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Original Title: Szczukiewicz Et Al. 2014 Proposed Models, Ongoing Experiments, And Latest Numerical Simulation of Microchannel TP FB-(Cp)

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Szczukiewicz Et Al. 2014 Proposed Models, Ongoing Experiments, And Latest Numerical Simulation of Microchannel TP FB-(Cp)

Review of the studies of flow boiling in microchannels

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j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / i j m u l fl o w

Review

simulations of microchannel two-phase ow boiling

S. Szczukiewicz, M. Magnini, J.R. Thome

Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM), Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL-STI-IGM-LTCM, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 16 July 2013

Received in revised form 28 October 2013

Accepted 29 October 2013

Available online 9 November 2013

Keywords:

Two-phase ow

Microchannels

Flow instability

Heat transfer

Evaporation

Numerical simulations

a b s t r a c t

A survey of the most recent work aimed at physically characterizing local heat transfer in ow boiling in

microchannels is presented. This includes recent experimental work, new ow boiling prediction methods, and numerical simulations of microchannel slug ows with evaporation. Some signicant developments in the measurement techniques provide simultaneous ow visualizations and measurements of

2D temperature elds of multi-microchannel evaporators. In particular, information on inlet micro-orices has been gained as well as better ways to reduce such heat transfer and pressure drop data for very

high resolution data (10,000 pixels at rate of 60 Hz). First of all, ow patterns are seen to have a significant inuence on the heat transfer trends in microchannels (just like in macrochannels), and thus need

to be accounted by visualization during experiments and during modeling. A clear distinction between

steady, unsteady, well- and maldistributed ows needs to be made to avoid any confusion when presenting and comparing the heat transfer coefcient trends. In reducing the raw data to local heat transfer

coefcients, the calculated values of several terms involved in the heat transfer coefcient determination

are inuenced by the data reduction procedure, especially the way to deduce the local saturation pressures/temperatures, and may lead to conicting trends and errors approaching 100% in local heat transfer

coefcients if done inappropriately. In addition to experiments, two-phase CFD simulations are emerging

as a tenable tool to investigate the local heat transfer mechanisms, especially those details not accessible

experimentally. In particular, a new prediction method based on numerical simulation results captures

the heat transfer in the recirculating liquid ow between elongated bubbles. Thus, it is shown here that

targeted computations can provide valuable insights on the local ow structures and heat transfer mechanisms, and thus be used to improve the mechanistic boiling heat transfer prediction methods.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

State-of-the-art of microscale two-phase flow boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.

Microchannel flow boiling heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.

Infra-red camera measurements applied to microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Numerical simulations of two-phase flow boiling in microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.

Numerical models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.

Literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Discussion on the most recent experimental and numerical results of heat transfer studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.

Contribution of numerical simulations to the heat transfer modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.

Heat transfer coefficient data reduction in multi-microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.

Stable and unstable two-phase heat transfer coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E-mail address: john.thome@ep.ch (J.R. Thome).

0301-9322/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseow.2013.10.014

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85

85

88

89

89

90

91

91

93

95

99

99

1. Introduction

A noticeable global tendency towards miniaturization driven by

the micro-electronics industry is bringing ever greater attention to

multi-microchannel two-phase ow evaporation as the most

advantageous cooling process, utilizing the latent heat of evaporation to extract the heat in an energy efcient manner. As a result of

the enhanced thermal performance compared to other processes,

better axial temperature uniformity (Agostini et al., 2008b), reduced coolant ow rates, and thus smaller pumping powers (Agostini et al., 2007) are obtained. Therefore, two-phase ow cooling

provides an excellent opportunity to continue the progress relative

to Moores law (Moore, 1965) associated with a tremendous challenge of removing the continuously increasing heat uxes dissipated by modern CPUs. The large amount of experimental work,

theory and prediction methods have been reviewed in the past

few years by Thome (2004, 2006), Cheng et al. (2008), Thome

and Consolini (2010) and Baldassari and Marengo (2013). Consequently, the present review has a narrow scope to look at some

new emerging issues regarding experimentation and the targeted

use of numerical simulations to gain local, transient insight into

the two-phase evaporation process and improvement of its heat

transfer models.

Numerous micro-evaporators have been tested over the past

few years. Their reported heat transfer performances, quantied

in terms of local heat transfer coefcients, depend on the data

reduction methods and assumptions each study used. Several aspects, such as determination of the local uid saturation temperature, edge heat losses and heat spreading effects, and ow stability,

need to be more carefully taken into account when comparing and

modeling heat transfer coefcient results. Obviously, only the values calculated in the same manner, when merged together, will

bring adequate conclusions on microchannel cooling capabilities.

Moreover, the experimental techniques for measurements have

some technical limitations due to the small length and time scales

involved in ow boiling within microchannels. For instance, the

time response for thermocouples in point-wise temperature measurements is usually larger than the characteristic time of the

investigated phenomena, whilst experiments with Micro Particle

Image Velocimetry (MicroPIV) still remain a challenging task at

these high ow velocities.

On the other hand, the recent advances on multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques, together with the

increasing processing power of computers, are making numerical

simulations an ever more powerful and reliable tool to provide

new and detailed insights into the local hydrodynamics and thermal features of ow boiling in microchannels. The accuracy of

the gasliquid interface tracking and modeling of interfacial effects

is of primary importance for microscale-aimed computational

methods, since the interface topology plays a fundamental role in

ows within microdevices. Volume Of Fluid (VOF) (Hirt and Nichols, 1981) and Level Set (LS) (Sussman et al., 1994) methods are

indeed the most widely used algorithms to model interfacial ows,

due to their accuracy, robustness and easiness of implementation.

In fact, the cited algorithms only add a color function equation

(to identify each phase) to the single-phase ow equation set,

which includes mass, momentum and energy equations, that are

then solved in a xed computational grid. However, it is important

to remark that while numerical simulations provide an advanced

tool to investigate two-phase ows which may also anticipate

experimental ndings, the development of such computational

methods requires detailed experimental measurements to validate

their new algorithms.

The present paper is organized as follows: rst the most recent

experimental ndings on microscale two-phase ows are reviewed

85

in Section 2, then Section 3 outlines the latest advances in multiphase numerical simulations in microchannels, next Section 4 discusses their mutual contribution and related issues of data

reduction, stable and unstable ow, and hydrodynamics to the heat

transfer coefcient trends, and nally Section 5 summarizes the

main conclusions of this work.

In spite of the large number of papers published in the ow

boiling domain, many aspects still need to be better explained in

order to provide a fuller understanding of local two-phase ow

boiling characteristics. Such knowledge is essential to develop

more reliable prediction methods that can be used for designing

new high-performance microchannel heat spreaders for microelectronic and power electronic applications. This section presents

the most recent experimental results in microscale two-phase ow

research aiming to determine the contribution of geometrical

parameters and other two-phase ow aspects on the heat transfer

coefcient trends, which are then discussed in terms of two-phase

ow patterns and ow transitions.

2.1. Microchannel ow boiling heat transfer

Geometrical parameters, such as the hydraulic diameter and the

manifolds material and its shape, may signicantly inuence

microscale two-phase ow results (Hetsroni et al., 2005). For

example, several experimental studies reported signicant heat

transfer enhancement of ow boiling in small (Agostini and Bontemps, 2005; Karayiannis et al., 2010) and narrow channels (Su

et al., 2005) compared to conventional macrochannels. On the

other hand, the measurement reliability decreases with decreasing

tube diameter, as pointed out by Mishima and Hibiki (1996). Additionally, numerous differences between micro- and macrochannels

might be due to inaccurate dimensional measurements in the

microscale (Agostini et al., 2006), where the surface roughness effect on heat transfer at low to medium vapor qualities in the slug

ow regime is noticeable (Agostini et al., 2008d).

In particular, Agostini et al. (2003) showed that the ow boiling

heat transfer coefcient of R134a increased by a factor of 1.74

when decreasing the hydraulic diameter from 2.01 to 0.77 mm.

The increase of heat transfer coefcient at low values of vapor

quality with decreasing channel diameter is associated with the

decrease in the initial lm thickness between the elongated bubbles and the channel wall, as explained by Dupont and Thome

(2005) based on the three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004). For

example, Fig. 1 illustrates the local (width-averaged) heat transfer

coefcient trend versus local vapor quality from inlet to outlet for a

test section with 67 channels of 100 100 lm2 cross-section

(Szczukiewicz et al., 2012b, 2013b), which were measured with a

very ne resolution by means of a high-speed IR camera (for more

details, refer to the following section). In the isolated bubble (IB)

regime, in which bubbles might be smaller than the channel diameter or elongated, the heat transfer coefcient increases, and after

the local maximum, it starts to decrease in the coalescing bubble

(CB) regime. Then, when annular ow (AF) is formed, the heat

transfer coefcient climbs considerably again, dramatically illustrating the importance of ow patterns on the heat transfer process. In the IB regime, heat transfer increases without formation

of dry patches at the end of the elongated bubbles, while in the

CB regime, the heat transfer coefcient decreases due to the onset

of cyclical dryout as the vapor quality increases, which was observed visually by Borhani et al. (2010). The minimum coincides

with the churn ow regime (see the corresponding snapshot in

86

and Thome (2011) annular ow model for convective boiling were

joined together, applying a new heat ux-dependent transition

from the coalescing elongated bubble regime to the annular ow

regime:

0:1 1:1

q

Bo

xCBAF 425 v

ql

Co0:5

r

where Bo q=Ghlv is the boiling number and Co r= g DqD2h

Fig. 1. Heat transfer coefcient trend for ow boiling of R236fa in a silicon multimicrochannel evaporator with orices at the inlet of each channel restricting the

ow by 50% (creating some ashed vapor to seed the evaporation process) at the

channel mass ux Gch 2299 kg m2 s1 and the base heat ux qb 48:6 W cm2

(Szczukiewicz et al., 2012b, 2013b). Flow visualization images were recorded by

Revellin (2005) in a sight glass at the exit of a single stainless steel tube of 0.79 mm

diameter.

