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Date

September, 2012

3 DESIGN BASIS
GENERAL DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR
NORWEGIAN BRIDGES

01-1

Revision
Date
Rev date
Made by
Checked by
Approved by
Description

C
2012-09-18
JKD
Design of bridges in Norway

01-2

CONTENTS
1.
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.
3.1
3.1.1
3.2
4.
4.1
4.2
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
8.

Introduction
Design parameters
Codes and standards
Safety factors
Durability Requirements
Software
Rambll, Bridge design system (BDS)
ECROSS & PRCOSS - Cross Sectional Analysis
LUSAS finite element analysis software
Materials
Concrete
Mild steel
Loads
Permanent loads
Temperature load
Traffic loads
Vertical traffic loads
Horizontal traffic loads
Traffic loads on filling
Other variable loads
Accidental loads
Load Combinations
-factor for road bridges
ULS
ALS
SLS
Design Checks
Minimum reinforcement
ULS
SLS - Concrete Structures
SLS Frequent Combinations
References

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01-3

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this document is to highlight the general requirements, guidelines, design
philosophies and parameters adopted for the design of a bridge structure. The basis for design
gives descriptions on the following items:

Design parameters
Software
Materials
Principal loads
Load combinations
Design checks

01-4

1.

DESIGN PARAMETERS

1.1

Codes and standards


The structures shall be designed using the Eurocodes (including corrigendum and amendments)
along with the Norwegian National Annexes.
Table 2-1: Hierarchy for concrete design

Roadway bridges:
Norwegian handbook from the Norwegian road authorities
Name: Bruporsjektering, Hndbok 185 fra Statens Vegvesen,
nov. 2011
Eurocode for concrete bridges (EC2 part 2):
NS-EN 1992-2:2005 + NA:2010
Eurocode for concrete structures (EC2 part 1-1):
NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004 + NA:2008
Table 2-2: Hierarchy for load combinations

Roadway bridges:
Norwegian handbook from the Norwegian road authorities
Name: Bruporsjektering, Hndbok 185 fra Statens Vegvesen,
nov. 2011
Eurocode for load combination (EC0), amendment A1
NS-EN 1990:2002/A1:2005+NA:2010
Eurocode for load combination (EC0):
NS-EN 1990:2002 + NA:2008

1.2

Safety factors
For all in-situ concrete structures the following partial safety factors shall be used when checking
ULS load combinations:
Table 2-3: Partial coefficients for ULS (Table 2.1N in NS-EN 1992-1-1 NA:2008)

Reinforced concrete
Reinforcement (mild and prestressed):

ULS
c = 1,5
s = 1,15

ALS
c = 1,2
s = 1,0

Partial safety factors for SLS combinations are given at the specific clauses of NA.2.4.2.4(2) in
NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2008 to be M = 1.0 for both concrete and reinforce, where nothing is
specified in the standard.

1.3

Durability Requirements
The structures are designed such that they meet the requirements on durability and sustainability
as described in this document and in accordance with Norwegian tradition.
The wish for obtaining a service life of 100 years is met by abiding to the demands in this
document. The service life of 100 years applies to all primary construction parts.

01-5

2.

SOFTWARE

A number of commercial and in-house software programs are used for calculating forces
examining cross section stress distributions and for capacity checks.

2.1

Rambll, Bridge design system (BDS)


Bridge design system (BDS) is an advanced Rambll in-house software package used for
geometric and static analysis in bridge design. From this package the following programs are
utilized:
ECROSS
PCROSS
2.1.1 ECROSS & PRCOSS - Cross Sectional Analysis

The in- house software programs ECROSS and PCROSS are used for cross sectional analysis to
determine the stress distributions.
ECROSS
The program ECROSS is used for elastic analysis on reinforced concrete cross-sections. The
concrete and reinforcement are assumed to be linear elastic, i.e. Hook's law applies. Further the
tensile strength of the concrete is taken as zero, and compression steel is taken into account.
The program can handle combined long-term and short-term load, taking into account the fact
that for concrete the elastic modulus corresponding to sustained load has a lower value than the
elastic modulus corresponding to instantaneous load.
PCROSS
The program PCROSS is used for plastic analysis on reinforced concrete cross-sections. The cross
sections may be prestressed.
The program calculates the ultimate flexural capacity of a polygonal concrete cross-section under
axial load combined with biaxial bending. The tensile strength of the concrete is taken as zero,
and compression steel is taken into account.
For each user-defined value of the normal force and the angle for the declination of the neutral
axis the program calculates the ultimate moments about the X and Y axis and the corresponding
position of the normal force.

2.2

LUSAS finite element analysis software


The finite element analysis software, LUSAS, is used for structural analysis and structural design
with use of Wood-Armer.

01-6

3.

