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GREEK 3

GRAMMAR IN THE HEAD (GIH)


For Greek reading, translation, and exegesis, communicators of the Word need to be able to recall the various ways grammatical forms may function in
a NT Greek sentence. These Grammar in the Head charts reduce to grid form
the various categories of function of Greek grammatical forms. By the end of Greek 3, you will be able to explain
all the grammatical function categories on these charts, and describe the functions the different forms fulfill,.
At that point you will have it all in your head.

CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinate Conjunctions
Continuative
and

Adversative
but,
however

Disjunctive
or

Inferential
therefore,
so, then

Explanatory
that is, for

Transitional
now, then

Emphatic
indeed

Ascensive
even

Correlative

6"4

88"

@<

("D

*g

("D

*g

:,< . . . *g

Adverbial Subordinate Conjunctions


Comparative
as

Temporal
when

Causal
because

Conditional
if

Concessive
although

Purpose
in order
that

Result
so that

Local
where

Jg

J4
("D

Cl.1 g + indic. . . . any


Cl.2 g + past . . . < +
past
Cl.3 "< + subj. . . . any
Cl.4 g + opt. . . . < + opt.

g 6"4

<"

FJ,

Adjectival and Substantival Subordinate Clause Connectors


Adjectival
who, which
Definite

Substantval
that
Indefinite
(Generic/Qualitative)

H, ,

FJ4H, J4H, J4
Appendix A - 1

J4
<"

TENSE
Progressive Aspect Tenses
Present
Basic Use
Progressive
is

ing

Imperfect

Common Uses

Basic Use

Instantaneous

Iterative

Customary

Gnomic

completed at
speaking

repeated at
intervals

habitually
occurring

general truth

Progressive
was

ing

Common Uses
Ingressive

Iterative

Customary

accents actions
beginning

repeated at
intervals

habitually
occurring

Summary Aspect Tenses


Aorist
Basic Use

Future
Common Uses

Constative

Ingressive

Consummative

views action in entirety

accents actions beginning

accents actions conclusion

Basic Use

Special Use

Predictive

Imperatival

Completed-Stative Aspect Tenses


Perfect
Basic Use

Pluperfect Tense

Common Use

Special Use

Intensive

Extensive

accents present state


resulting from completed
action

accents completed
action

Perfect with Present


Force

Basic Use

Common Use

Special Use

Intensive

Extensive

accents past state


resulting from completed
action in past time

accents completed action


in past time

Pluperfect with
Simple Past Force

Appendix A - 2

VOICE

Active
Normal Use

Other Uses

Simple
subject does the action

Stative
subject exist in state described
by verb

Causative
subject is ultimate source of
action, -izw, -ow

Reflexive
Subject acts on self + reflexive
pronoun object

Middle
Common Uses
Indirect
accents subjects role in
producing action

Other Uses

Deponent
middle form with active
meaning since verb lacks active
form

Direct
Subject acts on
self

Permissive
accents subjects
interest in results of
verbs action

Reciprocal
interchange of
action among plural
subjects

Passive
w/Agency Expressed

w/o Agent Expressed

Ultimate (Direct) Agent

Intermediate Agent

Impersonal Means

Bo/ + genitive

*4a/ + genitive

< + dative or simple dative

Appendix A - 3

obvious from context


focus on subject
rhetorical effect

MOOD

Indicative
Basic Use

Other Uses

Declarative
makes a statement

Interrogative
asks a question (;)

Cohortative
gives a command in Future 2nd
person

Conditional
ei) + indic.

Subjunctive
Independent Clause

Dependent (Subordinate) Clause

Hortatory

Deliberative

Emph. Negat.

Prohibitive

Conditional

Purpose/Result

1st Pl. Subj.


Let us . . .

question

@ :0 + A S

:0 + A S

"< + Subj.

<" + Subj.

Indefinite (<)
Relative

Temporal

H < + Subj.

J"< + Subj.

Optative
Rare (70x in GNT)
Most common is :0 (g<@4J@ (15x in GNT)
Imperative
Basic Use

Other Uses

Command

Prohibition

Progressive

Summary

Progressive

Summary

Pres. Imv.
Do continually or repeatedly

Aor. Imv.
Do at once

:0 + Pres. Imv.

:0 + Aor. Subj.
Dont start to do
or Dont do

Stop doing or
Dont be doing

Appendix A - 4

Request

Permission

from subordinate
to superior

consent from
superior to action
desired by
subordinate

PARTICIPLES

Adjectival (DBW = Dependent Adjectival)


Attributive

Predicate
Substantival (DBW = Independent Adjectival)

Subject

Pred. Nom.

