......................................................................... 34
Company & education reports, Press releases ..................................................35
Company Annual Report ........................................................................... 35
Educational/Local Authority Documents ........................................................ 35
Ofsted Report ....................................................................................... 35
Press release ........................................................................................ 35
Thesis, Conference proceedings & presentations, Module materials ......................36
Thesis/Masters Dissertation, online .............................................................. 36
Conference Proceedings, individual paper ...................................................... 36
Presentations ........................................................................................ 36
Lecture/module materials ........................................................................ 36
British Standards......................................................................................37
Archive material ......................................................................................37

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What is referencing?
What is referencing, and why should I do it?
As members of the University of Roehampton you are part of an academic community and
as such it is essential that you make yourself familiar with the conventions of academic
writing. Every member of the academic community, staff and student alike, is expected to
follow these academic conventions in any piece of work they produce. In academic writing
referencing is one of these conventions. Referencing is used to acknowledge the use of
other peoples work and ideas in your own work.

Referencing involves four key elements:


Paraphrasing putting the authors ideas into your own words.
Quoting including the authors exact words, using speech marks to indicate this.
Citations information about the source of the quote or paraphrase within your text.
Bibliographies or Cited Works/Reference List a list of sources that you have used
and/or included in your text.

Paraphrasing
When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of anyone other than yourself in your
assignment and put them into your own words, this is called paraphrasing. Paraphrasing
can be used in a number of situations in your essays:

You
You
You
You
You

might be referring to a school of thought.


might be summarising a chapter.
might be summarising an idea.
might be summarising a whole book.
might be rewriting a few sentences.

Whenever you paraphrase, you will need to acknowledge the source you originally
obtained the information from. If you do not include an acknowledgement or it is
incorrectly, then this is plagiarism.

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Quoting
You might be more familiar with this element of referencing. When you include the exact
words of someone elses work in your essay you are quoting. You must indicate that the
words you are using are not your own. To do this, you will either use speech marks or
single inverted commas around the words you are quoting. Whether you use speech marks
or single inverted commas depends on the referencing style you are using.

When quoting from sources within your text, use the following conventions:

Keep quotations brief.


If quoting short text, word-for-word within a sentence, enclose the quotation in
the appropriate quotation marks for your referencing style.
If quoting a longer piece of text word for word, set it out in a new paragraph with
no quotation marks, indented from the main text.

Punctuation and Quotations


It is very important that you do not forget to punctuate your sentences when you are
quoting or paraphrasing. The simplest way to make sure you have punctuated your
sentence correctly is to remember that the punctuation within the quotation does not
count towards the punctuation in the sentence. The full stop must always be placed on
the outside of the last bracket.
Examples:
INCORRECT: Smith (2008:43) argues that it is essential to punctuate your sentences
correctly.
CORRECT: Smith (2008:43) argues that it is essential to punctuate your sentences
correctly.

Quotations and Turnitin


Most courses at the university now require you to submit your work via Turnitin. Please
note that Turnitin only recognises quotations if they are in speech marks: and not if
they are in single inverted commas: . Turnitin is also unable to recognise longer
quotations that are indented from the rest of the text unless they are surrounded by
speech marks. Therefore you are reminded that it is important to check your Turnitin
report thoroughly and make sure that all of your quotations are accurate using the
recommended style.

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Citations
With each quotation or paraphrase that appears in your assignments there must be some
acknowledgement of where that information came from. In academic writing we call this
acknowledgement a citation. The form the citation takes will vary depending on the type
of referencing style you are using. In the Harvard referencing style, for example, we use
an in-text citation i.e. the citation appears within the sentences and paragraphs of your
assignment. This citation is a brief summary of the source used, noting the authors
surname and/or a date/page number depending on the style you are using, surrounded by
round brackets (parentheses).