MATERIALS

3.1

Concrete
The concrete construction is designed for concrete strength class B45 in accordance with EC2
Table 3.1.
The following characteristics shall be used for concrete (see section 3.1 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)
Poissons ratio
Mass density
Thermal expansion
Long-term modulus of elasticity
Concrete class

= 0.2
= 2548 kg/m3 (25kN/m3)
10 x 10-6 / C
Ec,eff = Ecm / (1+ (,t0))
N

3.1.3(4)
3.1.3(5)
eq.7.20
valid for all concrete grades
and environmental classes

Table 4-4: Selected values from EN 1992-1-1:2004+NA:2008, table 3.1.

Concrete grade
Max. compressive capacity
Tension capacity
Short term modulus of elasticity

fck (MPa)
fcm (MPa)
fctm (MPa)
Ecm (GPa)

45
53
3,8
36.283

Furthermore the minimum requirements given as characteristic values listed in the table below
shall be adopted for each individual structural part.
Table 4-5: Minimum requirements for concrete grade, exposure and control class

Areas exposed to water


from traffic and river:
Edge beams, wings,
columns and abutments.
other areas

Strength
(MPa)

Control
Class

Nominal cover
(mm)

Max wk*
(mm)

45

Extended

6015 => 75mm

wk < 0.3

45

Extended

5015=> 65mm

wk < 0.3

*wk is crack width for reinforced concrete for SLS QUASI-permanent (tilnrmet permanent)

3.2

Mild steel
The following characteristics shall be used for mild steel (See also Section 3.2 in EN 1992-11:2004).
Ribbed steel B500NC,
Yield stress:
Density
E-modulus

fyk = 500 MPa


= 7850kg/m3
Es = 200 GPa

(Section 3.2.7(3) in EN 1992-1-1:2004 )


(Section 3.2.7(4) in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

01-7

4.

LOADS

For the purpose of computing internal forces and moments, the following shall, where applicable,
be considered as per the relevant codes of practice given in section 1.1. The parameters in the
designs are those specified in relevant codes with interpretations, modifications and additions as
described in this section.

4.1

Permanent loads
Dead load:
Reinforced concrete

: 25kN/m3

Asphalt

: 25kN/m3

Fill masses (rock)

: 20kN/m3

Creep and shrinkage:

4.2

Temperature load
Bridges are to be loaded with temperature loads in accordance with NS-EN 1991-1-5.
The geographical determined temperature values for Kobbervoll bridge fra figure NA.A1 and
NA.A2 in the national annexs is:
Tmax
Tmin

=
=

36C
-40C

NS-EN 1991-1-5 p. 6.1.3.3 gives the values for evenly distributed temperature loads.
The initial temperature is set as 10C
Max temperature:
Tmax = 36C
Te,max = Tmax - 3C = 33C
TN,exp = Te,max - T0 = 33 C - 10C = 23C
Min temperature:
Tmin = -40C
Te,min = Tmin + 8C = -32C
TN,con = T0 - Te,min = 10 - (-32 C) = 42C(6.1)

(Figure NA.A1)
(Figure NA.6.1)
(6.2)
(Figure NA.A2)
(Figure NA.6.1)

NS-EN 1991-1-5 p. 6.1.4 gives the values for temperature differences over the crossection:
(Table NA.6.1 and NA.6.2):
Specified variables: Superstructure Type 3, plate bridge. Asphalt 100mm
Overside warmer than underside:
ksur = 0,7
TM,Heat = 0,7 x 15C = 10,5C
Underside warmer than overside:
ksur = 1,0
TM,Cool = 1,0 x -8C = -8C
The above loads are combined in accordance with p. 6.1.5. The combinations factors are
N =0.35 and N =0.75 in accordance with NA.6.1.5.
The most unfavorable combination should be chosen.

01-8

01-9

Below is a clip-out from NS-EN 1991-1-5.

01-10

4.3

Traffic loads
Traffic loads on culvert top plate in accordance with NS-EN 1991-2 /8/, traffic on filling around
culvert in accordance with HB185 /1/
4.3.1 Vertical traffic loads

Rv 23 consists of two roadways of 3m with about 3m spacing between. The culvert is therefore
only loaded by one roadway locally.
Loadmodel LM1

NS-EN 1991-2 (4.3.2):

Where q1 have to be mutiplied with the factor 1.


N.A.4.3.2: 1 = 0.6 => q1 = q1k*1 = 5.4kN/m2
Contact surface is 0.4m x 0.4m with a distance of 1.2m along the
roadway.
For other lanes qn = qnk
Loadmodel, LM2

section 4.3.3
The axel load is 400kN => Two wheel loads of 200kN.
Contact surface is 0.35m x 0.6m.

For the global analysis only LM1 is considered. LM2 is considered for local calculations.
For LM1:

01-11

4.3.2 Horizontal traffic loads

Horizontal loads is defined as accelerations-, break- and centrifugal loads.


