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Appendix A

Specification for Road


Construction and Materials

Appendix
APPENDIX A
Specification for Road Construction and
Materials
Specification

The Specification shall be the December 1991 issue incorporating


the August 1993 amendment of the " Specification for Highway
Works" published by Her Majesty Stationery Office as Volume 1 of
the Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works as
modified and extended by the following.
The following table lists additions and amendments to and details
of the above Specification required by the Local Roads Authority.
These are fully detailed in this appendix with clauses and tables
numbered to correspond with those in the above Specification.
Amendments to existing clauses are suffixed "A", an "S" suffix
indicates that the clause supersedes an existing clause. Additional
clauses have no suffix.

EAC
Amendment

New Materials

It is not the intention to preclude the use of new materials or


processes, but the specific prior approval of the Local Roads
Authority must be sought through the Head of Roads and
Transportation.
Appendix 0/1 : Additional, Substitute and Cancelled Clauses and
Tables
Additional Clauses and Tables
Clause No
Title
or Table No
1043
1044

Concrete Block Paving


Clay Pavers

Substitute Clauses and Tables


Clause No
or Table No

Title

Table 1101 (s)

Kerbs Edging and Small Element


Block Kerbs

Appendix 0/2 : Minor Alterations to Existing Clauses and Tables


Clause No

Title

1104 (A)
1106 (A)

Precast Concrete Flags


Footways and Paved Areas
(In Situ Concrete)

Appendix
Appendix 0/3 : Numbered Appendices Referred to in the
Specification
Appendix No
1/17
5/1
6/7

6/8
7/1
11/1

Appendix Title
Traffic Safety and Management
Drainage Requirements
Sub-formation and Capping and
Preparation and Surface Treatment of
Formation
Topsoiling, Grass Seeding and Turfing
Permitted Pavement Options
Kerbs, Footways and Paved Areas

Series 100: Preliminaries


Appendix 1/17 Traffic Safety and Management
1

Where existing roads and footways are affected by the


development a safe passage must be maintained along all
footways for pedestrians, or if this is not possible, a safe
alternative means of passage around the works must be
provided in accordance with requirements of Chapter 8 of the
"Traffic Signs Manual" (published by HMSO) and any
amendments thereto. A safe passage must also be maintained
for all vehicles round the works and safe access must be
provided for entrance to all properties in use, unless the
consent of the occupier of the premises has been obtained.
The developer must provide all necessary traffic signs, cones,
barriers and lighting. The developer's attention is also drawn to
the requirements of the Code of Practice on Safety at Street
Works and Road Works (published by HMSO).

In particular the developer shall make all necessary provisions


to ensure that the needs of disabled people are met in the
vicinity of his works by forming ramps if necessary and by
giving clear visual warning to partially sighted pedestrians in
accordance with Chapter 8 of the "Traffic Signs Manual"
(published by HMSO) and any amendments thereto. All
openings or obstructions on the road should be barricaded off
with a continuous rail which is strong enough to offer the
necessary resistance should a blind person walk into it. The rail
should be 1 metre above ground level. There shall also be a
tapping rail of minimum depth 150mm with a lower edge at
ground level or up to a maximum height of 200mm above the
ground.

No works shall interfere with existing public footways, footpaths


or carriageways without the developer obtaining an Occupation
of the Road Certificate and/or a Road Opening Permit from the
Head of Roads and Transportation.

Safe Passage for


Pedestrians

Provision for
Disabled
People

Road Opening
Permit

Appendix
Series 500: Drainage
Appendix 5/1 Drainage Requirements
1

To be carried out to the current edition of Road Note 35.


(Minimum pipe diameter 150 mm).

To be carried out to Specification Advice Note HA 40/89.


(Pipes in or adjacent to carriageway to be designed for Main
Road Loading)

Any tendency to attack by acidic ground water or sulphates


present in the backfill or the ground should betaken into
account when use of concrete, asbestos cement, steel or
clay pipes is being considered. (See Notes for Guidance to
Specification NG 501.3)

Consideration should be given to need for watertight joints


where pipes are laid in soils that are predominantly fine
sands or coarse sands. (See Notes for Guidance to
Specification NG 504)

Type A backfill material should be used for subsoil drainage.


