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The experiment was conducted to determine the function of the shell and tube heat exchanger.

The experiment was also to evaluate the heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance, LMTD,

heat transfer coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and the pressure drop of the shell

and tube heat exchanger. The experiment is conducted using different flow rates for the cold

water and hot water. The flow rates of the cold water will remain constant while the flow rates of

the hot water will be varies between 2 to 10 LPM in the first experiment. For the second

experiment, the flow rates of the hot water will remain constant and the flow rates for the cold

water will be varies. Then, the temperature will be taken for cold water and hot water and the

calculation will be done. From the results obtained, the pressure drop of the shell is lower than

the counter current for both systems. The experiment was completed and the carried out

adequately. The data is being recorded for temperature and pressure for each flow rates within

3 minutes interval.

INTRODUCTION

The process of heat exchange between the fluids at certain temperature with a separation of

solid and liquid occurred in many applications in engineering process. Heat exchanger is a

device used to implement the exchange process. The heat exchanger is where the heat

exchange taken places between two fluids that enter and exit the system with different

temperature. The transfer of thermal energy for the heat exchanger is between two or more

fluids, between a solid surface and liquid or between solid particles and liquid at the different

temperature and in thermal contact.

There are many types of heat exchanger uses in the industry. The most common heat

exchanger being used is shell and tube heat exchanger. For shell and tube heat exchanger, the

fluids are being separated based on the temperature of the fluids. The fluid will flow through the

tubes sides and through the shell side around the tube. This type of heat exchanger consists of

series of tubes and it must be filled with hot or cold fluid.(Cengel, 2013)

The heat exchanger is being classified to three flow arrangement. The flow arrangements are

counter-flow, parallel-flow and cross flow. For the parallel flow heat exchanger, the fluid will

enter the system at the same side and the flow travel parallel to each other. The counter-flow

heat exchanger allows the fluid to enter the system at the opposite direction. This type of heat

exchanger is the most efficient because it can transfer more heat from the heat medium due to

higher average temperature difference. For cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluid will travel

perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

The heat exchanger is made of structural steel. The participating fluids are water flowing

through the tube side and air flowing through the shell side. The baffles introduce some crossflow to the air and such increasing the area of heat exchange. Another advantage is that the

baffles helps to reduce the vibration due to the fluid motion.(Comsol,2013).

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the function of the shell and tube heat exchanger

2. To calculate the value of heat transfer and heat loss, LMTD, heat transfer coefficient,

overall heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop

3. To perform the temperature profile of shell and tube heat exchanger

THEORY

Most chemical transfer involves heat transfer to or from the process fluid. Heat exchanger is

equipment built to help in transferring the heat. There are many type of heat exchanger but the

most common used heat exchanger in industry is shell and tube heat exchanger. Tube and shell

heat exchanger consist of series of tube and these tubes consist of cooled or heated fluid.

There are parallel-flow heat exchanger and counter-flow heat exchanger. The parallel-flow heat

exchanger is where the two fluids enter at the same end and the fluid travel parallel to each

other. The counter-current heat exchanger is where the fluid enters the exchanger from different

ends.

Heat balance

For a parallel-flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one shell pass, the

heat

balance is given by:

mt C pt ( t 2t 1 )=m t C ps ( T 1T 2 ) =q

The heat balance for counter-flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one

shell pass is:

mt C pt ( t 2t 1 )=m t C ps ( T 1T 2 ) =q

where,

mt

ms

C pt

C ps

T 1 , T 2 = temperature of hot fluid entering/leaving the shell (oC)

q

Heat transfer

The general heat equation for heat transfer across the tube surface in shell and tube heat

exchanger is :

q=U o A o T m=U i Ai T m

where,

Ao

Ai

Uo

= overall heat transfer based on the outside area of the tube (kWm-2oC-1)

Ui

= overall heat transfer based on the inside area of the tube (kWm-2oC-1)