Bibliographies or Cited Works/Reference List


The information in brackets is just a quick summary of which source you have used. A
bibliography or cited works list provides full details of each source you have used in your
essay in alphabetical order. The details you need to provide will vary depending on the
type of sources you have used, but may include information such as the place of
publication and publisher, the full web address, the original broadcast date and the date
the source was accessed. Full details of how to cite each type of source in your
bibliography can be found in this guide.
A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have looked at to help you compile the
essay even if you have not made direct mention to them in the text. This can include
sources you have read but not actually quoted from or paraphrased in your work.
Please note that some tutors prefer you to produce a cited works or reference list. A cited
works reference list is a list of all of the sources you have directly quoted or paraphrased
in your work only. You cannot include works that you have read but not cited in your
essay. If you are unsure which type of list your tutor is expecting, it is a good idea to
double check with them before you begin writing your essay.
Your bibliography or cited works/reference list should be laid out as neatly as possible so
it is easy for your tutor to find the full details of each source you are referring to. Choose
a clear font in an easy to read size (at least size 12). Space out each entry with a line in
between each one and alphabetise the list from A-Z (some tutors may require you to
arrange your references into separate sections, e.g. putting all websites at the end, or
separating childrens books from the rest of the list, so it is important to confirm with
your tutor what they require before you compile your list).
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Avoiding plagiarism
Plagiarism occurs when attempting to present another persons work as your own. When
you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of someone else without referencing them,
or use the exact words they have used and present them as your own argument, then this
is considered plagiarism.
These can be written words or ideas, an artefact, musical composition, choreography,
image or string of computer code etc..., depending on your programme of study. The term
plagiarism is derived from the Latin Plagiarius, which means kidnapper. Plagiarism in
written work can occur intentionally (e.g. you copy a section from a book without
referencing it) or unintentionally (e.g. you paraphrase another person's work or ideas but
fail to acknowledge them as the source).
A lack of awareness of the rules of referencing is not an acceptable excuse for plagiarism
so please double check all of your quotations and paraphrases and make sure every source
is listed correctly in your bibliography/works cited list.
Please note: just changing one or two words somewhere in the quotation does not mean it
becomes your own work and you do not need to reference it. This is still a form of
plagiarism.
The University of Roehampton takes plagiarism very seriously. The following is taken from
Section 5 of the Student Disciplinary Regulations:
a) No student shall represent the work of another person as his or her own in
any academic material submitted for assessment.
b) No student shall contribute any work to another student with the knowledge
that the latter may submit the work in part or whole as his or her own.
The university has a number of systems in place to find plagiarism in students work
including software such as Turnitin which detects how original your work is. If you
plagiarise you may face disciplinary proceedings, fail your module and even, at worst, be
expelled from university. You should always ensure that you reference your work properly
and carefully.
Find out more about Turnitin and how to use the Turnitin practice tool by going to the
Library Research Skills Moodle site and looking at the Plagiarism and Referencing section.
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Forms of plagiarism and collusion, all of which are unacceptable, include:


a) Using sentences, parts of sentences, or larger pieces of text without attributing
them. This includes cutting and pasting sections from websites.
b) Citing the name of an author but not making clear which words are the author's and
which are yours.
c) Mixing and matching parts of sentences to create new ones: if you use recognisable
phrases that are not your own then you are plagiarising, unless the phrases need to
be there to retain the meaning (e.g. jargon words from your discipline).
d) Using unattributed sentences with sporadic words changed.
e) Quoting inaccurately. Even if you cite the author and source and put the quote in
inverted commas if you do not reproduce a quote faithfully (word for word), then
you have plagiarised.
f) Failing to list all of the sources used in your essay in your bibliography or cited
works/reference list. All websites visited, radio/television programmes watched as
well as books and journals read, should be included (see the section entitled
Bibliographies or Cited Works/Reference List for more information).
g) Writing a piece of work with another student (unless this is group work).
h) Submitting a piece of work written in whole or in part by someone else.
i) Paying to have a piece of work written by someone else.
j) Resubmitting part of or a whole assignment you have previously submitted. Even if
this is your own work, the university considers this to be plagiarism as each piece
of work you submit must be original.

Quoting very long passages (unless the point being made is particularly complex and needs
an extensive quotation) is not exactly plagiarism but it is poor practice.

Roehampton does not accept any of the reasons below as excuses for plagiarism:
a) Lack of time/poor time management.
b) Not understanding the nature of plagiarism. First, if you do any of the things listed
above you have plagiarised. Second, if you are in any doubt consult your tutor
before submitting an essay: they will be happy to offer you advice.
c) Not being able to complete or not understanding a piece of work.
d) Muddled notes leading to confusion between original material and quotes.

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Which style do I use?


This information should be provided to you by your programme so make sure you have
checked your module/programme handbook first. If it is still not clear which style you
should be using the table below is provided for guidance but it is still advisable to check
with your tutors before writing your first assignment.
Department
Business
Dance
Drama, Theatre and Performance
Education
English Literature & Creative Writing
Humanities
Life Sciences
Media, Culture and Languages
Psychology
Social Sciences

Referencing Style
Harvard
Harvard
Harvard
Harvard
MLA
Harvard
Harvard
Harvard
APA and Harvard (Check your handbook)
Harvard

Harvard
Harvard referencing is a citation style where the in-text citations contain a minimal
amount of information about the source (mostly authors surname, date of publication and
sometimes page number), e.g. (Smith, 1985:130).
There is no universal Harvard Referencing style. Harvard referencing is an adaptable style
used by many universities across the world; therefore you can potentially access a number
of different Harvard guides online. At the University of Roehampton we recommend you
use the style in this guide only.

