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O F T H E C H U R C H E SO F S T .A N A S T A S I A A N DS T .

ON THE DESCRIPTION
DONAT IN ZADAR IN DE ADM/NSTRANDO IMPERIO BY
ITUS
CON STANTINE PORPHYROGEN

MILENKOLONEAR
M. Loniar
FacultyofPhilosophy
Obala PetraI(reSimira2
Zadar,Croatia

UDC: 726.54(497.5 Zadar)


Originalscientificpaper
Manuscriptreceived:25.02. 1999.
Revisedmanuscriptaccepted:01.04. f999.

Ten and a half centuries ago Porphyrogenitus's literary associate was struck by the similarity of the church of St.Anastasia
in Zadar utith the church of the Virgin of Chalcoprateia in Constantinople while the gallery of St. Donat's rerninded him of
catechumeneum, Drawing from Porphyrogenet's data in De Cerimoniis, the first aim of the article u)as to bring information about the church of Chalcoprateia and of the catechumeneum in order to be able to acqyire knoutledge of the churches
of Zadar. As a uerification, sotne other terms used in the description inDe Administrando imperio haue been examined, too,
They are: Dromic6s, entirely pictured in antique wood painting, second temple, eilematik6s, spiral staircase.

INTRODUCTION

IMPERIO
DEADMINISTRANDO

Approximatelyten and ahalf centuriesagoPorphyrogenitus's literary associatewas struck bythe similarity of the
church of St.Anastasiain Zadarwith the church of the Virgin of Chalcoprateiain Constantinoplewhile the galleryof
St. Donat's reminded him of a catechumeneum.lt canbe
understood that people who are concerned with the past of
sacred places feel the need to get acquainted with the Con
stantinopolitan half of the equation becausein that way its
left side, that of Zadar, indirectly getsmore light. This is the
reasonwhyMr. Palu5aVeZi6suggestedto me that, as a connoisseur of products with the label "Porphl'rogenitus" (if I
dare call myself so), I should look for the parts of the book
" On Ceremoizles"which describe the church of Chalcoprateia and catechumeneum.Further, I'd like to discuss
what I leamed about the matter while analysingother works
of Constantine De cerimonllsin the fust place,manuals and
availableliterature aswell assome other, not so understandable and not so well-knovrmelements of the description.
In order not to leaveout the most important in all this,
I'd like to recall that it all began with the unusual news about a young Iew who used to recommend bread insteadof
stone and whose destiny mankind is familiar with. The information about this newly given possibility for man's inner reversal spread very quickly from Judeato all the tov,ns
of the Roman empire. After more than two centuriesof terrible persecutionsconductedby the authorities,in the year
313 Constantine gave the sectariansthe privilege of publicity and it was only then that they were allowed to build
themselvesplacesfor gatherings.The appearanceof those
buildings was strongly influenced by the emperor's proximity (which can be seductiveand dangerousfor thosecarrying and witnessing the message).After all, the subject
matter here is rooms for meetings that iater turned into
sacredplaces,which is, in fact, a specificdisplacementof
the emphasisin the Galilean'steachingaccordingto which
it is the peoplewho should be sacred.

In this book, at the place usually occupiedby a title, the


manuscript reads: Constantinos,eternal emperor in Christ,
emperorof theRhomaioi, to his own son Rhomanos wreathed by God and in purple born emperor.'Mersius, its first
publisher, gave the book the title On administrating the
Empire (Deadministrando imperio)underwhich it is commonly quoted today.2The book deals with Byzantine foreign affairs (chapters I - 48) and slightly lesswith internal
politics (49 - 53). Meursius'stitle conforms well to the first
part of the book only (ch.l - 13)where the balanceof forces
between northern nomadic tribes is describedand where
instructions for treating them are given aswell. In the huge
middle section of the document the peoples on the outskirtsof the empire aredealtwith, round in successionbeginning withthe Saracens(ch. 14-25),acrossItaly (ch.26-28),
Dalmatia (ch. 29-36)and northern peoples (37-42)all the
way to Armenia, Georgia and Clprus in the East.Anyway,
politics is not dealt with very much in this part; importance
is given more to the history of nations and their governmental organizationand geographicalsettings.It is interestingand somewhatpuzzling to seethe Byzantine thema
Dalmatia in the company of foreigners.For the time being
let us assumethat the geographicalelementprevailed over
the political one, asthere was a similar casewith Lombardia
(ch. 27),but not in the case of Peloponesus(ch. 49-50) or
Herson on the BlackSea(ch. 53),all of which were situated
in the "inland" part of the Document. Could this direct us
to the conclusion that the Byzantine interest towards the
remote western provinces was weaker and that the connectionswere lessfrequent?In any case,chapter29 is dedicatedto Dalmatia; namely,the first part to the fact that its
greatestarea had been occupied by the Slavsand by the
Avars respectively,the middle part to Basilius'sintervention against the Arabs in Dalmatia and South Italy, while
the last section is assigned to the tor,t'nsand islands that
remained in the hands of the Romans.
M. Loncar; On the Description of... 235

ConstantineVII tholtght that it was necessaryto inform


his son about two interesting churches inZadar. We cannot guesswhat were the criteria for them to enter the book,
whether it was for the proximity of the bishop,spalace or
maybe something else becauseat the time they were not
the only ones in tor,rm.
The description was composed by someonewho had
seen them with his own eyes,and who was, at the other
distant end, at home in Constantinopleand who used to
write to the local readers,most probably an official of the
emperor's government in Dalmatia.3The same Derson
must have describedthe remaining Roman cities in chapter 29, Dubrowik, Split, Trogir and Kotor (as well as the
Slaviccountriesin the hinterland, ch.3I -36),judging all this
by the extremelyfrequent use of the pronoun ,,theiame,,.,
\{h.en-introdrrcing a to\.,"Tl,
he invariably devotesa heading
with the explanation of the meaning of the town,s name]
he usually quotes a geographic or urban detail; while from
the field of religion he mentions the churchesand the saints
whose remains are kept in them. E.g.in Dubrovnik there
IiesSaint Pancratios in the temple ofEt. Stephanoswhich is
in the centre of the same town} Presewed in Split, there is
the church in which lies St.Domnus himself,and which was
the resting-place of the same emperor Diocletian. (.. .) and
St.Anastasiosalso lies in the city.1Theholy martyr
Lawrence,
'Tryphon
the archdeacon,liesinTrogir.Tln Kotor liesSt
entire, who heals euerydesease,especiallythose who are tormented by unclean spirits; his church is domed.BAnd in
Zadar lies in theJlesh St.Anastasia, the uirgin, daughter of
Eustathioswho on the throne at that time; and St.ehrvsoC!r!us, monk and martyr, and his hofu chain. The temp'leof
Saint Anastasia is a basilica like the church of the Chalco-pratia, with green and white columns, and all d.ecorated
with enc-austicpictures in the antique style; itsftoor is of
wonderful mosaic.Near it is another church,a domed one,
Holy Trinity, and abouethe churcl'tagain is anotherchurch,
like a trforium, domed also, into which they mowt bv a
spiral staircase.s
SAINTANASTASIA
The sketch ofthe church ofthe protectressofZadar is
made in five lines. Four of them illustrate it directly and
one by comparison.
Oblong (dromic6s in Greek). This atrribute has been
translatedbyvarious translatorsin two similar ways:by an
adjectivewhich stands for oblongnessroor by a noun-basilicacontainingthe notion of oblongnessin itself as afundamental characteristic.IrHowewer, this unanimousness
in translation only hid the problem in transfering the meaning of this term which, nevertheless,exists.In claisical Greek
it only stands for (the ability of a liuing being or) the suitability of a spacefor running.t2 The all time fundamental
dictionary of medieval Greekby Du Cangeoffersthe same
meaning as the translatorsand it reflectsuncertaintvwhen
explaining the origin of that meaning, even hesitatingbetween what I find occasionallyvague definitions given by
writers majnly from the late Byzantine period, according
to whom the adjective dromic6s or its nominalized form
riromic6nis used for anlthing resemblingnarthex,or even
for square-basedchurcheswiih wooden r"oofconstruction;
the third possibility could be that the adiectivewas derived
from the nouns drdmoiand peridr6moiwhich correspond
to the cloistersextending on both lateral sidesof Saint Sophia, and, according to this, the name "a dromed temple,,
236

