des

© All Rights Reserved

43 views

des

© All Rights Reserved

- Cement mt08
- Masterflow 870 TDS
- ASTM C39 (1).pdf
- A Tribute to Fernando L. L. B. Carneiro (1913 - 2001)
- Exisiting Paper
- Daftar pustaka
- Concrete Design Chapter 12
- STRUX-5M_STRUX_90_40_11_14_9
- uye ohbe
- 04 Chemical Anchors FTM 2012-09
- Reinforcement Detailing
- ConcreteColumn.xls
- Ft-peramin Conpac 149s_112011_v1 (Gb)
- A3_6_ETeixeira
- Lab 4 Concrete
- basf-masterflow-9200-db-eng
- Articles
- Slippage of Steel in High and Normal Strength Concrete
- As 1012.14 -1991 -Testing Cores (Security Removed)
- BUET QUESTION OF 2015-2016 (L-2 T-1) -CE

You are on page 1of 19

September, 2012

3 DESIGN BASIS

GENERAL DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR

NORWEGIAN BRIDGES

01-1

Revision

Date

Rev date

Made by

Checked by

Approved by

Description

C

2012-09-18

JKD

Design of bridges in Norway

01-2

CONTENTS

1.

2.

2.1

2.2

2.3

3.

3.1

3.1.1

3.2

4.

4.1

4.2

5.

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.3.1

5.3.2

5.3.3

5.3.4

5.3.5

6.

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

7.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.3.1

8.

Introduction

Design parameters

Codes and standards

Safety factors

Durability Requirements

Software

Rambll, Bridge design system (BDS)

ECROSS & PRCOSS - Cross Sectional Analysis

LUSAS finite element analysis software

Materials

Concrete

Mild steel

Loads

Permanent loads

Temperature load

Traffic loads

Vertical traffic loads

Horizontal traffic loads

Traffic loads on filling

Other variable loads

Accidental loads

Load Combinations

-factor for road bridges

ULS

ALS

SLS

Design Checks

Minimum reinforcement

ULS

SLS - Concrete Structures

SLS Frequent Combinations

References

3

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

7

7

7

9

9

10

10

11

11

11

12

13

14

14

15

15

15

15

15

17

01-3

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this document is to highlight the general requirements, guidelines, design

philosophies and parameters adopted for the design of a bridge structure. The basis for design

gives descriptions on the following items:

Design parameters

Software

Materials

Principal loads

Load combinations

Design checks

01-4

1.

DESIGN PARAMETERS

1.1

The structures shall be designed using the Eurocodes (including corrigendum and amendments)

along with the Norwegian National Annexes.

Table 2-1: Hierarchy for concrete design

Roadway bridges:

Norwegian handbook from the Norwegian road authorities

Name: Bruporsjektering, Hndbok 185 fra Statens Vegvesen,

nov. 2011

Eurocode for concrete bridges (EC2 part 2):

NS-EN 1992-2:2005 + NA:2010

Eurocode for concrete structures (EC2 part 1-1):

NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004 + NA:2008

Table 2-2: Hierarchy for load combinations

Roadway bridges:

Norwegian handbook from the Norwegian road authorities

Name: Bruporsjektering, Hndbok 185 fra Statens Vegvesen,

nov. 2011

Eurocode for load combination (EC0), amendment A1

NS-EN 1990:2002/A1:2005+NA:2010

Eurocode for load combination (EC0):

NS-EN 1990:2002 + NA:2008

1.2

Safety factors

For all in-situ concrete structures the following partial safety factors shall be used when checking

ULS load combinations:

Table 2-3: Partial coefficients for ULS (Table 2.1N in NS-EN 1992-1-1 NA:2008)

Reinforced concrete

Reinforcement (mild and prestressed):

ULS

c = 1,5

s = 1,15

ALS

c = 1,2

s = 1,0

Partial safety factors for SLS combinations are given at the specific clauses of NA.2.4.2.4(2) in

NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2008 to be M = 1.0 for both concrete and reinforce, where nothing is

specified in the standard.

