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Eq

quipm
ment and Lightting Loads
L
Lig
ghting, H
HVAC equ
uipment, water heaters,
h
and app
pliances all
a consu
ume energy
in the form
m of eith
her electtricity orr fuel. All of the
ese thing
gs are im
mportantt to
und
derstand
d and optimize
o
for hig
gh perfo
ormance building
g design, and are
important inputs
i
fo
or whole building
g energy analysis simulatiion.
The
e equipme
ent, lightin
ng, and plug loads described
d below are
a determ
mined by the buildings
inte
ended use, its occupa
ancy, and itts scheduliing. In short: its program.

Incand
descent and compa
act fluorescent bullbs emit similar ou
utput of visible ligh
ht, but the incandeescent emits far mo
ore heat (infrared light),
l
causing high
her lighting loads and
coolin
ng loads. (From Paccific Energy Centerr)

Ligh
hting Loads
Ligh
hting loads are the energy ussed to pow
wer electricc lights; th
hey make up nearly a third off US
com
mmercial b
building energy
e
use
e, but for residentia
al building
gs they are genera
ally only 10
1 15%
%. Lighting
g loads in a building are often referred to
o in terms of a Lightting Powerr Density that
is measured
m
in
n watts perr square fo
oot or squa
are meter.
When decidin
ng which liighting pro
oducts to use, look at the efficiency (or luminous efficacyoff the
products. More efficientt light sources and fiixtures not only redu
uce lighting
g loads, bu
ut also red
duce
coo
oling loads for the sam
me visible brightnesss.
Plug
g loads
Plug
g loads are
e the electtricity used
d for other equipmen
nt, like com
mputers and appliancces; they make
m
up 20 - 30% of energy loads in US
U commercial buildiings, and 15
1 - 20% of
o home energy, tho
ough
these numberrs are grow
wing as elecctronics be
ecome more pervasivve.
Plug
g loads are sometim
mes include
ed in Equipment Po
ower Density (EPD) and
a
somettimes theyy are
sep
parated. Wh
hen doing building analysis, itss important to know which
w
valu
ue youre in
nputting.

Equipment

Rated Power (watts)

Desktop computer

120

Notebook computer

45

17 LCD Display

75

Desktop laser printer

120

Office laser printer

250

Office copier

750

Refrigerator

750

Dishwasher

1,200

Television

100

Commercial refrigerator

1,000

Commercial fryer

10,000

Clothes washer

350

Clothes dryer

2,000

Plug loads for specific items


(Source: USGBC and EnergyStar)
Equipment Loads
Equipment, like HVAC systems and water heaters, is the other main internal load. This is typically
separated from plug loads and is given in terms of an Equipment Power Density, which is
measured in watts per square foot or square meter .
When deciding which equipment to use, look at third-party quantitative reviews, or read the
maximum power use listed on product specification sheets (average power use data is usually not
available because it can vary greatly by usage.)

Example Internal Loads for Different Space Types


Lighting Power Density
2

Equipment Power Density


2

Plug Loads (Peak)


2

Occupancy
2

W/m

W/ft

W/m2

W/ft

W/m

W/ft

People/100m

Assembly

17

1.6

10

0.9

2.2

0.2

75

Classroom

13

1.2

11

1.0

10

0.9

25-35

Food Service

15

1.4

0.8

13

1.2

15-40

Office

11-30

1.0-2.8

14

1.3

27

2.5

3.5-5

Retail

16

1.5

10

0.9

4.5

0.4

10-20

Residential (single family)

0.5

0.5

NA

NA

Residential (multi family)

0.7

11

1.0

NA

NA

2.5

Warehouse

0.8

0.5

2.2

0.2

1.5

Note that this information can vary greatly based on the design and use of the space. Use
more precise and specific estimates when available. (Sources: Autodesk Wikihelp, United States
Department of Energy (1 and 2), and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings by Grondzik
et al.)