RefWorks
The University of Roehampton uses an online citation and reference management software
called RefWorks. It enables you to:

import references from online resources such as databases, library catalogue, etc.

automatically generate reference lists/bibliographies in a variety of styles,


including Harvard Roehampton style.

add citations to Word documents.

To access this software go to the Librarys Refworks page. Please contact your Librarian
for information about Refworks.

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Harvard in-text citations


The standard format for in-text citation is as follows:
If you are quoting follow the (Author, Date: Page) layout.
Quoting example: (Smith, 2003:12)
If you are paraphrasing follow the (Author, Date) layout. There is no need to include a
page number.
Paraphrasing example: (Smith, 2003)

Layout for quotations


When quoting from sources within your text, use the following conventions:

Keep quotations brief.

If quoting short text, word-for-word within a sentence, enclose the quotation in


single inverted commas e.g.
In Smith (1985:150) the author states that ..
OR
One author states that (Smith, 1985:150)

If quoting longer quotations (50 words or more), set out the quotation in a new
paragraph with no quotation marks. Indent the quote on the left-hand side and use
single spacing between the lines, e.g.
Conjunctions have the semantic role of indicating in which way the new
information links to the previous sentence. It may be additional (additive),
conflicting (adversative), explanatory (causal) or simply the next thing that
is to be said on the subject (continuative).
(Smith, 1985:150)

The citation can come at the beginning or at the end of the sentence containing the
quotation or paraphrase. For readability, there is no need to repeat the authors name if
you have already mentioned it in the sentence, you can just cite the date and the page
number/s in brackets.
On the following pages are some common examples of in-text citation in the Harvard
style.

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Examples of in-text citation: 1 author

Source used

Smith, J. (2003) Early Years Teaching: a guide for

(bibliography entry)

students, London: Routledge.

Short quotation without

It has been said that all children learn through play

authors name in sentence

(Smith, 2003:62).

Short quotation with authors

Smith (2003:62).believes that all children learn through

name in sentence

play

Long quotation without

Play is an important part of childrens development:

authors name in sentence

I have never known a playgroup in which children


fail to thrive. There can be no doubt that all
children learn through play.
(Smith, 2003:62)

Long quotation with authors

Play is an important part of childrens development,

name in sentence

according to Smith(2003:62):
I have never known a playgroup in which children
fail to thrive. There can be no doubt that all
children learn through play.

Paraphrase without authors

It is commonly believed that learning through play is an

name in sentence

activity that helps children learn (Smith, 2003).

Paraphrase with authors name

Smith (2003) believes that learning through play is an

in sentence

activity that helps children learn.

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Examples of in-text citation: 2 authors


Source used (bibliography entry)

Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2008) Cite them Right: The


Essential Referencing Guide, Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear
Tree Books.

Short quotation without authors

If used properly references can strengthen your writing

name in sentence

(Pears & Shields, 2008:11).

Short quotation with authors

According to Pears and Shields (2008:11) references can

name in sentence

strengthen your writing.

Long quotation without authors

A comprehensive bibliography is important, because:

name in sentence

Appropriately used references can strengthen


your writing and can help you attain a better
mark or grade.
(Pears & Shields, 2008:11)

Long quotation with authors

A comprehensive bibliography is important, according to

name in sentence

Pears and Shields (2008:11):


Appropriately used, references can strengthen
your writing and can help you attain a better
mark or grade.

Paraphrase without authors

Correct referencing shows that you have read and

name in sentence

understood a number of sources (Pears & Shields, 2008).

Paraphrase with authors name

Good referencing skills can help you attain better

in sentence

grades, according to Pears and Shields (2008).

Examples of in-text citations: 3 or more authors


In your in-text citation you only need to list the surname of the first author followed by
the words et al.. Remember, in your bibliography/reference list you must include every
author.
In-text example: (Mabey et al., 1998:50).
Bibliography example: Mabey, C. Salaman, G., & Storey, J. (1998) Strategic human
resource management: a reader. London: Sage.
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Bibliography or Cited Works/Reference List


A bibliography is a list at the end of your work containing all the sources you have
consulted for your work.
A cited works/reference list is a list at the end of your work which contains only the
sources you have cited in the text of your work.
The list is arranged alphabetically, irrespective of resource type.