1.3

Durability Requirements

The structures are designed such that they meet the requirements on durability and sustainability

as described in this document and in accordance with Norwegian tradition.

The wish for obtaining a service life of 100 years is met by abiding to the demands in this

document. The service life of 100 years applies to all primary construction parts.

01-5

2.

SOFTWARE

A number of commercial and in-house software programs are used for calculating forces

examining cross section stress distributions and for capacity checks.

2.1

Bridge design system (BDS) is an advanced Rambll in-house software package used for

geometric and static analysis in bridge design. From this package the following programs are

utilized:

ECROSS

PCROSS

2.1.1 ECROSS & PRCOSS - Cross Sectional Analysis

The in- house software programs ECROSS and PCROSS are used for cross sectional analysis to

determine the stress distributions.

ECROSS

The program ECROSS is used for elastic analysis on reinforced concrete cross-sections. The

concrete and reinforcement are assumed to be linear elastic, i.e. Hook's law applies. Further the

tensile strength of the concrete is taken as zero, and compression steel is taken into account.

The program can handle combined long-term and short-term load, taking into account the fact

that for concrete the elastic modulus corresponding to sustained load has a lower value than the

elastic modulus corresponding to instantaneous load.

PCROSS

The program PCROSS is used for plastic analysis on reinforced concrete cross-sections. The cross

sections may be prestressed.

The program calculates the ultimate flexural capacity of a polygonal concrete cross-section under

axial load combined with biaxial bending. The tensile strength of the concrete is taken as zero,

and compression steel is taken into account.

For each user-defined value of the normal force and the angle for the declination of the neutral

axis the program calculates the ultimate moments about the X and Y axis and the corresponding

position of the normal force.

2.2

The finite element analysis software, LUSAS, is used for structural analysis and structural design

with use of Wood-Armer.

01-6

3.

MATERIALS

3.1

Concrete

The concrete construction is designed for concrete strength class B45 in accordance with EC2

Table 3.1.

The following characteristics shall be used for concrete (see section 3.1 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

Poissons ratio

Mass density

Thermal expansion

Long-term modulus of elasticity

Concrete class

= 0.2

= 2548 kg/m3 (25kN/m3)

10 x 10-6 / C

Ec,eff = Ecm / (1+ (,t0))

N

3.1.3(4)

3.1.3(5)

eq.7.20

valid for all concrete grades

and environmental classes

Concrete grade

Max. compressive capacity

Tension capacity

Short term modulus of elasticity

fck (MPa)

fcm (MPa)

fctm (MPa)

Ecm (GPa)

45

53

3,8

36.283

Furthermore the minimum requirements given as characteristic values listed in the table below

shall be adopted for each individual structural part.

Table 4-5: Minimum requirements for concrete grade, exposure and control class

from traffic and river:

Edge beams, wings,

columns and abutments.

other areas

Strength

(MPa)

Control

Class

Nominal cover

(mm)

Max wk*

(mm)

45

Extended

wk < 0.3

45

Extended

5015=> 65mm

wk < 0.3

*wk is crack width for reinforced concrete for SLS QUASI-permanent (tilnrmet permanent)

3.2

Mild steel

The following characteristics shall be used for mild steel (See also Section 3.2 in EN 1992-11:2004).

Ribbed steel B500NC,

Yield stress:

Density

E-modulus

= 7850kg/m3

Es = 200 GPa

(Section 3.2.7(4) in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

01-7

4.

LOADS

For the purpose of computing internal forces and moments, the following shall, where applicable,

be considered as per the relevant codes of practice given in section 1.1. The parameters in the

designs are those specified in relevant codes with interpretations, modifications and additions as

described in this section.