could be given to those extending like a cloister.In other


words, this seems to me the most acceptablederivation
wherc dromikds describesthe ty?e of atleast a three-vesseled church that, with their iateral vessels,remind us of
porches.13
Severalinsufficient instructions and examples
follow, one of which is exactlythis one of ours being placed
at the beginningasthe oldest.laSophocles'sdictioniry.o.rtracts.DuCange'spaper into one word accompaniedby a
question mark: oblongls Understanding has been made
much more difficult by the fact that droiikIs canbe found
only in the description of St. Anastasiaand nowhere else
in the entire DAI, and not even in other works of porohvrogenitus exceptin De Cerimoniis,whereit standsfor a ione
wtrich used to^be sung during the procession,somethin;
like a march.16So we have been left only with the contexi
that.was-analysed
byI. Martinovii. We can accepthis suggestionthat Porphyrogenitususesthe expressioi dromicl6s
in order to describe a longitudinal type of building, contrary to the notion of eilematic1swhichhas been asiigned
to the church of St.Domnos and St.Tryphon in Kotorwhich
could oppositely representa central type.rTWe cannot go
any further than this. Thus, we have one assignement ldft
and that is to explore the background of the word dromic6s,
its use and meaning.
Similar to the temple of Chalcoprateia. What is compared here with the church of Chalcoprateid Is it the first
featureof St.Anastasia,its basicshape,or the entiredescription?Accordingthe impressionthe texthasmade on me ifis
only added as an explanation to the attribute dromicIs.ltis
lesspossiblethat the writer had the intention to describe
the colour of the pillars, the carvings or the floor mosaics.
The parable can be conceivedin a way that there are
manyelongatedtemples,eachdifferingfrom the other,and
among them, our church looks exactlylike the one from
Chalcoprateia.This means thar our anilogy goeseven further from classifyingSt.Anastasiaas a basilicalWpe of sacred building, but it is hard to tell how far it goei. Our deduction would be much more certainifwe knewthe church
in Constantinople,but it has been destroyed.lsAll we have
is recordsabout it and the resultsofexcavations.
Porphyrogenitusmentions it two times in his books.Accordingto De cerimoniis,the imperatorialprotocol includes
a visit to the church of the Holy Lady on the dav of Marv,s
birth (LadyDay)and onAnnunciation. The
u.rd
".np".ot,t
the patriarch's ceremonialwalk givesan account
of some
parts of the church refering to its structure and specific
spaces:narthex-infront of the entrance,the portal called
the emperor'sdoorvnth atleast two entrances,one of which
is calledthe right entrance;soleais inside the building, the
sanctuary with an altar and the holy doon the left part of
the_churchis cdJedgtn aicireswhichitands for g1ma"."u-,
and from which one can pass through tropicds and enter
at least one eucterium where the Lady's relic was kept.Z0
Upstairsthere is a catechoumeneumwhereyoucan asc'end
using wooden stairs on the left side. A special room for
changingclothes is here, tooi'metatoriuinr.To exit the
church, one was to descendthe conchestairs which lead,into
didascalium. T. F. Mathews considers this as a passage
through or even under sjtnthrononzz,and from there coming to the doors that open to the porch.z3Nevertheless,A.
Vogt leavesthe original term didascalium explaining that
it literaly refersto a school.2a
In Vita Basilii Porphyrogenitus credits his grandfather
with the restoration of the church: "And, seeingthat another

God'stemple of our all illustrious Lady, the one of the uen'


erable and sacredchestin Chalcoprateia was unpresumpt'
ious and without light, by building two apseson its both
sidesand by hauing its roof heightened,he endowed it with
appropriate height and embelishedit with light shining
F. Mathewsexplainedthisas"adomedbuildthrough."2sT.
ing"26which, I have to admit, I am not able to see in the
text so clearly.He alsobrought to light the more recent results of archeologicalresearchesas well. On the basis of
very poor evidence he assu'mesthe existence of an almost
square atrium, slightly longer than wider. The church itself was a basilica with a nave and two aisles,3l m in width
which made it the widest in the capital city. The large apse
had three sideson the outer side and itwas a semi circular
apse on the inside and had three big windows. It was not
flanked with rooms but with doors, one of which was mentioned in De cer.21The gallery or the galleries must have
been columnated. The altar rail was of the older type, with
no architrave and about one meter in height.28
It is not I who should answer the question how could,
then, St.Anastasiaremind anybody of the church of Chalcoprateia,but it should be someone who is much more
competent to talk about its architecturalpast and present.
Entirely pictured, in ancient wood canting (xylography).
The translation wood carving stands for the literal meaning of this expression.The questionis what it really means.
It is undoubtedly about a kind of picture. So let us seehow
various translatorstackled the problem: N. Toma5ii (tuirh
ancient painted icons),B. Ferjandi6(entirelyin old pictures
uiuidly painted),M. Sui6 (entirelyembelishedwith ancient
imagery) and J. Martin ovie @ncient pictures).2sIn this expressionR. H. Jenkinsrecognizedthe technique of encaustic: with antique style encaustic pictures.3oRefering to
Banduri in his commentary he explains that thk word means
pictureslicons on wood as distinct from mosaic.3tContrary
to this, A. Banduri has a different point: he claims that these
are pictures painted with wax and colours on any matter.3Z
If this is correct then the first word of the compound noun
chylographiashouldnot be interpreted as "wood" but in a
more generalsenseas "matter", which is also contained in
its meaning, so that it would not referto a surfacebut, I think,
to a mixture used for painting. Taking Banduri's example
one cannot reach any certainty in solving the dilemma.
And, one more point. The term archaioshas been assigned two meanings'.ancient and old. Both may be correct.The first could mean that the reporterhad noticed the
outmoded style in comparison with, let us say,Constantinople, which could additionally imply that the artefacts
might have been recently constructed; the other translatiqn could expressthe ageof the product, not distinguishing style from material.
SAINTDONAT'S
Today'sSaintDonat's in DAlwas describedastwo temples, one above the other. Roundness is their common
characteristic.Onlythe titular, the HolyTrinity, of the lower
one was mentioned, while the specificcharacteristicof the
upper one is that it resemblescatechumeneumand that it
has a snail-like staircasewhich is the link with the ground
floor.
The second temple. The writer sees the gallery as another church, like catechumeneum.I think that this de-

scription could be analysedin the following manner: a) the


galleryhasthe shapeof a church and the function of a catechumeneum, b) it functions as a church and the shape is
that of a catechumeneum.Knowing the state of the first
floor in St.Donat's, everyonecould agreethat since it does
not have the form of a church, the possibility marked as a)
is not to be taken into account. Consequently,the gallery
must have had the function of a church, although its apDearancewas not common becauseit looked like a cateihumenerrm, if the record is to be trusted.
Par,u5aVeZiiallowsthe interpretationwith two churches
becauseof a separateentrancebut inside, they have to be
consideredas a singular space,"ceremoniestaking place
inside are common and according to that we can talk about
only one temple. There is no evidence of any original horizontal construction which would divide the central cylinNevertheless,I think that
der into upper and lower parts."33
the impressionthat there had been another temple or that
it had had an actual liturgical function could have arisen
due to the existence of a sanctuary which was at the same
Iocation and was of the samesizeasthe one on the ground
floor. An equal idea could have been influenced by the dimensionsof the spacesthat had significantlybeen altered
by additions built to the church and which were almost
entirely open towards its rotunda and connected with it'
Later on, four altars existed in the gallery, three of which
were situatedin the aPses.
In conclusion, that space could have functioned as a
since it had a sancchurch, at leaston specialoccasions,3a
tuar:y,tvvo aisles and the basis of a nave, as well as a separate entrance.
Like a catechumeneum. Even the writer himself knew
that it was not an ordinary church. That is why he added:
as a cathecumeneum.But, what does cathecumeneum
mean, anyvvay?First, let us look at the form of the word'
is the presentparticiple of a mediopassive
Cathecortmena
verb catech4oin plural neuter gender (there are confirmations that this word with its two meanings as a verb: I . echo,
2.Ieach - was used in the Helenistic period)35so that its
Iiteral meanin gisthe subjectof teaching.But it transformed
into an expressiondesignating space.Constantine Porphyrogenitususedthis word four times in his Book on ceremonies as well as its variants catechoumdnia(30 times) and
catechoum1neia(4 times) without any noticeable change
as lhe most used variant is a
of meaning. Catechoumdneia,
diminutive derived from the form from DA1;diminutivizationwas one of the characteristicsof medieval Greek.Only
the third form of the term has an ending typical for the
words designatingthe place for an event (...-eion, plural;
. . .-eia),but this time it is with an inappropriate accent' an
acute accent on the third syllable from the end instead of a
There remains the question
circumflex on the second.36
how and why three variants emerged for the same notion,
why they were used in plural and which was their original
form.
Regardingthe liturgical function of catechumeneLLm,I
have locatedtwo definitions TestamentumDomini nostri
JesuChristi explainsthat it must have been a building that
wa-sconnectedwith a church so that thosewho were to be
baptisedcould listento the readingsand chants.3'TheLexi'
con of lconography... emphasisesonly the direct connection between catechumeneum and the baptistery limiting
Here, without inthe functioning from 4thto 6thcentury.38
tention to open the interpretation of the differences,let us
M. Loniar: Or1 the Description of... 23i

