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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

1. INTRODUCTION
A pulsejet is one of the simplest of engines from a design and manufacturing
aspect but this simplicity is offset by the complications involved in understanding its
working. It should be borne in mind that there is no conclusively established
comprehensive mathematical law governing the working of a pulsejet, hence all new
and innovative modifications to pulsejets are done on a trial and error basis. This greatly
hinders progress since the effect of a change in the design is 'unpredictable'. But this has
not deterred academicians and scientist from attempting to develop a theoretical model
of the working mechanism. A considerable number of analyses ranging from using an
acoustic analogy to solving the flow-field internal to the pulsejet have been performed
in the past and though each one sheds fresh insight into a specific process/processes
occurring in the pulsejet, no single theoretical model has been able to sufficiently
explain all the processes. The systemic nature of the processes involved in this jet
engine leaves a fragmented analysis of it wanting, hence requiring further understanding
of 'how it works' and 'what makes it work'. The pulsejet operation cycle, as has been
observed experimentally, can be summarized in four phases.

1. Combustion occurs in the combustion chamber and the ensuing heat release increases
the pressure and drives out the hot gases through the exhaust and produces thrust. The
hot gases expand down the exhaust and inlet tubes, but due to a difference in the crosssections of the inlet and exhaust pipes, a major portion of hot gases are expelled through
the exhaust pipe.

2. Once the combustion gases have expanded to atmospheric pressure, over-expansion


of the gases due to inertia (Kadenacy effect), inside the combustion chamber, causes the
chamber pressure to decrease to sub-atmospheric levels.

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

3. The sub-atmospheric pressure causes fresh reactants to enter the combustion chamber
through the inlet (the inlet air column has a lower inertia) and a small fraction of the
exhaust gases from the exhaust tube.

4. The residual gases and heat transfer from the walls raise the reactants temperature to
the auto-ignition temperature, initiating combustion. The entire cycle repeats itself at a
regular interval.
1.1 DESCRIPTION OF PULSE COMBUSTION
Pulsating combustion is a combustion process that occurs under oscillatory conditions.
That means that the state variables, such as pressure, temperature, velocity of
combustion gases, etc., that describe the condition in the combustion zone, vary
periodically with time. Pulse combustion is a very old technology. The phenomenon of
combustion-driven oscillations was first observed in the year 1777, subsequently
explained by Lord Rayleigh in the year 1878, and used in a variety of applications
around the turn of the Century.

Fig 1.1: General Pulse Combustion Process


Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

One of the better known examples of a pulse combustor is the German V-1 "Buzz
Bomb " of World

War

II; Although the technology of pulse combustion has been

known for many years, devices using pulse combustion have not been implemented
widely despite their many attractive characteristics.

Fig1.2: Combustion chamber explosion

Compared to conventional combustion systems, their heat transfer rates are a factor of
two to five higher than normal turbulent values, their combustion intensities are up to
on order of magnitude higher, their emissions of oxides of nitrogen are a factor of three
lower, their thermal efficiencies are up to 40% higher, and they may be selfaspirating, obviating the need for a blower. This combination of attributes can result in
favorable economic trade off with conventional combustors in many applications. Most
of the research on pulse combustors has been directed toward applied examinations of
the engineering aspects of pulse combustors: heat transfer, efficiency, frequency of
operation, pollutant formation, etc.
There is also uncertainty over the behavior of frequency as a function of geometry,
energy input, and mass input. Zinn states that the pulse combustor can be modeled as a
Helmholtz resonator, while Dec and Keller found that the frequency of operation is a
function of the magnitude of the energy input and of the magnitude of the mass flux.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

These results indicate that a Helmholtz resonator model is insufficient to predict the
frequency of operation. These fundamental questions must be answered before the
prediction of an optimum resonant condition is possible.

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

2. LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEM


A jet

engine is

a reaction

engine discharging

fast

moving jet that

generates thrust by jet propulsion in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This
broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, and pulse
jets. In general, jet engines are combustion engines but non-combusting forms also
exist.
In common parlance, the term jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion air
breathing jet engine (a duct engine). These typically consist of an engine with a rotary
(rotating) air compressor powered by a turbine ("Brayton cycle"), with the leftover
power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle. Jet aircraft use these types of engines for
long-distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively
inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use high-bypass
turbofan engines. These engines offer high speed and greater fuel efficiency than piston
and propeller aeroengines over long distances. Jet engines power aircraft, cruise
missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. In the form of rocket engines they
power fireworks,model rocketry, spaceflight, and military missiles.
Jet engines have propelled high speed cars, particularly drag racers, with the all-time
record held by a rocket car. A turbofan powered car, Thrust SSC, currently holds
the land speed record.
Jet engine designs are frequently modified for non-aircraft applications, as industrial gas
turbines. These are used in electrical power generation, for powering water, natural gas,
or oil pumps, and providing propulsion for ships and locomotives. Industrial gas
turbines can create up to 50,000 shaft horsepower. Many of these engines are derived
from older military turbojets such as the Pratt & Whitney J57 and J75 models. There is
also a derivative of the P&W JT8D low-bypass turbofan that creates up to 35,000 HP.
Propeller engines are useful for comparison. They accelerate a large mass of air but by a
relatively small maximum change in speed. This low speed limits the maximum thrust

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

of any propeller driven airplane. However, because they accelerate a large mass of air,
propeller engines, such as turboprops, can be very efficient.
On the other hand, turbojets accelerate a much smaller mass of intake air and burned
fuel, but they emit it at the much higher speeds which are made possible by using a de
Laval nozzle to accelerate the engine exhaust. This is why they are suitable for aircraft
traveling at supersonic and higher speeds.
Turbofans have a mixed exhaust consisting of the bypass air and the hot combustion
product gas from the core engine. The amount of air that bypasses the core engine
compared to the amount flowing into the engine determines what is called a turbofans
bypass ratio (BPR).
While a turbojet engine uses all of the engine's output to produce thrust in the form of a
hot high-velocity exhaust gas jet, a turbofan's cool low-velocity bypass air yields
between 30 percent and 70 percent of the total thrust produced by a turbofan system.
The Diffuser : The Diffuser is a low pressure circular vent that is responsible for
converting the kinetic energy of the atmospheric air into a static pressure rise. The
pressure of the atmospheric air is high thus this air flows into the vent where it gets
reduced in volume thus increasing its pressure. This intake air is then fed to the
compressor.
The Compressor : The compressor found in Turbo Jet engines are usually rotary
compressors. The rotary compressors are compressors that generate high volume of air
at a low pressure thus having a lower pressure ratio compared to the reciprocating
compressors.
The air intake from the diffuser is fed to the inlet of the rotary axial or centrifugal
compressor where the air gets compressed in various stages and reaches a high pressure.
This high pressure is reached due to the various stages of the compressor adding to the
pressure at each stage.
The compressor outlet is the inlet to the air-fuel feed nozzle.