Fig. 1). Afterwards, the heat transfer coefcient rises in the AF regime, when all the bubbles have coalesced and the liquid has

formed an annular ring with a continuous vapor core in the middle

of the channel. It is an effect of convective boiling across the thinning liquid lm. Therefore, the trend of the heat transfer coefcient

strongly depends on the ow pattern and the ow transitions between them. These transitions are preliminary controlled by the

rate of bubble coalescence and they are commonly dened by

the vapor quality x, e.g. Agostini et al. (2008a), Revellin et al.

(2008) and Ong and Thome (2011a).

It is worthwhile mentioning that the three-zone model of

Thome et al. (2004) predicts the heat transfer coefcient to decrease in the CB regime but to increase in the IB regime (two zones

without the third dryout intermittent zone). Recently, Costa-Patry

and Thome (2012, 2013) have presented a new ow pattern-based

prediction method for heat transfer coefcient in microchannels.

2200

2

17.4 W cm

2

20.8 W cm

2

25.1 W cm

28.5 W cm2

32.6 W cm2

2

36.3 W cm

40.2 W cm2

44.1 W cm2

2

48.1 W cm

1800

1600

1400

ch

[kg m2 s1]

2000

1200

1000

800

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

x []

Fig. 2. Vapor quality at the minimum heat transfer coefcient calculated based on

Eq. (1) for the two-phase ow of R1234ze(E) in the test section with the inlet

restrictions of expansion ratio ein;rest WW ch 2 and the base heat ux varying from

in;rest

17.4 to 48:1 W cm2 . The graph was prepared using the experimental data of

Szczukiewicz (2012) considering only stable ows, namely the single-phase ow

followed by two-phase ow without backow and the ashing two-phase ow

without backow operating regimes.

is the connement number, with hlv being the latent heat of vaporization, Dq the difference between the liquid and vapor densities

(respectively ql and qv ), r the surface tension coefcient, g the

gravity acceleration, and Dh the hydraulic diameter. According to

Eq. (1), which predicts the vapor quality at the minimum heat

transfer coefcient (see Fig. 2), the transition is a function of the liquid-to-vapor density ratio, as well as the mass ux G and the heat

ux q, giving results similar to those of Ong and Thome (2011a).

Some modications to the original heat transfer models of Thome

et al. (2004) for elongated bubble ow regime and the annular ow

model of Cioncolini and Thome (2011) were implemented to improve their performance in predicting heat transfer. For instance,

the three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004) was modied by setting the minimum lm thickness to the measured wall roughness

since the roughness breaks the liquid lm. This has been already

proposed in the previous studies of Agostini et al. (2008c) in a silicon test section, Ong and Thome (2011b) in three stainless steel

microtubes, and Vakili-Farahani et al. (2012) in an aluminum multiport tube, while the study of Costa-Patry et al. (2012a) included

both silicon and copper test sections. Table 1 gives more details

on the geometrical specications of the test sections and refrigerants they have investigated.

The above heat transfer prediction method of Costa-Patry and

Thome (2012, 2013) along with the Chen (1966)-like heat transfer

method of Bertsch et al. (2009) seem to be the most accurate ones

available today (Costa-Patry and Thome, 2012, 2013). Fig. 3(a)

demonstrates the heat transfer coefcient trends for both of these

methods in comparison to the experimental results of Szczukiewicz (2012). Firstly, it is seen that the Bertsch et al. (2009) model,

however, does not capture the increasing trend of heat transfer at

higher vapor qualities (corresponding to the AF regime). While, the

prediction method of Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013) predicts

both the trend and the heat transfer coefcients well. This is especially true at low and high values of vapor quality and the location

of the local minimum of the heat transfer coefcient, given by Eq.

(1), representing the CB AF ow transition. The largest discrepancies between the predicted and the experimental values are noticeable at this transition (churn ow), which remains a region of

uncertainty in the multi-microchannel heat transfer studies, and

is very complex to mechanistically model. Together with the tests

listed in Table 1 and those in the recent work of Szczukiewicz et al.

(2012b, 2013b) shown in Fig. 1, their ow pattern based method so

far works for square and rectangular channels with aspect ratios

from about 1 to 10, for single circular channels, for multiport tubes,

and for numerous refrigerants.

Harirchian and Garimella (2012) also used the three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004) (with some modications) as the basis to

predict their experimental data (Harirchian and Garimella, 2008,

2009a,b, 2010) for 7 different microchannel heat sinks. The channel

locations where the ow transformed from bubbly to slug and consequently to annular ow were determined, and then the pressure

drop for each regime occurring along the channel was separately

calculated. They also proposed a ow regime-based method that

provided reliable results, but only for their one uid (FC-77) at

one saturation temperature, and hence only one set of physical

properties; thus its use with any other uid is an extrapolation.

87

Table 1

Surface roughness effect in experimental studies.

Reference

Test section

Surface roughness

Test uid

Agostini et al.

(2008d)

Ong and Thome

(2011b)

of 67 channels

Single stainless steel microtube

170 nm

Vakili-Farahani

et al. (2012,

2013)

composed of 7 channels

Dh 1:4 mm

and 796.81 nm

(respectively)

810 nm

R245fa and

R236fa

R245fa,

R236fa, and

R134a

R245fa,

R1234ze(E),

and R134a

Costa-Patry and

Thome (2012,

2013)

of 52 channels (Costa-Patry et al.,

2012b)

Silicon micro-evaporator composed

of 135 channels (Costa-Patry et al.,

2011a)

Single stainless steel microtube (Ong

and Thome, 2011b)

450 nm

67 to 90 nm

See above

See above

R245fa,

R1234ze(E),

and R134a

R245fa and

R236fa

See above

(a)

x 10

x 10

15

2.5

Tran et al. (1996)

w [W m2 K ]

w [W m

K ]

Experimental

2

1.5

Experimental

CostaPatry and Thome (2012)

Bertsch et al. (2009)

0.5

Yu et al. (2002)

10

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

(b)

0

0

x []

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

x []

x 10

models of Tran et al. (1996) and Yu et al. (2002).

w [W m2 K1]

2.5

1.5

1

Experimental

New buffer for CostaPatry and Thome (2012)

Bertsch et al. (2009)

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

x []

Fig. 3. Experimental two-phase ow heat transfer coefcients of R236fa in the

100 100 lm2 multi-microchannel with ein;rest 4 for Gch 525 kg m2 s1 and

qw 155:3 kW m2 compared to the prediction method of Bertsch et al. (2009), (a)

original model of Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013), and (b) the latter with the

new vapor quality buffer xbuffer 2xCBAF . Figure extracted from Szczukiewicz

(2012).

They did not unfortunately present any graph with trend lines of

the heat transfer coefcient data versus local vapor quality, nor

the trends of their predictions. Hence, the method of Harirchian

and Garimella (2012) was not compared with the experimental

thickness is required to start their heat transfer calculation (and

they note that the stability of the calculation can depend on the

choice).

To better handle the churn ow regime separating the CB and

AF regimes and reect the experimental U-shaped heat transfer

coefcient trend, as presented in Fig. 3(b), Szczukiewicz (2012)

proposed a new vapor quality buffer for the width of the CB-AF

transition as an update to the heat transfer prediction method of

Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013). Still, the rise in the AF heat

transfer coefcients is more rapid than suggested by their model

and this aspect needs to be further investigated. Also in Fig. 4,

the U shape of the heat transfer coefcient trend can be observed,

however, in case of the method of Tran et al. (1996), it is hardly

noticeable due to the large scale of the y axis. In this gure, the

models of Tran et al. (1996) and its modied version presented

by Yu et al. (2002) are compared with the experimental data of

Szczukiewicz (2012) and the equations to determine the heat

transfer coefcient for both of them are respectively given below:

0:3

ql

qv

0:27

0:4

2

ql

qv

0:2

3

88

Wel G2 Dh =ql r is the Weber number. In Eq. (2), the lead constant

was changed accordingly to Thome (2010), who noticed a probable

typographical error in the original publication of Tran et al. (1996).

Secondly, these constants for Eqs. (2) and (3) are different, which

explains the difference in their extrapolated simulations presented

in Fig. 4. One order of magnitude of difference in this constant is signicant especially taking into account the fact that the tested geometry and the range of experimental conditions were similar,

although it is worthwhile to note that the refrigerant-based correlation was adapted to t to the experimental results obtained for

water. Finally, both of them state that heat transfer coefcient is

not a function of G and x, which is in contrast with common trends

of many studies as pointed out in Thome (2010).

observations were made in the intercrossed array of triangular

microchannels and transverse trapezoidal microchannels (Xu

et al., 2006).

