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com

PROBABILITY

By:- Nishant Gupta

9953168795, 9268789880

PROBABILITY

Events are said to be mutually exclusive if the happening of anyone of the events in a trial prevents the

happening of anyone of the others i.e. if no two or more of the events can happen simultaneously in the

same trial. Getting faces numbered 1 to 6, when a die is thrown are mutually exclusive.

2. Exhaustive events: All possible events in any trial are known as exhaustive events.

3. Events in a trial: (a) If S is a sample space and E1, E2 are two events of S.

(i) E1 E2 is the event that occurs as if E1 occurs and E2 does not occur.

(ii) E1 E 2 , is the event that occurs as if neither E1 or E2 happens.

(iii) (E1 E 2 ) (E1 E 2 ) is the event that occurs as if exactly one of E1, E2 happens.

(b) (i) E1 E 2 E 3 is the event that occurs as if only E1 occurs.

(ii) E1 E 2 E 3 is the event that occurs as if both E1 and E2 occurs but not E3 occur.

(iii) E1 E 2 E 3 is the event that occurs as if none of E1, E2, E3 occurs.

4. Mutually Exclusive events: The events E1, E2, ...., En of S are said to be mutually exclusive if Ei Ei =

for i j, If S contains n equally likely simple events and E is a simple event of S, then P(E) = 1/n.

5. Conditional Event: It E1, E2 are events and if E2 occurs after the occurrence of E1, then the event of

occurrence of E2 after the occurrence of E1 is called conditional event. It is denoted by E2\E1.

6. Conditional Probability: E1 , E2 S and P(E1) 0. Then the probability of E2 after the event E1 has

occurred is called the conditional probability of E2 given E1 and is denoted by PE 2 / E1

We define PE 2 / E1 =

P(E1 E 2 )

P ( E1 )

Also, PE 2 / E1 + P E 2 / E1 = 1

7. If E is an event of a sample space S, then the odds in favour of E are defined as P(E) : P( E ) and the odds

m

n

against E are defined as P( E ) : P(E). If P(E): P( E ) = m:n, then P(E) =

and P( E ) =

mn

mn

8. Independent Events:If the occurrence of event E2 is not affected by occurrences or non-occurrence of

event E1 then

(i) P(E1 E2) = P(E1).P(E2) (ii) P(E1 E2) = P(E1) + P(E2) P(E1) . P(E2)

(iii) P (E2/E1) = P(E2).

9. If A and B are independent events, then

(i) A and B

(ii) A and B

10. Multiplication theorem: E1 , E2 S and P(E1) 0, P(E2) 0, Then P(E1 E2) = P(E1). PE 2 / E1

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

11. If A, B, C are any three events of a sample space S, then

P (A B C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A B) P(B C) P(C A) + P(A B C).

12. Bayes Theorem: E1, E2, ..., En are n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events such that P (E i) > 0 (i = 1, 2,

..., n) and A is any other event intersecting in with every Ei (i.e. A can only occur

in combination with one of the events E1, E2, .... En). such that P(A) 0. Then

P(Ek/A) =

P(E k ).P(A / E k )

P(E1 ).P(A / E1 ) P(E 2 ).P(A / E 2 ) ........ P(E n ).P(A / E n )

Here, Ek is anyone of E1, E2, ..., En. This theorem enables us to evaluate P(Ek/A) if all the P(Ei) and P(A/Ek)

are known.

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

ASSIGNMENT

PROBABILITY

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

from a well-shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find

the probability that one is a spade and other

is a queen of red colour.

(a) 7/51

(b) 4 /51

throws 6 before B throws 7 and B wins if he

throws 7 before A throws 6. If A begins, what

is his chance of winning

(c) 1/51

(d) 11/51

(a) 60/61

(b) 30/61

(c) 15/61

(d) 15/42

that head and tail will show alternately

(a) 2/6

(b) 1/2

(c) 1/3

(d)

bag B contains 4 white and 5 red balls. One

ball is drawn at random from one of the bags

and is found to be red. The probability that it

is drawn from bag B is

(a) 3/5

(b) 5/9

(c) 25/52

(d) 31/52

The prob. of As selection is 1/3 and that of

Bs is 2/5. Prob. that only one is selected.