4.1

Permanent loads

Dead load:

Reinforced concrete

: 25kN/m3

Asphalt

: 25kN/m3

: 20kN/m3

4.2

Temperature load

Bridges are to be loaded with temperature loads in accordance with NS-EN 1991-1-5.

The geographical determined temperature values for Kobbervoll bridge fra figure NA.A1 and

NA.A2 in the national annexs is:

Tmax

Tmin

=

=

36C

-40C

NS-EN 1991-1-5 p. 6.1.3.3 gives the values for evenly distributed temperature loads.

The initial temperature is set as 10C

Max temperature:

Tmax = 36C

Te,max = Tmax - 3C = 33C

TN,exp = Te,max - T0 = 33 C - 10C = 23C

Min temperature:

Tmin = -40C

Te,min = Tmin + 8C = -32C

TN,con = T0 - Te,min = 10 - (-32 C) = 42C(6.1)

(Figure NA.A1)

(Figure NA.6.1)

(6.2)

(Figure NA.A2)

(Figure NA.6.1)

NS-EN 1991-1-5 p. 6.1.4 gives the values for temperature differences over the crossection:

(Table NA.6.1 and NA.6.2):

Specified variables: Superstructure Type 3, plate bridge. Asphalt 100mm

Overside warmer than underside:

ksur = 0,7

TM,Heat = 0,7 x 15C = 10,5C

Underside warmer than overside:

ksur = 1,0

TM,Cool = 1,0 x -8C = -8C

The above loads are combined in accordance with p. 6.1.5. The combinations factors are

N =0.35 and N =0.75 in accordance with NA.6.1.5.

The most unfavorable combination should be chosen.

01-8

01-9

01-10

4.3

Traffic loads

Traffic loads on culvert top plate in accordance with NS-EN 1991-2 /8/, traffic on filling around

culvert in accordance with HB185 /1/

4.3.1 Vertical traffic loads

Rv 23 consists of two roadways of 3m with about 3m spacing between. The culvert is therefore

only loaded by one roadway locally.

Loadmodel LM1

N.A.4.3.2: 1 = 0.6 => q1 = q1k*1 = 5.4kN/m2

Contact surface is 0.4m x 0.4m with a distance of 1.2m along the

roadway.

For other lanes qn = qnk

Loadmodel, LM2

section 4.3.3

The axel load is 400kN => Two wheel loads of 200kN.

Contact surface is 0.35m x 0.6m.

For the global analysis only LM1 is considered. LM2 is considered for local calculations.

For LM1:

01-11

Break load

kN

Q1 k =0.6 1.0 ( 2 300 kN )+ 0.10 0.6 9 2 3 m 28,55 m=360 kN +46 kN=406 kN

m

180

(

kN

)

Q

900

(

kN

)

(

)

Q1

1k

The tranverse break force:

Qtrk = 0,25 x Qlk = 0,25*406 = 101kN

Centrifugal

force

For bridges with radius, r>1500m the centrifugal force equal nill

(NS-EN 1991-2 pkt. 4.4.2):

Qv =2300+2200+ 2100=1200 kN

Qtk =

40Q v 401200 kN

=

=64 kN

r

750

From HB185 (2011) traffic loads on filling next to the bridge structure is defined as:

01-12

qQk = 25kN/m2

qk = 5kN/m2

K = 0,35

Snow load:

Snow loads are neglected

Wind load:

Wind loads are neglected

In accordance with EN 1991-2 and HB231 the culvert is to be designed for a collision force of

100kN (class A) acting over 0,5m.

Earth quake loads are not applicable

5.

LOAD COMBINATIONS

Accident limit state, ALS

Serviceability limit state, SLS (Quasi-permanent, frequent and characteristic combinations)

01-13

5.1

01-14

5.2

ULS

The load combinations given below shall be used for determining the combined stresses in the

ULS.

01-15

5.3

5.4

ALS

SLS

The load combinations given below shall be used for determining the combined stresses in SLS.

01-16

6.