Direct Object

Indirect Object

Obj. of Preposition

Appositive
explains or describes
another noun more
fully

Adverbial (DBW = Dependent Verbal)


Dependent
Manner
. . . ing

Means
By . . .

present
sometimes aorist

present
sometimes aorist

Absolute

Time

Cause

Condition

Concession

Purpose

After, While,
Before

Because

If

Although

in order that

Attendant
Circumstance
And

all tenses

aorist, perfect

aorist, perfect

aorist, perfect

future sometimes
present

aorist

Gen./Acc.
Different
subject than
verb
modified

Verbal (DBW = Independent Verbal)


Imperatival

Complementary
(DBW = Dependent Verbal)
completes thought of verbs of cognition, perception,
beginning, continuing, or ceasing

Appendix A - 5

Periphrastic
(DBW = Dependent Verbal)
accents duration

INFINITIVES

Adjectival (DBW = Epexegetical)


Modifies a Noun

Modifies an Adjective
Substantival

Subject

Object
Direct

Appositive
Complementary

explains or describes another


noun more fully

(with verbs of beginning,


volition, ability, obligation)

Indirect
Discourse
reported speech
that

Adverbial
Purpose

Result

,H J@
BD@H J@
J@L

FJ,

Time
BD4<, BD@
< J
:,J" J@

(Subseq.)
(Contemp.)
(Anteced.)
Verbal

Imperatival
(No article; clearly unrelated to a verb or a noun)

Appendix A - 6

Cause

Means

*4" J@

< J

CASES
Nominative
Designation (Nominative)
Subject
does verbs action

Address (Vocative)

Predicate Nominative
defines or describes subject; after verb to be

Appositive
explains or describes
another noun more fully

Direct Address
person or thing to whom statement is
spoken

Genitive
Description (Genitive)
w/ Action Nouns

Separation (Ablative)

w/ Non-Action Nouns

Subjective

Objective

does modified
nouns action

receives
modified
nouns action

Descriptive

w/ Verbs

Possessive

Partitive

Attributive

Apposition

owns modified
noun

whole of
which modified
noun is a part

specific
quality of
modified noun

particular
instance of
modified noun

Quality of
Time

Comparison
(after
adjective)

Source
that from
which modified
noun arises

time

Dative
Personal Interest (Pure Dative)

Position (Local Dative)

Indirect Object

Interest

Reference

Sphere

to or for whom verbs action occurs

person favorably or
unfavorably affected by
verbs action

thing with respect to


which verbs action
occurs

location within
spatial or
logical limits

Point in
Time
at, on

Means (Instrumental Dative)


Association

Means

Cause

in association
with

by, with

because of

Accusative
Substantival
Direct Object
receives verbs action

Adverbial

Double Accusative Direct Object


Person + Thing

Object +
Complement

Subject of Infinitive

Measure
Extent of
Time
for the
duration of

Appendix A - 7

Extent of
Space

Reference
thing with
respect to which
verbs action
occurs

DEFINITE ARTICLE

With Nouns (DBW = Dependent/Modifying)


Individualizing
Simple
Identification

Relation to Context

(last resort)

Anaphoric
points to
previous
mention

Generic

Reputation

Deictic
present at time
of speaking

Well Known

Quality

Par Excellence
best in its class

Abstract

as a class
Monadic
unique

With Other Parts of Speech (DBW = Substantiver)


Adverb

Adjective

Participle

Infinitive

Genitive Phrase

Prep. Phrase

Particle

Clause

As a Function Marker
Adjectival Position

Indeclinable Nouns

Participles

Demonstratives

Subject

Granville-Sharp Rule
w/ Singular, Personal, Non-proper Nouns
Both persons identical

w/ Plural Impersonal and/or Proper Nouns


Distinct groups,
though united

Overlapping
groups

First group
subset of second

Second group
subset of first

Both groups
identical

As a Pronoun (DBW = Independent)


Personal

Alternative

Possessive

Mild Relative

Absence
Indefinite

Qualitative

Appendix A - 8

Definite

PARTICLES

Emphasis

Negation

:0<, (g, <"4

General Sense

:0

<

@ :0

(and compounds)
w/ indicative mood;
expects a yes answer

w/ other mood and modes;


expects a no answer

w/ subjunctive
emphatic negation

PRONOUNS

Substantival Use
Emphasis

Reference

Relation

Subject Focus

Identity

Previous

Conceptual

Possession

Participation

Mutuality

(T, FL
@J@H, 6,4<@H

"J@H

(T, FL,
"J@H
@J@H, 6,4<@H

J@LJ@
J"LJ"

(T
FL
"J@L

:"LJ@L
F,"LJ@L
"LJ@L

8808T<

Question

General Sense

J\H, J\
B@4@H, B@F@H

J4H, J4
FJ4H, J4H, J4

Adjectival Use
Description

Quality

Quantity

Proximity

Identity

General Sense

H, ,

@@H, B@4@H

F@H, B@F@H

@J@H, 6,4<@H

"J@H

J4H, J4

Appendix A - 9

PREPOSITIONS

Direction

*4"

through
(G)

gH

into
(A)

out of
(G)

<

6"J"

Position

BD@H
BgD
B@

Agency

Association

Purpose

for
(A)
by
(G)

down
(G)

around
(A)

from
(G)

with
(D)
according to
(A)
after
(A)

toward
(A)

Cause

in
(A)

in
(D)
down from
(A)

Means

because of
(A)

:gJ"
BgD4

Relation

with
(G)

about
(G)
at
(D)
over
(A)
under
(A)

for
(A)
on behalf of
(G)
by
(G)

Appendix A - 10