Type B backfill material should be used where drain is
designed to intercept surface water flowing to the pipe.

(i) Manhole covers and frames shall be non rock and comply
with BS EN 124 and be Class D400 (minimum clear opening
600mm dia or equivalent, minimum depth of frame 100mm)
except in non contiguous car parks or verges where the use
of Class B125 (minimum clear opening 600mm dia or
equivalent, minimum depth of frame 100mm) will be
permissible.
(ii) Gully gratings and frames must be positioned with
grating bars not parallel to the kerb to facilitate cyclists and
shall be of the captive variety. They shall comply with BS EN
124 and Class C250, or at corners, bends and other areas
likely to be trafficked Class D400, (minimum nominal width
2
450mm, minimum area of waterway 900cm and minimum
depth of frame 100mm) except in non contiguous car parks
where the use of Class B125 (minimum nominal width
2
325mm, minimum area of waterway 650cm and minimum
depth of frame 100mm) will be permissible.

Spacing of gullies is to be based on criteria from TRRL


Report LR277. (Rainfall intensity 50mm/hour, channel flow
600mm wide).
Gullies are to be trapped and have a minimum storage
capacity of 100 litres (20 gallons). Gullies to be positioned
such that the maximum distance between gully and adjacent
kerb shall not exceed 10mm. All connections to a depth of 1
metre below level of the finished surface shall be
surrounded in 150mm ST1 concrete.

Where 2 stage construction is used, metal shims shall not be


used to raise frames and covers to final positions. Where the
existing bedding material is sound an additional bedding layer,
maximum 50 mm, may be laid on top. No bricks on edge shall
be used under gully frames or manhole covers.

Hydraulic
Design
Pipe and
Bedding
Combination
Design
Sulphate
Resistance

Watertight
Joints

Backfill to
Filter Drains

Chamber
Covers,
Gratings and
Frames

Spacing of
Gullies

Gully Types
and Location

Raising Frames
and covers

Appendix
Series 600 : Earthworks
CBR Tests

Appendix 6/7 Site Investigation and Capping Layer Requirements


1

For the purpose of pavement design in-situ CBR tests are not
permissible. CBR values are to be evaluated by laboratory
testing in accordance with BS 1377 (1990) on remoulded soil.

In general for short lengths of road less than 100 metres long,
where CBR values span several ranges, it is not acceptable to
vary the capping layer thickness. A single capping layer
thickness is to be adopted based on the lower bound CBR
values over the full length of the road. Similarly where CBR
values fall above and below the criteria for the provision of a
capping layer the lower CBR values dictate that a capping
layer should be provided throughout the length of the road.
For longer roads, the thickness of the capping layers must be
constant for at least 100 metres in length before its thickness
may be varied. These criteria may be altered by the Head of
Roads and Transportation depending upon ground conditions
prevailing at the site. Where no CBR values are available from
the ground investigation a full capping layer 600mm thick is
required.

Geotextiles or polymer geogrids shall not be used as a


substitute to a capping layer or as a means to reduce subbase thickness.

Capping Layer
Thickness

Geotextiles and
Polymer
Geogrids

Appendix 6/8 Topsoiling, Grass Seeding and Turfing


1

Imported topsoil to be Class 5B complying with table 6/1.

Requirements of Sub-Clause 618.3 apply with reference to


Stockpiles of Topsoil.

Minimum depth of topsoil for grass seeding and turfing shall


be 100mm. The minimum depth of topsoil for planting shall be
as follows:
Shrub planting
Tree planting

400mm.
600mm.

Seed Mixtures shall comply with Table 6/5 of the specification


or alternatives as follows:
(i)

General, low maintenance:

Grass Seed

Brown Top
Creeping Red Fescue
Crested DogtaiI
Rough Stalked Meadow Grass
Chewing Fescue
Perennial Rye Grass

10
10
10
5
25
40

Appendix
(ii)

Tolerant of winter salt spray.