The coefficient

d

1

1 1 d o ln ( d o /d i ) d o

= + +

+

+ o

U o ho hod

2kw

di hid d i hi

And,

d

d

1 1 1 d i ln ( d o /d i )

= + +

+ i + i

U i hi hid

2k w

d o h id d o hi

Where,

ho

hi

hid = inside dirt coefficient (fouling factor) (kWm-2oC-1)

kw

do

di

The equation to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient is:

U=

Q

A LMTD

Where,

Q

A

QC

QH

= Heat rate with respect to the flow rate of water

= Area of the tube

or

The mean temperature difference for both parallel and counter flow shell and tube heat

exchanger with single shell pass and single pass tube is expressed as log-mean temperature

difference,

T lm=

T T out

ln

T

T out

LMTD is effective for both types of flow conditions. The assumption made during calculating the

LMTD is:

1. The fluid specific heat capacity do not vary with temperature

2. The convection heat transfer coefficient are constant throughout the exchanger

The second assumption is influenced by the entrance effects fluids viscosity and thermal

conductivity changes. The heat loss from the hot fluid flowing in the inner tube is determined

from this equation:

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

Where

C PH =specific heat capacity of hot water

t 1 =inlet hot fluid temperature

t 2 =outlet hot fluid temperature

Besides that, the heat gained by the cold fluid flowing in the space between the inner and outer

pipes can be calculated using:

qC =m C C PC ( T 1T 2 )

Where

C PC =specific heat capacity of cold water

T 1 =inlet cold fluid temperature

T 2 =outlet cold fluid temperature

Supposedly,

qC

is less than

qH

to the surrounding air, abiding the outer surface of the concentric tube is insulated. Hence, the

efficiency can be obtained from:

qC

qH

maximum possible heat transfer

By calculating the energy lost by the hot fluid from equation or the energy gained by the cold

fluid from equation, the value of the actual heat transfer can be obtained.

For turbulent flow, Sieder-Tate equation can be used:

Where,

= Reynolds number

f ut d e / f

Nu = Nusselt number hi d e /k f

Pr

de

= Prandtl number

C p f /k f

= 4 (cross sectional area of flow) / wetted perimeter

Cp

0.027 for viscous liquid

kf

Where,

f u2t

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]

2

m

Where,

Pt

Np

jf

ut

= 0.14 for turbulent

PROCEDURE

General Start-up

1. The valve was initially closed except for V1 and V2.

2. The hot water tank was filled up via water supply hose connected to valve V27 and when

the tank is full, the valve was closed.

3. The cold water tank was filled up via water supply hose connected to valve V28 and the

4.

5.

6.

7.

The drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.

The main power and the heater were switched on until the hot water reached 500C.

The water temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set-point.

The equipment was ready to be run.

1. The valves were switched on to counter-current Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger

arrangement.

2. The pump P1 and P2 was switched on.

3. The valves V3 and V14 were opened and being adjusted to obtain the desired flowrates

for hot and cold water streams respectively.

4. The system was allowed to reach the steady state for 3 minutes.

5. The FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.

6. The pressure drop measurement was recorded for shell-side and tube-side for pressure

drop studies.

7. The steps 3 to 6 were repeated for different combinations of FT1 and FT2.

8. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched off after the experiment was done.

1. The valves were switched to co-current Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger arrangement.

2. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched on.

3. The valves were switched to the counter-current arrangement when there is air bubble

trap in the shell-side and flow the water with high water flowrates.

4. The valves were switched to the co-current arrangement back when there is no air

bubble.

5. The valves V3 and V14 were opened and being adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates

for hot and cold water streams respectively.

6. The system was allowed to reach the steady state for 3 minutes.

7. The FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.

8. The pressure drop measurement was recorded for shell-side and tube-side.

9. The steps 5 to 8 were repeated for different combinations of FT1 and FT2.

10. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched off after the experiment was completed.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The pumps P1 and P2 was switched off

The main power was switched off.

