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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Asian-African Conference

Asian-African Conference

History
The conference reflected what they regarded
as a reluctance by the Western powers to
consult with them on decisions affecting Asia
in a setting of Cold War tensions; their con-
cern over tension between the People’s Re-
public of China and the United States; their
desire to lay firmer foundations for China’s
peace relations with themselves and the
West; their opposition to colonialism, espe-
cially French influence in North Africa and
A snapshot during the first Conference in
1955. French colonial rule in Algeria; and Indone-
sia’s desire to promote its case in the dispute
with the Netherlands over western New
Guinea (Irian Barat).
Soekarno, the first president of the Repub-
lic of Indonesia, portrayed himself as the
leader of this group of nations, naming it
NEFOS (Newly Emerging Forces).[1]
Major debate centered around the ques-
tion of whether Soviet policies in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia should be censured
along with Western colonialism. A consensus
was reached in which "colonialism in all of its
manifestations" was condemned, implicitly
censuring the Soviet Union, as well as the
West. China played an important role in the
The building in 2007. Now it is a museum of conference and strengthened its relations
the conference. with other Asian nations. Having survived an
assassination attempt by foreign intelligence
The first large-scale Asian-African or Afro- services on the way to the conference, the
Asian Conference—also known as the Chinese premier, Zhou Enlai, displayed a
Bandung Conference—was a meeting of moderate and conciliatory attitude that ten-
Asian and African states, most of which were ded to quiet fears of some anticommunist del-
newly independent, which took place egates concerning China’s intentions.
between April 18 and April 24, 1955 in Later in the conference, Zhou Enlai signed
Bandung, Indonesia. The conference was or- on to the article in the concluding declaration
ganized by Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, stating that overseas Chinese owed primary
Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and India and was co- loyalty to their home nation, rather than to
ordinated by Ruslan Abdulgani, secretary China - a highly sensitive issue for both his
general of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Indonesian hosts and for several other parti-
Affairs. The conference’s stated aims were to cipating countries.
promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural co- A 10-point "declaration on promotion of
operation and to oppose colonialism or neo- world peace and cooperation," incorporating
colonialism by the United States, the Soviet the principles of the United Nations Charter
Union, or any other "imperialistic" nation. and Jawaharlal Nehru’sprinciples, was adop-
ted unanimously:

1
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Asian-African Conference

1. Respect for fundamental human rights and Asian-African Summit from 20-24 April 2005
for the purposes and principles of the in Bandung and Jakarta. Some sessions of the
charter of the United Nations new conference took place in Gedung Mer-
2. Respect for the sovereignty and territorial deka (Independence Building), the venue of
integrity of all nations the original conference. The conference con-
3. Recognition of the equality of all races and cluded by establishing the New Asian-African
of the equality of all nations large and Strategic Partnership (NAASP).
small
4. Abstention from intervention or
interference in the internal affairs of
Participants
another country
5. Respect for the right of each nation to
defend itself, singly or collectively, in
conformity with the charter of the United
Nations
6. (a) Abstention from the use of
arrangements of collective defence to
serve any particular interests of the big
powers Countries represented in the Asia-Africa Con-
(b) Abstention by any country from ference in Bandung, Indonesia on 1955.
exerting pressures on other countries Twenty-nine countries were present repres-
7. Refraining from acts or threats of enting over half the world’s population. Viet-
aggression or the use of force against the nam is represented twice by both North and
territorial integrity or political South Vietnam.
independence of any country
8. Settlement of all international disputes by
peaceful means, such as negotiation,
conciliation, arbitration or judicial
settlement as well as other peaceful
means of the parties own choice, in
conformity with the charter of the United
Nations
9. Promotion of mutual interests and
cooperation Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement
10. Respect for justice and international (2007). Light blue states have observer
obligations.[2] status.
The Final Communique of the Conference un-
derscored the need for developing countries • Afghanistan
to loosen their economic dependence on the • Bhutan
leading industrialized nations by providing • Burma
technical assistance to one another through • Cambodia
the exchange of experts and technical assist- • Ceylon
ance for developmental projects, as well as • People’s Republic of China
the exchange of technological know-how and • Egypt
the establishment of regional training and re- • Ethiopia
search institutes. • India
The conference of Bandung was preceded • Indonesia
by the Bogor Conference (1954) and was fol- • Iran
lowed by the Belgrade Conference (1961), • Iraq
which led to the establishment of the Non- • Japan
Aligned Movement.[3] In later years, conflicts • Jordan
between the nonaligned nations eroded the • Laos
solidarity expressed at Bandung. • Lebanon
To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the • Liberia
Conference, Heads of State and Government • Libya
of Asian-African countries attended a new • Mongolia

2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Asian-African Conference

• Nepal and Behaviour", Canadian Journal of


• Pakistan Political Science / Revue canadienne de
• Philippines science politique, Vol. 2, No. 1.(Mar.,
• Saudi Arabia 1969), pp. 1-17.
• Syria


Thailand
Turkey
External links
• Vietnam, North • Modern History Sourcebook: Prime
• Vietnam, South Minister Nehru: Speech to Asian-African
• Yemen Conference Political Committee, 1955
• Modern History Sourcebook: President
Sukarno of Indonesia: Speech at the
See also Opening of the Asian-African Conference,
• Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence 18 April 1955
• Non-Aligned Movement • Asia-Africa Speaks From Bandung.
• Cold War (1962-1991) Jakarta: Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
• Third World Republic of Indonesia, 1955.
• Kahin, George McTurnan. The Asian-
References African Conference: Bandung, Indonesia,
April 1955. Ithaca: Cornell University
[1] Cowie, H.R. (1993). Australia and Asia. A Press, 1956.
changing Relationship, 18. • Mackie, Jamie. Bandung 1955: Non-
[2] Jayaprakash, N D (June 05, 2005). "India alignment and Afro-Asian Solidarity.
and the Bandung Conference of 1955 – Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2005.
II". People’s Democracy - Weekly Organ ISBN 981-4155-49-7
of the Communist Party of India • Ampiah, Kweku. The Political and Moral
(Marxist) XXIX (23). http://pd.cpim.org/ Imperatives of the Bandung Conference of
2005/0605/ 1955 : the Reactions of the US, UK and
06052005_bandung%20conf.htm. Japan. Folkestone, UK : Global Oriental,
Retrieved on 2007-02-07. 2007. ISBN 190-5246-40-4
[3] Nazli Choucri, "The Nonalignment of
Afro-Asian States: Policy, Perception,

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Categories: Cold War, Diplomatic conferences, Liberal Democracy Era in Indonesia


(1950-1957), Sukarno, Bandung, 1955 in Indonesia

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