An experimental investigation of ow boiling of 2-propanol and

water in 50 50 lm2 Cyclo Olen Polymer COP parallel channels

was performed by Hardt et al. (2007). In their experiments, the

temperature measurements were done by means of an IR camera,

which was calibrated using a single thermocouple that had an

accuracy of 1.5 K. Although, the authors stated that their camera

itself measured the temperature with a thermal resolution of

(a)

As a replacement of point-wise thermocouple and diode temperature measurements, IR thermography has started to be more

extensively explored in the past few years for microchannel heat

transfer experiments, providing a very ne spatial resolution and

instantaneous measurement of heat transfer coefcients. Some

applications of IR cameras to convective heat transfer experiments

are highlighted below.

Hapke et al. (2002) used IR thermography to determine local

heat transfer coefcients of water and n-heptane evaporating in

rectangular microchannels with sizes ranging from 300 to

700 lm applying a classical one-dimensional (1D) heat conduction

approach. Diaz et al. (2005) and Diaz and Schmidt (2007b,a) extended the data base of Hapke et al. (2002) to include additional

geometries, channel sizes, and uids. In order to improve the accuracy of their IR temperature measurements, the test sections were

painted black with an emissivity of 0.95. Due to technical difculties, the change in uid saturation temperature T sat along the channel was neglected and the uid temperature was estimated as an

average of the inlet and outlet temperatures (that is a xed value

of T sat for calculating all local heat transfer coefcients), which severely inuences the values and trends when the fall in T sat is signicant with respect to the local wall superheat.

Hetsroni et al. (2001, 2006) focused on investigating triangular

parallel multi-microchannels down to hundreds of microns in size

under uniform and non-uniform heat ux conditions. An IR camera

with an accuracy of 1 C was employed to monitor the temperature variations across the uniformly heated test section wall. These

were found to be associated with hydraulic instabilities within the

test section and they were signicantly enhanced for non-uniform

heating. IR camera temperature measurements were also carried

out by Hetsroni et al. (2001, 2003) to study the explosive vaporization of water in microchannels with periodic wetting and dryout

behavior. Furthermore, Hetsroni et al. (2002) showed that temporal temperature and pressure uctuations of the uid Vertrel XF

(DuPontTM ) evaporating in their test section corresponded to each

other and they caused a reduction in heat transfer, i.e. unstable

ow penalized heat transfer.

Xu et al. (2005, 2006) measured (by means of an IR camera)

thermal oscillations for a uniformly heated surface of their silicon

test sections, although the recording rate of their IR image system

was not sufcient to observe the thermal ow patterns in greater

detail. In particular, Xu et al. (2005) examined ow boiling of acetone in silicon parallel triangular microchannels, each having a

hydraulic diameter of 155.4 lm. Similar to previous studies, the

back of the test section was covered by a thin layer of black lacquer

with an emissivity of 0.94 that improved the accuracy of the IR

temperatures to within 0.4 C. Three zones of a full boiling cycle

were described: (i) liquid relling stage, (ii) bubble nucleation,

growth and coalescence stage, and (iii) transient annular ow stage

Created based

on the flow

observation

from the top

(b)

IR camera placed at the bottom

(c)

(d)

Flow direction

Fig. 5. (a) Two-phase ow operational map for R236fa in the micro-evaporator

with the 50 lm-wide, 100 lm-deep, and 100 lm-long inlet restrictions ein;rest 2,

where:

single-phase ow,

single-phase ow followed by two-phase ow

with backow,

(b) single-phase ow followed by two-phase without backow

(desirable operating regime),

two-phase ow with backow triggered by

bubbles formed in the ow loop before the test section, and

(c) ashing twophase ow without backow (the most desirable operating regime). (b) Photograph

of the experimental ow boiling test facility with the optical system. This

operational map and the photo of the test rig were extracted from Szczukiewicz

et al. (2013a). The thermal maps (c) and (d) were recorded for the two-phase ow of

R245fa in the test section of ein;rest 2 (Szczukiewicz, 2012).

0.08 K at 30 C. Patil and Narayanan (2005, 2006) utilized IR thermography to obtain spatially-resolved temperature measurements

in a single silicon, uniformly heated microchannel of the same

width as Hardt et al. (2007), but having a higher aspect ratio. Both

the wall and near-wall uid temperatures (here water) were measured, depending on the opacity of the channel wall. The IR camera

calibration was done implementing intensity maps during water

ow at the temperature of 23.5 C, although this does not explain

measurements at other temperatures. An IR camera was also used

(together with a high-speed ow visualization camera) by Barber

et al. (2009, 2011) to study ow boiling instabilities of n-pentane

in a single rectangular microchannel having a hydraulic diameter

of 727 lm under uniform heating. The accuracy of their IR temperatures was reported to be 1 C.

Recently, Szczukiewicz et al. (2012a,b, 2013b) introduced a new

in situ pixel by pixel technique to calibrate the raw infra-red image

signals with an accuracy of 0.2 C, and thus converting them into

accurate two-dimensional temperature elds of 10,000 pixels over

the heated surface of the silicon micro-evaporator. The test facility

and the test sections were designed such that simultaneous twophase ow patterns (through a transparent Pyrex cover plate) and

temperature visualizations in 67 microchannels of 100 100 lm2

cross-sectional areas were possible. To this aim, they used a highspeed video camera placed above the test section and a high-speed

infra-red (IR) camera below, as shown in Fig. 5(b). Their results for

R245fa, R236fa, and R1234ze(E) at a variety of the channel mass

ux Gch and the base heat ux qb were categorized into 8 different

two-phase ow operating regimes, among which 2 examples are

illustrated in Fig. 5, where T IR is a temperature measured at the base

of the test section, y indicates an axis perpendicular to the ow

direction, while z denotes the distance form the channel entrance.

This description applies also to the other thermal maps in this paper. The ashing two-phase ow without backow operating regime, shown in Fig. 5(d), was identied as the most desirable one,

since it provided the best spatio-temporal temperature and ow

uniformities. Moreover, several new two-phase ow operational

maps were developed for the two-phase ow of refrigerants

R245fa, R236fa, and R1234ze(E) owing in the test sections with inlet restrictions (used for ow stabilization, as suggested by Kosar

et al. (2006); Agostini et al. (2008c); Park et al. (2009)) and without

any inlet restrictions. An example of such an operational map for

R236fa owing in the test section with the inlet restrictions of the

expansion ratio of ein;rest 2 is presented in Fig. 5(a). From an engineering stand-point of view, these operational maps are very

important for specifying the most advantageous operating conditions, at which the ow is always going to be stable for eventual actual electronics cooling applications. More details on the two-phase

ow operational study of refrigerants in multi-microchannel

evaporators for future high-performance 3D-ICs can be found in

Szczukiewicz (2012) and Szczukiewicz et al. (2013a).

microchannels

In spite of the high resolution of IR cameras and high-speed video cameras, many dynamic and localized aspects of these twophase ows and their heat transfer mechanisms remain elusive,

or based on conjecture, rather than based on proven principles.

This is specically where numerical simulation of these ows can

provide strategic insight into this complex process and provide

the basis for proposing models that incorporate these newly identied aspects. This section introduces this recent work with rst an

overview of numerical two-phase models and the following section gives some insight into their use to improve a mechanistic

model.

89

The computation of evaporating ows in microchannels requires the conventional multiphase algorithms for CFD to be coupled with specic physical and numerical models to accurately

capture the interfacial effects which become dominant in the

microscale. These models are briey summarized below along with

a unied formulation of the ow equations for the Volume Of Fluid

and Level Set methods. Then, a review of the pertinent numerical

ndings so far is presented.

The VOF and LS methods adopt a single-uid mathematical representation of the two-phase ow, where the gas and liquid phases

are treated as a single uid with variable properties across the

interface. A color function c is used to identify each phase on the

computational domain and a Heaviside step function I is built

according to the values of c to compute the uid properties throughout the computational domain. For instance, for each computational

cell of the ow domain the density is calculated as follows:

q ql qv ql I

densities. The liquidvapor interface is then identied as a transition region for the uid properties and it has a nite thickness of

23 computational cells. When the ow problem is treated as

incompressible, which is true provided that the variation of the vapor density due to the pressure drop that occurs along the microchannel is negligible, the mass conservation equation is expressed

as:

_

rum

qv

ql

dS

where u denotes the uid velocity. The term at the r.h.s. represents

_ is the interphase

the mass source due to the evaporation, where m

mass transfer and dS is a delta function which is non-zero only at

the interface and its expression depends on the specic multiphase

algorithm adopted.

The momentum equation for Newtonian uids in laminar ow,

appropriate for microchannels, takes the following form:

@qu

r qu u rp r lru ruT qg

@t

rjndS

with t being the time, p the pressure, q and l the single-uid density and viscosity to be computed as it is shown in Eq. (4), and g the

gravity vector. The last term on the r.h.s. represents the surface tension force for a constant surface tension coefcient, where j and n

identify the local interface curvature and unit normal vector. The

interface topology is not available explicitly in VOF and LS methods,

but it can be derived by means of the color function eld as

n rc=jrcj and j r n as originally proposed by Brackbill

et al. (1992). However, the computation of the interface curvature

by means of derivatives of the color function is known to be of poor

accuracy for VOF methods as pointed out by Cummins et al. (2005),

thus generating errors in the estimation of the surface tension force.