All water in the process lines was drained.

All valves were closed.

RESULTS

Counter-current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

FT1

(LPM)

2

4

6

8

10

FT2

(LPM)

10

10

10

10

10

TT1

0

( C)

30.8

31.5

32.2

33.3

34.0

TT2

0

( C)

29.2

29.2

29.3

29.7

29.8

TT3

0

TT4

0

DPT1

DPT2

( C)

38.1

43.1

44.0

44.8

45.1

( C)

49.3

48.8

49.2

49.5

48.7

(mmH2O)

193

195

191

192

191

(mmH2O)

-5

-5

-5

-5

-5

TT3

TT4

DPT1

DPT2

FT1

(LPM)

10

10

10

10

10

FT2

(LPM)

2

4

6

8

10

TT1

0

( C)

41.4

37.9

35.4

34.0

33.2

TT2

0

( C)

29.9

30.2

29.2

28.9

28.9

( C)

47.5

46.6

45.6

44.9

44.6

( C)

49.1

49.1

49.0

48.9

48.9

(mmH2O)

6

69

126

214

377

(mmH2O)

-5

-5

-5

-5

-5

TT3

TT4

DPT1

DPT2

FT1

(LPM)

2

4

6

8

10

FT2

(LPM)

10

10

10

10

10

TT1

0

( C)

29.9

29.9

30.0

30.1

30.2

TT2

0

( C)

31.4

31.8

32.7

33.7

34.0

( C)

38.6

43.2

44.3

45.4

45.4

( C)

49.5

48.8

49.2

50.0

49.4

(mmH2O)

679

678

675

678

676

(mmH2O)

604

601

583

530

527

FT1

FT2

TT1

TT2

TT3

TT4

DPT1

DPT2

(LPM)

10

10

10

(LPM)

2

4

6

(0C)

30.3

30.4

30.3

(0C)

38.1

36.0

34.4

(0C)

47.2

46.6

46.0

(0C)

48.7

48.9

48.9

(mmH2O)

23

7

653

(mmH2O)

526

524

524

10

10

8

10

30.1

30.0

34.0

33.7

45.6

45.2

48.7

49.0

670

712

523

530

Cold water counter-current flow

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

223.09

694.15

994.04

2221.27

2984.84

TEST

10

10

10

10

10

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

8002.08

5294.59

4263.17

3506.80

2956.72

TEST

-11.98

-13.64

-14.96

-15.44

Undefined

HEAT LOSS(W)

7778.99

4600.44

3269.16

1285.53

-28.12

EFFICIENCY (%)

2.79

13.11

23.32

63.34

100.95

LOG

MEAN,

T lm

TEST

Total exchange area(

Overall

heat

m2

transfer

coefficient(

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

4453.02

2344.21

1899.81

1514.16

Undefine

W /m2 . K

TUBE SIDE

TEST

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

REYNOLDS NUMBER

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

m

TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA, (

2

m

MASS

VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh

TUBE

COEFFICIENT,

ht (

W /m . K

SHELL SIDE

TEST

CROSS FLOW AREA (

MASS VELOCITY

m2

(kg /m2 . s)

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

16.6

33.35

50.00

66.67

83.50

0.0166

0.033

0.050

0.067

0.167

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

576.35

1157.90

1735.98

2314.78

2899.09

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.023

0.050

0.043

0.039

0.034

513.26

2344.21

2890.31

3495.80

3816.44

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

0.77

6.63

13.09

21.32

115.47

SHELL

jh

COEFFICIENT,

hS

(W /m . K )

TEST

PRESSURE DROP(

Pa - tube

TEST

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

7774.46

3956.64

3609.57

3262.50

2498.93

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

220.03

632.60

1196.44

1980.31

2887.96

TEST

-13.12

-15.54

-15.82

-15.64

-15.00

-7554.43

-3324.04

-2413.13

-1282.20

389.03

EFFICIENCY (%)