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

Fig: 2.1 Typical Jet Engine interior

The Air-Fuel feed nozzle : The air-fuel feed nozzle mixes the compressed air with the
jet fuel. The fuel is mixed with a specific air-fuel ratio. This injector nozzle injects fuel
at a constant rate in the combustion chamber where it is burned to form high pressure
exhaust.
The Combustion Chamber : This is a c
hamber where the air-fuel mixture is burned with the help of flame stabiizers. The flame
stabilizers keep a constant flame ignited in the combustion chamber to continuously
burn the fuel and also ensure that the flame does not go out. The chamber consists of
two fuel injector nozzles and the flame stabilizer.
The exhaust created in the combustion chamber is passed to the Mechanical Turbine.
The Mechanical Turbine : The mechanical turbine consists of a rotary element having
fan blades. The high pressure exhaust from the combustion chamber strikes the fans of
the turbine causing it to rotate. This striking causes the exhaust to expand and lose its
pressure.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

The turbine is responsible for driving the axial compressor. the turbine rotation is
connected to the rotor of the compressor with reduction gear. This causes the
compressor to rotate.
The exhaust nozzle from the turbine blades is further passed to the exhaust nozzle.

2.2 LIMITATION OF EXISTING SYSTEM

They are heavier for the same power, because they need to be made from
stronger material due to the higher compression ratio and because they need to
have larger cylinder volume because of lower maximal rpm. On longer flights
the reduction in fuel weight often makes up for the heavier engine.

Compared to a reciprocating engine of the same size, they are expensive.

Because of high speeds and high operating temperatures, designing and


manufacturing gas turbines is a challenge from both the engineering and
materials point of view.

Gas turbines also tend to use more fuel when they are idling.

Very heavy, so cant be implemented in light aircrafts and drones.

Need constant maintenance because of moving parts.

Thrust production is often low at low subsonic speeds.

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

2.3 STUDY OF PROPOSED SYSTEM


Though a lot of research had been performed prior to Marconnet by researchers like
Holtzwarth and Karavodine in the field of pulsed combustion, the use of pulsed
combustion as a method of direct thrust generation was first carried out by Marconnet in
his "reacture-pulsateur", which is in every way the precursor to the modern day
valveless pulsejet. P. Schmidt applied the concepts of Marconnet's 'wave engine' to the
development of an intermittent pulsejet engine, called the Schmidtrohr, directed towards
use for vertical take-off and landing vehicles.

Once the potential of pulsejets as direct thrust producing engines had been
demonstrated, the development of the same grew rapidly. The German Air Ministry,
deciding to investigate all forms of jet engines, asked the Argus Motoren Gesellschaft of
Berlin to develop the pulsejet. This project, under the development of Dr. Fritz Gosslau,
led to the development of the famous Argus AS 109-014 powering the
Vergeltungswaffe 1 (V-1) Buzz Bomb of World War-II [ref xiii]. It has been
erroneously reported in numerous publications that the Argus work was in conjunction
with P. Schmidt. Post World War-II, research in pulsejets was undertaken by the US
Navy under Project Squid. French engineers at SNECMA did extensive research on
pulsejets. Lockwood of Hiller Aircraft, with the support of the French engineers,
investigated the working of pulsejets and this work is a landmark achievement as it is
the only completely documented, systematic study in existence. He utilized analytical
tools developed by J.V.Foa, which though not conclusive, were the most complete
analytical approach available at that time. E.Tharratt's heuristic approach by *analytical
evaluation of pulsejets. J.A.C. Kentfield and his associates from the University of
Calgary pioneered work on developing computer simulations of the cyclic operations of
the valveless pulsejet. Dudley Smith of the University of Texas, Arlington developed a
numerical model of a valveless pulsejet to include combustion, while accessing the
performance of a pulsejet with a synchronous injection ignition system.

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

Since 2004, a fair amount of research on pulsejets including experimental, analytical


and numerical studies has been undertaken by North Carolina State University and these
studies have demonstrated the feasibility of operating pulsejets of sizes as small as 8cm
in length.
A pulse jet engine is a type of jet engine in which combustion occurs in pulses. Pulsejet
engines can be made with few or no moving parts, and are capable of running statically.
Pulse jet engines are a lightweight form of jet propulsion, but usually have a poor
compression ratio, and hence give a low specific impulse.
Pulsejet is an unsteady propulsive device with its basic components being the inlet,
combustion chamber, valve and valve head assembly and a tailpipe.

Fig2.2 Schematic of pulse combustion operation

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

2.4 TYPES OF PULSE JET ENGINES


There are two types of pulse jet engines: those with valves and those without. The ones
with valves allow air to come in through the intake valve and exit through the exhaust
valve after combustion takes place. Pulse jet engines without valves, however, use their
own design as a valve system and often allow exhaust gases to exit from both the intake
and exhaust pipes, although the engine is usually designed so that most of the exhaust
gases exit through the exhaust pipe.
A. Valved Pulsejet Engine
Valved engines use a mechanical valve to control the flow of expanding exhaust,
forcing the hot gas to go out of the back of the engine through the tailpipe only, and
allow fresh air and more fuel to enter through the intake. The valved pulsejet comprises
of a intake with a one-way valve arrangement. The valves prevent the explosive gas of
the ignited fuel mixture in the combustion chamber from exiting and disrupting the
intake airflow, although with all practical valved pulsejets there is some 'blowback'
while running statically and at low speed as the valves cannot close fast enough to stop
all the gas from exiting the intake.

Fig 2.3: Valved Pulsejet Engine

The hot exhaust gases exit through an acoustically resonant exhaust pipe. The valve
arrangement is commonly a "daisy valve" also known as a reed valve. The daisy valve
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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

is less effective than a rectangular valve grid, although it is easier to construct on a


small scale.
B. Valveless Pulsejet Engine
The valveless pulse jet engine operates on the same principle, but the 'valve' is the
engine's geometry. Fuel as a gas or liquid vapor is either mixed with the air in the intake
or directly injected into the combustion chamber. Starting the engine usually requires
forced air and an ignition method such as a spark plug for the fuel-air mix. With modern
manufactured engine designs, almost any design can be made to be 'self-starting' by
providing the engine with fuel and an ignition spark, starting the engine with no
compressed air. Once running, the engine only requires input of fuel to maintain a selfsustaining combustion cycle.
Valveless pulsejets, have no moving parts and use only their geometry to control
the flow of exhaust out of the engine. Valveless engines expel exhaust gases out of both
the intake and the exhaust, most try to have the majority of exhaust go out the longer tail
pipe, for more efficient propulsion.

Fig2.4:Valveless pulsejet engine

Fuel is drawn into the combustion chamber through the intake valve in either as an airgas mixture or in liquid form. The intake valve then closes and a spark plug is used to
ignite the fuel in the combustion chamber. The fuel then expands rapidly and tries to fill
the entire chamber in order to escape. The closed intake valve forces the fuel to the rear
of the combustion chamber and allows the exhaust gases to exit through the exhaust
valve.

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

3. TYPES OF VALVELESS PULSEJETS


The idea of pulsed combustion was conceived even before the use of steady state
combustion employed in gas turbine engines. Over the past hundred years various
number of valveless pulsejet designs have been invented and tested. These are classified
into three main systems

Inline systems

U-shaped systems

Linear systems

3.1 INLINE SYSTEMS


The systems, which have an intake pipe, combustion chamber and exhaust pipe, all on
the same axis with intake and exhaust held in opposite directions are called inline
systems. The advantage of this system is that when the engine has positive forward air
velocity the intake has air rushing into it creating a ram-air effect, similar to ram jet
engines.
Moreover the fabrication and fitting of inline systems is much easier than any other
systems. The disadvantage is that these engines have lower thrust than other systems
because the hot air exiting the intake after combustion does not to contribute to net
thrust and actually creates negative trust that has to be overcome.
To overcome this many complicated and mostly infeasible aerodynamic valves have
been created to allow the ram air effect to work without allowing the air to move back
through so as to increase thrust. However none have been proven effective.
3.1.1 Marconnet Design
In 1909 Georges Marconnet developed the first pulsating combustor without valves. It
was the father of all valveless pulse jets. Marconnet found that a blast inside a chamber
would prefer to go through a bigger exhaust opening rather than squeezing through a
relatively narrow intake. In addition a long diffuser between the intake and the
combustion chamber would direct the charge strongly towards exhaust, the way a
trumpet directs sound.