saythat the situation in:St.Donat's correspondsto the referenceinTestamentttm Domini. EvenV.Brunelli relied on
this basic meaning of the term catechumeneumwith his
translation: ad uso dei cqtecumeni.3s
The next stage in the use of catechumeneum is described by T. F. Mathews, as j. Jelidii has transferedit to
us:the galleryceasedto be usedby cathecumenssincetheir
number had gradually decreasedand in the like manner
the function of the halls changed,too. As early as during
the 7s century they were used as a private or].tory by e. g.
Maximus Confessoror patriarch Nicephor.ao
A completely different position is held by Du Cange,
Reiske,Stephanus,and asit seems,evenM. Sui6.In his Dicrionary of Medieual La.tin, contrary to some other authors,
Du Cange considers catechumeneumas a space for women.arMuch to my regret,his workswherehe gavea deeper
analysisof the subject cannot be obtained without difficulty so that it is impossible to reach any decisiveconclusion.a2
J.J.Reiskealso follows Du Cange'spath and in a longish note he explains the word catechumdniaitself stating
that it refers to women.a3
In a like, but more concisemanner, Stephanusdid that,
too.aaM. Suii joined the same direction of interpretation
by opening a critique of Brunelli's,Ienkins'sand Ferjandi6's
translation, by referring to Du Cangeand Stephanusand
by proposing that ta catechoilmenashould be translated
as mqtroneum, albeit his reasonsabout deciding in favour
of such a term are not quite clear:"this is not a matroneum
'classical'
in a
sense".as
The catechumeneumsof Constantinopolitanchurches
had a special part in the imperial ceremony of the tenth,
and probably the two preceding centuries as well.a6Porphyrogenet's De Cer. abounds in confirmations.aTIn the
first book which had 92 chaptersaltogether(with the missing chapters 11-9 in the one and only manuscript) it is in
the first 46 chapterswhere the emperor'sprotocol during
celebrationsis described in detail and where catechumeneum is mentioned in sevenConstantinooolitanchurches:
in St. Sophia's, in the church of the Holy Apostles,in St.
Sergios's,in St. Mokios's, in the church of the Lady of the
Well (Peg6),in Lady's Great church in Blachernaeas well
as the one of the Lady of Chalcoprateia.a8
Thesewere all
religiousholidays of the'second rank', lessimportantthan
Christmas,Easterand Pentecost.The only double exception to this, concerning the greatestholiday but not the
emperor himself, is the empress'sEasternkiss,i. e. her reception given for the wives of the highest emperor's officials which used to take place in the catechumeneum of
The holidayswhen the emperor used
St.Sophia at Easter.as
to ascend catechumeneum were: Eastern Monday and
Tuesday,PentecostalWednesday,Ascension,Uprising of
the Holy Cross,Candlemas,the Holiday of Orthodoxity,(in
the honour of the victory over the enemies of the icons)
and Annunciation.
After the gospelsand chantshad finished, the emperor
used to follow the secondpart of the ceremonyin the catechumeneum here includingthe communion receivedfrom
the patriarch's hands. lVhen the ceremony was over, the
emperor and the patriarch usedto dine together.The catechumeneum of the nartex is usuallv mentioned as part of
the gallery,especiallyits part opposjtethe chanceland above the emperor's doors, i. e. the central part of the nartex
catechumeneum,where a removablealtar for the emperor's communion is placed and where personsof eminence
stand.soThe right side of the catechumeneum,where the
238

emperor attendsthe ceremony,is mentioned with regular


frequency throughout the book. A special term for that
space is paracyptic6n, which is something like a window
(balust r ade o r logein Fr ench).sI Some parts of the catechumeneum used to be separatedwith curtainswhen the emperor was inside (in order to createa mistical atmosphere
around him).52There are specialplacesin the catechumeneum of some churcheswhere holy objectsare kept; these
are the so called eucteria(oratory, side altars or chapels):
in St. Sergios'sthe Lady's oratory, in St. Sophia the "little
chest" where holy wood is kept, the eucterium in Blachernae.s3
On each catechumeneumor closelyconnectedto it
there is a part called palace except in St. Sophia'swhich
makespart of the emperor's palaceand is connectedwith
it on gallerylevel.Usually,that part containsrooms for rest
(koit6n),for changingclothes (metatorium)and the reception and the dining h.all(triclinium).s4
Bearing all this in mind, to me the most possible conclusion seems that the gallery spacehad originally been
assignedto the catechumensafterwhom itwas named, that
after having lost its function it had various purposes e. g.
as a spacefor clergyrnen'spersonal prayer, as a spacefor
the emperor and his suite on certainholidaysand, it seems,
evenas a spacefor women.55
Vaulted, eildmatikds in Greek. This is how the Holy
Trinity and the {upper temple'were characteized. Studying the meaning of this term leads us toward the question
whether it stands for a circularity of a ground-plan,s6the
roundnessof the ceiling, both, or maybe even something
else.Modern translators share the opinion that it refered
to a vault.sTThe word does not exist in Old Greek. (It was
derived from the noun eilEma from the verb e/issd:twist,
roll, turn).58Stephanusnoted down the following meanings: uolubilis, cameratus,rotundus which include both
meanings:circular and vaulted (domed?)and he also gives
two examples:the first fromVitaConstantiniM. etHelenae
matriswhere this adjective is acoompanied by another one
whose basic meaningis roundso, in that caseeilEmatik1s
most probably meant vaulted (domed?),5s
and the second
from the very chapter 29 of DN. The church of Saint Tryphon in Kotor is describedwith the same term.60Archeological findings have shown that its ground-plan was
square.6lIts superficiescouldn't have been oval. Even the
underground rooms in Diocletian'spalacewere described
with this word.62Since it is not clearwhether it refers to a
crypt under St. Dujam's63or to the cellars,6a
it is not possible to identify the precise meaning of the word. The last
location in D, lwhere we meet eilematikdsisalso found in
the description of Split: "And therestandsin the city a multitude of columns with adormentsabouewhere the same
emperorDiocletianusintended to build uaultedroomsand
couerthe whole town and on top of thoseuaultsmake himself palaces with two and threefloors and so it was that he
couereda small part of the same town.'65Concerning the
fact that the forementioned columns can be only those on
Peristil,we strongly suggestto gxcludethe possibility of a
circular ground-plan.
All in all, in the case of St. Donat's and its gallery the
majorify of reasonsforce us to conceivethe term eilematik6s as vertical roundness. But if it is really so, then the
description of the gallery is not adequatebecauseits circuit/rounds is like a ring in the same way as the central
cone,it is roofed with a wooden ceiling and tiles.66
Or, may
the term refer to the walls, too?