3533.36

625.46

301.69

164.75

86.53

LOG

T lm

MEAN,

TEST

m2

Overall

heat

transfer

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

111.80

271.39

504.19

844.12

1283.54

coefficient

(W /m2 . K )

TUBE SIDE

TEST

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

70.62

141.24

234.19

282.49

353.11

0.0714

0.1429

0.2370

0.2859

0.3573

REYNOLDS NUMBER

996.19

1991.81

3303.55

3984.89

4981.07

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

m2

TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA, (

m2

MASS

VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0048

0.0030

0.0036

0.0040

0.0040

603.66

754.58

1501.88

2012.71

2515.76

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh

TUBECOEFFICIENT,

ht (W /m2 . K )

SHELL SIDE

TEST

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

MASS VELOCITY

m2

(kg /m2 . s)

SHELL

jh

COEFFICIENT,

hS

(W /m 2 . K )

TEST

PRESSURE DROP(

Pa - tube

12.75

41.37

122.67

187.12

292.26

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

-208.24

-888.61

-1207.82

-1721.49

-2637.76

Hot water

TEST

10

10

10

10

10

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

-5363.35

-3850.61

-2819.20

-2681.67

-2544.15

TEST

-13.21

-14.19

-14.40

-14.83

-14.94

-5155.11

-2962.10

-1611.38

-960.18

93.61

EFFICIENCY (%)

3.88

23.07

42.84

64.19

103.68

LOG

MEAN,

T lm

TEST

Total exchange area (

m2

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Overall

heat

transfer

coefficient

4038.40

(W /m 2 . K )

1809.07

1305.19

1205.51

1135.27

TUBE SIDE

TEST

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

REYNOLDS NUMBER

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

m2

TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA,

m2

MASS

VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh

TUBE COEFFICIENT,

ht

(W /m . K )

SHELL SIDE

TEST

CROSS FLOW AREA(

m2

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

MASS VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

16.6

33.35

50.00

66.67

83.33

0.0166

0.033

0.050

0.067

0.084

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

576.35

1157.90

1753.98

2314.76

2893.19

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.023

0.048

0.044

0.038

0.032

513.26

2152.19

2988.22

3406.16

3584.51

TEST

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

0.77

6.37

13.39

20.77

27.50

SHELL

jh

COEFFICIENT,

hS

(W /m . K )

PRESSURE DROP(

Pa -shell

TEST

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

-7566.21

-3887.23

-3401.32

-3193.08

-2776.59

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

-206.28

-522.58

-1113.93

-1980.31

-2612.91

TEST

-12.38

-14.84

-15.08

-15.44

-14.96

7359.93

3364.65

2287.39

1212.77

163.68

EFFICIENCY (%)

3667.93

743.85

305.34

161.24

106.26

LOG

T lm

MEAN,

TEST

Total exchange area (

Overall

heat

m2

transfer

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

111.08

234.76

492.45

855.06

1164.39

coefficient

(W /m2 . K )

TUBE SIDE

TEST

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

m2

TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA,

m2

MASS

VELOCITY

70.62

141.24

211.86

282.49

353.11

0.0715

0.1429

0.2144

0.2859

0.3573

REYNOLDS NUMBER

996.19

1992.37

2988.56

3984.89

4981.07

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0050

0.0030

0.0036

0.0039

0.0040

628.81

754.58

1358.69

1962.39

2515.76

(kg /m2 . s)

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh

TUBE COEFFICIENT,

ht

(W /m . K )

SHELL SIDE

TEST

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

MASS VELOCITY

m2

(kg /m2 . s)

jh

SHELL

COEFFICIENT,

1120.16

h S (W /m . K )

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

TEST

13.05

41.37

100.39

184.97

292.26

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

PRESSURE DROP(

Pa -shell

Temperature profile and heat transfer coefficient for co-current and counter-current flow