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

Fig 3.1 Marconnets Valveless Pulsejet Engine

3.1.2 Schubert design


The principle of the valveless pulsating combustor was discovered by Lt.William
Schubert of the US NAVY in the early 1940s. Schuberts design was called a Resojet
on the account on its dependence on resonance.
The taper less attachments of the inlet tube to the combustion chamber in Schuberts
design creates strong turbulence for better mixing of fuel and air so that high intensity
combustion takes place. Schubert carefully calculated the geometry of the intake so that
the exhaust gas could not exit by the time the pressure inside fell below atmospheric.
The resistance of a tube to the passage of gas depends steeply on the gas
temperature. Thus, the same tube will offer a much greater resistance to outgoing hot
gas than to the incoming cold air. The impedance is inversely proportional to the square
root of the gas temperature. This degree of irreversibility seems to offer the possibility
for the cool air necessary for combustion to get in during the intake part of the cycle, but
for the hot gas to encounter too much resistance to get out of the intake during
the expansion part.

Fig 3.2: Schuberts valveless pulsejet engine

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

3.2 U-SHAPED SYSTEMS


The U-shape design overcomes the shortfall of the inline design by bending the exhaust
pipe by 180 degrees, so that the exhaust and intake are aligned in the same direction.
The advantage of this design is that the thrust generated by the inlet contributes to the
net thrust of the engine as it flows in the same direction as the exhaust. The
disadvantage is that the ram-air affect is lost. Moreover fabrication is quite complex.
3.2.1 Lockwood-Hiller
The U-shaped Lockwood-Hiller engine was invented by Raymond Lockwood. It is said
that the Lockwood was the most effective pulse jet engine ever developed.
The air fuel mixture is generated by mixing fuel which is injected through a jet built into
the side of the combustion chamber or on a strut projecting into the chamber or on two
crossed struts spanning the front part of the chamber. The chamber is the drum like
broad part of the engine. The short straight tube attached to the combustion chamber is
the inlet. And the long U tube attached to the combustion chamber is the tail pipe. The
tailpipe is fitted with a flare at the end.

Fig3.3: U-shaped Lockwood Hiller engine

The Lockwood-Hiller design is the most successful example of U-shaped designs in


both performance and efficiency. Conversely it is difficult to construct because of
numerous cone sections are to be fabricated for it.

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

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3.3 LINEAR SYSTEMS


There are many designs of valveless pulsejet engines that cannot be categorized by
either U-shape or inline designs. These engines are generally variations of inline designs
with the intake moved to the side of the combustion chamber. The typical feature of the
linear engine is that the intake emanates from the side of the combustion chamber. The
advantage of this type of engine is that the physical size is smaller than an equivalent Ushaped engine making integration into airframe more practical.
These engines are also simpler to manufacture than U-shape design. The disadvantage
of this design is the tuning difficulty for optimized performance as the intake length is
directly proportional to exhaust length. Net thrust outputs are considerably greater than
inline while performance is less than the equivalent U-shape design as the efficiency is
limited by intake position.

3.3.1 Argus design


The capped tube design was first invented by the Argus Company (manufacturer of
German V-1 bombs). It consisted of combustion chamber (plenum chamber), which
formed a bottle shape design capped over with a hemispherical top. Fuel was injected
through a nozzle located on the tip of the cap and protected from the chamber with
metal grid. The grid functioned as a heat sink and prevented gas from burning at the
nozzle.
Pressurized air was forced into the plenum chamber continuously using a compressor,
the combustion took place and the hot gases expanded. The continuous supply of the
compressed air into the plenum chamber prevented hot gas from getting out of the
plenum chamber and almost all of it were thrust into the exhaust. The engine did not
self-sustain or resonate due to the reasons of smaller plenum chamber and exhaust
length.

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

Fig 3.4: Capped tube-Argus

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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

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4. COMPONENTS AND SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The main components are used in this project are

SPARK PLUG

COMBUSTION CHAMBER

FUEL INLET

FRAME

4.1 SPARK PLUG


A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug)
is a device for delivering electric current from anignition system to the combustion
chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by
an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine. A spark plug
has

metal threaded shell,

electrically

isolated

from

central electrode by

aporcelain insulator. The central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected
by a heavily insulated wire to the output terminal of anignition coil or magneto. The
spark plug's metal shell is screwed into the engine's cylinder head and thus
electrically grounded. The central electrode protrudes through the porcelain insulator
into the combustion chamber, forming one or more spark gaps between the inner end of
the central electrode and usually one or more protuberances or structures attached to the
inner end of the threaded shell and designated the side, earth, or ground electrode(s).

Spark plugs may also be used for other purposes; in Saab Direct Ignition when they are
not firing, spark plugs are used to measure ionization in the cylinders - this ionic current
measurement is used to replace the ordinary cam phase sensor, knock sensor and misfire
measurement function. Spark plugs may also be used in other applications such
as furnaces wherein a combustible fuel/air mixture must be ignited. In this case, they are
sometimes referred to as flame igniters.
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Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

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The plug is connected to the high voltage generated by an ignition coil or magneto. As
the electrons flow from the coil, a voltage develops between the central and side
electrodes. No current can flow because the fuel and air in the gap is an insulator, but as
the voltage rises further, it begins to change the structure of the gases between the
electrodes. Once the voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the gases, the gases
become ionized. The ionized gas becomes a conductor and allows electrons to flow
across the gap. Spark plugs usually require voltage of 12,00025,000 volts or more to
"fire" properly, although it can go up to 45,000 volts. They supply higher current during
the discharge process, resulting in a hotter and longer-duration spark.

As the current of electrons surges across the gap, it raises the temperature of the spark
channel to 60,000 K. The intense heat in the spark channel causes the ionized gas to
expand very quickly, like a small explosion. This is the "click" heard when observing a
spark, similar to lightning and thunder.

The heat and pressure force the gases to react with each other, and at the end of the
spark event there should be a small ball of fire in the spark gap as the gases burn on
their own. The size of this fireball, or kernel, depends on the exact composition of the
mixture between the electrodes and the level of combustion chamber turbulence at the
time of the spark. A small kernel will make the engine run as though the ignition
timing was retarded, and a large one as though the timing was advanced.

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4.2 COMBUSTION CHAMBER


A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in
which the fuel/air mix is burned.
ICEs typically comprise reciprocating piston engines, rotary engines, gas turbine
and jet turbines.The combustion process increases the internal energy of a gas, which
translates into an increase in temperature, pressure, or volume depending on the
configuration. In an enclosure, for example the cylinder of a reciprocating engine, the
volume is controlled and the combustion creates an increase in pressure. In a continuous
flow system, for example a jet engine combustor, the pressure is controlled and the
combustion creates an increase in volume. This increase in pressure or volume can be
used to do work, for example, to move a piston on a crankshaft or a turbine discin a gas
turbine. If the gas velocity changes, thrust is produced, such as in the nozzle of a rocket
engine.