Grass Seed
Perennial Rye Grass
Strong Creeping Red Fescue
Hard Fescue
Flattened Meadow Grass
Salt Marsh Grass
Creeping Bent

%
20
35
25
10
7.5
2.5

Note : The suitability of mixes for certain specified uses and


maintenance requirements should always be
checked.
(iii) Wildflower mixes may be used outwith visibility areas at
the discretion of the Head of Roads and Transportation.
In areas where wildflower mixes are to be used, fertiliser
and topsoil are to be omitted as these mixes require
impoverished conditions to compete with grasses.
Wildflower areas require to be cut one to four times per
year and when cutting all arisings must be removed to
maintain the impoverished nature of the sward.
Approval of wildflower mixes should be sought from the
councils Horticulturist.
Weeds should be actively control led by either chemical
or mechanical means during the growing season.

Appendix
Series 700 : Road Pavement
Appendix 7/1 Pavement Requirements
Pavement
Design

1 Carriageway pavements are to be designed in accordance


with TRRL Report LR1132 for bituminous roads and BS 7533
for blocked paved roads, with rigid pavement construction only
being acceptable for individual accesses to industrial or
commercial premises.

Design Life

2 Unless agreed otherwise with the Head of Roads and


Transportation, pavements shall be designed for a 40 year life,
a traffic growth rate of 4% per annum and a minimum
construction required to carry 0.5 million standard axles for
any road.

Frost-susceptible
Material

3 No frost-susceptible material shall be used within 450 mm of


the final running surface.

PSV's and AAV's

4 The following material requirements relate to the designs


covered in Table 10.2. Where pavements are being designed
for specific circumstances, the material requirements are to be
agreed with the Head of Roads and Transportation. In this
connection it should be noted that requirements for Polished
Stone Values and Aggregate Abrasion Values are dependent
upon site layouts as well as the number of commercial
vehicles at the design life, and shall conform with the
requirements of HD 21/92 " Requirements for Aggregate
Properties for New Bituminous Surfacing"

Distributor Roads
and
Industrial
Roads

Table 9.2 Designs - Material Requirements


5 (i) Surfacing Rolled asphalt wearing course 40mm thick to
Clause 910 - Recipe type F mix 50 pen. to Table 6 Column 6/4
BS 594 Part 1:1992.
Coated chippings to Clause 915- 14mm or 20mm nominal size
precoated. Straight "non-event" section minimum PSV53,
maximum AAV12 (See 4 above). These should be spread not
less than 60% of the shoulder to shoulder cover.
(ii) Basecourse
Dense macadam basecourse 60mm (Two
stage)
thick to Clause 906 - 28mm size dense construction
100pen. to Clause 6.4 BS4987 Part 1 : 1993.
(iii) Combined Dense macadam roadbase 200mm Roadbase
thick to Clause 903 - 40mm size dense and100 pen. to Clause
5.1 BS 4987 Part 1 Basecourse
:1993.

Distributor
Roads and
Industrial
Roads

Appendix
6

(i) Surfacing

Rolled asphalt wearing course 40mm thick to Clause


910 - Recipe type F mix 50 pen. to Table 6 Column 6/4
BS 594 Part 1:1992.

Residential
Core Road

Coated chippings to Clause 915 - 14mm or 20mm


nominal size precoated. Straight "non-event" section
minimum PSV 53, maximum AAV12 (See 4 above).
These should be spread not less than 60% of the
shoulder to shoulder cover.

(ii) Basecourse
(Two stage)
construction

Dense macadam basecourse 60mm thick to Clause


906 - 28mm size dense 100 pen. to Clause 6.4 BS
4987 Part 1 : 1993.

(iii) Combined
Roadbase and
Basecourse

Dense macadam roadbase 100mm thick to Clause 903


- 40mm size dense 100 pen. to Clause 5.1 BS 4987
Part 1 : 1993.

(i) Surfacing

Rolled asphalt wearing course 40mm thick to Clause


910 (as Core Road). Coated chippings to Clause 915
(as Core Road) but minimum PSV 45 and maximum
AAV 14 (See 4 above). These should be spread not
less than 60% of the shoulder to shoulder cover.
or for island locations
Close graded macadam wearing course 40mm thick to
Clause 912 Category B traffic 14mm size to Clause 7.3
BS 4987 Part 1 : 1993, minimum PSV 45 and
maximum AAV 16.(See 5 above).

(ii) Basecourse
(Two stage)
construction

Dense macadam basecourse 50mm thick to Clause


906 - 20mm size dense 100 pen. to Clause 6.5 BS
4987 Part 1 : 1993.