DESIGN CHECKS

The structural elements are investigated through different design checks against the resulting

forces and moments found from the load combinations given in section 5. All parts of the

structure must be checked in the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability state (SLS), using

requirements mentioned in this section with partial coefficients on materials as given in section

1.2.

6.1

Minimum reinforcement

Formulas for minimum reinforcement are given in the following. The formulas are taken from NSEN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2008.

6.1.1.1

A s , min =0,26

f ctm

b d , but not smaller than0.0013 b t d

f yk t

bt is the width

A s , max =0.04A c

6.1.1.2 Walls

Vertical reinforcement:

A s , min, V =0.002Ac

A s , max =0.04A c

Horizontal reinforcement:

The largest of

of (

)

f yk

A s ,min , H =max

6.2

ULS

Design check of section capacities against various actions should be carried out according to:

Concrete structures

Moment capacity:

Shear capacity:

1.1

(In-house Program PCROSS)

NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004+NA:2008 cl. 6.2 and NS-EN 19922:2005+NA:2010 cl. 6.2

Refering to table NA.7.1.N in NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004, the crack width limits are 0.3*k c for

reinforced concrete in the load combination Quasi-permanent. k c is assumed 1.

01-17

Design check of crack widths shall be carried out according to table 7.3N in NS-EN 1992-11:2004 where the tension in the steel is limited to:

7

Centre distance of rebar

: 150mm (preferred rebar spacing)

=> Steel tension s=280 MPa

for

w k =0.3 mm

Deflection under short term loads (traffic load only) should not exceed span/350 (section 5.1.2 in

HB185)

01-18

7.

REFERENCES

/2/ Geoteknikk i vegbyggning, Hndbok 016 fra Statens Vegvesen, mai. 2009.

/3/ Eurokode: Grunnlag for prosjektering av konstruksjoner", NS-EN 1990:2002+NA:2008

/4/ Endringsblad A1, Eurokode: Grunnlag for prosjektering av konstruksjoner", NS-EN

1990:2002/A1:2005+NA:2010

/5/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 1-1: Allmenne laster. Tetthet, egenvekt,

nyttelaster i bygninger" NS-EN 1991-1-1_2002 + NA:2008

/6/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 1-6: Allmenne laster. Laster under utfrelse",

NS-EN 1991-1-6:2005 + NA:2008

/7/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 1-7: Allmenne laster. Ulykkeslaster", NS-EN

1991-1-7:2006 + NA:2008

/8/ Eurokode 1: Laster p konstruksjoner, Del 2: Trafikklast p bruer", NS-EN 1991-2:2003 +

NA:2010

/9/ Eurokode 2: Prosjektering av betongkonstruksjoner, Del 1-1: Allmenne regler og regler for

bygninger", NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004 + NA:2008

/10/

Eurokode 2: Prosjektering av betongkonstruksjoner, Del 2: Bruer, NS-EN 19922:2005 + NA:2010

/11/

Rekkverk og vegens sideomrder, Hndbok 231 fra Statens Vegvesen, des. 2011.