(a) 8/15

(b) 11/15

(c) 7/15

(d) N/T

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

succession. The one getting 'six' wins. If A

starts then probability of B winning is

(a) 36/25

(b) 25/41

(c) 41/91

(d) 30/91

probability of other showing 6 is

(a) 2/11

(b) 1/18

(c) 1/6

(d) 1/36

12.

probability that identical letters are never

separated

(a) 1/4

(b) 3/4

(c) 4/105

(d) n/t

shows heads an odd number of times

(a) 1/2

(b) 1/2 n

(c) 1/2n-1

(d) N/T

number of heads is equal to number of tails is

(a) 1/3

(b) 1/12

(c) 4/15

(d) N/T

events is 1/6 & of neither is 1/3. Then

probability of each being

(a) 1/2, 1/3

(b) 1/5,1/6

(d) 2/3,

If P ( A ) = 0 . 3 , P ( B ) = 0 . 6 & P ( B/A ) =

0 . 5, then P ( AUB ) is

(a) 0. 65

(b) 0. 56

(c) 0 .75

(d) N/T

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

13.

P(BC) = 1 / 2 then A and B are

20.

games. He is declared successful if he wins

atleast 2 games. Probability of his winning

games I, II are p, q and 1/3 respectively. If

probability of his winning is 1/2, then

(d) None

experiment such that P (A) = 0.4, P ( A B)=

0.7 and P (B) = p. For what value of p are A

and B are independent?

(a) independent

(b) dependent

14.

15.

16.

(a) 0.2

(b) 0.5

distribution to be equally likely, mutually

exclusive and exhaustive, the probability that

the family has fewer boys than girls, is

(c) 0.3

(d) None

(a) 11/32

(b) 10/32

(c) 7/64

(d) 11/64

both simultaneously is 0.3 then P(A/) +P (B/)

(a) 0.9

(b) 1.15

(c) 1.1

(d) 0. 6

21.

22.

(a) P A B P A

(b) P A B P A

P A B

(c) PA B

P A

23.

17.

18.

19.

(b) pq = 1 + p

II 4 white and 5 red . One marble is drawn

from one of the bags and found to be red.

Probability that it was drawn from bag II.

24.

(a) 25/52

(b) 25/26

25.

(c) 10/26

(d) 10/52

replacement) from a box containing 2 white

and 4 red balls. If A starts, the probability that

B draws a white ball before A is

(a) 2/45

(b) 3/5

(c) 2/5

(d)

Two such dice are thrown probability that

sum of outcomes is 13

26.

27.

that sum of points on faces shown is odd & B

is the event that at least one face shows up 3.

The probability of the event P(AUB) =

(a) 11/36

(b) 28/36

(c) 23/36

(d) None

chosen at random there will be 53 Sundays

(a) 2/28

(b) 2/28

(c) 7/28

(d) 5/28

two mutually exclusive events then a lies in

(a) [ -1 , 1]

(b) [ -7 , 5]

(c) [ -1 , 2]

(d) [ -4 , 1 ]

variance are 4 and 2 respectively, probability

of 2 successes is

(a) 37/256

(b) 219/256

(c) 1/2

(d) 28/256

respectively, then its mode is approximately

(a) 22.0

(b) 20.5

(c) 25.5

(d) 24.0

(a) 5/18

(b) 25/36

without replacement from {1,2,3,4,5,6},

probability that minimum is less than 4 , is

(c) 13/18

(d) 23/36

(a) 1/15

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

(b) 14/15

(c) 1/5

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

light in the room,

(d) 4/5

book are 5 : 2, 4 : 3 and 3 : 4 respectively for

three critics. Find the probability that

majority are in favour of book.

(b) 55/67

(c) 45/67

(d) N/T

(a) 109/343

(b) 169/343

pack of 52 cards without replacement. What

is the probability that one is a red queen and

other is a king of black colour

(c) 209/343

(d) N/T

(a) 4/(52x51)

(c) 4/(52x52)

(d) 8/(52x52)

point . Probability that this point lies inside

the region bounded by

| x | + |y | =3, is

36.

(a) 52/67

(a) 3/14

(b) 2/3

balls. If 4 balls are drawn one by one with

replacement. Probability that none is white

(c) 1/12

(d) 4/14

(a) 1- (1/4) 4

(b) 11/15

(c) (3/4) 4

(d) N/T

is obtained. Probability of less than 3 in last

throw is

(a) 1/2

(b) 3/5

(c) 4/5

(d) 5/6

chosen at random. Then the probability that

the triangle formed is equilateral, is

(a) 1/10

(b) 3/10

(c) 2/5

(d) N/T

37.

38.

39.