(iii) Combined
Roadbase and
Basecourse

Dense macadam roadbase 130mm thick to Clause 903


(as Core Road)

Housing Roads

Appendix
Car parking
Areas

8 (i) Surfacing

Rolled asphalt wearing course 40mm thick to


Clause 910( as Core Road with 70 pen binder).
Coated chippings to Clause 915(as Core Road) or
close graded macadam wearing course 40mm
thick to Clause 912 (as Housing Road ).
Or

(ii)

(iii) Roadbase

Open graded macadam wearing course 65mm


thick to Clause 916 Category B traffic 14 mm size
to Clause 7.1 BS 4987 Part 1:1993.
Dense macadam roadbase 60 or 80mm thick to
clause 903 - 28/40mm size dense 100 pen Clause
5.2/Clause 5.1 BS 4987 Part 1 :1993.
Bedding shall be a layer of clean sharp sand or
crushed rock fines complying with BS 882 grading
C or M, 30mm to 50mm thick.

Shared
Surfaces

(i) Bedding
Blocks shall be 200x100x80mm concrete or 200 x
100 x 65mm clay rectangular, dimensioned and
laid in accordance with Table9.2of the Guidelines
and1/2 is the minimum size of a part block.
(ii) Blocks
There is no absolute requirement in relation to
colour but lightest colours should be used for
pedestrian areas.

(iii)

Blocks shall be laid to a herring bone pattern with


blocks laid generally parallel and at right angles to
the kerb face.

(iv)

Details at service covers and other openings shall


be agreed with the Head of Roads and
Transportation prior to laying.

Appendix
Series 1000 : Blockwork Pavements
Clause 1043 - Concrete Block Paving
1

Precast concrete paving blocks shall be chamfered and shall


comply with BS 6717: Part 1 and conform to the shapes,
dimensions and colours detailed in Appendix 7/1.

Precast paving blocks shall be laid in accordance with BS 6717:


Part 3 on a bedding layer of sharp sand or crushed rock fines
as described in Appendix 7/1 or on a polymer modified mortar
bed at traffic calming measures.

The layout of blocks and details at edges, chamber covers,


gulliesand otheropeningsshall beasdescribed in Appendix 7/1
or, where not described, subject to the approval of the Head of
Roads and Transportation prior to laying.

Clause 1044 - Clay Pavers


1

Clay pavers shall comply with BS6677: Part 1, Type PB with


chamfers. The shape and dimension of clay pavers shall be as
described in Appendix 7/1.

Clay pavers shall be laid in accordance with BS 6677: Part 3 on


a bedding layer of sharp sand or crushed rock fines as
described in Appendix 7/1.

The layout of pavers and details at edges, chamber covers,


gulliesand other openingsshall be as described in Appendix 7/1
or, where not described, subject to the approval of the Head of
Roads and Transportation prior to laying.

Appendix
Series 1100: Kerbs, Footways and Paved Areas
Clause 1101(5) -Kerbs, Edgings and Small Element Block Kerbs
1

The type of kerb used shall be one of the following:(i) Whin kerb- 125x250mm nidged whin kerbs complying with
BS 435 1975
(ii) Precast Concrete Kerbs - 125 x 255/175/150mm
hydraulically pressed complying with BS 7263: Part 1.
(iii) Small element block kerbsto BS 6717 for concrete or BS
6677 for clay pavers where agreed by the Head of Roads
and Transportation.

All kerbs shall be laid and bedded using 10 to 40mm thick bed of
mortarto designation (i) Table 24/1 on a foundation of, and
haunched with, ST1 concrete to the dimensions as stated in
Figures 10.5 and 10.6 of the Guidelines.

For radii of 12 metres or less kerbs of appropriate radius shall be


used.

Precast concrete edgings shall be:(i) At the heel of footways 50 x 200mm half rounded or
bullnosed
(ii) Elsewhere 50 x 200mm flat topped.

Precast concrete edgings shall be hydraulically pressed and


comply with BS 7263: Part 1. The edging shall be bedded on 10
to 40mm thick bed of mortar to designation (i) Table 24/ 1 laid on
a foundation of, and haunched with, ST1 concrete to the
dimensions as stated in Figures 10.Sand 10.6 of the Guidelines.

