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PROBABILITY
By:- Nishant Gupta

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PROBABILITY

1. Mutually Exclusive Events:


Events are said to be mutually exclusive if the happening of anyone of the events in a trial prevents the
happening of anyone of the others i.e. if no two or more of the events can happen simultaneously in the
same trial. Getting faces numbered 1 to 6, when a die is thrown are mutually exclusive.
2. Exhaustive events: All possible events in any trial are known as exhaustive events.
3. Events in a trial: (a) If S is a sample space and E1, E2 are two events of S.
(i) E1 E2 is the event that occurs as if E1 occurs and E2 does not occur.
(ii) E1 E 2 , is the event that occurs as if neither E1 or E2 happens.
(iii) (E1 E 2 ) (E1 E 2 ) is the event that occurs as if exactly one of E1, E2 happens.
(b) (i) E1 E 2 E 3 is the event that occurs as if only E1 occurs.
(ii) E1 E 2 E 3 is the event that occurs as if both E1 and E2 occurs but not E3 occur.
(iii) E1 E 2 E 3 is the event that occurs as if none of E1, E2, E3 occurs.
4. Mutually Exclusive events: The events E1, E2, ...., En of S are said to be mutually exclusive if Ei Ei =
for i j, If S contains n equally likely simple events and E is a simple event of S, then P(E) = 1/n.
5. Conditional Event: It E1, E2 are events and if E2 occurs after the occurrence of E1, then the event of
occurrence of E2 after the occurrence of E1 is called conditional event. It is denoted by E2\E1.
6. Conditional Probability: E1 , E2 S and P(E1) 0. Then the probability of E2 after the event E1 has
occurred is called the conditional probability of E2 given E1 and is denoted by PE 2 / E1
We define PE 2 / E1 =

P(E1 E 2 )
P ( E1 )

Also, PE 2 / E1 + P E 2 / E1 = 1

7. If E is an event of a sample space S, then the odds in favour of E are defined as P(E) : P( E ) and the odds
m
n
against E are defined as P( E ) : P(E). If P(E): P( E ) = m:n, then P(E) =
and P( E ) =
mn
mn
8. Independent Events:If the occurrence of event E2 is not affected by occurrences or non-occurrence of
event E1 then
(i) P(E1 E2) = P(E1).P(E2) (ii) P(E1 E2) = P(E1) + P(E2) P(E1) . P(E2)
(iii) P (E2/E1) = P(E2).
9. If A and B are independent events, then
(i) A and B

(ii) A and B

(iii) A and B are all independent events

10. Multiplication theorem: E1 , E2 S and P(E1) 0, P(E2) 0, Then P(E1 E2) = P(E1). PE 2 / E1

Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

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11. If A, B, C are any three events of a sample space S, then
P (A B C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A B) P(B C) P(C A) + P(A B C).
12. Bayes Theorem: E1, E2, ..., En are n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events such that P (E i) > 0 (i = 1, 2,
..., n) and A is any other event intersecting in with every Ei (i.e. A can only occur
in combination with one of the events E1, E2, .... En). such that P(A) 0. Then
P(Ek/A) =

P(E k ).P(A / E k )
P(E1 ).P(A / E1 ) P(E 2 ).P(A / E 2 ) ........ P(E n ).P(A / E n )

Here, Ek is anyone of E1, E2, ..., En. This theorem enables us to evaluate P(Ek/A) if all the P(Ei) and P(A/Ek)
are known.

Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

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ASSIGNMENT
PROBABILITY

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Two cards are drawn without replacement


from a well-shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find
the probability that one is a spade and other
is a queen of red colour.
(a) 7/51

(b) 4 /51

A and B throw with a pair of dice. A wins if he


throws 6 before B throws 7 and B wins if he
throws 7 before A throws 6. If A begins, what
is his chance of winning

(c) 1/51

(d) 11/51

(a) 60/61

(b) 30/61

(c) 15/61

(d) 15/42

A coin is tossed three times. The probability


that head and tail will show alternately
(a) 2/6

(b) 1/2

(c) 1/3

(d)

Bag A contains 2 white and 3 red balls and


bag B contains 4 white and 5 red balls. One
ball is drawn at random from one of the bags
and is found to be red. The probability that it
is drawn from bag B is
(a) 3/5

(b) 5/9

(c) 25/52

(d) 31/52

A & B appear for an interview for two posts.


