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Confronting New Challenges and Sharing Knowledge, 1113 September 2007, London, UK

INCLINED DRIVING SHOE

Engueran Tisseau, Christophe Jaeck and David Cathie

Cathie Associates, Belgium

Abstract

Closely spaced conductor piles are sometimes deviated away from the group to reduce the risk of interaction, using an inclined driving shoe.

The theory developed by Poskitt1 for modelling the deviation of bent conductors or piles during driving

has been extended to conductor piles with an inclined driving shoe. Variables include the axial tip and

side resistance of the pile, the lateral soil resistance, and the length and inclination of the driving shoe.

Parametric results are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of the results to input parameters. A comparison between the theory and the actual deviation of a conductor pile with a driving shoe conrms

the reasonable agreement between theory and practice.

1. Introduction

The conductor pipes of oshore wellhead platforms are often installed closed together. In order to reduce the risk of

interaction, the peripheral conductor piles can be deviated

away from the group. One method that can be used is to

provide an inclined driving shoe, thus creating a tendency

for the pile to deviate in a particular direction. By adjusting

the length and inclination of the driving shoe, the lateral

deviation of a conductor pile can be controlled.

In some cases it is important to know the path of the conductor pile. As deviations may not be small, conventional beamcolumn theory is not applicable and a more general theory

must be used. Poskitt1 has developed a method to compute

the path of a bent pile during driving. From this theory it is

possible to develop a method applicable to conductor piles

with inclined driving shoe. The parameters acting on the deviation of the pile are the axial tip and side resistance of the

pile, the lateral soil resistance, and the length and inclination

of the driving shoe. In order to understand the inuence of

these parameters, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Then,

the developed method was for a real case, where the deviation

was measured, to check the relevance of the model.

straight pile if the soil is homogeneous. In practice, the piles

are never perfectly straight, so lateral and moment forces

appear at the tip of the pile deviating the pile away from the

vertical (Figure 1b).

From Kirchos equations, Poskitt shows that a small curved

element of pile of length, ds, is governed by the following

equations (see Section 6 for notation denitions):

(1)

These fundamental relationships lead to the following

equation

2. Poskitt Method

Poskitt has described an incremental method to determine

the path of a non-straight pile during driving. This method

is based on nite dierences and is applied to a pile with

constant initial curvature. The path of a pile is function of

the tip resistance, the shaft friction and the normal pressure. The forces acting on the pile are shown in Figure 1.

(2)

with the boundary conditions as follows

(3)

341

OSIG final.indb 341

08/08/2007 23:32:45

Tisseau, Jaeck and Cathie. Controlling Conductor Deviation with Inclined Driving Shoe

points satisfy equation 2. Replacing the dierential derivatives with their nite dierence equivalents, equation 28

from Poskitts work is obtained.

The top and the toe of the pile (j = 0 and j = r) are governed

by the boundary conditions (equation 3). Written in nite

dierences, it becomes equation 4.

(4)

Assuming that -1 = 1, a system of r equations with r unknowns (1 to r) is obtained.

Figure 1: Pile forces (a) perfectly straight pile and (b) pile

with initial curvature

(b) application of the forces; (c) iterative calculation of the displacements and (d) addition of a second increment and calculation of the new shape of the pile

The pressure normal to the pile, p, depends on the path followed by the pile. So the solution must be computed in an

incremental manner starting from when the pile rst enters

the soil. A pile increment is vertically added (Figure 2a), the

forces are then applied (Figure 2b) and the displacements

calculated iteratively (Figure 2c). Then, a new straight increment is added following the tangent of the curve at the

last point of the pile (dashed line in Figure 2d). The loads

are applied again and the

Figure 3:

displacements calculated

Finite dierence scheme

(solid line in Figure 2d).

The method is repeated

until reaching the desired

penetration.