In the churchesof Constantinople,too,


Spiral stairca.se.
this is the usual expressionfor the accessto a catechumeneum.67I don't know yet whether the expressioncontains
the referenceto the spirality of the walls; the plan of St.
Sophia comprises a square basis of all three staircasesin
In De
the corners that have been preservedfrom decay.68
cerimoniiswe can find the same expressionused for their
description,too. However, in the church of Chalcoprateia
takesus to the catechumeneum,and in
a'wooden scale'6s
the church of Blahernaeit is a stiracium, something that
Acces
Iooksmore like a slopedbalustradethan a staircase.T0
to the lower part of the staircaseis usually from the atrium
'secretstaircase'with
or narthex,but in St.Mokios there is a
an entrance from the glmeceum.TrIn St. Sophia there is a

big staircasewhich one can approach from the didascalium,72then the staircasebehind the conchewhich has its
and there is
entrancedoor from the side of the sanctuary,73
'wooden scale'which one can reach
a specialmention of a
through the upper passagesfrom the Magnaura'spalace.Ta
In Blahernae,one staircaseled from the catechumeneum
to the upper floor, into the Danubeian triclinium.?s
Finally, thinking of a conclusion, it seemsto me that I
have only prepared the land for cultivation in order that,
while searching for responses,we might be much more
aware of the problems involved in dealing with our Byzantine heritage.
Englishtranslationby EmiI Sprljan

1CONSTANTINE
De administrandoimperio.Greektext editedby R. I. H. Ienkins,New RevisedEdition,Dumbartonoaks,
PORPH\ROGENITUS,
trpdqtdv i6rovoidv ?tlpcrvdvtdv Oeoocdqlroi
Pcopaitrrv
dvHprorQpoor).eioiovi<ppoor)"6<oq
Texts,One,DumbartonOaks,1967,p. 44:K<ovorcrvdvol
llopQrpopvvltov PcloL).ecr.
?ConstantinilmperatorisporphyrogenetiDe
Meursiusprimusvulgavit,
Joannes
imperioadRomanumF.Libernumquamantehaceditu.s.
ad,ministrando
Latinaminterpretationem,ac Notasadjecit.Lugduni Batavorum1611.In translation:The uol on ruling the empireby Emperorconstantine
porphyrogenitus
publishedit first, accompaniedit with translationin Latin andwith his
to hissonRomanneuerbeforepublished.JoannesMEURSIUS
notes.
3AquotefromM.Sui6,Zadar,
"Deadministrand,oimperio"byConstantinePorphyrogenitus,RadoviZavodalfZUinZadar,part2T-28,p.6.
, More on the subject in the dissertationI am writing under the title: "ThePhylological
newsof theCroats".
Analysisof Porphyrogenitus's
5CONSTANTINEPORPFnROGENITUS,
134:...reitorddyLoqllcFpcitrogdvt@voQro0anoulteQdvo!,
Deadministrandoimperio,ch.2gl231-6,p.
rQ i5vnpeoovtoi citot, rciorpou.
6IBID. ch. 2gl24t-Z and291245,p. 136:... b vadqtoi ofor A6pvor. iv {r ratd,rerrc[ 6 alrdg &ytoqA6pvog,cinepr1vxorrriv toi crt,to,jpaotlerog
Arorlltrovo0. (...) An6xeitar6i dvcrtt@tg rdotpql rcri b iinog Avcrotriotoq.
?IBID.ch.29126l-2,p. 136:... d,r6rertcrr
6 dnoqpdptrqAaup6vroq,6 dpXr8rdrov.
8IBID. ch.29i 26g-71,p. 136:. .. rerrcno ciytoqTpriqotvorcdporoq
nrpcwoupdvouq;ri 6d
pdlrorcr todgr,rndnelpdtr,rv drcr0ciptalv
ndoav v6oovi<irpevoq,
vcrdgcx,rtoieorv eiXlpotr6q.
,IBID.ch.291276-84,
pyovria Edotaoiot ro{ rstdrdv rccrpovereivovpcotlniocvtoq,
p. 138:... rceircfl
evoaprirl &licrAvc,otcroic,lacrp06vog,0uyd,tep
6irorog<tr6>tcdvXc,}.xotpotetorv
ytog
Avcotooraqdotiv 6poprrciq,
vodq
o
11
outo0.O
6i
povaxdq
roi
crlic
ciluoLg
rai trrdpruq
Xpro6yovog
rcri o ti^yroq
{q
Ootpaor{q. "Eoav 6broi
voQ, petd"riovarvnpo*uru *oi fer*Or, 6ioq eirovropdvoqi( ulo^poqioq<irplaioq;d 6dtdtog oritof eottv crn<io'uyrconrig
'6cpoqvodgnlloiov cnjroi eilrlpcrcr6q,f1hfa TpLdq,rai Jncivotof va,of cmt'orindl.v irepoqvadq8ircqvroqXoupdvov, roi aritdqer)'lpottrciq,e4
6v rccriov6plovto,r6td xo1l"ioo.
mA. BANDURIin l. P.MIGNE,PatrologiaGraecd,
PORFIROGENET,
O uprauljanjucarstuom
N. Tomasiiin KONSTANTIN
part 113.col.z7\:oblongus;
odugaika(theequivalentin
(D,4J)
editedby M. Svab,andtranslatedby SirNikolaToma5i6,publishedbyAugustCesarecandAGM,Zagreb,1994,p.77:
extinded,tongish)lvanslatotinote/.J.Murtinovii,ProlegomenonontheproblemoftheoriginalchurchofSt.Trt?honsinKotor,Suppl
Englishis;
..l.rt. to the historyof irt in Dalmatia,30,p. 16: izduienogoblika (elongatedin form) while on page19.he givesa somewhatbroaderinterpretation:
,,porphy,rogenitus
(...)we suggestacceptingthe interpretationwhich statesthat
iescribesits generaluppe"r"tt.uusingthe attributeDpoprrdq...
for oblongbuildlorpiyroginitus usedonly two eipressionidescribingthJtypesandformsofreligiousandprofanebuildingson our coast:6poprr<5q
ingi oi ioiUuitaings with i rectangularbaseand: eitrlpcrnrriqfor building with a centralbase,or, for all buildingswherevaultsor evendomeswere
us-edin the construction."As we will seelater on, in the end he showedhis uncertaintywhich canbe accepted.
t Vizantskiizuoriza istorijunarodaJugoslauije(Byzantinesourcesfor the historyof the peoplesofYugoslavia)part. II, editedby B. Ferjandii,Srpska
akademijanauka,Posebnaizdanja,vol. CCCXXII,Vizantolobkiinstitut,voi.7.Belgrade,1959,p. 24; R' i. H. Jenkinsin CONSTANTINE
imperio,p. 139.M. Sui6,Zadar'p' 6.
Deadministrando
PORPFilROGENITIJS,
12Consulredliterature:A. BAILLY, DictionaireGrec-frangais,Paris,
Lexicon,Oxford1968;STEPHANUS,
1950;H. G.LIDELandR. SCOTT,Greek-English
Linguae,Graz1954,s. v.
Graecae
Thesaurus
a vestibuleofa temple;see:
r3In OldGreek,too,besides
(dr6mos)hadthemeaning:a placefor walking;in Strabon:
a placefor runningthenoun6p6pog
A. BAILLy,Dictionnaire....Significantlyenough,in an Old Latin text the term porticuswasusedfor the sideaisles(lGN.EPHR.MHMANI TestamenI dre
et du liturgie,tomedeuxi6me,
chrdtienne
tum Domini nostriJesuChrisii,Mogunliae1899,p. 23,n. 153-6;a quotefrom Dictionaired arch^ologie
partie,B. col.543.andnote2.)
14DU CANGE,Glossariumad scriptores
mediaeet infimaegraecitatiJ,1968,s. v: "DROMIKA,Templa,dicuntur a forma structurae:quod scilicetin
lateribusparibusvel imparibus,ut est Sophiana
longitudinemprocurrant,contraquam aliaeaedessacraequaequadrataeerantapud Graecos,
apudCrusiumin Turcogr.ubi ait Ndp0lxo dici tb 6lo to0 vooij 8poptrov
Zygomala,
Id potissimumdiscereestexTheodosio
Coistantinopoiitana.
Deindeaddit, n6ivopoprrbvNdph[ Myetcfl.Quaeautemsit forma Narthecisseuferulae,pluribus exposuimusin Descript.Aedis
6irr1vN6p0r1roq.
templissententianon
Graecorum
num. 18.Undenescioan Allatiiin Dissert.2. de Recentiorum
Christianae,
lib. i. Constantinopoleos
Sopirianae
seutrabes
sunt,quorumin culmineasseres
6poprroapellari,quaeformaquadratalateribusparibusvelimparibussubstructa
reipuendasit,scribentis
cantheriiscolligantur,& tegulissuperpositiiconteguntur:adeout Templiparietesprojecturisasserumtegantur.Leunclaviusin Pand.Turc.num. 210'
Nicephor.Callist.in ProemioHist.pag.18.toirq6v8ov6pcipouq
ait Templain longumporrecta& tectiscoopertaGlaecosvaoiq Spoprioi!appellare.
rui repi8p6porgiediJSophianae,Porticusutrinque procurrentes,videtur appellare:unde 6poprroivcoi dicti forte fuerint, quod procurrantinstar
porticus.Constantinus
so calledbecauseof the way theywerebuilt. Theywereoblong,
de Adm. irnp.cap.29..."In translation:dromicaltemples'.
M. Lonear:On the Descriptionof...2il9