Head types
Various shapes of combustion chamber have been used, such as: L-head
(or flathead) for side-valve engines; "bathtub", "hemispherical", and "wedge" for
overhead valve engines; and "pent-roof" for engines having 3, 4 or 5 valves per
cylinder. The shape of the chamber has a marked effect on power output, efficiency and
emissions; the designer's objectives are to burn all of the mixture as completely as
possible while avoiding excessive temperatures (which create NOx). This is best
achieved with a compact rather than elongated chamber.
Swirl & Squish
The intake valve/port is usually placed to give the mixture a pronounced "swirl"
(the term is preferable to "turbulence", which implies movement without overall
pattern) above the rising piston, improving mixing and combustion. The shape of the
piston top also affects the amount of swirl. Another design feature to promote
turbulence for good fuel/air mixing is "squish", where the fuel/air mix is "squished" at
high pressure by the rising piston.
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Flame front
Finally, the spark plug must be situated in a position from which the flame front
can reach all parts of the chamber at the desired point, usually around 15 degrees
after top dead centre. It is strongly desirable to avoid narrow crevices where stagnant
"end gas" can become trapped, as this tends to detonate violently after the main charge,
adding little useful work and potentially damaging the engine. Also, the residual gases
displace room for fresh air/fuel mixture and will thus reduce the power potential of each
firing stroke.

Why Valveless Pulsejets


A valveless pulse jet engine is a simple and ordinary engine. It is just a piece of
metal tube cut to the required dimensions. In a valveless pulsejet engine there are no
mechanical valves but they do have aerodynamic valves which for the most part resist
the flow in a single direction. They have no mechanically moving parts and sothey are
more reliable. All valveless engines have low thrust output, high fuel consumption and
overall poor performance.

Fig4.1: A 4-Pound Valveless Pulse Jet

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Pulsejets can be used on a large scale as industrial drying systems, and there has been a
new surge to study and apply these engines to applications such as high output heating,
biomass conversion, and alternative energy systems,as pulsejets can run on almost
anything that burns including particulate fuels such as sawdust or coal powder.

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5. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
5.1 RIJKE TUBE
Rijke's tube turns heat into sound, by creating a self-amplifying standing wave.
It is an entertaining phenomenon in acoustics and is an excellent example of resonance.

Fig 5.1: Rijke Tube

The Rijke tube is simply a cylindrical tube with both ends open and a heat
source placed inside it. The heat source may be a flame or an electrical heating element.
It has a wire gauze inside about one quarter the way from the bottom. Traditionally, the
tube is positioned vertically on a stand or even held in a hand and the heat source is
introduced from below into the tube. For certain ranges of position of the heat source
within the tube, the Rijke tube emits a loud sound. This phenomenon was discovered by
Rijke around 1850, and is therefore called the Rijke phenomenon. Sound production in
the Rijke tube is a classic example of a thermo-acoustic phenomenon.
In the case of the Rijke tube air can move in and out of both ends. A heated
metal mesh placed a quarter of the way up from the bottom heats the air flowing past it.
This flow of air is a combination of the convection current caused by the transfer of heat
from the metal mesh and the sound wave that is set up for the condition of two open
ends.

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For half of the oscillation cycle of the sound wave air moves in from both ends
as it flows towards the center generating a pressure antinode (displacement node) there.
Even though some of the air moving past the hot metal mesh has already been heated
during the cycle prior to this, some additional cool air flows in, passing through it and
acquiring thermal energy and further increasing the pressure, thus reinforcing the
oscillation. For the remaining half cycle air passing by the metal mesh while flowing
outward from the center of the tube is already heated and therefore energy transfer is
minimal.
The sound comes from a standing wave whose wavelength is about twice the
length of the tube, giving the fundamental frequency. Lord Rayleigh, in his book, gave
the correct explanation of how the sound is stimulated. The flow of air past the gauze is
a combination of two motions. There is a uniform upwards motion of the air due to
a convection current resulting from the gauze heating up the air. Superimposed on this
is the motion due to the sound wave. For half the vibration cycle, the air flows into the
tube from both ends until the pressure reaches a maximum. During the other half cycle,
the flow of air is outwards until the minimum pressure is reached. All air flowing past
the gauze is heated to the temperature of the gauze and any transfer of heat to the air
will increase its pressure according to the gas law.
As the air flows upwards past the gauze most of it will already be hot because it
has just come downwards past the gauze during the previous half cycle. However, just
before the pressure maximum, a small quantity of cool air comes into contact with the
gauze and its pressure is suddenly increased. This increases the pressure maximum, so
reinforcing the vibration. During the other half cycle, when the pressure is decreasing,
the air above the gauze is forced downwards past the gauze again. Since it is already
hot, no pressure change due to the gauze takes place, since there is no transfer of heat.
The sound wave is therefore reinforced once every vibration cycle and it quickly builds
up to very large amplitude.This explains why there is no sound when the flame is
heating the gauze. All air flowing through the tube is heated by the flame, so when it
reaches the gauze, it is already hot and no pressure increase takes place.

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Fig 5.2: Working of a Rijke Tube

When the gauze is in the upper half of the tube, there is no sound. In this case,
the cool air brought in from the bottom by the convection current reaches the gauze
towards the end of the outward vibration movement. This is immediately before the
pressure minimum, so a sudden increase in pressure due to the heat transfer tends to
cancel out the sound wave instead of reinforcing it.
The position of the gauze in the tube is not critical as long as it is in the lower
half. To work out its best position, there are two things to consider. Most heat will be
transferred to the air where the displacement of the wave is a maximum, i.e. at the end
of the tube. However, the effect of increasing the pressure is greatest where there is the
greatest pressure variation, i.e. in the middle of the tube. Placing the gauze midway
between these two positions (one quarter of the way in from the bottom end) is a simple
way to come close to the optimal placement.
The Rijke tube is considered to be a standing wave form of thermo
acoustic devices known as "heat engines" or "prime movers".

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5.2 THE HELMHOLTZ RESONATOR


Helmholtz resonance is the phenomenon of air resonance in a cavity, such as
when one blows across the top of an empty bottle. The name comes from a device
created in the 1850s by Hermann von Helmholtz. The "Helmholtz resonator", which he,
the author of the classic study of acoustic science, is used to identify the
various frequencies or musical pitches present in music and other complex sounds. The
Helmholtz resonator can best be demonstrated by taking a normal soft drink bottle and
blowing over the mouth of the bottle. When air is forced into a cavity,
the pressure inside it increases. When the external force pushing the air into the cavity is
removed, the higher-pressure air inside will flow out. The cavity will be left at a
pressure slightly lower than the outside, causing air to be drawn back in. This process
repeats with the magnitude of the pressure changes decreasing each time.
The air in the port (the neck of the chamber) has mass. Since it is in motion, it
possesses some momentum. A longer port would make for a larger mass, and viceversa. The diameter of the port is related to the mass of air and the volume of the
chamber. A port that is too small in area for the chamber volume will "choke" the flow
while one that is too large in area for the chamber volume tends to reduce the
momentum of the air in the port.