Example:
Ball, C. & Gettinger, M. (2009) Monitoring childrens growth in early literacy skills.
Education & Treatment of Children. 32(3) pp.189-212. Available at:
http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 15/06/09).

Butroyd, R.(2008) Relationships with children and young people. In: Denby, N. (ed.) How
to Achieve your QTS: A Guide for Students. London: Sage. pp.25-46.

Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000. Elizabeth II. (Chapter 16) London: The Stationery
Office.

Cooper, H. (2002) History in the Early Years. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge.
McGoldrick, T. (2007) Email to Joyce Millan. 7th September.
NSPCC (2009) Signs of Safety in England. Available at:
http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/findings/signs-of-safety-pdf_wdf94939.pdf
(Accessed: 14/08/14).

Shakespeare, W. (1967) Alls Well that Ends Well. Edited by Edwards, P. London:
Routledge.

Should I eat meat? How to feed the planet. Horizon. [Television programme]. Directed by
Lachmann, M. UK: BBC2. Broadcast: 20/08/14. 60mins.

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Common Issues
Multiple authors and et al.
If you have used et al. in your text for multiple authors, you must always list all the
authors names in full in the bibliography.
In-text example: (Smith et al., 2014)
Reference example: Smith, R., Jones, B., Brown, T. & Williams, M. (2014)

Multiple places of publication


Popular books may be published in several locations, e.g. Paris, New York, London. Always
use the first location listed.

Reprint, copyright or published date


Some books will list several dates within the book. Always use the last published date
(most recent) in your reference. If this is absent use the last copyright date.

Published, printed or produced by


Many books will have details of the publisher and the printer/producer of the book. Always
include the name of the Publisher in your reference list.

No date
If no date of publication (books/journals, etc.) or last updated date (websites) exists, use
(no date) instead.
Example: Smith, J. (no date) What Year is it? A Guide for the Confused. London:
Penguin.

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No author
Some sources do not have a clear author. Sometimes these sources will have a corporate
author, e.g. company/government name, which you can use as the author of the source.
Example: BBC (2014) Alcohol Tax Urged to Fund Abstinence-Based Rehab. Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-28820589 (Accessed: 18/08/14).

If there is no author or corporate author, you must always question whether the source is
reliable enough to use, especially for academic work. Why does no one want to claim this
work as their own? You might want to find the information from another source instead.
If you do want to reference a source without a clear author, replace the author with the
Title of the Work, followed by the (Year).
Example: How to be a Famous Author (2011). Available at: www.howtobefamous.com
(Accessed: 01/04/14).

Secondary referencing
Citing a source that is cited within another source is called secondary referencing. Always
try to read the original source if possible so that you understand the original source in
context, rather than another authors personal interpretation of it.
However if you cannot access the original source you can include the secondary reference
as a citation in your work, as cited in but in the bibliography list the source you read it
in.
In-text citation example:
Many of the parents appeared entirely indifferent to the childs success either in school
or even in later life (Burt, 1975, cited in Pringle, 1986:96).
Bibliography example:
Pringle, M.K. (1986) The Needs of Children. (3rd ed.) London: Routledge.

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Books & ebooks


Book with one author
Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Cooper, H. (2002) History in the Early Years. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge.

Book with two authors


Author & Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Chazan, M. & Laing A. F. (1982) Children with Special Needs. Milton Keynes:
Open University Press.

Book with more than two authors


Author, Author & Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) Place of
Publication: Publisher.
Example: Goodman, S., Lillis, T., Maybin J. & Mercer, N. (2003) Language, Literacy and
Education: A Reader. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.

Book with editor


Editor (ed.) (Year) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Atkinson, D. (ed.) (1989) The Childrens Bookroom: Reading and the Use of
Books. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books .

Chapter in edited book


Author (Year) Title of chapter. In: Editor (ed.) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.)
Place of Publication: Publisher. Pages.
Example: Butroyd, R.(2008) Relationships with children and young people. In: Denby, N.
(ed.) How to Achieve your QTS: A Guide for Students. London: Sage. pp.25-46.

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Electronic book (ebook)


Author (Year) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) Place of Publication: Publisher.
Available at: URL (date Accessed).
Example: Broadhead, P., Meleady, C. & Delgardo, M.A. (2008) Children, Families and
Communities: Creating and Sustaining Integrated Services. Maidenhead: Open University
Press. Available at: http://www.dawsonera.com (Accessed: 12/06/09).

Ebook on reader, Kindle, Sony ebook


Author (Year of ebook publication) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) [Name of
ebook reader] Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: Mills, P. (2007) The Routledge Creative Writing Coursebook. [Kindle edition]
Oxon: Taylor & Francis.