The prob. of As selection is 1/3 and that of
Bs is 2/5. Prob. that only one is selected.
(a) 8/15

(b) 11/15

(c) 7/15

(d) N/T

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Three persons A, B, C throw a die in


succession. The one getting 'six' wins. If A
starts then probability of B winning is
(a) 36/25

(b) 25/41

(c) 41/91

(d) 30/91

Two fair dice are thrown, one shows 4 then


probability of other showing 6 is
(a) 2/11

(b) 1/18

(c) 1/6

(d) 1/36

12.

Words are formed by letters of ROORKEE,


probability that identical letters are never
separated
(a) 1/4

(b) 3/4

(c) 4/105

(d) n/t

A coin is tossed n times , probability that it


shows heads an odd number of times
(a) 1/2

(b) 1/2 n

(c) 1/2n-1

(d) N/T

A fair coin is tossed 4 times , probability that


number of heads is equal to number of tails is
(a) 1/3

(b) 1/12

(c) 4/15

(d) N/T

Probability of occuring of both of independent


events is 1/6 & of neither is 1/3. Then
probability of each being
(a) 1/2, 1/3

(b) 1/5,1/6

(c) 1/2, 1/6

(d) 2/3,

If P ( A ) = 0 . 3 , P ( B ) = 0 . 6 & P ( B/A ) =
0 . 5, then P ( AUB ) is
(a) 0. 65

(b) 0. 56

(c) 0 .75

(d) N/T

Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

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13.

If P(A B) = 1/3 and P(A B) = 5/6 and


P(BC) = 1 / 2 then A and B are

20.

(c) mutually exclusive

A man is going for gambling. He plays three


games. He is declared successful if he wins
atleast 2 games. Probability of his winning
games I, II are p, q and 1/3 respectively. If
probability of his winning is 1/2, then

(d) None

(a) p(1 q)= q(1 p)

Let A and B be two possible events of an


experiment such that P (A) = 0.4, P ( A B)=
0.7 and P (B) = p. For what value of p are A
and B are independent?

(c) 2p(1+ q)=3q(1+ p) (d) 32pq=2(p+ q)

(a) independent
(b) dependent

14.

15.

16.

(a) 0.2

(b) 0.5

A family has 6 children. Assuming sex


distribution to be equally likely, mutually
exclusive and exhaustive, the probability that
the family has fewer boys than girls, is

(c) 0.3

(d) None

(a) 11/32

(b) 10/32

(c) 7/64

(d) 11/64

Probability of atleast one of A and B is 0.6,


both simultaneously is 0.3 then P(A/) +P (B/)
(a) 0.9

(b) 1.15

(c) 1.1

(d) 0. 6

21.

22.

Which of the following statement is not true?


(a) P A B P A
(b) P A B P A

P A B
(c) PA B
P A

23.

(d) P A 0 means A is an impossible event


17.

18.

19.

(b) pq = 1 + p

Bag I contains 5 balls, 2 white and 3 red. Bag


II 4 white and 5 red . One marble is drawn
from one of the bags and found to be red.
Probability that it was drawn from bag II.

24.

(a) 25/52

(b) 25/26

25.

(c) 10/26

(d) 10/52

Two men A and B draw one ball each (with


replacement) from a box containing 2 white
and 4 red balls. If A starts, the probability that
B draws a white ball before A is
(a) 2/45

(b) 3/5

(c) 2/5

(d)

Faces of dice are numbered 2,3,5,7,11,13 .


Two such dice are thrown probability that
sum of outcomes is 13

26.

27.