contraryto the usualGreektempleswhich usedto besquare,wetherwith equalor differentsides(flanks)asin the caseofSt.Sophiain Constantinople.
This can be best understoodin TheodosiusZygomala,at Crusiusin Turcogr.wherehe saysthat what is callednarthexis that which is outsidethe
templeand dromicalasnarthex.Thenhe addsthat anythingbeingdromicalcanbe callednarthex.Wehavealreadyexplainedthe formsof narthexand
Christiana,No. 18.For this reasonI am not surewhetherto reject
feruiawhich weregivenin the descriptionof St.Sophia,vol III of Constantinopolis
Allatius'sopinion in Drscours11onmodernGreektempleswherehe statesthat dromicalisbuiltin a rectangularform, whetherwith equalor different
sideson the top of which lathsor beamsareconnectedwith sparsand they arecoveredwith tilesin a waythat the templewailsareroofedwith laths.
Leunclaviusinpand. Turc. No. 210saysthat oblongtemplescoveredwith roofsare calleddromicaltemplesby the Greeks.It seemsthat Nicephor
Calist.in the Introductionto the Hist.p. 18callsthe inner dromesandperidromesofSt. Sophiaporchesthat extendon both sidesand that they gotthe
DeAdm.Imp. ch.29...
Constantinus
theyextendlikeporches.
namedromicaltemplesbecause
rsE.A. SOPHOCLES,
r1,6v,oblongasabuilding.Porph.Adm. 139,19.
NewYork1904,s.v: 6poprr6q,
Periods,
theRomanandByzantine
GreekLexiconof
quid?Porph.Cer.49,15.50,et alibi.
rd 6poprr6v,
Glyc.495,15.Codin.i7. - 2. Substantively,
16ConstantinVII PORPHYROGENiiTE,
Commentaire,par A. VOGT.ColectionByzantinepubli6e sous1apatronagede
Le Liure desCdrdmonies,
GreekLexicon...s.v. directsusro Decerimonii
Paris
1967,p. 80-l. E.A. SOPHOCLES,
"Les
belles
lettres",
d'6dition
Bud6.
Soci6te
Guillaume
l,Association
but he doesn'tgivethe meaningof the word; seepreviousfootnote.
r?Seequotein footnote10.
rBA. Banduri,l. P. MIGNE,PatrologiaGraeca,vol I13, col. 269-70,note 43a,displaysseveralcontradictoryauthenticinformation and subsequent
opinions about the time of the conitruction and he finally addsDu Cange'sconclusion:sciliceta Theodosioinchoatam,a Pulcheriaconfectam,a
Verinapostmodumet Justinode novo instauratam(i.e.:Begunby Theodosius,finishedby Pulcheriaand afterwardsrestoredby Verina).About the
area ofthe town where the church was: Unde non dubito quin etiam Constantinopoliantequama Turcis caperetur,fuerint et Chalcopratiaet
Chartopratia,ab officinis aerariis,necnonchartaceisloca sic nuncupata.(l haveno doubt that Chalcopratiaand Chartopratia,placesnamed after
p. 76,describesthe constructionof
beforeit wastakenby the Turks.)- A.VOGI, Commentaire,
brassandpaperworkshops,existedin Constantinople
d gauche,en
et l'6glisedeSainte-Sophie
themiddleofthe5s century",anditslocation"entrele ForumdeConstantin,
thechurch"presumablyiround
Architectureand Liturgr, Secondprinting,ThePensylvania
of Constantinople.
allant,par liM6s6 a l'August6on."T. F. MATHEWS,TheearlyChurches
StateUniv. press,UniversityPenns.and Londoni977, p. 28,aboutthe time of the constructionsimilarlyasBandury,and aboutits location:"within
150m. of HagiaSophia".
par A.Vogt,p. 76-7.
leAn arch on trvocolumns,accordingto CONSTANTIN
Commentaire,
LeLiuredesCdrdmonieg
VII PORPITROGENETE,
contradicts
Constantin'stext.
mT. F. MATHEWS
which
main
altar,
on
the
a
little
chest
kept
in
p.33,
Lady's
beltwas
that
the
says
The
Early
Churches...
,
wasbuiltadditionallytothechurch,theproofforwhichcouldbethedoorin
A.VOGTCommentaire,p.Z6-Tthinksthattheeukterium(oratory,chapel)
the middle of the left, northernwall for which Mathewsgivesthe interpretation(onp. 31)that "Thismighthaveled into one of the adjoiningchurches
"
of SoterChristosor Hag.Iacoboswhich werelocatedin the vicinity,but the accountsof the pilgrims do not agreeasto preciselywherethey were.
the
church.
inside
Contraryto this,A. Vogtplacesthe sanctuaryof St.Jacobin an unknownlocation
,IA. VOgt:CONSTANTIN
COMMENIAiTE,P,6I.
dCSC6T6MONiES,
LELiUTC
VII PORPHYROGENETE,
2T.F.MATHEWS,TheEartyChurches...p.3l:throughsyntronon(whichmaypossiblymean
xotel0r)vtdTpo6nlrocflqrciulq
underrhesyntronon:
:r;frtJ:::J:ri-t%
Cirdmonies,votl,texte6tabliet traduit par
text with paraileltranslationin coNSrANrrN vrr poRpH\GoGENi,rE, LeLiure des
andch.39,p. 154,3-155,29.
AlbertVogt,deuxidmetirage,Paris,1967,ch.\,p.24,9-25,29
'z4
p. 143.
IBID.p. 155andCommentaire,
oelovvadvcfrqtovodntor.r
r J.p. MIGNE,patrologiaGraeca,vol
tdv dvrolqXoL.ronporefotg
109,col.356AB:Kai tdv Erepov6i rfrqncrvrpv(touOeot6xo1),
rccrioyaoev
roi qano8oldq6rur6poeevcivaorlocrgcirpbaqroi td tdloq peteopfoogtfiyererJrpereiug
rcri fo{oq oopoi, rgnervdvi6rjtvrsi &qcir11otov,
rccripoppopt^ycrig
Qotdqror4yl.dioe.
mT. F. Vu\*THEWS,
it into a domedbasilica.
... BasilI addeda dometo the structure,thustransforming
TheEarlyChurches,p.23:
27Seenote22.
mT. F. MATHEWS,
p. 28-32.
TheEarlyChurches...
sources...
in Byzantine
s N. TOMASI( in KONSTANTIN
imperio)p. 77.B. FERIANCIC
O uprauljanjucarstuom,(Dead.ministrand.o
PORFIROGENET,
(/izantiskiizuori...)p.24M.SUIC,
Zadar...p.16;I.MARTINO\IC,Prolegomena...p.16.
il R.l. H. IENKINSin CONSTANTINE
Deadministrandoimperio,p. 139.
PORPHYROGENITUS,
on
31CONSTA\]TINEPORPFryROGENITUS,
De administrandoimperio,vollI Commentary,London 1962,p. I I 1: Theword meansicon-paintings
mosaics.
from
as
distinct
wood,
dixere,ut hancdistinguant
pro r4po^ypcrQiov
v J.p. MIGNE,PatrologiaGraeca,vol. 113,col.269note44:. ..Recentiores
quippeScriptores'bl.olpaQicrv
sive
id estcum ceraet coloribusin quavismateria;alteram6io yqQi6rov,
picturam
Drd
rrlpolirou{il.1q,
statuunt,
alteram
a musivaria;duplicemenim
(hylographia)insteadof rqpolpoQio(kerographia: "waxcarving")to
operemusivario... - writeri from laterperiodsintroducedthe term r5l,o^ypcrQiu
makeit more distinctftom mosaics;andihis wasdonein orderto markthe distinctionbetweentlvo kindsof paintings:I) waxandpaint on anysurface
6io rqpoliror {li'Iq; and 2) 6ia yqQi8rov(diirpsephidon:"with smallstones"),or mosaic.
s p. \,T216, RotondasuetogTrojstuau prostoruepiskopalnogkompleksau Zadru; Magistarskirad, fuhitektonski fakultet Sveudili5tau Zagrebu,
nasljede,
Zadar,1991,p 95.
Graditeljsko
Studies)
studij(Postgraduate
Postdiplomski
3aOnecould find inspirationfor further analysisin the recentinterpretationwheredouble-builtchurcheshad two roles:the biggerpart wasusedon
Sundaysand on holidayswhile the smallerpirt wasusedfor everydayreligiousservices.Theywerein closeconnectionwith the bishop'-ssee:P.PIVA,
Basiliia doppia:appunti sulla storiographiadell' ultimo decenio-,Hortusirtiummedievalium,vol. l. May 1995,p. 111-6.Cf. aisoP.\GZIe, TheEarly
Katedrala,ZagrebI99T'p.47.
l57,note10;A.ERI"{NDE-BRANDENBURG,
MedieualPhaseoftheEpiscopalcomplexinZadar,ibid.p.
3sLexiconGraecumNouiTestamentl,
auctoreFranciscoZORELL,S.I. Reimpressiophotomechanica,Romae1978,s. v. rorlXdol L resono,disono'2.
catechistandcatechlsmwerederived
alloquensalqmdoceo,uiuauoceinstruo(mt)ndlichunterrichten).Thewordechohasthesameroot,andthewords
from the sameverb All this' of course'belongsto elementaryknowledgeof Greek'but a lalrmanmight find it useful'
sA.MUSIC-N.MAINARIC, Gramatikagrikogajezika,tentheditioneditedbyM.Sironii,Zagreb,l9T0,p.
168,S341.
quae
aedemcatechumenorum,
v IGN.EPHR.MHMANI, Testamentum
Domini nostriJesuChristi,Moguntiae1899,p. 23,n 153-6:Habeatecclesia
(catechumeni),
ingredientes,
eam
ut
(id
necese
sit,
cum
ab
aede
sacra),
est
ab
ecclesia
aedes
separata
sit
neque
dicta
exorcizandorum:
sit
aedes
etiam
chrdtienneet de liturgie, tome deuti6me,
et in ipsa stantes,audiantlectiones,canticaspiritualiaet psalmos.(Accordingto Dictionaired'archdologie
ldre partie,B, cot.543and note 2.)- Let the churchhavea building for catechumenswhich will be the buiiding for exorcisandiaswell: and let the