Note: Page numbering on ebooks may vary from the hardcopy, or even be absent
altogether. Instead, you should use section numbers or section titles, where available, to
indicate the location of any quotations, e.g. (Mills, 2007, Section 1.1).

Book revised and updated by a different author


Original author (Original Date) Title of Book. (Edition - if not first edition.) Revised and
updated by Name of author who has updated the work (Date of revised edition) Place of
Publication: Publisher.
Example: Docking, J. W. (1996) Managing Behaviour in the Primary School. (3rd ed.)
Revised and updated by MacGrath, M. (2002) London: David Fulton.

Book republished with a different title


Author (Year) Current Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher (Originally published
as: Original Title of Book. First published: Date).
Example: Horowitz, A. (2003) Return to Groosham Grange, London: Walker Books
(Originally published as: The Unholy Grail. First published: 1999).

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Poem/play within an anthology


Author (Year) Title of individual play/short story/poem. In: Editor (ed.) Title of
Anthology (Edition -if not first edition). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Nagy, P. (1994) Weldon Rising. In: Castledine, A. (ed.) Plays by Women: Volume
Ten. London: Methuen Drama.

Edited play
Author (Year of edited text) Title of Play. Edited by Editor (ed.) Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Shakespeare, W. (1967) Alls Well that Ends Well. Edited by Edwards, P.
London: Routledge.

The Classics
Author, Title of Work in English. Translated by Translator. (Date of Translation) Place of
publication: Publisher.
Example: Homer, The Iliad. Translated by Fagles, R. (1990) London: Penguin.

Religious texts
Citations from religious texts should include the book, chapter and verse/s.
In-text citation examples:
(Ecclesiastes 2:4) -this refers to Ecclesiastes chapter 2, verse 4.
(1 Corinthians 15:55-57) - this refers to St Pauls first letter to the Corinthians, Chapter
12, verses 55-57.

The format for the bibliography is as follows:


Editor (ed.)(Year) The Bible/Quran/Koran/Torah: edition in italics. Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Carrol, R. & Prickett S. (eds.) (1997) The Bible: Authorised King James Version
with Apocrypha. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Dictionaries/encyclopaedias, individual entry


Author (Year) Title of Entry. In: Title of the Book. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: Bergmann, P. G., (1993) Relativity. In: The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Book review in journal


Author of the review (Year) Title of the Book Being Reviewed. By Author of book.
Reviewed in: Title of journal. Volume(Issue) Pages.
Example: Publishers Weekly (2003) Beegu. By Deacon, A. Reviewed in: Publishers
Weekly. 250(36) pp.74-75.

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Foreign language works


Translated work
Author (Year of translated version [Year of original work]) Title of Book. Translated by
Translator. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Piaget, J. (2001 [1926]) The Language and Thought of the Child. Translated by
Gabain, M. & Gabain, R. London: Routledge Classics.

Works in other languages


Author (Year) Title in original language [English translation of title, if required]. Place of
publication: Publisher.
Example: Esquivel, L. (2003) Como Agua Para Chocolate [Like Water for Chocolate].
Barcelona: Debolsillo.

Works in other alphabets


Transliterate (not translate) the details into the English alphabet.
Example: use reference with English alphabet.
. (2007) : . : .
Washida, K. (2007) Kyto no heinetsu: tetsugakusha no toshi annai. Tky: Kdansha.

Works in dual languages


Editor (eds.) (Year) Title in English in Italics: Title in Other Language in Italics. Place of
Publication: Publisher.
Example: Lawaetz, G. (ed.) (1972) Spanish Short Stories 2: Cuentos Hispanicos 2. London:
Penguin.

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Journals, magazines & newspapers


Article from print journal
Author (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue) Pages.
Example: Frostag, P. & Pijl, S.J. (2007) Does being friendly help in making friends?
European Journal of Special Needs Education. 20(1) pp.15-30.

Article from electronic journal


Author (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue) Pages. Available at: URL
(Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Ball, C. & Gettinger, M. (2009) Monitoring childrens growth in early literacy
skills. Education & Treatment of Children. 32(3) pp.189-212. Available at:
http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 15/06/09).

Article from online journal with DOI


Author (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue) Pages. DOI
Example: Levy, F.J., Ranjbar, A. & Dean, C.H. (2006) Dance movement as a way to help
children affected by war. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 77(5) pp.612. DOI: 10.1080/07303084.2006.10597870.