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Fig 5.3: Helmholtz Resonator

An important type of resonator with very different acoustic characteristics is the


Helmholtz resonator. Essentially a hollow sphere with a short, small-diameter neck, a
Helmholtz resonator has a single isolated resonant frequency and no other resonances
below about 10 times that frequency.
The resonant frequency (f) of a classical Helmholtz resonator, shown in Figure,
is determined by its volume (V) and by the length (L) and area (A) of its neck:

Here,

f=

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Figure 5.4: A Classic Helmholtz Resonator

where S is the speed of sound in air. As with the tubes discussed above, the value of the
length of the neck should be given as the effective length, which depends on its radius.
The isolated resonance of a Helmholtz resonator made it useful for the study of
musical tones in the mid-19th century, before electronic analyzers had been invented.
When a resonator is held near the source of a sound, the air in it will begin to resonate if
the tone being analyzed has a spectral component at the frequency of the resonator. By
listening carefully to the tone of a musical instrument with such a resonator, it is
possible to identify the spectral components of a complex sound wave such as those
generated by musical instruments.
Helmholtz Resonator Analogy in Pulse Jet Engines
The simplest analytical model of the valveless pulsejet is that of a Helmholtz resonator
in a combination with a quarter wave oscillator. While their analogy is one of the
simplest forms, it allows for a wealth of understanding of the fundamental operation of
a valveless pulsejet. The model assumes that the combustion chamber and inlet can be
modeled as a Helmholtz resonator and the exhaust as a matched, or tuned, quarter wave
oscillator (the familiar pipe organ)
It is a classic element in the study of acoustics. The pressure of the gas within the
cavity of the resonator changes as it is alternately compressed and expanded by the
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influx and efflux of the gas through the opening and thus provide the stiffness element.
At the opening, there is a radiation of sound into the surrounding medium, which leads
to the dissipation of acoustic energy and thus provides a resistance element.

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6. OPERATION OF A VALVELESS PULSE JET ENGINE

Fig 6.1: Valveless Pulse Jet during operation

The operation of valveless pulsejet requires a fundamental knowledge about


mixing ignition, combustion and wave initiation, wave propagation and wave reflection.
Any disturbance in the fluid medium creates a wave pattern. If the propagation of the
wave is parallel to the motion of the fluid, then it is termed as longitudinal waves e.g.
sound waves. This is the mode of wave propagation that occurs in a valveless pulsejet.
When the deflagration begins, a zone of significantly elevated pressure travels outward
through both air masses as a "compression wave". This wave moves at the speed of
sound through both the intake and tailpipe air masses.
(Because these air masses are significantly elevated in temperature as a result of
earlier cycles, the speed of sound in them is much higher than it would be in normal
outdoor air.) When a compression wave reaches the open end of either tube, a low
pressure rarefaction wave starts back in the opposite direction, as if "reflected" by the
open end. This low pressure region returning to the combustion zone is, in fact, the

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internal mechanism of the Kadenacy effect. There will be no "breathing" of fresh air
into the combustion zone until the arrival of the rarefaction wave.
Mixing of air and fuel in a Valveless Pulsejet
In the combustion chamber fuel is injected into the flow of fresh air entering the
engine. At the beginning of the charging cycle the mixture is very rich, then it gets
leaned and at the end of the cycle it gets richer again but this mixing of fuel and air in a
flow stream are affected by the parameters of molecular size, concentration,
temperature, flow velocity in the vicinity of the injector and evaporation rate, vary
within wide bounds, the mixture is very non-homogeneous. The combustion chamber
consists of two distinct layers: a highly enriched layer with fuel and combustion
products from the previous cycle and a cold layer arising at the end of the suction cycle.
This mixture in-homogeneously causes a noticeable drop in its combustible properties.
The proper engine operation could be achieved with a mixture composition of air/fuel
ratio 1.1 - 1.4.
Ignition in a Valveless Pulsejet
Initially the fuel-air ignition is done manually with the help of blower and a
spark plug. Since the pressure inside the combustion chamber is above atmospheric
pressure, the combustion products along with the air flow towards the exhaust and
continue so long as the pressure in the chamber falls below atmospheric pressure. Now
the gases will retrace its path back into the combustion chamber since the atmospheric
pressure is greater than the combustion pressure. Because of the momentum or the
turbulence of the hot gas rushing back in, the pressure and temperature inside the
combustion chamber will increase drastically. Once the chamber temperature is above
the ignition temperature of the fuel the next ignition takes place and this cycle
continues.
Combustion process in a Valveless Pulsejet
The combustion process likely exists in two phases: an initial ignition which
gradually takes over the entire combustion chamber and this increases pressure and
temperature in the chamber and thereby facilitating the evaporation of the remaining
unburned mixture, and a main combustion process occurring almost instantaneously in
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the entire chamber and lasting about 25% of the entire cycle. The combustion chamber
can reach up to a maximum approximate temperature of 2000K.
Since the pressure difference between the combustion chamber and exhaust is
oscillating, there will only be intermittent flow of air to the chamber to support
combustion. A pulse jet engine is an ideal example for an unsteady combustion process.
Here the combustion process is pulsating. The potential coupling between the unsteady
components of pressure and heat release can lead to sustained, large amplitude acoustic
oscillations which being driven by heat release is referred to as a thermo-acoustic
instability. Rayleigh was the first to hypothesize the onset of the instability and define a
criterion for positive coupling.
According to Rayleighcriteria if heat be periodically communicated to and
abstracted from a mass of air vibrating in a cylinder, the effect produced will depend on
the phase of vibration at which heat transfer takes place. If the heat be given to air at
moment of greatest compression or taken at the moment of greatest rarefaction the
vibration is encouraged. On the other hand heat is given moment of greatest rarefaction
or abstracted at the moment of greatest condensation, the vibration is discouraged.
Expansion of gases
Due to pressure being setup only at a certain region of engine, the gases at high
pressure migrate to low pressure regions in the engine and eventually out of the engine
(atmosphere). This happens at a very high velocity since the potential difference in
static pressure between atmosphere and the combustion chamber is very high.
This phenomenon occurs at the cost of losing the achieved high static pressure in
combustion chamber, a very high migration velocity implies a very high volume flow
rate of the engine, hence a very quick and drastic drop in static pressure
Suction of gases
Owing to the exit of the exhaust gases at very high velocities, the static pressure
in the combustion chamber drops drastically, the drop is to such an extent that a
negative gauge pressure (partial vacuum) is setup in the combustion chamber, which
forces to cease any further exit to the combustion gases, instead the combusted products
still dwelling in the engine is sucked back into the combustion chamber along with the
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fresh atmospheric air. This leads to the fresh mixing of air and fuel inside the
combustion chamber for subsequent combustions.

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7. WORKING OF A VALVELESS PULSE JET ENGINE

Fig 7.1: Working of Valveless Pulsejet Engine

The figure below shows a layout of a valveless pulsejet engine. It has a chamber
with two tubular ports of unequal length and diameter. The port on the right,
curved backwards, is the intake pipe. The bigger, flared one on the left is the exhaust,
or tailpipe. In some other engines, it is the exhaust pipe that is bent into the U-shape,
but the important thing is that the ends of both ports point in the same direction. When
the fuel-air mixture combusts in the chamber, the process generates a great amount of
hot gas very quickly. This happens so fast that it resembles, an explosion.