Using the equations given

in Section 2.1 and nite

dierences at each grid

points, a non-linear system of equations can be

derived, governing the

path of the pile. Figure 3

shows a pile after adding

r increments. The results

at all the internal grid

the displacements normal to the pile. Therefore, the vertical

and lateral displacements, xj and yj, are calculated using the

trapezoidal rule, as in equation 5.

(5)

The Newton-Raphson method can be used to solve the

problem and determine = (1, ... , r). Let A(n) be the

matrix formed with the gradient vectors of the system of

equations (partial derivation relative to [1, ... , r]). A(n) is

the Jacobean matrix of the system (taking into account the

second and higher products and the pj gradients). The iteration routine of Newton-Raphson is given in equation 6.

(6)

where (n + 1) and (n) indicate the (n + 1)th and nth iterates,

respectively, and e(n) is the residual vector obtained by substituting (n) into the equations.

with a Bent Shoe

3.1 Methodology

The Poskitt method can be adapted to a pile with a shoe by

calculating the forces applied by the soil on the shoe. The

pile is divided into two parts: the body pile and the shoe (as

shown in Figure 4a). These two parts are supposed to have

a negligible internal curvature angle.

The forces on the shoe are the normal pressure, which is

determined from a simplied model of p-y curves, the axial

Figure 4: Modelling of the pile with bent shoe: (a) pile elements; (b) forces acting on the shoe and (c) simplied model

342

08/08/2007 23:32:48

Proceedings of the 6th International Oshore Site Investigation and Geotechnics Conference:

Confronting New Challenges and Sharing Knowledge, 1113 September 2007, London, UK

tip resistance and the shaft resistance, as shown in Figure

4b. The normal pressure induces a bending moment at the

elbow point in the direction of the shoe. The tip resistance

and the shaft resistance induce an upward axial force and a

radial force which causes bending in the opposite direction

to the normal force. Once these forces and the soil forces

acting on the body of the pile are determined, the path of

the pile can be solved using the forces as boundary conditions in the original method, as shown in Figure 4c.

The forces acting on the pile can be written as in equation 7

(using the same notations as for equation 1).

(7)

The subscript elb applies to the elbow between straight pile

section and bent shoe. Lshoe is the length of the bent shoe.

The incremental solution is then implemented in a Visual

Basic for Application (VBA) spreadsheet.

The p-y, t-z and Q-z curves are needed to solve the problem

and are drawn from the soil prole using American Petroleum

Institute (API) RP2A2. For all analyses performed, the unit

shaft resistance value, t, and the axial tip resistance, Pr, were

taken as the ultimate values. To simplify the problem, the

p-y curves were modelled assuming a linear elastic-perfectly

plastic relationship, as shown in Figure 5.

The pu value is the ultimate pressure. The slope of the linear

part is taken as the tangent of the p-y curve at very small displacements and is called the subgrade modulus K (= pu/yu).

of clay

A sensitivity analysis has been performed on an 80m long, 26in

OD x 1.25in WT conductor pile, with a typical bent shoe

1.5m long and 0.75 inclined. The soil is taken as clay with an

undrained shear strength, su, varying with depth: su = 0.25*v

(with v being the eective vertical overburden pressure).

A factor 0.5 is applied on the interface undrained shear

strength in order to derive the unit shaft resistance: fs = 0.5*su;

this is considered a high estimate parameter, particularly

for continuous driving in sti normally consolidated clay.

Reference can be made to typical methods for assessing the

soil resistance to driving of tubular piles, e.g. Stevens et al.3

Figure 5: Modelling of the p-y curves

The unit end bearing is taken as nine times the cohesion and

the pile is supposed to be plugged. To remain conservative

(large lateral soil resistance induces large pile deviation), a

high subgrade modulus is selected with the ultimate value

reached for a displacement yu of 550D (50 is the strain at

one-half the maximum deviator stress on laboratory undrained compression tests of undisturbed soil samples). For

comparison, Matlock4 suggests a larger value yu of 2050D.