Article from print newspaper or magazine


Author (Day, Month, Year) Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Pages.
Example: Curtis, P. (15th June, 2009) Tory plan to end primary school Sats and have new
test at secondaries branded 'half-baked. The Guardian. pp.6-7.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

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Webpages, social media & personal communications


Website
Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Webpage. Available at: URL (Accessed:
dd/mm/yy).
Example: NSPCC (2009) Signs of Safety in England. Available at:
http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/findings/signs-of-safety-pdf_wdf94939.pdf
(Accessed: 14/08/14).

Wiki/Wikipedia
Title of wiki (Year last updated) Title of Article. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Wikipedia (2014) Business Ethics. Available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_ethics (Accessed: 20/06/11).

Blog
Author (Year last updated) Title of post. Title of Website. Day Month. Available at: URL
(Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Yale Law Library (2010) The two faces of American freedom. Yale Law Library Reference Blog. 10th December. Available at: http://blogs.law.yale.edu/blogs/reference/
(Accessed: 20/06/11).

Facebook
Author (Year) Title of Page [Facebook].Day Month posted. Available at: URL (Accessed:
dd/mm/yy).
Example: University of Roehampton (2013) Roehampton Postgraduate [Facebook]. 19th
August 2013. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/RoehamptonPostgraduate
(Accessed: 20/08/13).

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Twitter
Title of twitter page (twitter user name in brackets) (Year) Full Text of Tweet [Twitter].
Date of tweet. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: MCL (@MCL_Roehampton) (2014) Deborah Jermyn of MCL @RoehamptonUni
Writes About True Detective - Will The Show Deliver on the Hype? [Twitter]. 18 March.
Available at: https://twitter.com/MCL_Roehampton/status/445903395388674049
(Accessed: 20/08/14).

Personal Communications: emails/text messages/faxes


Sender/Author (Year) Email/Text/Fax to Recipient. Day Month.
Example: McGoldrick, T. (2007) Email to Joyce Millan. 7th September.

Interviews, in person
Name of person being interviewed (Year) Interviewed by: Name of Interviewer. Day Month.
Example: Allen, M. (2013) Interviewed by Celada, S. 15th April.

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Audio-visual
Film, viewed at cinema/DVD
Title of Film (Year of distribution) Directed by Name of Director [Motion Picture/Motion
Picture, DVD]. Place of Production: Production company.
Cinema example: The Caretaker (1963) Directed by Clive Donner [Motion Picture]. London:
BFI Films.
DVD example: Educating Rita (1983) Directed by Lewis Gilbert [Motion Picture, DVD].
London: Rank Organisation.

Film, viewed online


Title of Film (Year of distribution) Directed by Name of Director [Film, online]. Place of
Production: Production company. Available at: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Monsters Inc. (2001) Directed by Pete Doctor, David Silverman & Lee Unkrich
[Motion Picture, online]. Emeryville, CA.: Walt Disney & Pixar. Available at:
http://bobnational.net/record/116126 (Accessed: 11/08/14).

Television programme
Name of episode. Title of Series. (Year of broadcast) [Television programme].
Directed/Produced by Director/Producer. Country: Name of broadcaster. Broadcast:
dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Should I eat meat? How to feed the planet. Horizon. [Television programme].
Directed by Michael Lachmann. UK: BBC2. Broadcast: 20/08/14. 60mins.

Extract from a television programme


Name of episode. Title of Series. (Year of broadcast) [Television programme, extract].
Directed/Produced by Director/Producer. Country: Name of broadcaster. Broadcast:
dd/mm/yy. Duration. Start end timings of extract.
Example: Should I eat meat? How to feed the planet. Horizon. [Television programme,
extract]. Directed by Michael Lachmann. UK: BBC2. Broadcast: 20/08/14.
60mins.00:03:51-00:06:28.
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Episode from a TV series, viewed on TV/DVD/online


Title/number of episode. Title of Series. Series number (Year of broadcast) [Television
programme/Television programme, DVD]. Directed/Produced by Director/Producer.
Country: Name of broadcaster. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Television example: Community service. Shameless. Series 1 (2004) [Television
programme]. Produced by Paul Abbott. UK: Channel 4. Broadcast: 13/01/04. 60mins.
DVD example: Community service. Shameless. Series 1 (2004) [Television programme,
DVD]. Produced by Paul Abbott. UK: Channel 4. 60mins.
If online: use [Television programme, online] and add Available at: URL (Accessed:
dd/mm/yy).

Radio programmes
Title of Programme (Year of broadcast) [Radio programme]. Directed/Produced by
Director/Producer. Name of Radio station. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Womans Hour (2011) [Radio programme].Produced by Kat Wong. BBC Radio 4.
Broadcast: 20/06/11. Duration: 58mins.
If online: use [Radio programme, online] and add Available at: URL (Accessed:
dd/mm/yy).