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Fig 7.2: Layout of a Valveless Pulse Jet Engine

The immediate, explosive rise in internal pressure first compresses the gas inside
and then pushes it forcefully out of the chamber, two powerful spurts of hot expanding
gas are created a big one that blows through the tailpipe and a smaller one blowing
through the intake. Leaving the engine, the two jets exert a pulse of thrust they push
the engine in the opposite direction. As the gas expands and the combustion chamber
empties, the pressure inside the engine drops. Due to inertia of the moving gas, this
drop continues for some time even after the pressure falls back to atmospheric. The
expansion stops only when the momentum of the gas pulse is completely spent. At that
point, there is a partial vacuum inside the engine. The process now reverses itself. The
outside (atmospheric) pressure is now higher than the pressure inside the engine and
fresh air starts rushing into the ends of the two ports. At the intake side, it quickly
passes through the short tube, enters the chamber and mixes with the fuel. The tailpipe,
however, is rather longer, so that the incoming air does not even get as far as the
chamber before the engine is refilled and the pressure peaks.
One of the prime reasons for the extra length of the tailpipe is to retain enough
of the hot exhaust gas within the engine at the moment the suction starts. This gas is
greatly rarified by the expansion, but the outside pressure will push it back and increase
its density again. Back in the chamber, the gases of the previous combustion mix
vigorously with the fresh fuel/air mixture that enters from the other side. The heat of the
chamber and the free radicals in the retained gas will cause ignition and the process
repeats.
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The spark plug shown on the picture is needed only at start-up. The retained hot
gas provides self-ignition and the spark plug becomes unnecessary. Indeed, if spark
ignition is left on, it can interfere with the normal functioning of the engine.In the Jshaped and U-shaped valveless engines, gas spews out of two ports. Some valveless
pulsejet designers have developed engines that are not bent backwards, but
employ various tricks that work in a similar fashion to valves -- i.e. they allow fresh air
to come in but prevent the hot gas from getting out through the intake. A gentler, more
gradual entry would not generate the necessary swirling of gases. In addition,
turbulence increases the intensity of combustion and the rate of the heat release.

7.1 THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE


The thermodynamic working principle of a pulsejet engine does not have an
exact explanation; hence a popular and commonly accepted thermodynamic model is a
Lenoir cycle.
The Lenoir Cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle, where the ideal gas
undergoes basically 3 processes to produce work. The most interesting part of this cycle
is that the output work is obtained with no energy spent on compressing the working
fluid. The cyclic process are as follows,
(1) Constant volume (isochoric) heat addition and then
(2) Adiabatic expansion and
(3) Constant pressure (isobaric) heat rejection.
As Pulsejets typically have a very small compression ratio that reaches a
maximum at around (1.7). The Lenoir three cycle process can be seen below in.

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Fig 7.3: Lenoir Cycle

As the expansion process is isentropic and hence involves no heat interaction.


Energy is absorbed as heat during the constant volume process and rejected as heat
during the constant pressure process. Hence the (P-V) diagram from fig (3.5-1)
represents the thermodynamic process of the Lenoir cycle.
Due to the finite time of combustion and incomplete filling of the chamber with
the fresh charge, the pressure at the end of the heat supply process depends on both the
fuel-air composition and on the relative volume of the fresh mixture entering through
the inlet valve. In this case the heat supply process is not isochoric. This deviation from
the ideal process demands for implementation of modifications to the existing ideal
process.

Designing of a valveless pulse jet engine


Valveless Pulse jets are much simpler in design than the valved engines, but
with simplicity you have to sacrifice kgs of thrust and loose the ram air effect. The
following section breaks a valveless pulsejet engine into major components and
investigates design approaches used in other designs for each component. The most
important components are the combustion chamber, the exhaust and intake pipes, the
fuel injection system, the spark ignition system and the air assist starting system. For
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each of the components, various solutions are considered to guide in designing a


suitable pulsejet engine.
Combustion Chamber
The combustion chamber is arguably the most important component of a
valveless pulsejet design. For a valveless pulsejet engine, the combustion chamber
geometry is critical as any flow inconsistency can disrupt the pulsating combustion
cycle, as pressure waves may be reflected at sudden area changes. The most suitable
solution depends heavily on the selected configuration but there are several design
parameters that apply to all cases. The most significant attribute of a combustion
chamber is the circular cross section. This is because the pressure inside the combustion
chamber, positive or negative depending on the cycle, causes stress within the wall. This
stress is more evenly distributed by a circular cross-section design.

Fig 7.4: Comparison of conical sections

Combustion chambers also have conical sections leading into the intake and
exhaust pipes. These sections maintain smooth gas flow throughout the engine.The
above figure depicts the gas flow after combustion in both a conical section and a
stepped transition. The example on the left has a higher pressure increase because the
post ignition confinement is improved, but produces lower thrust because the gas suffers
choking due to entrance effects upon entering the exhaust, limiting the exiting velocity.
Conversely, a tapered cone that is too shallow has poor levels of post ignition
confinement, meaning thrust is also low. A good compromise is required in order to
have a practical engine.

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Fig 7.5: Lockwood Hiller Combustion Chamber

Fig 7.6: Logan Combustion Chamber Section

The Logan combustion chamber section shows the implementation of the cone
sections on two different design solutions. Notably, the Lockwood-Hiller design has
steep cones while the Logan design features shallower tapers. This is because the
Lockwood- Hiller design has much larger intake and exhaust openings that allow the
flow to move relatively smoothly so post ignition confinement is the most critical
component of that design. Conversely, the Logan design has smaller openings and
requires unimpeded air flow exiting and entering the engine thus the conical section is
much shallower. From Simpson (2005), the optimum cone angle for an inline or linear
valveless configuration is approximately 30 degrees, depending on the size of the
engine. The cone section is a critical compromise between the flow of the gases and

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post ignition confinement and as such, is a relatively critical consideration for our
design.
Exhaust and Intake
The exhaust and intake pipes of a valveless pulsejet engine are generally
straight, circular cross-section tubes with a critical length. The length is critical as it
must promote the acoustic resonance necessary to sustain engine operation. The
diameter of the pipe is also an important consideration as it needs to allow sufficient
flow to produce the required thrust; however, some degree of pressure must be retained
to aid in combustion chamber pressure increase.

Fig 7.7: Standard Exhaust Runner Design

The fig shows an arbitrary exhaust pipe section. The length to diameter ratio is
not as critical as the length is the critical dimension. Generally, however, the length to
diameter ratio is 7 to 10 percent of the length to give sufficient volume for gas flow.
This is similar for intake pipes to allow a sufficient fresh air charge into the combustion
chamber. Standard exhaust runner design also depicts the diffuser on the end of the
pipe. This is the same for both intake and exhaust and is necessary to control the flow of
gas exiting and entering the engine.

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Fig 7.8: Sudden Expansion Exit Conditions

For the exit condition, this fig shows that when a sharp expansion occurs, the
flow creates turbulent eddies as it separates from these edges. This separation causes the
flow to lose energy, thus reducing the overall thrust developed by the engine. By
making this transition conical or bell-shaped these effects are negated keeping the flow
smooth and directing more of the energy of the flow into generating thrust from the
engine. Conversely, for the intake condition, the fig shows that the flow separates from
the surface at the sharp corner creating a vena contractor that effectively limits thecrosssectional area through which the air can flow.
This limits the effectiveness of the intake to draw in the fresh air charge and the
exhaust to ingest the cool dense air required to confine the combustion event. Conical or
bell-shaped diffusers limit flow separation allowing smooth transition of the air into the
engine.

