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AA283 Ch08 Multistage Rockets
Brian Cantwell

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7.1

Notation

7.2

Analysis

(8.2)

(8.3)

(8.4)

(8.5)

(8.6)

(8.7)

8.3

8.4

Example - Exhaust velocity and

structural coefficient the same for all stages.

advantage to using

more than about

three stages.

C1 = 2500

C2 = 4250

C3 = 4250

1+ 1

1+ 2

1+ 3

V3 = C1 Ln

+

C

Ln

+

C

Ln

2

3

+

+

1 + 1

2

2

3

3

1 + 0.321

1 + 0.466

1 + 0.603

V3 = 2500Ln

+

4250Ln

+

4250Ln

= 10429M / sec

0.05 + 0.321

0.071 + 0.466

0.191 + 0.603

Alternative approach.

The final velocity of a multistage system can be expressed as

M 0i / M Pi

Vn = Ci ln

M 0i / M Pi 1

i=1

n

M 01 / M P1

M 02 / M P 2

V2 = C1 Ln

+

C

Ln

2

M / M 1

M 01 / M P1 1

02

P2

M 01 = M S1 + M P1 + M S 2 + M P 2 + M L

M 02 = M S 2 + M P 2 + M L

M s1 = 1 M P1

1 1

M s2 = 2 M P2

1 2

1

1

ML =

M +

M

1 1 1 P1 1 1 2 P 2

M 01 1 1 1 M P 2

=

+

M P1 1 1 1 1 2 M P1

1

M 02 1

1

=

+

M P 2 1 1 1 M P 2 / M P1 1 2

M 01 / M P1

M 02 / M P 2

V2 = C1 Ln

+ C2 Ln

M / M 1

M / M 1

01

P1

02

P2

1 1 1 M P2

1

1

1

+

1 1 1 M

1 1 M / M + 1

1

2

P1

1

P2

P1

2

+ C2 Ln

V2 = C1 Ln

1 1 1 M P2

1

1

1

+

1

1 M

M / M + 1 1

1

1

2

P1

1

P2

P1

2

,C1 ,C2 , 1 , 2

The final velocity is a function of the propellant ratio.

M P2

V2 = F

M

P1

ratio to identify a maximum.

2020-2026(ish)

Return to Earth

Lander to Surface

MAV

Ashley Chandlers

PhD project

Requires international collaboration

Multiple new developments

Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV)

Sample acquisition and handling

Precision entry descent and landing

Diurnal/seasonal minima and maxima (-111C to 24C)

Nitrous oxide freezing point is -90.8 C.

Paraffin-based fuel is primarily crystalline with a low glass transition

temperature at -108 C.

40

Max: 24C

20

Surface Temperature, C

0

20

40

60

Research Center Mars Global

Climate Model for Holden

Crater.

Average: !60C

80

100

Min: !111C

120

0

10

15

Local Time of Day, hours

20

25

0.354

velocity is actually

quite insensitive to

the propellant mass

ratio giving the

designer quite a bit

of flexibility.

Notional values.

1 = 0.13

V2

2 = 0.155

C1 = 2883

C2 = 3026

= 0.147

M P 2 / M P1

MAV System

Stage 2

Stage 1

Mass (kg)

Structural Coefficient

Max. Pchamber (MPa)

Delivered Isp (m/sec)

V (m/sec)

Mass (kg)

Structural Coefficient

Max. Pchamber (MPa)

Delivered Isp (m/sec)

V (m/sec)

Total Ideal V (m/sec)

Maximum Diameter (m)

Vehicle Length (m)

Payload Mass (kg)

Gross Lift Off Mass (kg)

Igloo Mass (kg)

System Total Mass (kg)

Solid

Hybrid

Hybrid

215.6

0.170

4.83

2813

2530

86.2

0.175

6.45

2813

1845

4375

0.442

2.56

36

301.8

50

351.8

145.89

0.189

1.72

2952

1675

91.37

0.169

1.38

2977

2700

4375

0.541

3.829

36

273.3

0

273.3

= 0.132

128.86

0.167

1.72

2951

1675

83.57

0.147

1.38

2976

2700

4375

0.524

3.747

36

248.4

0

248.4

Volume Constraint

Volumetric Constraint

center of gravity constraints

In order to confirm the design it is necessary to fly it to orbit.

Keplers Equations

Keplers equations govern the motion of objects near gravitating

bodies. This is called the two body problem.

Universal gravitational

constant

Mm r

F = G 2

r r

x(t)

x(t) + M Planet G

=0

3

r(t)

G = 6.67 10 11 m3/kg-sec2

z(t)

z(t) + M Planet G

=0

3

r(t)

y(t)

y(t) + M Planet G

=0

3

r(t)

r (t ) = x (t ) + y (t ) + z (t )

2

Orbital Period

z

Equations of motion

x(t) FxDRAG (t) FxTHRUST (t)

x(t) + mMARS G

+

=0

3

r(t)

m(t)

m(t)

y(t) + mMARS G

+

=0

3

r(t)

m(t)

m(t)

z(t) + mMARS G

+

=0

3

r(t)

m(t)

m(t)

y

x

Mars mass=6.418 x 1023 kg

G = 6.67 10 11 m3/kg-sec2

Mars velocity scale:

r3

= 948.03

mG

U MARS =

sec

mG

= 3561

r

m/sec

Vehicle mass

m(t)

Aerodynamic drag

CD0=0.2

CD

CD 0

M

Drag

t /

z

y

Launch point

Launch trajectory

Gravity turn

equator=241.17 m/sec

Vertical launch

12.5 sec

FTHRUST V = 0

y, z)

V = ( x,

See the paper Universal

Gravity Turn Trajectories on

my website.

d

dt

= 0.038 degrees/sec

ROCKET

d

= 0.132 degrees/sec

dt

d

= 0.0007 degrees/sec

dt

First stage

gravity turn

36.6 sec

Coast

620 sec

Second stage

gravity turn to orbit

39.4 sec

Maximum altitude

557.9

km

Minimum altitude

527.5

km

M 01 / M P1

M 02 / M P 2

M 03 / M P 3

V3 = C1 ln

+ C2 ln

+ C3 ln

M

/

M

1

M

/

M

M / M 1

01

P1

02

P2

03

P3

The mass ratios can be written in terms of the payload fraction as follows.

1

1

1 1

M 01 / M P1 =

+

M

/

M

+

M

/

M

( P 2 P1 ) 1 ( P 3 P1 )

1 1 1 1 2

M 02 / M P 2

1

1 M P 3 / M P1

1 1

=

+

+

1 1 2 1 1 M P 2 / M P1 1 3 M P 2 / M P1

1

M P 2 / M P1

1 1

M 03 / M P 3 =

+

+

1 1 3 1 1 M P 3 / M P1 1 2 M P 3 / M P1

The final velocity is a function of of the propellant ratios.

M P2 M P3

V3 = F

,

M

M

P1

P1

identify a maximum.

1 = 0.116

2 = 0.117

3 = 0.148

C1 = 3040 m / sec

C2 = 3210 m / sec

C3 = 3350 m / sec

= 0.01125

V = 10,800 m / sec

Payload mass = 85 kg

M 01 = 7557 kg

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