240

building not be separatedfrom the church (i. e. from the holy building), becauseit is necessarythat catechumens,while entering and standing inside,
listen to the readings, spiritual chants and psalms.
38Leksikon ikonografije, liturgije i simbolike zapadnog kri1anstua, (Lexicon oficonography, Iiturgy and symbols of western christianity) Zagreb 1979,p.
327.
s V. BRUNELLI, Storia della citta di Zara,Venice 79).3,p.224.
s l. IELICIC, Ta katechortmena crkue SueteTrojice (Su. Donat) u Zadru, in Diadora, vol. 14, Zadar 1992, 348 and note 7. T. F. MATHEWS, The Early
Churches...128-30.
arDu CANGE, Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis, s. v. CATECHOUMENA, -[A, Porticus ecclesiaesuperiores sic dictae, non quod fuerint
Catechumenorum stationes,vel locus ubi instrui solebant,ut censetBaronius ann. 656.n. 38.Wolphius, et Meursius: sed quod in iis mulieres sacras
Liturgias auditu exciperent. Anastasius in Collectaneis pag. 180: Et ascenderunt ad eum in Catechumenium Ecclesiaeipsius Monasterii. Gregorius II PP.
Epist. 2 ad Leonem Isaurum in VII. Synodo: Pontifices, si qui peccauit ... eum in EcclesiaeDiaconia et in Catechumena ablegant. Eustochius in Vlra S.
Pelagiaemererriciscap.S:QuaeaccipienseumascenditinCatechumenum,eoquodetnosibimaneremus.
Kor4loipevaetKocqlotpevrahassuperiores
porticus a Graecis appellari, pluribus ostendimus in Descriptione sanctae Sophiae cap. 38. Alotelov rdrv roqloupCvorv habet Crispinus in Vita sancti
Parthenii Episcopi Lampsaceni cap. 2, n. 14. ubi Gentianus tabulafitm, alii locum Catechumenorum veftunt. Sed 8ioteyov, hoc loco, est 6e6tepov
rocllofpevov, porticus Ecclesiaesuperior, ita dicta Codino de S. Sophia. Aelrd p6pq ralv xcrrllor-rpvrovaedis Sophianae, in Concil. \llll Act. l. [**Vide
Glossar.med. Graecit.col. 621 etAppend. col. 98J- The upper porches of the church got their names not becausethey were placesfor catechumensor
places where they were given their instructions in the rudiments of christianity (as Baronius, Wolphius and Meursius think in note 656 No. 38.) but
because it was the place where women attended liturgical service. Aioreyov ri:v ran1yotp6,vav canbe found in Crispinus' tfe o/Sr Parthenios,b\shop
of Lampsacos ch.2. No. 14, where Gentianus translates it with foor, and some others translate it with aplacefor cathecumens.But, droreTcvused here
means 6e'(trepovran17o61twov,i. e. the upper porch of the church named so by Codinos when writing about St. Sophia. Ae(rir p6p1 tdlv rorqlolp6vrrrv
ofSt. Sophia,inAct I oftheVIII Council. [** SeeGlossar.med. Graecit.col 62I andAppend. col.98]
a2E. g. Descript. SanctaeSophiae, cap. 38, or we can refer to a quote from Reiskein De cerimoniis col.258-9, note 27: "Du Cange ad Paulum Silentiar. et
Cpli Chr. I, III, item Gloss.Graecet alibi."
4 i . P . M I G N E , P a t r o l o g i a G r a e c a , v o l1. 1 2 , c o l 2 5 9 :C a t e c h u m e n i a e r a n t p o r t i c u s s u p e r i o r e s t r i a e c c l e s i a e l a t e r a a m b i e n t e s , b o r e a . l e , o c c i d e n t a l e e t
australe, ita ut sub parte occidentali narthex, sub parte boreali et australi autem porticus virorum essent; ipsa catechumenia erant statio mulierum,
illarum nempe, quae in t(o yuvarrirl non sederent. Sunt igitur illud, quod nos, a Latina voce porticusindercrius formata alia , Boorkirchen appellamus,
quasi dicas ecclesiaeporticus; converso tamen usu, Catechumenia penes nos viri occupant, penes veteres tenebant feminae; fundum ecclesiae seu
navim implebant olim viri, hodie obsident feminae. Ascendebatur e narthece per cochleam in Catechumenia, et habebat imperator ibi metatorium in
quo metabatur, id est agebat, haerebat, dum sacra fierent, et ipsi ad introitum in tribunam, ad evangelium audiendum, ad obsequendum sacris in
introitu maiore, ad Agapen dandam, et ad communionem accipiendam non esset procedendum, sed vacare liceret aut hJnnnorum cantationi, aut
homiliae auscultationi. Adjunctum erat illi metatorio triclinium, in quo epulabatur, quoties placeret in templo manere, neque domum ad prandium
reverti, et coeto,ubi dormire poterat, si qua in ecclesiapernoctarevellet.Multa de his CatechumeniisDu Cange ad Paulum Silentiar.et Cpli Chr. l. III,
item Gloss.Graec.et alii. De appellationisratione verbo adhuc dicendum est.Si certum esset,olim in veteri EcclesiaCatechumenosibi stetisse,posset
videri nomen loco mansisse, quamvis Catechumeni deinceps desinerent. Putem igitur Catechumenia dicta fuisse a feminis, quae forte fuerint tir
rcrtrllofpevo (subint. np6oono) apellatae, subjecta, quae tantummodo audiunt institutionem fidei Christianae et sacrorum, quae fiunt, sonum, eorum
autem, quae aguntur, nilvident, quandoquidem porticus earum clathris oppositis septaeessent,ipsisque sub poena anathematis tempore processionis
sacrorum deorsum per transenam despicereinterdictum esset.Erunt igitur Catechumenialoca,in quibus agunt personae,solo sono sacraedoctrinae,
precum reliquorumque sacrorum feriendae. - Catechumdnia were the upper porches of a church encircling three sides of the church, its northern,
western and southern side; namely narthex was under its western side, while the porches for men were under the northern and southern sides; the
catechum6nia were the places where women used to stand, namely those who were not seated in yuvarrirqg (g1'naikites).In fact, those were what we
caJlBoorkirchen, as when one says church porch; the name used to be occupied by men and today it is by women. To enter catechum6nia one could
use the cochlea from the narthex and the emperor had his metatorium where he stayed during the holidays and he didn't have to approach the
platform while listening to the gospels, while attending the ceremony in the grand admission and when giving agdpe and receiving the communion
but he was allowed to attend the singing of h1'rnnsor listen to the homilies. Triclinium,where he used to be treated to some food in order not to return
home for lunch, was adjointed to metatorium, as well as coeto where he could sleep if he wished to stay overnight in the church. Many details on
catechum6niacan be found in Du Cange,PaulusSilentiar.and in Cpli. Chr. 1 III, as well as Gloss.Graec.and others' works. The term itselfneeds to be
explained. If it were certain that a long time ago Catechumeni used to stand there, one might get the impression that the nam remained after the
place, although Catechumeni vanished later on. Therefore, my opinion is that catechum6nia were named after the women who used to be called that
way td, rcrqXoripevc (i. e. np6orrmcr)i. e. persons attending and only listening to the instructions in the elementary principles of Chirstianity as well as
the sounds ofthe ceremonies going on, aithough they could see nothing ofwhat was going on since the porches were barred during the ceremony and
it was forbidden to look through the palisade even under the threat of anathema.So, most probably, catechoum6nia were the placeswhere people
hearing only the voice of the holy teacher, prayers and other festivities stayed.
e STEPHANUS, Thesaurus GraecaeLinguae, vol. I-X, Graz, 1954, s. v.
6 M . S U I C ,Z a f u r , p . 7 - 8 a n d n o t e 8 - 9 , I 2 - 3 .
a6This is howVogldarcs De cer.,CONSTANTINVII PORPFIYROGENETE,
Le Livre desCdrdmonies,Commentaire,p.rt.
a7This has been already mentioned by Reiske, see note 42.
asEx:.CONSTANTINVIIPORPH\ROGENET
EL, i u r e d e s C d r d m o n i e s , v o I . I , c h . g , p . 6 I / 1 0 -lI3, ; c h . l 0 , p . 7 0 l 1 2 , 2 6 ; c h . 2 0 , p . 7 9 1 1 7 , 2 1 , 2 3 ; c h . 2 6 , p .
Le
9 3 / 3 0 ;c h . 2 7 , p . 1 0 4 1 2 5 , 3c0h; . 3 I , p . 1 1 6 / 1 8 - 9c;h . 3 9 ,p . 1 5 5 / 5 .
a ' s I B I Dc.h . 9 ,p . 6 1 .
5 0I B I D . e . g . c h . I 0 , p . 7 0 - 7 2 .
5 r I I c p u r u n n r o v , c h . 2 0 ,p . 7 9 1 2 5 ,c h 2 6 , p . 9 6 / 1 0 - 1 ,c h . 3 6 , p . 1 4 4 1 7e t c .
s 2I B I D . c h . I 0 , p . 7 0 - 2 ; c h . 2 6 , p . 9 7 .
s3IBID. ch.20,p.79122-5;ch. 31, p. fI6l26-].17 ll and Commentaire,p.142-3; ch. 36, p. 140/13-8.
5aIBID, ch. 10,p. 7l / I I etc., ch. 26, p. 93-7 etc.
s5Thewhereaboutsof thewomen in the church is explainedbyReiskewhilewritingabout gyrlaeceum(yuvcrrrirnd, t. P. MIGNE PafiologiaGraeca,vol.
1 1 2 , c o I .1 9 7 - 8 , n o t e 2 4L: o c u s e c c l e s i a r u m G r a e c a r u m , q u i c a p i t f e m i n a s , i t a a p p e l l a t P
u ra. r t e m m u l i e r u m a p p e l l a n t L a t i n i . [ D e l t v a r x i t r l i n e c c l e s i a
S.Sophiae v. Smith. p. 89. De matroneo,locoubi feminae in sacris aedibus erant, v. AltesseraadAnastas.p. I.l Colligas exhoc loco, stationem natronarum
fuissea sinistra ingredientibus in Ecclesiam,adeoque ad boream; idque confirmat Gerlachin Itinerario, p. 496, sed,ut ex illo ipso loco constat,etiam