Fig 7.9: Entrance Flow Conditions

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8. OBJECT AND APPROACH


Although not all waves have a speed that is independent of the shape of the
wave, and this property therefore is an evidence that sound is a wave phenomenon,
sound does nevertheless have this property .For instance, the music in a large concert
hall or stadium may take on the order of a second to reach someone seated in the
nosebleed section, but we do not notice or care, because the delay is the same for every
sound. Bass, drums, and vocals all head outward from the stage at 340 m/s, regardless
of their differing wave shapes. The speed of sound in a gas is related to the gas's
physical properties. It is a series of compressions and expansions of the air.

Fig 8.1: Propagation of Sound during the Operation of Pulse Jet

Even for a very loud sound, the increase or decrease compared to normal
atmospheric pressure is no more than a part per million, so our ears are apparently very
sensitive instruments. In a vacuum, there is no medium for the sound waves, and so they
cannot exist. The roars and whooshes of space ships in Hollywood movies are fun, but
scientifically wrong.

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8.1 KADENACY EFFECT

Fig 8.2: Kadenacy Effect

In the explanation of the working cycle, inertia keeps driving the expanding gas
out of the engine all the way until the pressure in the chamber falls below
atmospheric. The opposite thing happens in the next part of the cycle, when the outside
air pushes its way in to fill the vacuum. The combined momentum of the gases rushing
in through the two opposed ports causes the chamber briefly to be pressurized above
atmospheric before ignition. There is thus an oscillation of pressure in the engine caused
by inertia.
The gases involved in the process (air and gaseous products of combustion) are
stretched and compressed between the inside and outside pressures. In effect, those
fluids behave like an elastic medium, like a piece of rubber. This is called the
Kadenacy Effect.
The elastic character of gas is used to store some of the energy created in one
combustion cycle and use it in the next.
The energy stored in the pressure differential (partial vacuum) makes the
aspiration (replacement of the burned gas with fresh fuel-air mixture) possible. Without
it, pulsejets would not work.

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8.2 PROPAGATION OF SOUND IN PULSE JETS


The phenomenon of sound is easily found to have all the characteristics we
expect from a wave phenomenon Sound waves obey superposition. Sounds do not
knock other sounds out of the way when they collide, and we can hear more than one
sound at once if they both reach our ear simultaneously. The medium does not move
with the sound. Even standing in front of a titanic speaker playing earsplitting music, we
do not feel the slightest breeze. The velocity of sound depends on the medium. Sound
travels faster in helium than in air, andfaster in water than in helium. Putting more
energy into the wave makes it more intense, not faster.
Acoustic Theory
The pressure wave travels up and down the tube. When the wave front reaches
an end of the tube, part of it reflects back. Reflections from opposed ends meet and
form the so-called standing wave.

Fig 8.3: Standing Wave


A standing wave in a transmission line is a wave in which the distribution of
current, voltage, or field strength is formed by the superposition of two waves of the
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same frequency propagating in opposite directions. The effect is a series of nodes (zero
displacement) and anti-nodes (maximum displacement) at fixed points along the
transmission line. Such a standing wave may be formed when a wave is transmitted into
one end of a transmission line and is reflected from the other end by an
impedancemismatch, i.e., discontinuity, such as an open circuit or a short. The failure of
the line to transfer power at the standing wave frequency will usually result in
attenuation distortion.
In practice, losses in the transmission line and other components mean that a
perfect reflection and a pure standing wave are never achieved. The result is a partial
standing wave, which is a superposition of a standing wave and a traveling wave. The
degree to which the wave resembles either a pure standing wave or a pure traveling
wave is measured by the standing wave ratio.

Fig 8.4: Wave Formation at the Exhaust


Another example is standing waves in the open ocean formed by waves with the
same wave period moving in opposite directions. These may form near storm centers, or
from reflection of a swell at the shore, and are the source of microbaroms and
microseisms. Graphically, the standing wave is best represented by a double sine
curve. The same is true for the pulsejet cycle. The undulations of a single sine curve
depict the changes of gas pressure and gas speed inside a pulsejet engine very well. The
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doubling of the curve the addition of a mirror image, so to say shows that the places
where the pressure and speed are the highest in one part of the cycle will be the places
where they are the lowest in the opposite part.
The changes of pressure and the changes of gas speed do not coincide. They
follow the same curve but are offset from each other. One trails (or leads) the other by a
quarter of the cycle. If the whole cycle is depicted as a circle 360 degrees the speed
curve will be offset from the pressure curve by 90 degrees.The resonance establishes a
pattern of gas pressures and speeds in the engine duct that is peculiar to the pulsejet and
not found in the other jet engines.
In some ways it resembles a 2-stroke piston engine resonant exhaust system more
than in does a conventional jet engine. Understanding this pattern is very important, for
it helps determine the way the events in the engine unfold. When considering a pulsejet
design, it is always good to remember that those machines are governed by a complex
interaction of fluid thermodynamics and acoustics.
Elements of Resonance
In acoustic terms, the combustion chamber is the place of the greatest impedance,
meaning that the movement of gas is the most restricted. However, the pressure swings
are the greatest. The chamber is thus a speed node but a pressure antinode. The outer
ends of the intake and exhaust ports are the places of the lowest impedance. They are
the places where the gas movement is at the maximum and the speed changes are the
greatest in other words, they are speed antinodes. The pressure swings are minimal,
so that the port ends are pressure nodes. The pressure outside the engine is constant
(atmospheric).
The pressure in the combustion chamber seesaws regularly above and below
atmospheric. The pressure changes make the gases accelerate through the ports in one
direction or another, depending on whether the pressure in the chamber is above or
below atmospheric. The distance between a node and an antinode is a quarter of the
wavelength. This is the smallest section of a standing wave that a resonating vessel can
accommodate. In a valveless pulsejet, this is the distance between the combustion
chamber (pressure antinode) and the end of the tailpipe(pressure node). This length will
determine the fundamental wavelength of the standing wave that will govern the engine
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operation.The distance between the chamber and the end of the intake is rather
shorter. It will accommodate a quarter of a wave of a shorter wavelength. This
secondary wavelength must be an odd harmonic of the fundamental.

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9. DESIGNING AND MODELLING


9.1 CAD/CAE

Computer aided design or CAD has very broad meaning and can be defined
as the use of computers in creation, modification, analysis and optimization of a design.
CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) is referred to computers in Engineering analysis
like stress/strain, heat transfer, flow analysis. CAD/CAE is said to have more potential
to radically increase productivity than any development since electricity. CAD/CAE
builds quality form concept to final product. Instead of bringing in quality control
during the final inspection it helps to develop a process in which quality is there through
the life cycle of the product. CAD/CAE can eliminate the need for prototypes. But it
required prototypes can be used to confirm rather predict performance and other
characteristics. CAD/CAE is employed in numerous industries like manufacturing,
automotive, aerospace, casting, mould making, plastic, electronics and other generalpurpose industries. CAD/CAE systems can be broadly divided into low end, mid end
and high-end systems.

Low-end systems are those systems which do only 2D modeling and with only
little 3D modeling capabilities. According to industry statics 70-80% of all mechanical
designers still uses 2D CAD applications. This may be mainly due to the high cost of
high-end systems and a lack of expertise.Mid-end systems are actually similar high-end
systems with all their design capabilities with the difference that they are offered at
much lower prices. 3D sold modeling on the PC is burgeoning because of many reasons
like affordable and powerful hardware, strong sound software that offers windows case
of use shortened design and production cycles and smooth integration with downstream
application. More and more designers and engineers are shifting to mid end system.