Since the surface tension is a dominant force in the microscale, the

accuracy of its calculation is fundamental to obtain reliable numerical results. Hence, it is preferable that VOF schemes include specic

algorithms for the reconstruction of the interface topology such as

the parabolic tting of Renardy and Renardy (2002), the Height

Function method (Cummins et al., 2005), or coupled LS and VOF

schemes (CLSVOF) (Sussman and Puckett, 2000).

The energy equation to be solved is given by:

@qcp T

r qcp uT r krT s

@t

_ lv cp;v cp;l TdS

: ru mh

90

where T indicates the temperature, cp and k are respectively the single-uid specic heat at constant pressure and thermal conductivity, while s represents the shear stress tensor. The second term on

the r.h.s. represents the viscous heating which may become important for very small channel sizes (negligible for the sizes considered

here), while the third term implements the enthalpy sink due to

evaporation, that of the vapor created and of the liquid that disappears. Usually, the temperature variations are sufciently small

such that the physical properties of the phases are considered constant. The set of the ow equations is then completed by the transport equation for the color function:

_

m

@c

u rc dS

@t

q

which is used to update the position of the interface and then the

mixture uid properties as time elapses.

To complete the formulation, an evaporation model to express

_ as a function of the local temperathe interphase mass transfer m

ture and pressure is necessary. If microscale effects on mass transfer are neglected, the interface is assumed to be at the saturation

temperature, such that the temperature eld is continuous across

the interface, and the mass transfer can be computed as

_ krT n=hlv (Mukherjee and Kandlikar, 2005; Mukherjee,

m

2009; Mukherjee et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2012; Suh et al., 2008).

However, as the scale of the problem is reduced, interphase resistance and disjoining and capillary pressures tend to create a discontinuity in the temperature and pressure elds across the

interface, thus generating an interfacial resistance to mass transfer

which decreases the evaporation rate. In this direction, Schrage

(1953) derived a relationship to express the interphase mass transfer as a function of the local temperatures and pressures of the liquid and gas phases at the interface, while Wang et al. (2007)

showed that the following linearized expression is a good

approximation:

_ C T T i T v C p pl pv

m

interface and the equilibrium saturation temperature is below 5 K.

C T and C p are constants of the model which only involve the uid

properties, see Wang et al. (2007). T i is the liquidvapor interface

temperature, T v is the vapor temperature at the interface, and

pl pv is the liquidvapor pressure jump. Eq. (9) has been implemented by various authors to set-up a CFD solver for boiling and

condensing ows in microchannels such as Magnini et al. (2013a),

Kunkelmann and Stephan (2009) and Nebuloni and Thome (2010).

In ow boiling in microchannels, liquid dryout at the channel

wall may occur as a consequence of the evaporation of the liquid

lm which surrounds an elongated vapor bubble (Thome et al.,

2004). In CFD computations, the modeling of wall adhesion involves the implementation of a (static or dynamic) contact angle

model. The contact angle is a condition on the direction of the

interface normal vector at the solid-liquidvapor three-phase contact line, and hence on the local color function eld for LS and VOF

methods. In the former, the contact angle is introduced as a boundary condition for the color function eld at the wall (Mukherjee

and Kandlikar, 2005; Suh et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2012), while in

the latter it is usually enforced by adjusting the components of

the unit normal vector involved in the surface tension force term

in Eq. (6) (Brackbill et al., 1992; Renardy et al., 2001; Afkhami

and Bussmann, 2008). Another issue connected to wall adhesion

is the microlayer evaporation process, which is known to increase

dramatically the heat transfer in the contact line region in nucleate

boiling, and hence may be a signicant heat transfer mechanism at

the perimeter of intermittent dry patches in microchannels. Usually, the contact line evaporation is modeled by solving a fourth

so-called micro-region (Stephan and Busse, 1992), which is discretized by a separated computational grid. This solution is then included in the ow problem for the macro-region by means of

specic source terms (Kunkelmann and Stephan, 2009; Li and Dhir,

2007). However, its short life in the cyclic heat transfer process and

small footprint in elongated bubble ow tends to reduce it to only

a small inuence.

3.2. Literature review

The numerical investigations of ow boiling in microchannels

have focused initially on the fundamental aspects of the ow, such

as bubble dynamics and the ow eld induced by the evaporation

process. In this light, Mukherjee and Kandlikar (2005) simulated

the growth of a spherical bubble during ow boiling in a square

microchannel and observed that the presence of the channel walls

tended to elongate the bubble, which grew with an exponential

time-law, while vapor patches appeared at the centerlines of the

channel walls due to the dryout of the trapped liquid lm. Li and

Dhir (2007) analyzed the bubble growth and detachment from a

at wall in ow boiling conditions and observed that the departure

diameter of the bubble decreased as the bulk ow velocity increased and it increased with the wall tilt angle. Augmentation of

the ow velocity suppressed the gravity effect on the bubble

dynamics.

Subsequently, as the experimental ndings highlighted specic

issues which required more detailed knowledge of the local phenomena to clarify, e.g. ow instabilities, dominant heat transfer

mechanisms, heat transfer enhancement, more targeted numerical

studies began to be conducted. The stability of the ow during

evaporation in parallel microchannels was investigated by Suh

et al. (2008), who showed that backow occurred when the formation of vapor bubbles was not simultaneous in adjacent microchannels, and thus led to a distribution of the heat ux which was not

uniform on the surface of the heater. Dong et al. (2012) studied the

effect of single and multiple growing vapor bubbles on the uid

ow behavior and heat transfer, and reported that the bubble formation process induced a ow resistance which increased with the

growth of the bubble, disappeared with the bubble departure, and

was strongly affected by the presence of multiple bubbles. Mukherjee and Kandlikar (2009) analyzed the effect of inlet constrictions to prevent the backow growth of vapor bubbles in a

square microchannel and showed that, despite the positive effect

in stabilizing the ow, they generated a high pressure drop and reduced the efciency of the thin-lm evaporation mechanism.

Diverging microchannels in the direction of the desired ow were

proposed as a better solution. However, the analysis of pressure

drop needs to be applied to the entire two-phase cooling loop to

ascertain the true impact of such orices.

The contribution of the evaporation of the thin liquid lm surrounding an elongated bubble during ow boiling was the subject

of the work of Mukherjee (2009). He simulated the growth of a vapor bubble in contact with the heated surface of a microchannel

and observed that the formation of a thin layer of liquid between

the bubble and the channel wall, which was promoted by smaller

contact angles, increased the wall heat transfer and thus reinforcing the interpretation that the heat transfer in microchannels is

thin-lm evaporation dominated. Magnini et al. (2013a) studied

the hydrodynamics and heat transfer given by the ow boiling of

single elongated bubbles in a circular microchannel and observed

a strong increase of the heat transfer coefcient in the vapor bubble region due to the evaporation of the thin liquid lm, including a

thermally developing length effect. They obtained good predictions

of the heat transfer coefcient by means of a model based on transient heat conduction across the lm, which was an extension of

91

results of heat transfer studies

Some critical discussion on experimental and numerical work is

presented below, whose objective is to highlight some of the

achievements but also pitfalls of the current state-of-the-art and

also to illustrate how experimental, theoretical modeling and

numerical simulations can work hand-in-hand to resolve microchannel evaporation research issues.

4.1. Contribution of numerical simulations to the heat transfer

modeling

After almost ten years since its publication, the three-zone

model of Thome et al. (2004) with its related updates (Agostini

et al., 2008d; Harirchian and Garimella, 2012; Costa-Patry and

Thome, 2012, 2013; Costa-Patry et al., 2012b) is still the best performing boiling heat transfer prediction method for slug ow boiling in microchannels in circular and non-circular channels,

covering numerous uids and channel sizes down to 85 micron

widths. Even so, numerous simplications are assumed in the

two-phase ow structure in developing this mechanistic model

and numerical two-phase simulations constitute a unique tool to

investigate the local ow phenomena inuencing the micro-heat

transfer processes involved, and thus can contribute to the

improvement of the sub-models. For example by means of computations, Magnini et al. (2013a) already proved that, for a liquid lm

thickness of 1/20 of the channel diameter, the thermal inertia

effect is not negligible when modeling the heat transfer in the liquid lm region by assuming one-dimensional heat conduction.

By adding a transient term to the original three-zone models formulation (which was developed for much thinner liquid lms, on

the order of 1/100 of the channel diameter), the time-law of the

heat transfer coefcient given by CFD simulations was predicted

satisfactorily. This inuence is more signicant for shorter bubbles

since the thermal boundary layer development length then plays a

larger role; hence this effect is more important in the IB regime

where bubbles are still relatively short L < 2D but less so in the

CB regime where coalescence of bubbles results in mostly long

bubbles L > 5D.

With the aim of improving the modeling of the heat transfer in

the liquid slug zone of the three-zone model, consider two bubbles

owing and evaporating in sequence in a circular microchannel.