M. Loni(tr': On the Description o!...241

ad dextramvel austrumfeminassedisse,ita e Nostrip. 325,id ipsum quoqueconficipotest,ut adeoextremaNavisin utramquepartem occupasse


feminaevideantur,sedclathrisseptaet ab aspectuviromm separata.Habebantquoquesedesin Catechumeniis,
seuporticibus,de quibusalio loco
perquamfeminaein ecclesiam
prospiciunt,etaddextram
dicimus.Gerlachiverbahaecsunl:Apudintroitumecclesiae
S.Georgiiestclathrum,ueltransena,
quodfit in ecclesia
ubi stantfeminaeplebeiae.
patriarchali,aut in
Iocusseparatus,
Graecae
enimecclesiam
non intrant,sedautforis restitantin narthece,
porticLtstantadsinistram,tLbiS.Euphemiajacet.In aedeGalatensiChrysopeges
estearumstatioin extremorecessu
ecclesiae
etad sinistramin superioribus
-This is how the placeusedby womenin the Greekchurcheswascalled.The Latinscall it the
apud muntm, undeper transennampossuntdespicere.
women'sslzle[Referingto yuvurriqq in St. Sophia,seeSmith,p. 89.Referinglo matroneum- a placein the holy houseswherewomen stayed,see
Altessera
in connectionwith Anastas.p. l.l 'vVhat
we canunderstandfrom this descriptionis that the placefor womenwason the left sidewhenentering
thechurch,whichmeans:on thenorth side;thiswasconfirmedby Gerlachin Itinerarium,p. 496,but herewe canfind thatwomenusedto sit on the right
or southemside,too;in a likemanner,accordingto our wdter, (p.325)we mayconcludethat thelowerpartof the navewasoccupiedby women,but that
theywereenclosedbypillarsasobstacles
laidbeforemen'seyes.Theyhadtheirseatsin catechum6nia
or in the upperporcheswhichhavebeendiscussed
HereareGerlach'swords:At the entranceof St.George'schurchthereis a grateor a nettingthroughwhich womenlook into the churchand
elsewhere.
thereis a separateplaceon therightsidewhereplebeianwomenstand.Greekwomendo not enterthe church,theyonlyeitherstayoutin theporchwhich
is the customin the patriachicaichurch,or theystandon the left sidein theporch,whereSt.Euphemiais laid.In In the churchof Chrisopeges
in Galata,
theyhavetheir placeon the left,by the wall in the upperpart wherefrom they canwatchdown throughthe net. - Similarly,Di.ctionaire
d'arch4ologie
chrdtienneet de liturgie,tomedeuxibme,l'" partie,B. Paris,1910,col. 586,with an addedcommentarythat the gallerywasca-lled"glnaeceum"by the
Greeks,
which doesnot correspondtoDe cer.,cf.e.g. the descriptionofthe churchofChalcoprateia,
above,p. 6.
s6A. Banduritransiatesit with rotundusinJ. P.MIGNE,PatrologiaGraeca,vol.ll3, col.267A, B, C,266A, B.
' N. TOMASICin KONSTANTIN
PORFIROGENET,
O uprauljanjucarstuom,(Deadministrandoimperio),p.77:presuodena
crkua(a domedchurch);B.
in Vizantiskiizuori...p. 24: ln itsproximity thereis anotherdomedtemple,TheHoly Trinity; The choiceof words is a bit clumsyand it
FERJANCIC
suggeststhat the former temple,St.Anastasiais vaulted/domed,too, althoughthe translatorknowsthe situation:"the church ofSt. Anastasiaia a
basilica(...)whilethe templeof the HolyTrinityis a domedoneandroundin shape."(ibid.note25);interestingly
enough,a "round"shapeis mentionedwhichmayhavebeenbecause
theactualshapeofthetemplewasknownand,ifonejudgesbythistranslation,
itwasnot from Constantin's
text.
R.I. H. IENKINSin CONSTANTINE
PORPHYROGENITUS,
Deadministrandoimperlo,p. 139,saysdomedone.He, too, stresses
St.Donat s roundness
and he evendoesnt think it s necessary
to explainhis translation(Commennry,p. lI2). M. SIJIC,Zadar...p. 7 is in accordance
with the unison
p. 19,givesthe commentthat: "the aboveused
translation:i ona takodernadsvodena(it is vaulted/domed,
too).J. MARTINOViC
: Prolegomena...
vault/domei. e. roundness
attributedesignates
in theverticaiplanandnot in the groundplan."
s STEPHANUS,
s. v. ii),qpo inuolucrum,integumentum:
zastor,pokivalo,zamot(veil,curtain,cover)(accordingtoDiVKOUC:Latinsko-hruatski
rjeinikl Latin-CroatianDictionaryby Divkovii, s.v.) or uaultinrhe descdptionof Split,footnote65,below.
$ STEPFIANUS,
s. v.: dvotpoyyrl"oer8eiei),qponrQ
vc.Qin a domed,circularchurch,
60The Greektext in note 8.
6tJ.tr4r\RTINOVIC,
p. lI.
Prolegomena...
n CONSTANTINE
p. 136:'YroKdroEdorto[ tndploro'tv ei],1ponrcoi
PORPHYROGENITUS,
Deadministrando
imperio,291242-4,
rqt6.pat,...There
are uaultedroomsunderit. ..
63IENKINSin Commentary,
p. 109.
il B. FERtANeleinByzantinnSources
(Vizantiskiizuori...)
p.22.J.MARTINOYIC,
Prolegomena...p.14i19.
ffiCONSTANTINEPORPFIIGOGENITUS,
Deadministrandoimperio,2gl250-5,p.