- Cement mt08Uploaded byRatkovic Predrag
- Masterflow 870 TDSUploaded byTin Aung Tun
- ASTM C39 (1).pdfUploaded byMadeleyn Morales
- A Tribute to Fernando L. L. B. Carneiro (1913 - 2001)Uploaded byRoberto Urrutia
- Exisiting PaperUploaded byElakkiya Karthic
- Daftar pustakaUploaded byAnsmunandar
- Concrete Design Chapter 12Uploaded byM HAFEEZ RAJA
- STRUX-5M_STRUX_90_40_11_14_9Uploaded byJames Simpson
- uye ohbeUploaded byMandar Zanpure
- 04 Chemical Anchors FTM 2012-09Uploaded byjitendra
- Reinforcement DetailingUploaded byyash khandol
- ConcreteColumn.xlsUploaded byนายช่าง มอดินแดง
- A3_6_ETeixeiraUploaded byvictorrbg
- Ft-peramin Conpac 149s_112011_v1 (Gb)Uploaded byRajuNSanaboina
- Lab 4 ConcreteUploaded byJihan Pacer
- basf-masterflow-9200-db-engUploaded byapi-283891975
- ArticlesUploaded bylucinanami
- Slippage of Steel in High and Normal Strength ConcreteUploaded byyap_horng
- As 1012.14 -1991 -Testing Cores (Security Removed)Uploaded byAww Summ
- BUET QUESTION OF 2015-2016 (L-2 T-1) -CEUploaded byPicasso Debnath
- Ultra High Performance Concrete Reinforced With ShUploaded byYvette Orbán
- Flexural Behavior of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel_Sakol_KongUploaded bysakolkong
- Cobble Design -Sample NewUploaded byBekele Aman
- chapter 4 lal.docxUploaded bynadeem
- cel768 08 majorUploaded bydonotpanic
- Boletin 46 Ataque Quimico Al ConcretoUploaded bymaribel
- 10.1007@s13369-016-2240-1Uploaded byjasimabd
- C39C39M.pdfUploaded byRajesh Kumar
- C 39 - C 39M - 01 _QZM5LTAX.pdfUploaded byMiguelAngelContrerasOrtiz
- Bambooppt Copy 140215114604 Phpapp02Uploaded byJuan Carlos Restrepo Restrepo

- BEAM DesignUploaded bynyten
- Game TheoryUploaded bynyten
- 3 BedUploaded bynyten
- Staad SpaceUploaded bynyten
- A Business Planning Guide to Developing a Social EnterpriseUploaded byMaria Teresa
- is.1893.1.2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant DesignUploaded byMilind Gupta
- UG-IIUploaded bynyten
- Lect 2 Runway OrientationUploaded bynyten

- Honeywell Alarmnet Cellular Communicators Data SheetUploaded byAlarm Grid Home Security and Alarm Monitoring
- m Diesel 2020Uploaded byvikaskatheria
- An Overview of ISA99 Part 1Uploaded byWashington_domingues
- Kalisign Brochure - 2019.pdfUploaded bybillm66
- Seminar Grade 9 p6- LATESTUploaded byEdison Orgil
- Stepper MotorUploaded byapi-26587237
- Water Guard Epdm MembraneUploaded byfairmatechemical
- YX930DUploaded byLuism120
- Dhcp Config CommandsUploaded byLusajo Gidion
- TuneECU_2_5_Description_En.pdfUploaded byStephanie Barnett
- 24i 28i Eng SpecsUploaded byJose Pardellas
- Designer’s Reference Handbook DEIFUploaded byAnonymous hj273CM
- PhysicsUploaded bysreeramk13
- Unlicensed SpectrumUploaded byHieu Tran
- Company Profile Twc+CoverUploaded byapi-3717898
- 20080226211625984_Parts_ListUploaded byrocklando777
- D-PL-18993-01-00eUploaded bysuronocaturatmojo
- 6110 mfpUploaded bywse00
- 38114468-Unit-7.docUploaded byZBI
- UFGS 26 23 00Uploaded byCarol Santos
- TC_9_2_1_1_1.pdfUploaded byPrakash Nagarajan-ofline
- Hurto a PDVSA (3): Sobreprecio de $18,2MM Rolls Royce Trent60Uploaded byTomás Lander
- 89172195 Conditioning Towers LyrUploaded byChristian Castillo
- Code Chemistry Course DetailsUploaded byNauman Mahmood
- AF Service ManualUploaded byJoe Gram
- chi600e 用户手册Uploaded byaditya pratama
- Cluster Ppt5Uploaded byapi-3717234
- MAGNETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH.pdfUploaded byCarlos Rohán Tamez
- Manual 1 MatlabUploaded byDeivasigamani Subramaniyan
- CUS3 Creating Menus-R10 01.pdfUploaded bymabderhakim1075