1. Temperature profile for counter-current flow with fixed flow rates of cold water

60

50

40

30

20

10

cold water

hot water

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

1

10

11

10

11

3000

2500

2000

1500

tube side

shell side

1000

500

0

1

2. Temperature profile for counter-current flow with fixed flow rates of hot water

60

50

40

30

20

10

hot water

cold water

12

10

0

1

10

10

11

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

shell side

2000

tube side

1500

1000

500

0

1

3. Temperature profile for co-current flow with fixed flow rates of cold water

60

50

40

30

hot water

cold water

20

10

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

1

10

11

3000

2500

2000

tube side

1500

shell side

1000

500

0

1

10

11

4. Temperature profile for co-current flow with fixed flow rates of hot water

60

50

40

30

hot water

cold water

20

10

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0

10

12

4000

3500

3000

2500

shell side

2000

tube side

1500

1000

500

0

1

10

11

CALCULATIONS

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger

1. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 2 LPM

Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

10

988.18 3 4175

( 41.429.9 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

8002.08 W

Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

2

995.67 3 4183

( 49.147.5 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

223.09W

Heat lost rate

QH QC

8002.08223.09

7778.99W

Efficiency

QC

100

QH

223.09

100

8002.08

2.79

T lm=

T T out

ln

T

T out

( 41.449.1 ) (29.947.5 )

( 41.449.1 )

ln

( 41.449.1 )

11.98

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

0.00775

4

d 2i

4

4.72 105 m2

Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes

4.72 105 10

4.72 104 m2

Mass velocity , G t =

mt

At

0.1647

4

4.72 10

348.94

kg

2

m .s

Gt

348.94

988.18

0.3531

m

s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775

5.494 104

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp

k

0.6436

3.56

Tube side heat transfer factor, jh =0.0039

j h Pr 0.33 k

tube side coefficient , hi =

di

0.00775

2423.94

0.33

0.6436

W

2

m K

tube pitch

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms

As

0.0332

0.002

16.6

kg

2

m .s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

16.6

995.67

0.0166

m

s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2

2

( p 0.917 d o )

do t

1.1

(0.018 20.917 ( 0.00953 )2 )

0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

16.6 0.0278

8.007 104

576.35(laminar flow)

Cp

k

0.6155

5.44

Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.023

j h Pr 0.33 k

shell side coefficient ,h i=

de

0.023 576.35 5.440.33 0.6155

0.0278

513.26

W

m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH

A T lm

8002.08

0.15 11.98

4453.02

de

d s /

Ps =8 j f

0.0278

0.085 /

8(0.023)

0.77 Pa

2

u

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ] f t

2

m

(988.18)(0.3531)2

0.5

0.14

( 8 0.0039 )

( 1.0 ) + 2.5

0.0075

2

282.14 Pa

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for co-current shell and tube heat exchanger

2. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 2 LPM

Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

10

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

988.18 3 4175

( 30.338.1 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg

.

m

5363.35 W

Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

995.67 3 4183

( 47.248.7 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg

.

m

208.24 W

Heat lost rate

QH QC

5363.35(208.24)

5155.11 W

Efficiency

QC

100

QH

208.24

100

5363.35

3.88

T lm=

T T out

ln

( TT )

out

( 30.348.7 )( 38.147.2 )

(30.348.7 )

ln

( 38.147.2 )

13.21

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

d 2i

4

0.007752

4

4.72 105 m2

Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes

5

4.72 10 10

4.72 104 m2

Mass velocity , G t =

mt

At

0.1647

4

4.72 10

348.94

kg

2

m .s

Gt

348.94

988.18

0.3531

m

s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775

5.494 104

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp

k

0.6436

3.56

j h Pr 0.33 k

tube side coefficient , hi =

di

0.00775

2423.94

W

m2 K

tube pitch

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms

As

0.0332

0.002

16.6

kg

m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

16.6

995.67

0.0166

m

s

Gs

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2

( pt 0.917 d 2o)

do

1.1

2

2

(0.018 0.917 ( 0.00953 ) )