Break load

(EN 1991-2 pkt. 4.4.1):

Qlk =0,6 Q 1 ( 2 Q1k ) + 0,10 q 1 q 1 k w1 L


kN
Q1 k =0.6 1.0 ( 2 300 kN )+ 0.10 0.6 9 2 3 m 28,55 m=360 kN +46 kN=406 kN
m
180

(
kN
)
Q

900
(
kN
)
(
)
Q1
1k
The tranverse break force:
Qtrk = 0,25 x Qlk = 0,25*406 = 101kN

Centrifugal
force

For bridges with radius, r>1500m the centrifugal force equal nill
(NS-EN 1991-2 pkt. 4.4.2):

Qv =2300+2200+ 2100=1200 kN
Qtk =

40Q v 401200 kN
=
=64 kN
r
750

4.3.3 Traffic loads on filling

From HB185 (2011) traffic loads on filling next to the bridge structure is defined as:

01-12

qQk = 25kN/m2
qk = 5kN/m2
K = 0,35

4.3.4 Other variable loads

Snow load:
Snow loads are neglected
Wind load:
Wind loads are neglected

4.3.5 Accidental loads

Collision force on rail:


In accordance with EN 1991-2 and HB231 the culvert is to be designed for a collision force of
100kN (class A) acting over 0,5m.
Earth quake loads are not applicable

5.

LOAD COMBINATIONS

The limit states to be considered for the design are:

Ultimate limit state, ULS


Accident limit state, ALS
Serviceability limit state, SLS (Quasi-permanent, frequent and characteristic combinations)

01-13

5.1

-factor for road bridges

01-14

5.2

ULS
The load combinations given below shall be used for determining the combined stresses in the
ULS.

01-15

5.3

5.4

ALS

SLS
The load combinations given below shall be used for determining the combined stresses in SLS.

01-16

6.

DESIGN CHECKS

The structural elements are investigated through different design checks against the resulting
forces and moments found from the load combinations given in section 5. All parts of the
structure must be checked in the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability state (SLS), using
requirements mentioned in this section with partial coefficients on materials as given in section
1.2.

6.1

Minimum reinforcement
Formulas for minimum reinforcement are given in the following. The formulas are taken from NSEN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2008.
6.1.1.1

Beams and plates

A s , min =0,26

f ctm
b d , but not smaller than0.0013 b t d
f yk t

bt is the width
A s , max =0.04A c
6.1.1.2 Walls
Vertical reinforcement:

A s , min, V =0.002Ac
A s , max =0.04A c

Horizontal reinforcement:
The largest of

of (

0.25A s , m, V 0.3A cf ctm


)
f yk
A s ,min , H =max

6.2

ULS
Design check of section capacities against various actions should be carried out according to:
Concrete structures
Moment capacity:

Shear capacity:

1.1

NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004+NA:2008 cl. 6.1 and NS-EN 19922:2005+NA:2010 cl. 6.1


(In-house Program PCROSS)
NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004+NA:2008 cl. 6.2 and NS-EN 19922:2005+NA:2010 cl. 6.2

SLS - Concrete Structures

1.1.1 SLS Frequent Combinations

Refering to table NA.7.1.N in NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004, the crack width limits are 0.3*k c for
reinforced concrete in the load combination Quasi-permanent. k c is assumed 1.

01-17

Design check of crack widths shall be carried out according to table 7.3N in NS-EN 1992-11:2004 where the tension in the steel is limited to:
7
Centre distance of rebar
: 150mm (preferred rebar spacing)
=> Steel tension s=280 MPa
for

w k =0.3 mm

Deflection under short term loads (traffic load only) should not exceed span/350 (section 5.1.2 in
HB185)

01-18

7.

REFERENCES

/1/ Bruprosjektering, Hndbok 185 fra Statens Vegvesen, nov. 2011.


/2/ Geoteknikk i vegbyggning, Hndbok 016 fra Statens Vegvesen, mai. 2009.
/3/ Eurokode: Grunnlag for prosjektering av konstruksjoner", NS-EN 1990:2002+NA:2008
/4/ Endringsblad A1, Eurokode: Grunnlag for prosjektering av konstruksjoner", NS-EN
1990:2002/A1:2005+NA:2010
/5/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 1-1: Allmenne laster. Tetthet, egenvekt,
nyttelaster i bygninger" NS-EN 1991-1-1_2002 + NA:2008
/6/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 1-6: Allmenne laster. Laster under utfrelse",
NS-EN 1991-1-6:2005 + NA:2008
/7/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 1-7: Allmenne laster. Ulykkeslaster", NS-EN
1991-1-7:2006 + NA:2008
/8/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 2: Trafikklast p bruer", NS-EN 1991-2:2003 +
NA:2010
/9/ Eurokode 2: Prosjektering av betongkonstruksjoner, Del 1-1: Allmenne regler og regler for
bygninger", NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004 + NA:2008
/10/
Eurokode 2: Prosjektering av betongkonstruksjoner, Del 2: Bruer, NS-EN 19922:2005 + NA:2010
/11/

Rekkverk og vegens sideomrder, Hndbok 231 fra Statens Vegvesen, des. 2011.