136:"lorcx,vtcn6deiqrdrotoftovrtiorpovra,inioveqrrurvoi,dlovteq
6 ortdq Bcrorl,rirq
Aror)"r1novdg
drdvr,lrooprlttrq,dvo( dpe),).rv
ei),qpoardqdpipor ropdpcrq,rai orerrdoortd rdotpov 6l,ov,rai zor{oor rd rstrdrs
t6v eilqpdr<ovdreivrrw6rdrpoQa
roi rpr6poQa,dlorerai ri],f"yov
rdorpo! doKdndov.
s,tro[ xai rtivta rd oirrjpcta roi rtiotpor.rdn<ivrrl
er tot cx,rlnof
66P.VEZIC,Rotonda...
p. 43.
6TE.g.inSt.Apostles:CONSTANTINVIIPORPFInOGENETE,
LeLiuredesCdrdmonie$vol.I,ch.
10,p.7017-8,18,25;inSt.Mocios:lBiD.ch.26,p.94l
IBID.ch.27,p. 102| 9, 10,31,32etc.
19,20;in Ladyof theSource(Peg6):
68Cf. SabathinTURKOGLU,HagiaSophia,1989,p. 4.
S CONSTANTIN
VII PORPHIT.OGENETE,
LeLiuredesCdrdmonies,
vol. l, ch. 39,p. I55l 4, 25.
70IBID.ch.36,p. 140/l0 andnote1.
7'IBID.ch.26,p. 96I I0.
7'z
-8.Concerning
IBID.ch.31,p. 117/I 1-2,p.37, p. 14617
didascalium,
seep. 6.
7 3I B I D .c h . 3 7 , p . 1 4173 2 .
7aIBID.ch.37, p. I45l 17-20
75IBID.ch.36,D.141/4-6.

oPrs ZADARSKTH
I SVETOG
DONATA
CRKAVASVETISTOSTJE
U PORTIROGENITOVU
DEADMINISTRANDO
IMPERIO
SAZETAK
Prije otprilike deseti po stoljeia zadarskaje crkva svete
StoSijepodsjetilaPorfirogenetovaknjizemog suradnikana
carigradsku crkvu Bogorodice Halkopratejske,a galerija
SvetogDonata na katekumenej.Prvi cilj dlanka bio je, na
temelju Porfirogenetovihpodatakau De cerimoniis,obavi242

jestiti o Halkopratejskojcrkrri,isto tako i o katekumenejima,


kako bi setako eventualnonapredovaloi u poznavanjuzadarskih crkava.Dopunski su propitani i neki drugi termini
iz njihova opisa u De administrando imperio.

SYETASTOSUA
Dromik6s. Postoji opda suglasnostkako taj pridjev
oznaduje izduieni tip crkve, tj. baziliku. Nejasno je medutim, kako je tekao razvojzna(enja od osnorno g, pogodan
za trtanje, hodanje, ietnju. Najuvjerljivijom se dini pretpostavka da je novo znadenjedoSlood imenice dr6mosu
smislu uestibul,trijem, pri iem su bodne lade svojom slidno56u s trijemom predstavljalevezu za pro5irenjepojma.
Slitan Khalkopratejskom hramu. Te5koje pogoditi Sto
je u Sv. Sto5iji asociralo izvjestitelja na Halkopratejsku
crkm. Zato se ovdje navode svi oni dijelovi koji se mogu
spoznati iz De cerimoniis, Vita Basilii i arheoloSkihistraLivanja. To su njena iznimna veliiina, atrij i narteks na zapadnoj strani, u unutraSnjosti svetiSteodvojeno niskom
pregradom,solea,SirokapolukruZnaapsidas tri velika prozora (koji su vj erojatno posljedica Bazilijeverestauracije);
nije sigurno da Ii se kapela s Gospinom relikvijom nalazlla
na lijevoj strani unutar crkve ili je bila dogradenana nju.
Na katu senalazilagalerijas kolonadom i uobidajenimprostoriiama.
iitau ostikandreunim druopisom.eini se da je tu rijed o
tehnici slikanjavoskom i bojama na drvenojpodlozi. Dvojbeno je radi Ii se o starim ili starinskim slikama.
SVETIDONAT
Drugi hram. Ako nas pisac iz nekog razloga nije krivo
obavijestio,onda je galerijaSv.Donata morala imati i neke

samostalneobrednefunkcije, sudedipo tome Stose naziva


crkvom, a i njezin bi prostor to dopu5tao.
Poput katekumena.Oblikrijeei nije ustaljen,javljaju se
tri varijante.Nedostajepotpunija povijestrijedi, no dini se
da je pojam s priprarmika za kr5tenjepre5aona prostor u
kojem su boravili. Kad se negdje u 6. stoljeiu njihov broj
smanjio,galerijesu sestalekoristitikao kapeliceza osobnu
molitvu, vjerojatno i kao prostor zaLene, a prema De cerimoniis katekumeneji u brojnim carigradskim crkvama
sluZecaru i njegovoj pratnji u odredeneblagdane za pra6enje drugog dijela bogosluljaiza protokolarne susretes
patrijarhom.Zatoje prostorkatekumenejaredovito podijeljen sjedne stranena dio okrenut srediSnjojladi, a s druge
na pomo6ne prostorije: triklinij, metatorij i koiton, destoi
eukterii.
Eilematik6s.Kolikoje bilo mogu6erazumjeti, atribut se
u De administrando imperio koristi za oznaku vertikalne
zaobljenosti u arhitekturi, dakle u znadenlu zasuoden,ahu
tom sludaju ne bi odgovaraogaleriji Sv.Donata diji srediSnji
cilindar i prstenastiophod natkriva drveni krov s crijepom.
Zato treba ostaviti otvorenom mogudnost da se eilematik1s
odnosi i na vodorar,nukruZnostu doslo'rnomsmislu rijedi,
a onda moZda i opienito na centralni tip prostora, za razliku
od izduZenog- dromik6s.
Puiastim stepeniitem.Premda postoji nekoliko wsta
uspona u katekumeneje,najde5iije prema De cer.upravo
taj, did kokhliou, dije ime, potjedu6iod morskog puZa,sugerira zavojitost. Pristupa im se iz atrija ili narteksa, ali postoje i u unutra5njosticrkve.

243