40.

probability 0.9., number of times a coin is to

be tossed

(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 5

(d) None

wives around a circular table , probability

that Indian sit adjacent to his wife given that

Pakistanis are sitting adjacent to their wives

(a) 1/2

(b) 1/3

(c) 2/5

(d) 1/5

in year 1995 is 1/2. Probability that out of

four persons A1, A2, A3, A4 each aged 80 years,

A1 will die in 1995 & will be the first to die is

41.

42.

(a) 4/5

(b) 1/5

(c) 2/5

(d) N/T

(a) [0.3, 0.8]

(d) N/T

components of a vector are randomly chosen

from digits 0 to 5 with replacements,

probability that magnitude of vector is 5.

(a) 1/6

(b)1/12

(c) 1/24

(d) N/T

greater than 2

(a) 99/100

(b) 1 / 2

(c) 47/100

(d) N/T

He tries 5 times probability of at least three

hits is

(a) 291/364

(b) 371/464

(c) 471/502

(d) N/T

(a) 15/64

(b) 1/8

of heads. If P(X = 4), P(X = 5), P(X = 6) are in

AP then n is

(c) 1/5

(d) 15/16

(a) 7

(b) 14

(c) 7 or 14

(d) N/T

holders. Out of 10 fused bulbs & 4 good, 4 are

43.

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

44.

45.

46.

Probability that at least one of them will

receive none is

(a) 6/143

(b) 137/143

(c) 11/143

(d) 132/143

52.

(a)

(b) 1/12

(c) 4/15

(d) 7/12

(c)

53.

0.4 and backward with probability 0.6,

probability that at the end of 11 steps he is

one step away from the starting point

(b) 11C6 (0.4)6 (0.6)5

54.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

20 and 4 then number of events are

(a) 50

(b) 25

(c) 100

(d) N/T

55.

50 natural number, probability that sum of

the selected numbers is odd

(a) 1 / 2

(b) 24/49

(c) 25/49

(d) N/T

56.

to 20 probability that they are consecutive is

(a) 3/190

(b) 1/60

(c) 1/57

(d) N/T

unannounced test is 1 / 5 . If a student is

absent twice, probability that he misses at

least one test

(a) 16/25

(b) 16/21

(c) 12/21

(d) N/T

57.

S.D 3/2 is:

1 3

(a)

4 4

1 3

(c)

4 4

12

11

1 2

(b)

3 3

12

3 1

(d)

4 4

58.

12

12!

6

2 .6

number of heads & tails are equal is

(a) 1/3

1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6 will occur in any

sequence, is

(b)

12

12!

12!

6

6 .212

(d) N/T

2 6 .6 6

4 shoes are taken at random. Probability

that there is at least one pair?

(a) 15/332

(b) 33/78

(c) 12/23

(d) 41/161

counterfeit with heads on both sides , rest

coins are fair . A coin is selected & tossed ,

probability that it shows heads

(a) 9 /16

(b) 11 / 16

(c) 5 / 9

(d) N/T

random from A = {1, 2, 3,....,10}. Probability

that product of two is equal to the third, is

(a) 3/4

(b) 1/40

(c) 1/8

(d) N/T

throws of an ordinary dice, is

3

(a)

1 5

66

(c)

1 5

36 6

5

(b)

6

(d) N/T

ridden by one of two jockeys B and C. It is 2 to

1 that B rides A, in which case all the horses

are equally likely to win. If C rides A, his

chance of winning is tripled. What are the

odds against winning of A?

(a) 5 : 13

(b) 5 : 18

(c) 13:5

(d) N/T

numbers shown up is noted. Then probability

that, among numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only three

numbers appear in this list, is

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

(a)

(c)

3n

6n

(3 n - 3)

6

59.

60.

(b)

C3

x3

C3

(3 n - 3.2 n 3)

6n

(c) 13/24

C3

61.

(d) N/T

f(x) =

+

+ bx + c, where a, b, c are

chosen respectively by throwing a die three

times. Probability that f ( x ) is an increasing

(a) 4/9

(b) 3/8

(c) 2/5

(d) 8/17

(c) 162.

16x2 +8(a+5)x -7a -5=0 has imaginary roots,

(a) 13/20

playing cards. Then the probability of

drawing atleast one pair is

(a) 1-

ax2

(b) 20/13

(d)

4 4 x 13 C 4

52

(b) 1 -

C4

4 4 x 13!

52!

13

C4

52

C4

(d) N/T

A's throw is not greater than B's throw, is

(a) 7/12

(b) 5/12

(c) 1/6

(d)

ANSWER(PROBABILITY)

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

Contact: 9953168795, 9268789880

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