The sensitivity of the results to the pile increment length are

rst analysed to determine the optimum length, for which

accurate results are calculated but within a reasonable calculation time. The calculated pile deviation for the base case

(bent shoe 1.5m long and 0.75 inclined) are presented in

Table 1 for three pile increment values. The results show

that an increment length of 1.6m is small enough to obtain

acceptable solutions.

The sensitivity of the pile deviation to the following parameters has then been analysed:

Lateral subgrade modulus

Axial tip resistance Pr

Length of bent shoe Lshoe

Inclination of bent shoe elb.

3.3.1 Eect of soil resistance (lateral subgrade modulus

and axial tip resistance)

The eects of the subgrade modulus and the axial tip resistance on the deviation of the pile are presented in Tables 2

and 3, respectively. The eect of both parameters is also

illustrated on Figure 6.

Table 1: Eect of increment length: 26in OD x 1.25in WT pile,

80m penetration (bent shoe 1.5m long and 0.75 inclined)

Increment

Length (m)

Segment

Number

Pile Tip

Angle of

Deviation (m) Deviation ()

2.5

32

1.07

0.77

1.6

50

1.15

0.83

1.0

80

1.17

0.84

26in OD x 1.25in WT pile, 80m penetration

(bent shoe 1.5m long and 0.75 inclined)

Subgrade

Modulus, K

(m)

()

Kref/2

0.56

0.40

Kref

1.15

0.83

2*Kref

2.22

1.59

pile, 80m penetration (bent shoe 1.5m long and 0.75 inclined)

Axial Tip

Resistance, Pr

(m)

()

Pr,ref/2

1.18

0.84

Pr,ref

1.15

0.83

2* Pr,ref

1.11

0.79

343

OSIG final.indb 343

08/08/2007 23:32:49

Tisseau, Jaeck and Cathie. Controlling Conductor Deviation with Inclined Driving Shoe

Figure 6: Eect of the subgrade modulus and the axial tip resistance on pile deviation

pile deviation. For the case studied, the calculated angle of

deviation is 0.4 for half the reference subgrade modulus,

but is increased to 1.6 for twice the subgrade modulus. The

pile deviation is increased by a factor of 4.

The eect of the inclination and length of the bent shoe

on the deviation of the pile is presented in Tables 4 and 5,

respectively. The eect of both parameters is also illustrated

in Figure 7.

a limited impact on the results, as shown in Table 3 and

Figure 6. Therefore, for clay conditions, considering either

coring or plugged behaviour during driving should have a

limited eect on the pile deviation.

length of the bent shoe. For a short shoe (0.5m long), almost no deviation is calculated for the considered inclination at the elbow (i.e. 0.75). But increasing the length of

the shoe from 1.5 to 3m leads to a deviation at pile tip

multiplied by a factor 8 (from less than 1 to nearly 7).

26in OD x 1.25in WT pile, 80m penetration (bent shoe 1.5m

long, reference soil resistances, Kref and Pr,ref)

Shoe Inclination,

elb ()

(m)

()

0.25

0.38

0.28

0.50

0.77

0.55

0.75

1.15

0.83

1.00

1.54

1.10

1.50

2.21

1.58

2.00

2.47

1.77

3.00

2.62

1.88

4.00

2.62

1.88

5.00

2.59

1.86

10.00

2.31

1.66

inclination curves can be subdivided into three parts: rst

the deviation increases with the value of the inclination at

the elbow; then the deviation reaches a plateau; and nally

the pile tip deviation slowly decreases with increasing inclination of the bent shoe.

Figure 8: Initial and computed deviated shapes of a

30in OD x 1in WT conductor pipe (oshore Nigeria)

26in OD x 1.25in WT pile, 80m penetration (bent shoe 0.75

inclined, reference soil resistances, Kref and Pr,ref)

Length of Bent

Shoe (m)

(m)

()

0.5

0.01

0.01

1.5

1.15

0.83

9.17

6.61

344

08/08/2007 23:32:50

Proceedings of the 6th International Oshore Site Investigation and Geotechnics Conference:

Confronting New Challenges and Sharing Knowledge, 1113 September 2007, London, UK

For small inclination values, the force generated by the normal soil pressure on the shoe increases more quickly than the

radial force applied at the elbow, Felb, which is inuenced by

the axial tip resistance and the shaft friction on the shoe.

