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Ranitidine

INDIKASI

Pengobatan jangka pendek ulkus duodenum aktif dan ulkus lambung jinak.
Terapi pemeliharaan untuk ulkus duodenum dan lambung setelah penyembuhan
ulkus aktif. Manajemen GERD. Pengobatan sakit maag, gangguan pencernaan
asam, dan asam lambung (OTC digunakan). Pencegahan dan pengobatan stres
akibat perdarahan saluran cerna atas pada pasien sakit kritis. Ranitidin:
Pengobatan dan terapi pemeliharaan untuk esophagitis. Menggunakan berlabel:
Manajemen gejala GI terkait dengan penggunaan NSAID. Pencegahan inaktivasi
asam enzim pankreas tambahan pada pasien dengan insufisiensi pankreas.
Manajemen urtikaria.
Implikasi keperawatan
Pengkajian
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Kaji nyeri epigastrium atau perut dan darah jujur atau okultisme di
bangku, emesis, atau aspirasi lambung.
Geri: Menilai pasien geriatri dan lemah secara rutin untuk kebingungan.
Laporkan segera.
Lab Uji Pertimbangan: Memantau CBC dengan diferensial secara periodik
selama terapi.
Antagonis efek pentagastrin dan histamin selama lambung pengujian
sekresi asam. Hindari administrasi selama 24 jam sebelum tes.
Dapat menyebabkan hasil negatif palsu dalam tes kulit menggunakan
ekstrak alergi. Histamin H2 antagonis harus dihentikan 24 jam sebelum
tes.
Dapat menyebabkan peningkatan transaminase serum dan kreatinin
serum.
Konsentrasi prolaktin serum dapat meningkat setelah IV bolus simetidin.
Mungkin juga menyebabkan konsentrasi paratiroid menurun.
Nizatidin dapat menyebabkan konsentrasi alkali fosfatase.
Ranitidin dan famotidine dapat menyebabkan hasil positif palsu untuk
protein urine; Tes dengan asam sulfosalicylic.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses: Acute pain (Indications)


Implementation
PO: diberikan dengan makanan atau segera
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sesudahnya dan pada waktu


tidur untuk memperpanjang efek.
Jika antasida atau sukralfat digunakan secara bersamaan untuk
menghilangkan rasa sakit, menghindari pemberian antasida dalam waktu
30 menit-1 jam dari antagonis H2 dan mengambil sukralfat 2 jam setelah
H2 antagonis; Mei penurunan penyerapan H2 antagonis.
Dosis diberikan sekali sehari harus diberikan pada waktu tidur untuk
memperpanjang efek.
Kocok suspensi oral sebelum pemberian. Buang suspensi terpakai setelah
30 hari.
Hapus foil dari ranitidine tablet effervescent dan larut dalam 6-8 oz air
sebelum diminum.

Patient/Family Teaching

Instruct patient to take medication as directed for the full course of therapy, even if feeling
better. Take missed doses as soon as remembered but not if almost time for next dose. Do
not double doses.
Advise patients taking OTC preparations not to take the maximum dose continuously for
more than 2 wk without consulting health care professional. Notify health care professional
if difficulty swallowing occurs or abdominal pain persists.
Inform patient that smoking interferes with the action of histamine antagonists. Encourage
patient to quit smoking or at least not to smoke after last dose of the day.
May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Caution patient to avoid driving or other activities
requiring alertness until response to the drug is known.
Advise patient to avoid alcohol, products containing aspirin or NSAIDs, and foods that may
cause an increase in GI irritation.
Inform patient that increased fluid and fiber intake and exercise may minimize
constipation.
Advise patient to report onset of black, tarry stools; fever; sore throat; diarrhea; dizziness;
rash; confusion; or hallucinations to health care professional promptly.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes
Decrease in abdominal pain.
Treatment and prevention of gastric or duodenal irritation and bleeding. Healing of
duodenal ulcers can be seen by x-rays or endoscopy. Therapy is continued for at least 6 wk
in treatment of ulcers but not usually long er than 8 wk.
Decreased symptoms of esophageal reflux.
Treatment of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach (OTC use).

Ketrolac
Nursing implication
Assesment:
Pasien yang

memiliki asma, alergi aspirin-diinduksi, dan polip hidung


berada pada peningkatan risiko untuk mengembangkan reaksi
hipersensitivitas. Menilai untuk rhinitis, asma, dan urtikaria.
Nyeri: Kaji nyeri (jenis catatan, lokasi, dan intensitas) sebelum dan 1-2 jam
setelah pemberian.
Lab Uji Pertimbangan: Evaluasi tes fungsi hati, terutama AST dan ALT,
secara berkala pada pasien yang menerima terapi berkepanjangan. Dapat
menyebabkan peningkatan kadar.
Dapat menyebabkan waktu perdarahan berkepanjangan yang dapat
bertahan selama 24-48 jam setelah penghentian terapi.
Dapat menyebabkan? BUN, kreatinin serum, dan konsentrasi potasium.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses: Acute pain (Indications)


Implementation
Do not confuse Toradol (ketorolac) with Torecan (thiethylperazine) or tramadol (Ultram).
Administration in higher-than-recommended doses does not provide increased
effectiveness but may cause increased side effects. Duration of ketorolac therapy, by all
routes combined, should not exceed 5 days. Use lowest effective dose for shortest period
of time
Coadministration with opioid analgesics may have additive analgesic effects and may
permit lower opioid doses.
PO: Ketorolac therapy should always be given initially by the IMor IV route. Use oral
therapy only as a continuation of parenteral therapy.
Patient/Family Teaching
Instruct patient on how and when to ask for pain medication.
Instruct patient to take medication exactly as directed. Take missed doses as soon as
remembered if not almost time for next dose. Do not double doses. Do not takemore than
prescribed or for longer than 5 days.
May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Advise patient to avoid driving or other activities
requiring alertness until response to the medication is known.

Caution patient to avoid the concurrent use of alcohol, aspirin, NSAIDs, acetaminophen, or
other OTC medications without consulting health care professional.
Advise patient to inform health care professional of medication regimen prior to treatment
or surgery.
Advise patient to consult health care professional if rash, itching, visual disturbances,
tinnitus, weight gain, edema, black stools, persistent headache, or influenza-like syndrome
(chills, fever, muscle aches, pain) occurs.
Evaluation/Desired Outcomes
Decrease in severity of pain. Patients who do not respond to one NSAID may respond to
another.