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Everything in the world is made of matter: mountains, our body, a pen, water, the

air.... A pen and water are different because they are different types of matter. Each
type of matter is called a substance.

MASS : An objects mass is how much matter it has. For example, a notebook
has more mass than a pen.
To find an objects mass we have to weigh it. Mass is expressed in various
units, such as in grams and kilograms.

VOLUME : An objects volume is how much space it takes up. For example, a
football has more volume than a tennis ball.
The volume of liquid that a container can hold is its capacity. For example, a
bottle has more capacity than a syringe. Volume is expressed in the liquid units of litre,
Which object has more mass? And more volume?

DENSITY: Objects can have the same volume but a different mass. This is
because of their density.
To calculate an objects density we divide its mass
by its volume.

Imagine we have three balls with the same volume, but they are made of
different materials:



If you pick them up, you notice that the iron ball weights more than the
wooden one, and the wooden ball weights more than the plastic one.
This is because the three materials have different mass.
So, the three balls have different density
If we put objects in water, we see that an iron object sinks, but an object made
of wood or plastic float. An object floats or sinks in a liquid because of buoyancy. If
the density of the object is less than that of the liquid, it floats. If the density is greater,
it sinks.

Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas

The volume of solids does not change. However, if we can change the shape of
a solid, we say that it is malleable, like plasticine, or elastic, like rubber.
The volume of liquids does not change, but they change shape easily. Liquids
take the shape of the container they are in.
The volume and shape of gases are always changing. Gases take the shape of
the container they are in and fill its entire volume.

Physical changes to matter

If we put water in a freezer, after a few hours it becomes solid. However, if we take it
out of freezer, it slowly changes back into liquid.
The water is the same substance, but there is a physical change in its state.
Matter can change its state when we apply a force such as increasing temperature
(heating) or reducing the temperature (cooling)
The main changes of state are:
Fusion (melting): the change from solid to liquid through heating
Solidification (freezing) : the change from liquid to solid through cooling.

Evaporation: the change from liquid to gas through heating

Condensation: the change from gas to liquid through cooling

Chemical changes in matter

Some changes to the state of matter transform substances into something different.
A piece of apple left out for a while gets darker. This is because a new substance is
formed when the apple comes into contact with oxygen in the air.
This transformation is called a chemical change or chemical reaction.
Examples of common chemical changes:
Oxidation: when oxygen changes a substance into something else, as with the apple
Combustion: when a combustible(flammable) substance reacts with oxygen and
produces gases (smoke), ash, light and heat