Two normal fair dice are rolled. A be event


that sum of points on faces shown is odd & B
is the event that at least one face shows up 3.
The probability of the event P(AUB) =
(a) 11/36

(b) 28/36

(c) 23/36

(d) None

Probability that in a year of 22 nd century


chosen at random there will be 53 Sundays
(a) 2/28

(b) 2/28

(c) 7/28

(d) 5/28

If ( 1 + a ) / 3 & ( 1 a ) / 4 are probability of


two mutually exclusive events then a lies in
(a) [ -1 , 1]

(b) [ -7 , 5]

(c) [ -1 , 2]

(d) [ -4 , 1 ]

If in a Binomial distribution, the mean and


variance are 4 and 2 respectively, probability
of 2 successes is
(a) 37/256

(b) 219/256

(c) 1/2

(d) 28/256

If mean and variance are 21 and 22


respectively, then its mode is approximately
(a) 22.0

(b) 20.5

(c) 25.5

(d) 24.0

(a) 5/18

(b) 25/36

Two numbers are selected one by one


without replacement from {1,2,3,4,5,6},
probability that minimum is less than 4 , is

(c) 13/18

(d) 23/36

(a) 1/15

Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

(b) 14/15

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(c) 1/5

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

selected & fitted. Probability that there will be


light in the room,

(d) 4/5

Three critics review a book. Odds in favour of


book are 5 : 2, 4 : 3 and 3 : 4 respectively for
three critics. Find the probability that
majority are in favour of book.

(b) 55/67

(c) 45/67

(d) N/T

(a) 109/343

(b) 169/343

Two cards are drawn from a well shuffled


pack of 52 cards without replacement. What
is the probability that one is a red queen and
other is a king of black colour

(c) 209/343

(d) N/T

(a) 4/(52x51)

(b) 8 /(52 x 51)

(c) 4/(52x52)

(d) 8/(52x52)

A pair of dice is thrown to get coordinates of a


point . Probability that this point lies inside
the region bounded by
| x | + |y | =3, is

36.

(a) 52/67

(a) 3/14

(b) 2/3

A bag contains 5 white, 7 red and 8 black


balls. If 4 balls are drawn one by one with
replacement. Probability that none is white

(c) 1/12

(d) 4/14

(a) 1- (1/4) 4

(b) 11/15

(c) (3/4) 4

(d) N/T

A fair die is thrown until a score of less than 5


is obtained. Probability of less than 3 in last
throw is
(a) 1/2

(b) 3/5

(c) 4/5

(d) 5/6

Three of six vertices of a regular hexagon are


chosen at random. Then the probability that
the triangle formed is equilateral, is
(a) 1/10

(b) 3/10

(c) 2/5

(d) N/T

37.

38.

39.

40.

In order to get atleast once a head with


probability 0.9., number of times a coin is to
be tossed
(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 5

(d) None

One Indian & 4 Pakistanis sit along with their


wives around a circular table , probability
that Indian sit adjacent to his wife given that
Pakistanis are sitting adjacent to their wives
(a) 1/2

(b) 1/3

(c) 2/5

(d) 1/5

Probability that a man aged 80 years will die


in year 1995 is 1/2. Probability that out of
four persons A1, A2, A3, A4 each aged 80 years,
A1 will die in 1995 & will be the first to die is

41.

42.

(a) 4/5

(b) 1/5

(c) 2/5

(d) N/T

If P(A) = 0.65, P(B) = 0.8 then P(A B) lies in


(a) [0.3, 0.8]

(b) [0.4, 0.7]

(c) [0.35, 0.75]

(d) N/T

In constructing a problem on vectors three


components of a vector are randomly chosen
from digits 0 to 5 with replacements,
probability that magnitude of vector is 5.
(a) 1/6

(b)1/12

(c) 1/24

(d) N/T

x [1, 100] probability that x + (1/x) is


greater than 2
(a) 99/100

(b) 1 / 2

(c) 47/100

(d) N/T

Probability that a man can hit a target is 3 / 4.


He tries 5 times probability of at least three
hits is
(a) 291/364

(b) 371/464

(c) 471/502

(d) N/T

(a) 15/64

(b) 1/8

A fair coin is tossed n times, let X denotes no.


of heads. If P(X = 4), P(X = 5), P(X = 6) are in
AP then n is

(c) 1/5

(d) 15/16

(a) 7

(b) 14

(c) 7 or 14

(d) N/T

In a dark room there are 4 electrified bulb


holders. Out of 10 fused bulbs & 4 good, 4 are

43.

If x [0, 5] probability that x2 3x + 2 0

Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

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44.