They were simulated using the numerical framework already discussed above by Magnini et al. (2013a), taking advantage of a 2D

axisymmetrical formulation to limit the computational time of

the simulations. For horizontally oriented channels, this is a valid

assumption provided that Co > 1, as observed experimentally by

Ong and Thome (2011a), and hence only working conditions

matching such criterion were chosen. The reliability of the solver

in modeling the ow of axisymmetrical elongated bubbles was assessed by a positive comparison of the liquid lm thickness

trapped between the bubbles and the wall in adiabatic conditions

with the Han and Shikazono (2009) correlation, the latter based on

their measurements with a highly accurate oscillating microscope

technique. The validation of the numerical results in ow boiling

conditions were also proven by comparing the position of the nose

of the growing bubble against time with the theoretical model derived by Consolini and Thome (2010) for the ow of coalescing

bubbles in microchannels. Fig. 6 shows the computational and theoretical results for three different operating uids, namely R113,

R245fa and R134a, under similar operating conditions. The comparison is quite positive, where the increasing underestimations

of the model at the highest time steps are due to the assumption

that the bubble grows only by absorbing the wall heat ux, while

in the numerical simulations the bubble also grows because it receives the sensible heat of the superheated liquid by evaporation

across the nose of the bubble.

12

the thin-lm evaporation dominance on heat transfer within

microchannels. Mukherjee et al. (2011) also attempted to explain

some of the experimentally observed trends for the boiling heat

transfer coefcient, see Agostini and Thome (2005) for an earlier

review. The results of their computational study suggested that

the heat transfer coefcient increased with the heat ux as it augmented the bubble growth rate and then the velocity of the liquid,

which was pushed against the channel wall by the growing bubble.

The authors observed that the liquid mass ux had only a little effect on the heat transfer and this was justied by the high velocities generated by the bubble growth process, which suppressed the

effect of the liquid inlet velocity. This can also be explained by

assuming that the heat conduction is the dominant heat transfer

mechanism across the liquid lm. Their conclusions also match

those that can be deduced from analysis of the three-zone model,

where bubble frequency and velocity play important roles while

mass velocity does not inuence heat transfer (completely counter-intuitive to single-phase ows). Magnini et al. (2013b) performed simulations of the ow boiling of multiple bubbles

within a microchannel and showed that the interaction among

sequential bubbles generated bubbles of different lengths, velocities and thickness of the liquid lm trapped between the liquidvapor interface and the channel wall. This led to different heat

transfer performances, in particular the time-averaged heat transfer coefcient for the trailing bubble cycle was much higher than

that of the leading one (about 60% higher).

The enhancement of the heat transfer performance of a microchannel of square cross-section was the objective of the work of

Lee et al. (2012), who performed numerical simulations to optimize the design of transverse ns on the channel. It was found that

the heat transfer was signicantly improved by those solutions

which promoted thinner liquid lms trapped between the bubble

and the channel walls and larger liquidvaporsolid interface contact regions. It is not known however if this will promote premature dry patch formation and CHF.

10

4

R113

R245fa

2

R134a

10

12

14

16

Time [ms]

Fig. 6. Positions of the bubble nose against time in ow boiling conditions, given by

simulations (solid lines) and Consolini and Thome (2010) model (dashed lines).

Simulation conditions: D = 0.5 mm, q 20 kW m2 ; G 600 kg m2 s1 (R113,

R245fa) and 500 kg m2 s1 (R134a), T sat 50 C (R113, R245fa) and 31 C (R134a).

92

uid. The microchannel has a circular cross-section with a diameter of D = 0.5 mm and length of 72 diameters, split into an initial

adiabatic region of 16 diameters, then a heated section of 22 diameters and nally a terminal adiabatic zone. Two elongated vapor

bubbles at the saturation temperature T sat 31 C are initialized

at the upstream of the initial adiabatic region of the channel and

the bubbles are 6 diameters apart. The channel is fed with a mass

ux of G 550 kg m2 s1 of saturated liquid, which pushes the

bubbles downstream into the heated region. A constant and uniform heat ux of q 5 kW m2 is applied. The initial conditions

for the temperature and velocity eld of the liquid are obtained

by means of a preliminary liquid-only steady-state simulation. As

the simulation of the two-phase ow starts, the bubbles quickly

achieve a steady ow in the adiabatic region of the channel and

the ow is characterized by a time-averaged cross-sectional void

fraction of 0.28 and a vapor quality of 0.02. As the bubbles enter

into the diabatic section of the channel, they begin to grow and

to accelerate downstream due to the evaporation of the superheated liquid present in the thermal boundary layer at the wall

and at the nose. The dynamics of the bubbles during the evaporation process and the induced wall heat transfer is different between the leading and the following bubble, because the second

bubble comes across a region which had already been cooled down

by the transit of the leading one. Hence, the trailing bubble shows a

lower evaporation rate and velocity, which results in a 13% thinner

liquid lm than the bubble ahead. As an illustration, Fig. 7 plots the

heat transfer coefcient versus time after 21 heated diameters for

the simulation and a model which is going to be discussed below.

The heat transfer coefcient is computed as:

at

q

T w t T sat

10

the heat transfer increases during the transit of the bubbles, as it is

expected due to the evaporation of the thin liquid lm trapped between the bubble and the channel wall, then it reaches a maximum

and decreases smoothly as the liquid plugs following each bubble

pass by. The second bubble and its liquid slug have signicantly

higher heat transfer than the rst bubble, not only relevant for

the heat transfer model but also illustrating the limitation of

single-bubble simulations. The local heat transfer behavior in the

transfer, such as the Shah and London (1978) correlation implemented in the three-zone model, as it is generated by a specic circulation ow induced by the two-phase ow at the tails of the

bubbles. The ow pattern of the liquid within the slug trapped between the bubbles is obtained by computing the streamlines of the

velocity eld relative to the velocity of the nose of the trailing bubble, which are displayed in Fig. 8 for the time instant t 22:4 ms at

which both the bubbles are growing due to the evaporation.

It is observed that, in agreement with the Thulasidas et al.

(1997) experimental measurements, the ow within the liquid

slug can be split into a wall-adherent liquid layer which bypasses

the bubbles and a recirculating ow which occurs in the core region of the channel.

By assuming that the heat is transferred by one-dimensional

heat conduction from the channel wall to the recirculating ow region, the transient-heat-conduction-based boiling heat transfer

model for the liquid lm region of Magnini et al. (2013a) can be extended to model the heat transfer in the liquid slug region as well,

to thus obtain an improved two-zone (liquid dryout is not modeled

here) boiling heat transfer model for slug ow. A schematical representation of the decomposition of the ow domain adopted by

such two-zone model is depicted in Fig. 8(b). In the liquid slug region, the heat transfer coefcient is modeled by solving the Fourier

equation:

@2T

@T

qcp

@y2

@t

at y 0 and the recirculating ow region at y ds . An analytical

expression for the thickness of the wall-adherent liquid layer ds

was provided by Thulasidas et al. (1997). At the boundary, a constant heat ux condition is applied at y 0, while a convection condition is employed to model the heat transfer at the ctitious

boundary between the wall-adherent and recirculating regions:

k

@T

as T T sat

@y

k

D

liquid

slug

leading

bubble

trailing

bubble

liquid

3000

2500

2000

1500

Simulation

Model

1000

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Time [ms]

Fig. 7. Heat transfer coefcient after 21 heated diameters given by the simulation

of two bubbles owing in the microchannel and by the proposed analytical model

for the heat transfer. The black vertical lines identify the transit of the bubbles nose

and rear.

12

which is presently evaluated by means of the following correlation

originally proposed by He et al. (2010):

liquid

11

13

where Pe is the Peclet number of the liquid within the slug and Ls is

the length of the liquid slug. Note that, in Eq. (12), the recirculating

ow region is assumed to be at the saturation temperature. The initial temperature prole for the liquid slug region is obtained by the

model itself, as the temperature prole at the end of the previous

liquid lm region. The so-dened ow problem allows an analytical

expression for the heat transfer coefcient in the liquid slug region

to be obtained, which is then coupled with the solution presented

by Magnini et al. (2013a) for the liquid lm zone. The prediction given by this updated model is plotted in red in Fig. 7 and it estimates

the heat transfer trends and magnitude in satisfactory agreement

with the results of the computations. This model can be developed

further to decrease the overestimation observed in Fig. 7 as shown

in Magnini et al. (2013b), and to be made fully stand-alone by

means of correlations available in the literature to estimate those

parameters (e.g. thin liquid lm thickness, wall-adherent liquid

layer thickness, etc.) provided here by the numerical simulation results. Hence, this case study provides a good example of how

numerical two-phase simulations can be used to identify new aspects of the heat transfer process in microchannel slug ow and

provide the input to the development of new theoretical models.

93

(a)

Nondimensional radial

position

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

(b)

liquid slug

region

l T =h s (TTs)

y

liquid film

region

recirculating zone

vapor bubble

T=Tsat

y

s

adherent film

liquid film

z

Fig. 8. (a) Streamlines of the velocity eld relative to the velocity of the nose of the trailing bubble, at t = 22.4 ms. The black lines identify the bubbles proles which are

superimposed to the streamlines plot. (b) Scheme of the decomposition of the ow eld within the microchannel adopted by the proposed two-zone boiling heat transfer

model for slug ow. Since d; ds

R, the radial coordinate is here replaced by the vertical coordinate y.