0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

16.6 0.0278

8.007 104

576.35(laminar flow)

Cp

k

8.007 10 4183

0.6155

5.44

Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.023

j Pr

shell side coefficient ,h i= h

de

0.023 576.35 5.44

0.0278

513.26

0.33

0.33

0.6155

W

2

m K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH

A T lm

8002.08

0.15 13.21

4038.40

W

m2 K

de

d s /

Ps =8 j f

0.0278

0.085 /

8(0.023)

0.77 Pa

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w )m +2.5 ]

( 8 0.0039 )

282.14 Pa

f u2t

2

(988.18)(0.3531)2

0.5

( 1.0 )0.14 + 2.5

0.0075

2

DISCUSSION

This experiment is done to determine the function of the shell and tube heat exchanger in

various conditions. This also been done to demonstrate the working principle of the shell and

tube heat exchanger under counter-current and co-current flow conditions and the effect of flow

rates to the performance of the shell and tube heat exchanger. Besides, the experiment is also

to determine the efficiency of the heat exchanger in co-current and counter-current flow

condition. Then, the heat transfer of the system, LMTD and also the pressure drop of the

system are being calculated.

The experiment is being done with different flow rates of the hot water and the cold water. When

the hot water flow rates kept constant, the flow rates of the cold water will be varies between 2

to 10 LPM and vice versa. The temperature of the system will be taken every 3 minutes for each

of the flow rates. Based on the theory, the counter-current flow condition should be more

efficient than the parallel flow condition. This is because the larger difference of the temperature

at the end of the system will lead to the higher thermal stresses that will lead to the material

failure.

Based on the experiment being conducted, the efficiency of the counter-current flow is lower

than the co-current flow which contradicts to the theory. There is error occur during the

experiment that lead to the error in result. The efficiency calculated for co-current flow is beyond

hundred percent and it is impossible for the system to has more than 100 percent efficiency.

The pressure drop is dependence on the value of the flow rates. When the flow rates are varies,

the pressure drop also varies.

pressure drop. This is due to the condition of the flow that is in steady state condition. During

steady state condition, the pressure drop is constant. The difference in pressure drop when the

flow rates vary is because the flow does not achieved the steady state yet.

There are errors occur during the experiments that affect the result of the experiments. The

errors include the equipment error occur during the experiment. The data taken is beyond the

range of the equipment can calculate so the data taken is considered not exact. There is air

bubbles are being trapped in the pipeline that gives effect the amount of pressure in the system.

Then, the system in not in steady state condition when the data is taken. The temperature and

pressure of the system is changing during the data taken shows the system required longer time

to achieve the steady state condition.

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, we can conclude that the most efficient flow conditions for shell and tube

heat exchanger is for counter-current flow conditions. The pressure drop of the shell and tube

heat exchanger is low thus increases the efficiency of the heat exchanger. The pressure drop for

the shell is lower than the tube for both flow conditions. Besides, the LMTD calculated is in

negative sign shows that the system is cooling. The experiment is completed and the objectives

have achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

All the procedures must be follows and understood before doing the experiment.

All the equipment must be checked and rectify any leaks.

Always make sure the heater is fully immersed in the water.

Do not touch the hot components of the unit.

Extremely careful when handling liquid at high temperature.

Always switch off the heater and allow the liquid to cool down before draining.

REFERENCES

Cengel And Michael A. Boles. (Mc Graw Hill)

2. Chopey, N.P. Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations (2nd Edition),

McGraw-Hill, 1994.

3. Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals & Application (Fifth Edition in SI Units),

by Yunus A. Cengel and Afshin J. Ghajar

4. https://www.scribd.com/doc/109549338/Lab-Heat-Exchanger retrieved on 19

March 2015

5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchanger retrieved on 18 March 2015

APPENDICES

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger

3. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 4 LPM

Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

10

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

988.18 3 4175

( 37.930.2 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

5294.59W

Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

995.67 3 4183

( 49.146.6 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

694.15W

QH QC

5294.59694.15

4600.44 W

Efficiency

QC

100

QH

694.15

100

5294.59

13.11

T lm=

T T out

ln

( TT )

out

( 37.949.1 ) ( 30.246.6 )

( 37.949.1 )

ln

(30.246.6 )

13.64

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

d 2i

Cross flow area , A=

4

0.007752

4

4.72 105 m2

Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes

4.72 105 10

4

4.72 10 m

Mass velocity , G t =

mt

At

0.1647

4

4.72 10

348.94

kg

2

m .s

Gt

348.94

988.18

0.3531

m

s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775

0.0005494

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp

k

0.0005494 4175

0.6434

3.56

j h Pr 0.33 k

tube side coefficient , hi =

di

0.00775

2423.94

W

m2 K

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms

As

0.0667

0.002

33.35

kg

m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

33.35

995.67

0.033

m

s

Gs

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2

( pt 0.917 d 2o )

do

1.1

2

2

(0.018 0.917 ( 0.00953 ) )

0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

33.35 0.0278

0.0008007

1157.90(laminar flow )

Cp

k

0.0008007 4183

0.6155

5.44

Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.05

j h Pr 0.33 k

shell side coefficient ,h i=

de

0.0278

2344.21

W

m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH

A T lm

5294.59

0.15 13.64

2344.21

W

m2 . K

de

d s /

Ps =8 j f

0.0278

0.085 /

8(0.05)

6.63 Pa

f u2t

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]

2

m

( 8 0.0039 )

282.14 Pa

(988.18)(0.3531)

0.5

( 1.0 )0.14 + 2.5

0.0075

2

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for co-current shell and tube heat exchanger

4. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 4 LPM

Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

10

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

988.18 3 4175

( 30.436.0 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg

.

m

3850.61W

Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

995.67 3 4183

( 46.648.9 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

888.61W

QH QC

3850.61(888.51)

2962.1W

Efficiency

QC

100

QH

888.51

100

3850.61

23.07

T lm=

T T out

ln

( TT )

out

( 30.448.9 )( 36.046.6 )

( 30.448.9 )

ln

( 36.046.6 )

14.19

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

d 2i

Cross flow area , A=

4

0.00775

4

4.72 105 m2

Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes

4.72 105 10

4

4.72 10 m

Mass velocity , G t =

0.1647

4

4.72 10

mt

At

348.94

kg

2

m .s

Gt

348.94

988.18

0.3531

m

s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775

0.0005494

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp

k

0.0005494 4175

0.6436

3.56

tube side coefficient , hi =

j h Pr 0.33 k

di

0.00775

2423.94

W

2

m K

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

0.018

2

0.002 m

Mass velocity , G s=

ms

As

0.0667

0.002

33.35

kg

m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

33.35

995.67

0.033

m

s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2

( pt 0.917 d 2o )

do

1.1

(0.018 20.917 ( 0.00953 )2 )

0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

33.35 0.0278

0.0008007

1157.90(laminar flow )

Cp

k

0.0008007 4183

0.6155

5.44

Shell side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.048

j h Pr 0.33 k

shell side coefficient ,h i=

de

0.0278

2152.19

0.33

0.6155

W

2

m K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH

A T lm

3850.61

0.15 14.19

1809.07

W

m2 K

de

ds/

Ps =8 j f

0.0278

0.085 /

8(0.048)

6.37 Pa

f u2t

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]

2

m

( 8 0.0039 )

282.14 Pa

(988.18)(0.3531)2

0.5

( 1.0 )0.14 + 2.5

0.0075

2

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger

5. F1 = 2 LPM , F2 = 10 LPM

Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

988.18 3 4175

( 30.829.2 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg

.