Interview, Broadcast
Name of person being interviewed (Year) Interviewed by Name of Interviewer. Title of
Programme. Place of Production: Production. Broadcast: dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Thatcher, M. (1983) Interviewed by Brian Walden. Weekend World. Broadcast:
16/01/1983. 45mins.

Audio, CD
Artist (Year of Production) Title of Album [CD]. Place of Distribution: Distribution
Company.
Example: Madonna (2005) Confessions on a Dancefloor [CD]. USA: Maverick.

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Audio, track from CD


Artist (Year of Production) Title of track. Title of Album [CD]. Place of Distribution:
Distribution company.
Example: Madonna (2005) I love New York. Confessions on a Dancefloor [CD]. USA:
Maverick.

Song lyrics
Lyricist (Year of distribution) Title of Song. Place of Distribution: Distribution Company.
Example: John, E. (1972) Tiny Dancer. US: UNI.

Classical recording
Composer (Year of performance) Full Title of Recording. Performed by Name of
Performer. Conducted by Name of Conductor [Format]. Place of Distribution: Record
Company.
Example: Elgar (2010) Violin Concert: Violin Concerto/ Polonia/ Interlude From The
Crown Of India. Performed by Tasmin Little. Conducted by: Andrew Davis. [CD]. UK:
Chandos.

Music score
Composer (Year) Full Title of Score. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Debussy (1968) Images, 2e Srie: Piano Solo. London: Wise Publications Ltd.

Audio download
Artist (Year of Production) Title of Album [Audio download]. Available at: URL (date
Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: Madonna (2005) Confessions on a Dancefloor [Audio download]. Available at:
http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B01F3FJF2/ref=dm_dp_trk5 (Accessed: 20/06/11).

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Youtube
Name of person posting video (Year video added) Title of Video [YouTube]. Available at:
URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: TED (2012) Susan Cain: The Power of Introverts [YouTube]. Available at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0KYU2j0TM4 (Accessed: 07/07/14).

Podcast
Title of Podcast (Year) Presented by Name of Presenter [Podcast]. Available at: URL
(Accessed: dd/mm/yy).
Example: We Need to Publicise Sport to Disabled Children (2009) Presented by Melanie
Easter [Podcast]. Available at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/audio/
(Accessed: 11/06/09).

Audiobook
Author/Artist (Year) Title of Audiobook [Audiobook]. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Potter, S. (2001) Macbeth: Student SmartPass Edition Audio Education Study
Guide [Audiobook]. Brighton: Smart Pass Ltd.

Television advertisement
Company/product (Year produced) Title/Description of Advert [Television advertisement]
Place of Production: Production company. Broadcast:dd/mm/yy. Duration.
Example: Cadbury Schweppes (2007) Gorilla [Television advertisement]. London: Blink
Productions. Broadcast: 31/08/07. 1min 32sec.

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Art, images & maps


Works of Art
Artist (Year) Title of Work of Art [Type of Work]. City/Country painting is displayed:
Museum painting is displayed in.
Example: Mucha, A.M. (1911) Princess Hyacinth [Painting]. Prague: Mucha Museum.

Museum Exhibition
Name of museum (Year) Title of Exhibition. Town/City of museum: Name of museum.
Example: Design Museum (2010) Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2010. London: Design
Museum.

Photography, personal collection


Photographer (Year) Title of Photo [Photograph]. Unpublished Personal Photograph.
Example: Stowar, J. (2012) London Parks [Photograph]. Unpublished Personal Photograph.

Photography, online
Photographer (Year) Title of Photo, Name of Collection [Photograph]. Available at: URL
(Accessed:dd/mm/yy).
Example: Stowar, J. (2012) London Parks, Flickr [Photograph]. Available at:
www.flickr.com/londonphotographs2012 (Accessed:10/04/12).

Figures, Diagrams, Tables


Author of book (Year) Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page reference of
item [type of item].
Example: Jefferies, L. (1996) Discovering Language: The Structure of Modern English.
Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. p.56 [Table].

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Posters & Pamphlets


Corporate Author (Year) Title of Poster [Poster/Pamphlet]. Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Roehampton University (2011) Be a Student Mentor [Poster]. London:
Roehampton University.

Ordnance Survey Maps


Corporate Author (Year) Title of Map. Scale, Series Title and/or number. Place of
Publication: Publisher.
Example: Ordnance Survey (2006) East London. 1:50 000,177. London: H.M.S.O.