In order to characterize the heat transfer performance of a multi-microchannel evaporator, the local heat transfer coefcient

needs to be determined. Equation (14) expresses the denition of

the local wall heat transfer coefcient:

aw z

qw z

T w z T fl z

14

with, the local saturation temperature of the refrigerant T fl is

determined by the local saturation pressure, which might signicantly decrease along a microchannel. For instance, Szczukiewicz

(2012) showed that the saturation temperature starting at

37.5 C at the inlet of the channel may fall at the end of the channel anywhere from 28 C predicted by the homogeneous pressure

drop model up to 35 C obtained by Lee and Garimella (2008) prediction method, leading to a difference of 50% in heat transfer

coefcient at a local wall temperature of T w 42 C when applying

Eq. (14) to reduce the data. Thus, the channel pressure drop, Dpch ,

needs to be precisely quantied in order to accurately reduce raw

data to heat transfer coefcients. Nonetheless, due to numerous

technical difculties in multi-microchannel experiments, the pressure drop is commonly measured between the inlet and the outlet

manifolds plenums (referring to the total pressure drop). While

some methods of direct local pressure measurements within microchannels are available in the literature, such as the one of Kohl et al.

(2005), applied in a single microchannel down to 25 lm, in the case

of multi-microchannels the applicability of such a single-channel

method is quite difcult.

When direct experimental measurements are not plausible, the

next best way is to either experimentally measure or compute the

inlet pressure at the beginning of the channels, and then the local

saturation pressure (and temperature) prole is obtainable by

applying a well-established two-phase ow pressure drop prediction method for the channels. For instance, the prediction method

of Cioncolini et al. (2009) was found by Costa-Patry (2011) to be

the best method in his tests when comparing with their experimentally measured channel pressure drops. Such models with

effect on the determination of the local heat transfer coefcients

(Szczukiewicz, 2012) when applying Eq. (14).

Alternatively, the value of Dpch can be calculated by subtracting

the inlet Dpin;rest and the outlet restriction pressure losses

Dpout;rest from the total experimental pressure drop measured between the two plenums. The value of Dpin;rest (usually single-phase

ow) can be obtained by tting subcooled liquid experimental results to the well known formula of Idelcik (1999) or computed

according to Lee and Garimella (2008), as was done by Szczukiewicz (2012). The two-phase ow outlet restriction pressure losses,

Dpout;rest , can be obtained by employing the method of Costa-Patry

et al. (2011b), knowing the absolute pressure measured in the outlet manifolds plenum and the saturation pressure at the outlet of

the channel. The latter can be obtained by imposing an adiabatic

zone at the outlet (when using local heaters) to get the exit wall

temperature, which matches the local saturation temperature,

and thus indirectly yields the local saturation pressure of the

microchannels in a partially heated test section. These temperatures might be measured by, for instance, thermal diode sensors

(Costa-Patry et al., 2011b) or self-calibrated IR camera (Szczukiewicz, 2012).

To get the local saturation pressures along the microchannels,

one can assume a linear pressure drop over the length of the channel using the values of Dpch and then determine T fl based on the vapor pressure curve. However, this is only appropriate when the

pressure drops are small. Instead of assuming such a linear temperature gradient along the channel, Szczukiewicz (2012) reduced

her heat transfer data using the annular pressure drop prediction

method of Cioncolini et al. (2009) combined with the model of

Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) for vapor qualities below the isolated bubble to coalescing bubble (IB-CB) transition of Ong

(2010) and then applying a ratio of the experimental and the predicted pressure drop values to make it match the experimental

pressure at the exit in each case. This emulated the expected

non-linear variation in the pressure gradient and saturation temperature, accounting also for the accelerational pressure gradient

(all of which would emulate what has to be done in the actual simulation/design of a micro-evaporator). Fig. 9(a) demonstrates an

example of the prorated uid temperatures compared to the linear

94

(a)

39

(a)

x 10

3D

linear

prorated

Tfl [ oC]

q ft [W m2]

37

35

1D

33

2

10

z [mm]

(b)

x 10

(b)

3.5

3

10

x 10

3.5

2.5

83%

2

1.5

1

[W m2 K1]

w

[W m2 K1]

z [mm]

2.5

2

1.5

1

linear

1D

homogeneous pch

0.5

0.5

prorated

3D

10

z [mm]

Fig. 9. (a) Prorated uid temperature (Szczukiewicz, 2012), and (b) local heat

transfer coefcient trends assuming linear, homogeneous, and prorated pressure

(and consequently uid saturation temperature) proles along the channel for

R236fa owing in the test section with ein;rest 4, Gch 1692 kg m2 s1 ,

qb 47:8 W cm2 for the experimental channel pressure drop of 46.3 kPa. Note

that in Fig. 9(b), as explained later in the text, the heat transfer coefcients affected

by edge effects are excluded.

temperature prole for determining the local heat transfer coefcients (Szczukiewicz, 2012). Fig. 9(b) highlights the important differences in the local heat transfer coefcients using three different

approaches: (i) assuming linear, (ii) homogeneous, and (iii) prorated pressure (and consequently saturation temperature) proles.

The homogeneous pressure drop model (taken here as an example)

overpredicts the values of the channel pressure drop and thus lowers the value of the local saturation temperature of the refrigerant

at the exit and the value of the local heat transfer coefcient, leading to a difference of 83% between the approaches (ii) and (iii) at

z = 9.5 mm for this test case. Furthermore, the linear pressure drop

assumption articially brings the local heat transfer coefcients to

lower values (except the inlet and the outlet temperatures which

are experimentally measured), which might severely affect the

heat transfer coefcients along the length by up to 10%, when comparing to the approach (iii), i.e. at the CB-AF ow transition. Therefore, the proration method for simulating the uid temperature is

recommended as the most appropriate one in order to provide the

most accurate estimation of the local heat transfer coefcient (future experimental studies should take note of this).

Turning now to another common data reduction procedure, the

conventional 1D heat conduction approach does not take into account the heat spreading towards the colder surrounding regions

that can be observed due to the strong variation in the local heat

transfer coefcient with vapor quality along the channel and at

0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

x []

Fig. 10. Two-phase ow of R1234ze(E) in the test section with ein;rest 2 for

Gch 1705 kg m2 s1 and qb 32 W cm2 : (a) actual heat ux at the root of the

ns along the channel length qft , and (b) local wall heat transfer coefcients, aw ,

obtained using the 1D and 3D conduction schemes in function of x. Figure extracted

from Szczukiewicz (2012).

the boundaries. Costa-Patry (2011) noted that the lateral non-uniform heat ux distribution changes the local pressure drop and

evaporation rates. Consequently, the calculated values of the local

wall temperatures and heat uxes and local vapor qualities are

inuenced by the data reduction procedure. The heat spreading effects can be accounted for by using the pragmatic 3D thermal conduction scheme of Costa-Patry (2011), where the temperature and

heat ux values at the test sections base are found by spatially discretizing the 3D domain and then solving an energy balance for

each control volume (CV). Afterwards, assuming the external walls

of the silicon test section to be adiabatic, the various nodes are

linked with each other, such that: Q L n Q R n 1,

Q F n Q B n 1, and Q D n Q U n 1, where Q is the heat

ow rate and n is a natural number indicating the layers number.

The notations above are as follows: D for down (base for the rst

layer of CVs), U up, L left, R right, F front, and B back. This

procedure is quite fast and yields comparable results to a full 3D

heat conduction simulation.

Fig. 10 presents the comparison between the 1D and 3D heat

conduction schemes (Szczukiewicz, 2012), where the silicon wafer

was discretized in 100 100 (set to the pixels of the IR temperature measurements) 140 control volumes (and taking into account the thermal conductivity change with respect to

temperature). The biggest discrepancy is noticeable at the corners,

where the edge effects are most signicant and they were better

captured by the 3D heat conduction model. As can be seen, the rst

and the last 5 pixels of the IR array include edge effects, and thus

they are discarded. Moreover, the heat spreads towards the colder

surrounding regions (regions of higher heat transfer coefcients

and slope in T fl ), here at the inlet and the outlet, and the actual heat

ux in those zones is rst higher and then lower than that assumed

in 1D calculations. Therefore, the heat transfer coefcients determined assuming 1D conduction from the base of the silicon micro-evaporator to the root of the ns are underpredicted at the

inlet and the outlet of the channel, as demonstrated in Fig. 10(b),

where the local vapor quality is calculated with corresponding local heat ux prole of the 1D and 3D calculations. If the heat

spreading is not considered, the heat transfer coefcient is overpredicted at the local minimum, which corresponds to a ow transition. The present silicon test section has only a 0.28 mm base

thickness, but still exhibits some heat spreading, which will be

even more signicant for thicker micro-evaporators. Fig. 11 shows

an example of the local wall heat transfer coefcients of R236fa obtained through 1D and 3D heat conduction schemes at a wall heat

ux of qw 71 kW m2 and three different mass uxes, where for

instance for Gch 2099 kg m2 s1 at z = 9.5 mm the heat transfer

coefcient accounting for 3D heat spreading is 14% higher compared to 1D heat conduction scheme. Thus, 3D heat spreading

should be included in all future data reduction procedures in

experimental studies to obtain the most accurate results for the

values of aw and x, and thus the data trends. Since a real microevaporator cold plate is subject to heat spreading effects, it is

important that test data are reduced and then modeled in the same

manner as the actual application.