m

220.03W

Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

10

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

995.67 3 4183

( 49.338.1 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

7774.46W

QH QC

220.037774.46

7554.43 W

Efficiency

QC

100

QH

7774.46

100

220.03

3533.36

T lm=

T T out

ln

( TT )

out

( 30.849.3 )( 29.238.1 )

( 30.849.3 )

ln

( 29.238.1 )

13.12

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

2

d

Cross flow area , A= i

4

0.007752

4

4.72 105 m2

Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes

5

4.72 10 10

4

4.72 10 m

Mass velocity , G t =

mt

At

0.0333

4.72 104

70.62

kg

m2 . s

Gt

70.62

988.18

0.0714

m

s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

70.62 0.00775

0.0005494

996.19(laminar flow)

0.0005494 4175

0.6434

3.56

Cp

k

tube side coefficient , hi =

j h Pr 0.33 k

di

0.00775

603.66

W

m2 K

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms

As

0.1667

0.002

83.33

kg

m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

83.33

995.67

0.0837

m

s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2

( pt 0.917 d 2o )

do

1.1

2

2

(0.018 0.917 ( 0.00953 ) )

0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

83.33 0.0278

0.0008007

2893.19(turbulent flow )

Cp

k

0.0008007 4183

0.6155

5.44

j h Pr 0.33 k

shell side coefficient ,h i=

de

0.0278

1120.16

W

m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m2

U=

QH

A T lm

220.03

0.15 13.12

3533.36

W

2

m .K

de

ds/

Ps =8 j f

0.0278

0.085 /

8(0.01)

8.53 Pa

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]

m

( 8 0.0048 )

f u2t

2

(988.18)(0.0714)2

0.5

( 1.0 )0.14+ 2.5

0.0075

2

12.75 Pa

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for co-current shell and tube heat exchanger

6. F1 = 2 LPM , F2 = 10 LPM

Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

988.18 3 4175

( 29.931.4 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg .

m

206.28W

Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

10

L

1 m3

1 min

kg

J

995.67 3 4183

( 38.649.5 )

min 1000 L 60 s

kg

.

m

7566.21 W

QH QC

206.28(7566.21)

7359.93W

Efficiency

QC

100

QH

7566.21

100

206.28

3667.93

T lm=

T T out

ln

T

T out

( 29.949.5 ) ( 31.438.6 )

( 29.949.5 )

ln

( 31.438.6 )

12.38

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

Cross flow area , A=

d 2i

4

0.00775

4

5

4.72 10 m

5

4.72 10 10

4.72 104 m2

Mass velocity , G t =

mt

At

0.0333

4.72 104

70.62

kg

m2 . s

Gt

70.62

988.18

0.0714

m

s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

70.62 0.00775

0.0005494

996.19(laminar flow)

Cp

k

0.0005494 4175

0.6436

3.56

Tube side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.0050

j h Pr 0.33 k

tube side coefficient , hi =

di

0.00775

628.81

W

m2 K

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

0.018

2

0.002 m

Mass velocity , G s=

0.1667

0.002

ms

As

83.33

kg

2

m .s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

83.33

995.67

0.0837

m

s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2

( pt 0.917 d 2o )

do

1.1

(0.018 20.917 ( 0.00953 )2 )

0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

83.33 0.0278

0.0008007

2893.19(turbulent flow )

0.0008007 4183

0.6155

Cp

k

5.44

Shell side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.01

j h Pr 0.33 k

shell side coefficient ,h i=

de

0.01 2893 5.440.33 0.6155

0.0278

1120.16

W

m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m2

U=

QH

A T lm

206.26

0.15 12.38

111.08

W

m2 K

de

ds/

Ps =8 j f

0.0278

0.085 /

8(0.01)

8.53 Pa

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]

m

( 8 0.0050 )

628.81 Pa

f u2t

2

(988.18)(0.0715)2

0.5

( 1.0 )0.14+ 2.5

0.0075

2

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