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AA283

Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion

Chapter 8 - Multistage Rockets

7.1

Notation

7.2

Analysis

(8.2)

(8.3)

(8.4)

(8.5)

(8.6)

(8.7)

8.3

The variational problem

8.4
Example - Exhaust velocity and
structural coefficient the same for all stages.

There is very little


advantage to using
more than about
three stages.

C1 = 2500

C2 = 4250

C3 = 4250

1+ 1
1+ 2
1+ 3
V3 = C1 Ln
+
C
Ln
+
C
Ln
2
3
+
+
1 + 1
2
2
3
3

1 + 0.321
1 + 0.466
1 + 0.603
V3 = 2500Ln
+
4250Ln
+
4250Ln

= 10429M / sec
0.05 + 0.321
0.071 + 0.466
0.191 + 0.603

Alternative approach.
The final velocity of a multistage system can be expressed as

M 0i / M Pi
Vn = Ci ln
M 0i / M Pi 1
i=1
n

Consider a two stage design

M 01 / M P1
M 02 / M P 2
V2 = C1 Ln
+
C
Ln
2
M / M 1
M 01 / M P1 1
02
P2

M 01 = M S1 + M P1 + M S 2 + M P 2 + M L

M 02 = M S 2 + M P 2 + M L

M s1 = 1 M P1
1 1


M s2 = 2 M P2
1 2

Express payload mass in terms of propellant masses and payload fraction

1
1
ML =
M +
M
1 1 1 P1 1 1 2 P 2

Express stage mass ratios in terms of propellant mass ratios

M 01 1 1 1 M P 2
=
+

M P1 1 1 1 1 2 M P1
1
M 02 1
1
=
+

M P 2 1 1 1 M P 2 / M P1 1 2

M 01 / M P1
M 02 / M P 2
V2 = C1 Ln
+ C2 Ln

M / M 1
M / M 1
01

P1

02

P2

1 1 1 M P2
1
1
1
+
1 1 1 M
1 1 M / M + 1

1
2
P1
1
P2
P1
2
+ C2 Ln

V2 = C1 Ln
1 1 1 M P2
1
1
1
+

1




1 M
M / M + 1 1
1

1
2
P1
1
P2
P1
2

For given values of

,C1 ,C2 , 1 , 2
The final velocity is a function of the propellant ratio.

M P2
V2 = F
M
P1

It is now just a matter of differentiating with respect to the propellant


ratio to identify a maximum.

Application - Mars Sample Return Campaign


2020-2026(ish)

Return to Earth

Lander to Surface

MAV
Ashley Chandlers
PhD project

Mars Orbit Rendezvous

Next major step in Mars Science


Requires international collaboration
Multiple new developments
Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV)
Sample acquisition and handling
Precision entry descent and landing

Critical Challenge: Mars Environmental Conditions


Diurnal/seasonal minima and maxima (-111C to 24C)
Nitrous oxide freezing point is -90.8 C.
Paraffin-based fuel is primarily crystalline with a low glass transition
temperature at -108 C.
40
Max: 24C
20

Surface Temperature, C

0
20
40
60

Data from the NASA Ames


Research Center Mars Global
Climate Model for Holden
Crater.

Average: !60C

80
100
Min: !111C
120
0

10
15
Local Time of Day, hours

20

25

Use a two stage design for the Mars ascent vehicle

0.354

Note that the final


velocity is actually
quite insensitive to
the propellant mass
ratio giving the
designer quite a bit
of flexibility.

Notional values.

1 = 0.13

V2

2 = 0.155
C1 = 2883

C2 = 3026

= 0.147

M P 2 / M P1

System Parameters - proposed design


MAV System

Stage 2

Stage 1

Mass (kg)
Structural Coefficient
Max. Pchamber (MPa)
Delivered Isp (m/sec)
V (m/sec)
Mass (kg)
Structural Coefficient
Max. Pchamber (MPa)
Delivered Isp (m/sec)
V (m/sec)
Total Ideal V (m/sec)
Maximum Diameter (m)
Vehicle Length (m)
Payload Mass (kg)
Gross Lift Off Mass (kg)
Igloo Mass (kg)
System Total Mass (kg)

Two Stage 40% Margin 20% Margin


Solid
Hybrid
Hybrid
215.6
0.170
4.83
2813
2530
86.2
0.175
6.45
2813
1845
4375
0.442
2.56
36
301.8
50
351.8

145.89
0.189
1.72
2952
1675
91.37
0.169
1.38
2977
2700
4375
0.541
3.829
36
273.3
0
273.3
= 0.132

128.86
0.167
1.72
2951
1675
83.57
0.147
1.38
2976
2700
4375
0.524
3.747
36
248.4
0
248.4

Volume Constraint

Volumetric Constraint

Hybrid MAV can be repackaged to fit within the volumetric and


center of gravity constraints
In order to confirm the design it is necessary to fly it to orbit.