Fig. 12(a) illustrates the wall heat transfer coefcient, aw , obtained using 3D heat spreading in the silicon micro-evaporator of

Szczukiewicz (2012), plotted versus the longitudinal channel location, z, and compared to the corresponding ow pattern map transition (vertical blue line). The descending trend of aw at the

beginning of the channel (low vapor quality range) corresponds

to the coalescing bubble (CB) region, where the elongated bubbles

coalesce and the local intermittent dry-out patches are formed

(Thome et al., 2004). The local minimum of the heat transfer coefcient is well located by the coalescing bubble annular ow (CB

AF) transition of Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013), computed

according to Eq. (1). Fig. 12(b) shows a video image of the ow

aligned with the graph at the top. The color changes along the

channel from almost black at the entrance (subcooled ow/bubbly

ow) to nearly white (transition region) and becomes gray at the

3.5

x 10

[W m

w

(a)

(b)

Fig. 12. The ashing two-phase ow without backow operating regime of R236fa

in the micro-evaporator with ein;rest 4 for Gch 2096 kg m2 s1 and

qb 47 W cm2 : (a) wall heat transfer coefcient, aw , and (b) video image of ow.

Figure extracted from Szczukiewicz (2012).

and Thome (2012, 2013) falls between the second and the third

zone. This means that more than half of the channel is in the annular ow (AF) regime. Due to the convective evaporation across the

annular lm, this provides an increasing heat transfer rate with

increasing vapor quality. Thus, experimental databases should be

coupled with ow visualizations in order to capture the ow pattern effects on the major trends in the data, or at least evaluated

and characterized using the best ow pattern map for the application. In essence, one could consider the experiment to be incomplete if this is not done. . .imagine presenting single-phase ow

data without indicating the transition point from laminar to turbulent ow or the location of fully developed ow.

4.3. Stable and unstable two-phase heat transfer coefcients

2.5

K ]

95

2

1.5

G = 911 kg m2 s1, 1D

ch

2 1

Gch = 911 kg m s , 3D

G = 1514 kg m2 s1, 1D

ch

2 1

Gch = 1514 kg m s , 3D

G = 2099 kg m2 s1, 1D

ch

2 1

Gch = 2099 kg m s , 3D

1

0.5

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

x []

Fig. 11. Two-phase wall heat transfer coefcient as a function of local vapor quality

for R236fa owing in the test section with the inlet restrictions of ein;rest 4 for

qw 171 kW m2 . The calculations of the local vapor quality here included the 3D

heat spreading effect.

Two-phase ow stability is the next important issue to be considered (but often ignored in the microchannel ow boiling literature), which needs to be addressed in any credible heat transfer

study, since its effect might signicantly change the heat transfer

coefcient trends and values with respect to the vapor quality, as

illustrated by a specic experimental comparison performed by

Consolini and Thome (2009). Figure 13(a) and (b) shows the twophase ow boiling of R245fa and the time-averaged temperature

distribution in the micro-evaporator without any inlet restrictions

(micro-orices). As expected, signicant ow instabilities, vapor

backow, and ow maldistribution occur, which are eventually

governed by the pressure drop in each individual channel, which

lead to high-amplitude and high-frequency temperature and pressure oscillations (see for instance Wu and Cheng (2003)). It is

worthwhile to mention that in such a situation, the assumption

of uniform mass ux in all the channels is invalid and it is not

96

(a)

(b) 10

IR

[ C]

54

52

y [mm]

50

6

48

46

44

2

42

40

2

10

z [mm]

(c)

TIR [oC]

(d)

54

10

y [mm]

50

OUTLET

Flow direction

No back flow

INLET

52

8

48

46

44

2

42

40

2

10

z [mm]

Fig. 13. Snapshots of the high-speed ow visualization and the time-averaged IR temperature maps of the test sections base provided by the two-phase ow boiling of

R245fa for Gch 2035 kg m2 s1 and qb 36:5 W cm2 : (a), (b) without any inlet restrictions, and (c), (d) with the 50 lm-wide, 100 lm-deep, and 100 lm-long inlet microorices (Szczukiewicz et al., 2012b; Szczukiewicz et al., 2013b). The ow is from left to right in all the presented images for both ow and temperature.

advised to be used to reduce the data for local heat transfer coefcients. This illustrates the necessity of developing new measurement techniques for determining the mass ux in each individual

channel within multi-microchannel test sections.

As demonstrated in Fig. 13(c), such undesired phenomena

might be prevented by using an inlet slit to create restrictions at

the entrance of each channel, which tend to stabilize the twophase ow (Agostini et al., 2008c). For the same reason, Park

et al. (2009) used inlet restrictions for each channel in their copper

test section. These restrictions and the channels in their case were

fabricated separately and then aligned within the multiple-microchannel element tested. Nonetheless, such a solution is not applicable for silicon chips, where the restrictions are generally

fabricated along with the channels, applying the same manufacturing process. Recently, Szczukiewicz et al. (2012b, 2013b), used

rectangular orices at the inlet of each channel (they were manufactured in one etching process together with the microchannels)

with expansion ratios varying from ein;rest 1:33 to 4. However,

they saw that the micro-orices of ein;rest 1:33 did not stabilize

the two-phase ow of R236fa within the range of the tested experimental conditions. Such geometries were also previously studied

by Peles and co-workers, i.e. Kosar et al. (2006), Schneider et al.

(2006, 2007), Kosar and Peles (2007).

Fig. 14 illustrates the two-phase ow and temperature patterns

of R236fa for three different micro-orices sizes tested by Szczukiewicz (2012) at the same experimental conditions. The channels

were 100 100 lm2 of cross-sectional area, while the expansion

ratio of the inlet restrictions was varied from 1.33 to 4. As can be

seen, the overall two-phase ow stability improves with increasing

the expansion ratio of the inlet restrictions. In Fig. 14(b), the test

sections base temperature appears to have medium values,

range of the experimental conditions. Whereas, as noticeable in

Fig. 14(d) and (f), the temperature increases with increasing the

expansion ratio from 2 to 4 (experimentally, the outlet temperature was controlled to a xed value). As pointed out by Mukherjee

and Kandlikar (2009), the inlet restriction increases the velocity of

the liquid and consequently the liquid ow rate which by-passes

the bubble through the liquid lm. This generates a hydrodynamic

effect which squeezes the bubble, thus thickening the liquid lm

and reducing the thin-lm evaporation heat transfer rate. In order

to explore the effect of the size of the inlet restriction on the thermal behavior of the micro-evaporator under stable conditions, Table 2 lists the spatio-temporal average temperatures of the test

sections base for ein;rest 2 and 4, for a base heat ux ranging from

25 to 48 W cm2 . It is seen that the difference of the average base

temperature T b;av e between these cases decreases with increasing

heat ux. This may be interpreted as a consequence of the higher

evaporation rate which tends to thin the liquid lm, thus opposing

and then suppressing the hydrodynamic effect of the inlet

restriction.

In order to determine the effect of the expansion ratio on the local heat transfer coefcient, a comparison was performed for

R236fa owing in the micro-evaporators with different inlet

restrictions. Fig. 15 reports that the average level of the heat transfer coefcient decreases when increasing the expansion ratio of the

inlet restriction. The red vertical line corresponds to the predicted

CB AF ow transition of Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013). The

represented points are from the ashing two-phase ow without

backow operating regime (Szczukiewicz et al., 2012b, 2013b).

This regime was found to provide the best ow and temperature

stability. Based on the high-speed ow visualization videos, it

97

(a)

TIR [oC]

(b) 10

46

8

y [mm]

44

6

42

4

40

38

36

2

10

z [mm]

(c)

(d)

TIR [ C]

10

46

8

y [mm]

44

6

42

4

40

38

36

2

10

z [mm]

(e)

(f)

TIR [oC]

10

46

8

y [mm]

44

6

42

4

40

38

36

2

10

z [mm]

Fig. 14. Snapshots of the high-speed ow visualization and the time-averaged IR temperature maps of the test sections base provided by the two-phase ow boiling of

R236fa for Gch 1100 kg m2 s1 and qb 36 W cm2 : (a), (b) ein;rest 1:33, (c), (d) ein;rest 2, and (e), (f) ein;rest 4. The ow is from left to right in all the presented images for

both ow and temperature.

Table 2

Spatio-temporal average temperatures of the test sections base for

Gch 2094 kg m2 s1 of channel mass ux, the base heat ux, qb , ranging from 25

to 48 W cm2 and the expansion ratios of the inlet restrictions of ein;rest 2 and 4,

where DT T b;av e ein;rest 4 T b;av e ein;rest 2.

qb

W cm2

T b;av e ein;rest 2

C

T b;av e ein;rest 4

C

DT

K

25.0

29.0

32.6

36.6

40.0

44.4

48.0

42.6

43.5

44.3

45.3

46.1

47.0

47.6

45.2

46.0

46.8

47.3

48.1

48.9

49.5

2.6

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.9

1.9

each channel from the ashing and almost immediately developed

into slug and consequently annular ow.

In Fig. 15 at low vapor qualities, the descending trend of aw corresponds to the coalescing elongated bubble region, as predicted

by the three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004). In this zone, the

higher expansion ratio leads to a drop of the heat transfer coefcient, as explained previously. After reaching the local minimum,

which corresponds relatively well to the CB AF ow transition

of Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013), the heat transfer increases

with increasing vapor quality. In the annular ow regime, the heat

transfer coefcient for the higher expansion ratio grows more signicantly. This can be ascribed to the instability of the vaporliquid interface triggered by the higher velocities associated with

the smaller restriction that gives a more irregular bubble interface,

thus enhancing the time-averaged heat transfer coefcient (Tibirica et al., 2012). In addition the perturbed interface promotes more

liquid to be entrained in the vapor core, which was shown by

Cioncolini and Thome (2011) to have a positive effect on the heat

transfer performance (of course as long as dryout is avoided).