45.

46.

10 apples are distributed among 6 persons.


Probability that at least one of them will
receive none is
(a) 6/143

(b) 137/143

(c) 11/143

(d) 132/143

52.

(a)

(b) 1/12

(c) 4/15

(d) 7/12

(a) 11C6 (0.24)5

(c)
53.

A man takes a step forward with probability


0.4 and backward with probability 0.6,
probability that at the end of 11 steps he is
one step away from the starting point
(b) 11C6 (0.4)6 (0.6)5

54.

(c) 11C6 (0.4)5 (0.6)6 (d) N/T


47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

Mean and S.D. of a binomial distribution are


20 and 4 then number of events are
(a) 50

(b) 25

(c) 100

(d) N/T

55.

A pair of natural number is selected from first


50 natural number, probability that sum of
the selected numbers is odd
(a) 1 / 2

(b) 24/49

(c) 25/49

(d) N/T

56.

Three numbers are chosen at random from 1


to 20 probability that they are consecutive is
(a) 3/190

(b) 1/60

(c) 1/57

(d) N/T

Probability that a teacher will give an


unannounced test is 1 / 5 . If a student is
absent twice, probability that he misses at
least one test
(a) 16/25

(b) 16/21

(c) 12/21

(d) N/T

57.

Binomial distribution whose mean is 9 and


S.D 3/2 is:

1 3
(a)
4 4

1 3
(c)
4 4

12

11

1 2
(b)
3 3

12

3 1
(d)
4 4

58.
12

12!
6

2 .6

A fair coin is tossed 4 times , Probability that


number of heads & tails are equal is
(a) 1/3

Probability that in a throw of 12 dice


1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6 will occur in any
sequence, is
(b)

12

12!

12!
6

6 .212

(d) N/T

2 6 .6 6

A box contains 12 pairs of shoes of which


4 shoes are taken at random. Probability
that there is at least one pair?
(a) 15/332

(b) 33/78

(c) 12/23

(d) 41/161

A bag contains 16 coins of which two are


counterfeit with heads on both sides , rest
coins are fair . A coin is selected & tossed ,
probability that it shows heads
(a) 9 /16

(b) 11 / 16

(c) 5 / 9

(d) N/T

Three different numbers are selected at


random from A = {1, 2, 3,....,10}. Probability
that product of two is equal to the third, is
(a) 3/4

(b) 1/40

(c) 1/8

(d) N/T

The probability of getting a sum of 12 in four


throws of an ordinary dice, is
3

(a)

1 5

66

(c)

1 5

36 6

5
(b)
6

(d) N/T

A is one of 6 horses in race, and is to be


ridden by one of two jockeys B and C. It is 2 to
1 that B rides A, in which case all the horses
are equally likely to win. If C rides A, his
chance of winning is tripled. What are the
odds against winning of A?
(a) 5 : 13

(b) 5 : 18

(c) 13:5

(d) N/T

An unbiased dieis thrown n times & list of n


numbers shown up is noted. Then probability
that, among numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only three
numbers appear in this list, is

Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

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(a)
(c)

3n

6n
(3 n - 3)
6

59.

60.

(b)

C3

x3

C3

(3 n - 3.2 n 3)
6n

(c) 13/24

C3

61.

(d) N/T

f(x) =
+
+ bx + c, where a, b, c are
chosen respectively by throwing a die three
times. Probability that f ( x ) is an increasing
(a) 4/9

(b) 3/8

(c) 2/5

(d) 8/17

(c) 162.

If a [ 20, 0], then probability that


16x2 +8(a+5)x -7a -5=0 has imaginary roots,
(a) 13/20

Four cards are drawn from a pack of 52


playing cards. Then the probability of
drawing atleast one pair is
(a) 1-

ax2

(b) 20/13

(d)

4 4 x 13 C 4
52

(b) 1 -

C4

4 4 x 13!
52!

13

C4

52

C4

(d) N/T

If A and B throw a die each. Probability that


A's throw is not greater than B's throw, is
(a) 7/12

(b) 5/12

(c) 1/6

(d)

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Nishant Gupta, D-122, Prashant vihar, Rohini, Delhi-85


Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880