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Performance
Classical music, live performance
Composer (Year of performance) Title of Performance. Conducted by Name of Conductor.
Performed by Music Performers [Location: Venue]. Date performance viewed: Day Month.
Example: Williams, V. (2010) Suite for Viola and Small Orchestra. Conducted by Ji
Blohlvek. Performed by BBC Symphony Orchestra. [London: Royal Albert Hall]. Date
performance viewed: 10th September.

Play, live performance


Author (Year of performance) Title of Work. Directed by Name of Director. Performed by
Name of Actor/Company name. [Location: Venue]. Date performance viewed: Day Month.
Example: Shakespeare, W. (2011) A Midsummer Nights Dream. Directed by Mark
Leipacher. Performed by Faction Theatre Company [London, Brockwell Park]. Date
performance viewed: 30th June.

Dance, live performance


Choreographer (Year of performance) Title of Dance. Composed by Name of Composer.
Performed by Name of Dance Company [Location: Venue]. Date performance viewed: Day
Month.
Example: Makarova, N. (1993) Swan Lake. Composed by Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. Performed
by London Festival Ballet [London: Royal Festival Hall]. Date of performance: 2nd January.

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Parliamentary acts, papers & reports


Acts of Parliament
Country. Full Name of Act with Year. Monarch. (Chapter number) Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Great Britain. Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000. Elizabeth II. (Chapter 16)
London: The Stationery Office.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

White and Green Papers


Country. Government department (Year of publication) Title of Paper. Paper number.
Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Great Britain. Department for Children, Schools and Families (2005) 14-19
Education and Skills. CM6476, London: Stationery Office.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Government publications
Country. Department (Year) Title of Report. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (2000) Our
Countryside, the Future: A Fair Deal for Rural England. London: The Stationery Office.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

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Company & education reports, Press releases


Company Annual Report
Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Annual Report. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Teaching Development Agency (2009) Annual Report and Account 2008-09.
London: HMSO.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Educational/Local Authority Documents


Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Document/Report. Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: Feltham Hill Junior School (2010) Behaviour Policy March 2010. London: London
Borough of Hounslow.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Ofsted Report
Author/Corporate author (Year) Title of Document and Dates Inspection Took Place. Place
of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Ofsted (2010) Rye Oak School Inspection Report 13-14th May 2010. London:
H.M.S.O.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Press release
Author/organisation (Year) Title of Press Release [Press release]. Place of Publication:
Company.
Example: TFL Press Office (2011) Oyster Pay as You Go Confirmed as the Ticket of Choice
for Millions of National Rail Commuters in London. [Press release]. London: TFL.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

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Thesis, Conference proceedings & presentations, Module materials


Thesis/Masters Dissertation, online
Author (Year) Title of Work. Type of Thesis. Name of Institution. Available at: (Accessed
dd/mm/yy).
Example: Petridis, P. (2010) Notes at the Edge of Landscape. PHD Thesis. University of
Sunderland. Available at: http://sure.sunderland.ac.uk/3309/ (Accessed:12/08/14).

Conference Proceedings, individual paper


Author (Year) Title of paper. In: Editor/Organisation. Title of Conference Proceeding.
Place of Publication: Publisher. Pages.
Example: McKie, A. (2008) Mapping the territory. In: Making Connections Bringing
Together Research on E-Learning. London: University of Middlesex. pp.10-14.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Presentations
Author (Year) Title of Presentation. Presented at: Name of conference, Location of
conference.
Example: Hayes, D. (2009) From Flagellation to Therapy: What are Students Learning
Today?. Presented at: ALDinHE Conference, Bournemouth University.
If online add: Available from: URL (Accessed: dd/mm/yy).

Lecture/module materials
Lecturer (Year) Title of Lecture [Medium type for Module code]. Date. Name of
Organisation (Accessed dd/mm/yy).
Example: Riley, M. (2013) Surveillance and Social Control [PowerPoint presentation for
PHT020C105A]. 13th October 2013. University of Roehampton (Accessed 09/07/04).

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British Standards
British Standards Institute, (Year ) Number and Title of Standard. Place of Publication:
Publisher.
Example: British Standards Institute (2008) BS EN ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management
Systems Requirements. London: British Standards Institute.

Archive material
The majority of materials found in archives, that are not books, are housed in some sort of
container and within the container the various items are separated in files. Archival
references should include the following information (where available):

Creator/Author. Title of Document. Page, Section, Date (if available). Box/File Number.
Name of Collection. Name of Repository. Name of Institution.

Example: Collingwood, M. Margot Fonteyn scrapbook. No.1., c. 1949. Box 1. MC 1/3.


Monica Collingwood Collection. Archives and Special Collections. University of
Roehampton.

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