Keplers Equations
Keplers equations govern the motion of objects near gravitating
bodies. This is called the two body problem.

Universal gravitational
constant

Mm r
F = G 2
r r

x(t)

x(t) + M Planet G
=0
3
r(t)

G = 6.67 10 11 m3/kg-sec2

z(t)

z(t) + M Planet G
=0
3
r(t)

y(t)

y(t) + M Planet G
=0
3
r(t)

r (t ) = x (t ) + y (t ) + z (t )
2

Orbital Period

Keplers theory gives

Orbital Periods of the Planets about the Sun

Mars Ascent Vehicle - launch to orbit


z

Equations of motion
x(t) FxDRAG (t) FxTHRUST (t)

x(t) + mMARS G
+

=0
3
r(t)
m(t)
m(t)

y(t) + mMARS G

y(t) FyDRAG (t) FyTHRUST (t)


+

=0
3
r(t)
m(t)
m(t)

z(t) + mMARS G

z(t) FzDRAG (t) FzTHRUST (t)


+

=0
3
r(t)
m(t)
m(t)

y
x

Mars radius=3.376 x 106 m


Mars mass=6.418 x 1023 kg

Universal gravitational constant

gMARS = mMARS G / r 2 = 3.756 m/sec2

G = 6.67 10 11 m3/kg-sec2

Mars time scale: MARS =


Mars velocity scale:

r3
= 948.03
mG

U MARS =

sec

mG
= 3561
r

m/sec

Vehicle mass

m(t)

Aerodynamic drag
CD0=0.2

CD
CD 0

M
Drag

t /

Angle between velocity vector and planet radius


z
y
Launch point

Launch trajectory
Gravity turn

Surface speed at the


equator=241.17 m/sec

Vertical launch
12.5 sec

FTHRUST V = 0

y, z)
V = ( x,
See the paper Universal
Gravity Turn Trajectories on
my website.

d
dt

= 0.038 degrees/sec
ROCKET

d
= 0.132 degrees/sec
dt

d
= 0.0007 degrees/sec
dt

First stage
gravity turn
36.6 sec

Coast
620 sec

Second stage
gravity turn to orbit
39.4 sec

Launch and orbit trajectory


Maximum altitude

557.9

km

Minimum altitude

527.5

km

Three stage design


M 01 / M P1
M 02 / M P 2
M 03 / M P 3
V3 = C1 ln
+ C2 ln
+ C3 ln

M
/
M

1
M
/
M

M / M 1
01

P1

02

P2

03

P3

The mass ratios can be written in terms of the payload fraction as follows.

1
1
1 1
M 01 / M P1 =
+
M
/
M
+
M
/
M
( P 2 P1 ) 1 ( P 3 P1 )
1 1 1 1 2

M 02 / M P 2


1
1 M P 3 / M P1
1 1
=
+
+
1 1 2 1 1 M P 2 / M P1 1 3 M P 2 / M P1


1
M P 2 / M P1
1 1
M 03 / M P 3 =
+
+
1 1 3 1 1 M P 3 / M P1 1 2 M P 3 / M P1

For given values of

,C1 ,C2 ,C3 , 1 , 2 , 3


The final velocity is a function of of the propellant ratios.

M P2 M P3
V3 = F
,
M
M
P1

P1

Differentiate with respect to the two variables to


identify a maximum.

Three stage launch vehicle for small satellites


1 = 0.116
2 = 0.117
3 = 0.148
C1 = 3040 m / sec
C2 = 3210 m / sec
C3 = 3350 m / sec
= 0.01125
V = 10,800 m / sec
Payload mass = 85 kg
M 01 = 7557 kg