High-end CAD/CAE softwares are for the complete modeling, analysis and
manufacturing of products. High-end systems can be visualized as the brain of
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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

concurrent engineering. The design and development of products, which took years in
the passed to complete, is now made in days with the help of high-end CAD/CAE
systems and concurrent engineering.

9.2 MODELING

Model is a Representation of an object, a system, or an idea in some form other than


that of the entity itself. Modeling is the process of producing a model; a model is a
representation of the construction and working of some system of interest. A model is
similar to but simpler than the system it represents. One purpose of a model is to enable
the analyst to predict the effect of changes to the system. On the one hand, a model
should be a close approximation to the real system and incorporate most of its salient
features. On the other hand, it should not be so complex that it is impossible to
understand and experiment with it. A good model is a judicious trade off between
realism and simplicity. Simulation practitioners recommend increasing the complexity
of a model iteratively. An important issue in modeling is model validity. Model
validation techniques include simulating the model under known input conditions and
comparing model output with system output. Generally, a model intended for a
simulation study is a mathematical model developed with the help of simulation
software.
9.3 SOFTWARE FOR MODELING

Solid works

Creo

CATIA

Unigraphics, etc

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

9.3.1 Creo
Creo Elements/Pro (formerly Pro/ENGINEER), PTC's parametric, integrated 3D
CAD/CAM/CAE solution, is used by discrete manufacturers for mechanical
engineering, design and manufacturing. Created by Dr. Samuel P. Geisberg in the mid1980s, Pro/ENGINEER was the industry's first successful rule-based constraint
(sometimes called "parametric" or "variational") 3D CAD modeling system.
The parametric modelling approach uses parameters, dimensions, features, and
relationships to capture intended product behaviour and create a recipe which enables
design automation and the optimization of design and product development processes.
This design approach is used by companies whose product strategy is family-based or
platform-driven, where a prescriptive design strategy is fundamental to the success of
the design process by embedding engineering constraints and relationships to quickly
optimize the design, or where the resulting geometry may be complex or based upon
equations. Creo Elements/Pro provides a complete set of design, analysis and
manufacturing capabilities on one, integral, scalable platform. These required
capabilities include Solid Modeling, Surfacing, Rendering, Data Interoperability,
Routed Systems Design, Simulation, Tolerance Analysis, and NC and Tooling Design.
Like any software it is continually being developed to include new functionality. The
details below aim to outline the scope of capabilities to give an overview rather than
giving specific details on the individual functionality of the product.

Creo Elements/Pro is a software application within the CAD/CAM/CAE category,


along with other similar products currently on the market.Creo Elements/Pro is a
parametric, feature-based modeling architecture incorporated into a single database
philosophy with advanced rule-based design capabilities. It provides in-depth control of
complex geometry, as exemplified by the trajpar parameter. The capabilities of the
product can be split into the three main headings of Engineering Design, Analysis and
Manufacturing.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

9.3.2 Engineering Design

Creo Elements/Pro offers a range of tools to enable the generation of a complete digital
representation of the product being designed. In addition to the general geometry tools
there is also the ability to generate geometry of other integrated design disciplines such
as industrial and standard pipe work and complete wiring definitions. Tools are also
available to support collaborative development.

A number of concept design tools that provide up-front Industrial Design concepts can
then be used in the downstream process of engineering the product. These range from
conceptual Industrial design sketches, reverse engineering with point cloud data and
comprehensive free-form surface tools.

We created 3D model of this project by using CREO software. The models are shown
below

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

Fig 9.1: Model representation in creo

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

9.4 MATERIAL EMPLOYED


The material used in the manufacturing process is Mild Steel.Mild steel is a type
of steel that only contains a small amount of carbon and other elements. It is softer and
more easily shaped than higher carbon steels. It also bends a long way instead of
breaking because it is ductile. It is used in nails and some types of wire, it can be used to
make bottle openers, chairs, staplers, staples, railings and most common metal products.
Its name comes from the fact it only has less carbon than steel.
Some mild steel properties and uses:

Mild steel has a maximum limit of 0.2% carbon. The proportions of manganese
(1.65%), copper (0.6%) and silicon (0.6%) are approximately fixed, while the
proportions of cobalt, chromium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, nickel,
tungsten, vanadium and zirconium are not.

A higher amount of carbon makes steels different from low carbon mild-type
steels. A greater amount of carbon makes steel stronger, harder and very slightly
stiffer than a low carbon steel. However, the strength and hardness comes at the
price of a decrease in the ductility of this alloy. Carbon atoms get trapped in the
interstitial sites of the iron lattice and make it stronger.

What is known as mildest grade of carbon steel or 'mild steel' is typically low
carbon steel with a comparatively low amount of carbon (0.16% to 0.2%). It has
ferromagnetic properties, which make it ideal for manufacture of many products.

The calculated average industry grade mild steel density is 7.85 gm/cm3. Its
Young's modulus, which is a measure of its stiffness is around 210,000 MPa.

Mild steel is the cheapest and most versatile form of steel and serves every
application which requires a bulk amount of steel.

The thickness of 2mm for both the pulsejets is maintained.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

9.5 MANUFACTURING PROCESS


Manufacturing processes are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into
a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the creation of the materials
from which the design is made. These materials are then modified through
manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing processes can
include treating (such as heat treating or coating), machining, or reshaping the material.
The manufacturing process also includes tests and checks for quality assurance during
or after the manufacturing, and planning the production process prior to manufacturing.

Fig 9.2: Manufacturing process

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

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Fig 9.3 Detailed Design

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

10.ADVANTAGES

Pulse jet engines are easy to build on a small scale and can be constructed using few or
no moving parts. This means that the total cost of each pulses jet engine is much cheaper than
traditional turbine engine. Pulse jet engines do not produce torque like turbine engine do, and
have a higher thrust-to-weight ratio. Pulse jet engines can also run on virtually any substance that
can burn, possibly making them a milestone in alternative fuel innovations.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

11. DISADVANTAGES
While pulse jet engines can be beneficial to many industries, they do have several
disadvantages. For example, pulse jet engines are very loud which only makes them practical for
military and industrial purposes. Also, pulse jet engines do not have very good thrust specific
fuel consumption levels. Likewise, pulse jet engines use acoustic resonance rather than external
compression devices to compress fuels before combustion

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

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12.APPLICATIONS

Pulsejets are used today in target drone aircraft, flying control line model aircraft (as well as
radio-controlled aircraft), fog generators, and industrial drying and home heating equipment.
Because pulsejets are an efficient and simple way to convert fuel into heat, experiments are using
them for new industrial applications such as biomass fuel conversion, boiler and heater systems,
and other application.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

13.CONCLUSION

This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use our limited
knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning, purchasing, assembling
and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the project work is a good solution to
bridge the gates between institution and industries.

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully. The
PULSE JET ENGINE is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to understand the
difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We have done to our ability and skill
making maximum use of available facilities.

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Mount Zion college of engineering,Kadammanitta

Fabrication of a valveless Pulsejet Engine

Project Report 2015

REFERENCE

1. John Rezaiyan, Gasification Technologies: A Primer for Engineers and Scientists


2. P. Balachandran, Fundamentals of Compressible Fluid Dynamics
3 R.K. Rajput, Internal Combustion Engines
4 www.interestingprojects.com
5 www.instructables.com
6 www.jetzilla.com
7 www.pulse-jets.com

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