The two values are in reasonable agreement with a dierence of less than 3m of deviation and of 2.8 in terms of

angle of deviation. The computed shape of the deviated pile

is plotted in Figure 8.

soil pressures on the shoe reach their maximum value, pu.

Therefore, the two opposite forces (normal pressures on the

shoe and radial force applied at the elbow) tend to progressively counterbalance each other. This corresponds to the

second part of the curves.

the elbow continues to increase while the normal pressures

applied on the shoe remain constant (having reached the

ultimate value).

At a well-head platform located oshore Nigeria, 30in OD

x 1in WT conductor pipes with a bent shoe 1.5m long and

0.75 inclination were driven to a depth of 75m. The soil

conditions at this location are summarised in Table 6. For

one of the driven conductor pipes, the inclination of the

pile tip at nal penetration was measured and found to be

9 at a deviation of approximately 11.7m.

The computed solution is presented in Table 7 together with

the measured deviation. The subgrade modulus, which is the

most critical soil parameter, is assessed using the simplied

model of p-y curves described in Section 3.2. The ultimate

values are calculated in agreement with API RP2A2. In clays,

the ultimate lateral resistance is reached for a displacement yu

of 550D (as indicated in Section 3.3). In sands, the stiness

at small displacement is considered for the linear elastic part

of the p-y curves.

Table 6: Location of well-head platform oshore Nigeria: soil

stratigraphy

the pile tip deviation during driving of conductor piles with

an inclined driving shoe. Such conductor piles are sometimes considered to reduce the risk of interaction between

closely spaced conductor piles.

The incremental solution developed by Poskitt[1] for modelling the deviation of bent conductors or piles during driving, as briey described in Section 2, is extended to conductor piles with an inclined driving shoe (see Section 3.2). The

required variables include the axial tip and side resistance of

the pile, the lateral soil resistance, and the length and inclination of the driving shoe. The incremental solution is then

implemented in a VBA spreadsheet.

A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the sensitivity of

the results to the input parameters. The results of this study

are presented in Section 3.3 and show that the most sensitive

soil parameter is the lateral soil resistance, while the axial tip

resistance has a small eect on the pile deviation in clay.

A comparison between the theory and the actual deviation

of a 30in OD x 1in WT conductor pile with a driving shoe

(wellhead platform installed oshore Nigeria) conrms

the reasonable agreement between theory and practice (see

Section 4).

6. Notation

fs

Depth

(m)

Description

0.007.10

7.1015.60

x, y

15.6030.50

30.5040.00

Loose sand

shear force

40.0060.50

60.5069.70

69.7078.00

Lshoe

bending moment

R0

su

shear strength

elb

30in OD x 1in WT pile, 75m depth (bent shoe 1.5m long and

0.75 inclined)

Penetration

(m)

Pile Tip

Angle of

Deviation (m) Deviation ()

Measured

Onsite

~74.1

~11.7

Computed

Solution

74.5

14.5

9.0

11.8

345

OSIG final.indb 345

08/08/2007 23:32:51

Tisseau, Jaeck and Cathie. Controlling Conductor Deviation with Inclined Driving Shoe

References

1. Poskitt TJ. (1996). The deection of piles during driving.

Gotechnique 46(2), 235243.

driveability for hard clay, very dense sand, and rock. OTC 4205,

Proc. Oshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, 465481.

2. American Petroleum Institute (API). (2000). Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing xed oshore platforms,

21st edition (RP2A). Washington, DC: API.

piles in soft clay. OTC 1204, . Oshore Tech. Conf., Houston,

USA. Preprints, Vol. 1, 557588.

346

08/08/2007 23:32:51

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