98

4

x 10

[W m2 K1]

2.5

2

1.5

e

in,rest

in,rest

0.5

2 1

Gch = 2099 kg m

s , qb = 16.9 W cm

2.5

2

1.5

K ]

and Thome (2012)

w [W m

x 10

3.5

3.5

=2

=4

1

0.5

0

0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.05

0.1

0.15

instability on the value and trend of the heat transfer coefcient.

Fig. 16 shows a comparison of three sets of data: two at similar

heat ux (green and red lines) and two at similar mass ux (red

and blue lines). For the lowest heat ux and mass ux (green color), signicant ow instability, vapor backow, and ow maldistribution were present. In the second case (red color), the ow

instabilities were prevented and the vapor backow was suppressed. However, the ow experienced a severe ow maldistribution, which increased and then decreased the heat transfer

coefcients by about 30%, showing the maldistribution is mostly

detrimental to heat transfer. As the mass ux and the heat ux increased (blue color), the stable two-phase ow with a ashed vapor injected into the channel was achieved. The solid lines

correspond to experimental results, whereas the dashed ones represent the simulated (steady) heat transfer coefcients for comparison. The experimental trends of the heat transfer coefcient are Ushaped (over the applicable ranges of vapor qualities) in all three

cases. The stable two-phase ow with ashing (blue line) lead to

the highest rise of the heat transfer coefcient as the vapor quality

increases in the annular ow regime. Furthermore, since in the

simulations the local heat transfer coefcient in the annular ow

regime does not depend on the heat ux, the dashed red and blue

lines overlap. This tendency is usually observed experimentally,

but it is not present here due to the maldistributed ow. Therefore,

a clear distinction between steady, unsteady, well- and maldistributed ows needs to be made when presenting the heat transfer

coefcient trends.

For unstable two-phase ow (green line in Fig. 16), the experimental heat transfer coefcient trend is nearly at over a wide

range of vapor quality (0.02 < x < 0.17 in the present conditions)

and the unstable values are about the same as those predicted

for stable ow in this case. This may confuse the situation when

a limited number of temperature sensors are adopted and the

experimental trends are extrapolated. For instance, Consolini and

Thome (2009) showed that the local heat transfer coefcients under unsteady conditions were independent of local vapor quality.

Nonetheless, they used only 5 sensors along the channel length,

which is much less than the present case, and thus the increase

of the heat transfer coefcient toward the inlet and outlet could

not be captured in their tests.

The results presented above are time-averaged; however, a

temporal analysis is needed to provide a full overview on the multi-microchannel heat transfer performance and reliability during

0.25

0.3

Fig. 16. Two-phase wall heat transfer coefcient of R236fa in the micro-evaporator

with the inlet restrictions of the expansion ratio of ein;rest 4 as a function of local

vapor quality, where solid lines correspond to experimental results, while the

dashed ones represent the simulated (steady) values obtained using the ow

pattern-based heat transfer model of Costa-Patry and Thome (2012, 2013).

its whole lifetime in practical applications. To this aim, the temperature uctuations for a selected pixel of the IR cameras sensor array are assessed in Fig. 17. Note that the highest standard deviation

of the temperature uctuation, 0.82 K, is detected for the unstable

two-phase ow with backow developing into jet ow operating

regime (c), but as shown in Szczukiewicz (2012) it can be much

higher. On the other hand, the ashing two-phase ow without

backow, dened as the most optimum operating regime, provides

very stable ow with a temperature standard deviation of 0.04 K.

Additionally, the current analysis reveals that the frequency of the

temperature oscillations is about 2 to 6 Hz for unstable two-phase

ow (c). The frequency increases with mass and heat uxes (g, h),

simultaneously with decreasing the amplitude of the oscillations,

such that above a certain threshold for heat and mass ux the

oscillations disappear and the ow can be regarded as stable. The

60

55

(h)

(g)

50

Tb [oC]

Fig. 15. Two-phase wall heat transfer coefcient as a function of local vapor quality

for R236fa in the test section with the inlet restrictions of ein;rest 2 and 4 for

Gch 2081 kg m2 s1 and qw 173 kW m2 (stable two-phase ows).

0.2

x []

x []

(b)

45

(a)

(c)

(e)

(d)

(f)

40

35

30

0

10

20

30

40

50

t [s]

Fig. 17. Temporal temperature uctuations at the base of the silicon microevaporator of ein;rest 2: (a) single-phase ow in the entire test section with the

vapor bubbles appearing only at the manifolds outlet plenum, (b) single-phase ow

followed by two-phase ow with backow into the inlet header, (c) unstable twophase ow with backow developing into jet ow, (d) jet ow, (e) single-phase ow

followed by two-phase ow without backow, (f) two-phase ow with backow

triggered by bubbles formed in the ow loop before the test section, (g) ashing

two-phase ow (at exit of inlet micro-orices) with backow, and (h) ashing twophase ow without backow. Figure extracted from the Ph.D. thesis of Szczukiewicz

(2012).

4

2.8

x 10

z = 2 mm, ein,rest = 2

z = 2 mm, e

=4

in,rest

z = 5 mm, e

=2

in,rest

z = 5 mm, ein,rest = 4

z = 8 mm, e

=2

in,rest

z = 8 mm, ein,rest = 4

2.4

w [W m2 K ]

2.6

2.2

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

0

10

y [mm]

Fig. 18. Width-wise heat transfer coefcient proles for two-phase ows of R236fa

in ein;rest 2 (unsteady case) and ein;rest 4 (steady case) at the longitudinal channel

location of z 2, 5, and 8 mm for Gch 1292 kg m2 s1 and qb 43:2 W cm2 ,

considering an array of 90 90 IR temperatures.

ows agrees quite well with the ones given by Consolini and

Thome (2009).

As a last point, the width-wise heat transfer coefcient proles

for steady (in ein;rest 4) and unsteady (in ein;rest 2) two-phase

ows of R236fa at the longitudinal channel location of z = 2, 5,

and 8 mm for Gch 1292 kg m2 s1 and qb 43:2 W cm2 are presented in Fig. 18. The rst two locations correspond to the churn

ow, while the last one represents the annular ow. It is evident

that average level of the heat transfer coefcient decreases with

increasing the expansion ratio of the inlet restriction, which is

associated with higher ow velocities in ein;rest 4. Those ones extend the region of churn ow. Whereas, in annular ow for

z = 8 mm, the difference in heat transfer coefcient between

ein;rest 2 and 4 becomes less signicant. Secondly, the heat transfer coefcient for the unsteady case is characterized by signicant

uctuations in the lateral direction. Whereas, in ein;rest 4, where

the ow is very stable in time (see the ashing two-phase ow

without backow operating regime in Fig. 17), the heat transfer

coefcient prole is more uniform between y = 2 mm and 8 mm,

with y being a coordinate perpendicular to the ow direction. In

this test section, due to the heat spreading in the lateral direction,

the local heat transfer coefcient at the boarders rises proportionally to the dissipated heat ux, since the heat tends to conduct towards the cooler regions (for more detail, refer to Section 4.2). This

highlights again that 3D heat conduction analysis needs to be taken into account to provide the most accurate heat transfer results

and data trends.

5. Conclusions

This paper illustrates the most recent experimental and numerical outcomes on two-phase ow boiling in microchannels. The

numerical simulations of boiling ows performed by the authors

show that the proper modeling of the thermal inertia of the liquid

lm trapped between an elongated bubble and the channel wall,

and of the ow recirculation in the liquid slug between two bubbles, provides very valuable local information on the heat transfer

coefcient. This may aid to improve physics-based boiling heat

transfer prediction methods, for instance the broadly-used threezone model of Thome et al. (2004). A better understanding of the

linkage between ow patterns and heat transfer trends in microchannels is also obtained by coupling the very ne spatial

99

visualization techniques. Such analysis conrmed that ow pattern

transitions need to be further investigated to clarify the observed

trends in the heat transfer coefcient with respect to the local vapor quality. High emphasis is here given to the heat transfer coefcient data reduction process which, in order to conduct a fair

comparison among independent experimental studies, has to account for peculiar microscale effects associated with the miniaturization of the tested evaporators. In particular, when the pressure

drop is signicant, the saturation temperature involved in the heat

transfer coefcient estimation cannot be assumed to be constant or

linear along the channel length; it was illustrated how linear, prediction method-based, and prorated reconstructions of the pressure prole along the microchannel may lead to remarkable

differences in heat transfer trends and magnitudes. Moreover, the

measured wall temperature and the actual local heat ux seen

by the two-phase ow are affected by the heat spreading across

the micro-evaporator due to the slopes in the heat transfer coefcients themselves and by the edge effects in proximity of its manifold. Therefore, an accurate 3D modeling of the heat conduction

from the base of the heat sink to the channels walls is recommended, in order to obtain a heat transfer coefcient which properly reects the performance of the microchannel two-phase ow.

In addition, the spatio-temporal local heat transfer coefcient analysis revealed that the two-phase ow instability and ow maldistribution among the channels may have predominant inuence on

the experimental results and data trends, and thus add to confuse

of the situation. Therefore, a clear distinction between mal- and

well-distributed ows, unsteady, and steady ows needs to be

made in order to properly reduce and compare the results from

independent studies. Finally, it was shown that the inlet micro-orices are an effective solution to stabilize the two-phase ow in

microchannels, and thus greatly extend the reliable range of operating conditions of the micro-evaporator.

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