Where existing kerbs are being relaid it will be permissible to lay


them directly on a concrete bed of at least the same dimensions
as the foundation specified in Figure 10.5 of the Guidelines.

Any units of kerbs or edgings deviating more than 3mm in any 3m


length from line or level shall be made good by lifting and
relaying.

8 The minimum length of part kerbs shall be 1/2 kerb length. Kerbs
shall be mitred at junctions or internal or angle kerbs shall be
used. All precast kerbs shall be butt jointed with gaps not
exceeding 3mm. Where mitring is necessary, the same tolerance
shall apply.

Appendix
Clause 1104(A) - Footways and Paved Areas (Precast Concrete
Flags)
2(A)

Flags should normally be bedded on a layer of clean sharp


sand or crushed rockfines complying with BS882 Grading C
or M, 25mm 10mm thick. Where no vehicular override of
the slabs is anticipated, the bedding may be replaced with
dry mortar mix not less than 10mm and not more than
40mm thick.

Clause 1106(A) - Footways and Paved Areas (In Situ Concrete)


3(A)

In situ concrete shall be laid on a sub-base composed of


material complying with Clause 803 and compacted in
compliance with Clause 802 and to the thickness described
in Appendix 11/1.

Appendix 11/1 Kerbs, Footwaysand Paved Areas Requirements


1

(i) Bedding shall normally be a layer of clean sharp sand or


crushed rock fines complying with BS 882 Grading C or M,
25mm + 10 mm thick. Where no vehicular override of the
slabs is anticipated, the bedding may be replaced with dry
mortar mix not less than 10mm and not more than 40mm
thick.
(ii) Slabs shall be dimensioned and laid in accordance with
Table 10.3 of the Guidelines.
(iii) 600mm wide slabs shall be laid to 150mm broken bond.
400 x 400mm slabs may be laid to straight bond.
(iv) Joints shall generally be at right angles to the kerb
(v) Details at service covers and other openings shall be
agreed with the Head of Roads and Transportation prior to
laying.

(i) Dense Macadam basecourse to Clause 906 shall be 20mm


size to Clause 6.5 of BS 4987, 1993.
(ii) Rolled Asphalt wearing course to Clause 910 shall be
15/10 recipe type F mix to Table 6 Column 6.2 of BS
594:1992.
(iii) 6mm or 10mm limestone or other approved chippings shall
2
be spread at 1 Kg/m .

(i) Granolithic footways/footpaths shall be laid in accordance


with Table 10.3 of the Guidelines.
(ii) The concrete shall be manufactured using either ordinary
or rapid hardening Portland cement (BS 12) or Portland
blast furnace cement (BS 146).
(iii) Concrete aggregates shall conform with the requirements
of BS 1201: Aggregates for granolithic concrete floor
finishes.
(iv) Where coloured finishes are required, coloured cements
shall be used. The use of pigments at the mixer shall not be
permitted.

Appendix
(v)

The water used for mixing concrete shall be obtained from


a source approved by the Engineer.

(vi)

The concrete topping should preferably be laid


monolithically with the base concrete (i.e. within a period of
one to three hours). If this is not practicable, the base
concrete shall be treated, e.g. by the removal of latence
prior to setting, so as to ensure a satisfactory bond
between the base and top layers.

(vii)

The mix proportions by weight shall be:(a) 1:1:2, cement fine aggregate: coarse aggregate, or
(b) 1:3, cement: all-in aggregate,

(viii) When batched by "volume" the proportions shall be:(a) 50kg cement: 0.035 cu.m. dry fine aggregate: 0.07
cu.m. coarse aggregate, or
(b) 50kg cement: 0.1 cu.m. all-in aggregate.
(ix)

Water content must be kept as low as possible consistent


with obtaining full compaction (to satisfy this requirement
the water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.42).

(x)

The concrete shall be laid in bays not exceeding 15 square


metres or 6 metres in length.

(xi)

All concrete shall be fully compacted with neither


segregation nor excessive latence being permitted.

(xii)

Once the concrete has been fully compacted and trowelled


to a smooth finish, it shall be left for a period of between
two and three hours after which further trowelling shall be
undertaken. Should water be brought to the surf ace as a
result of this operation, the concrete shall be left for a
further period of one hour and the process repeated as
often as is necessary until no surface water is produced by
the trowelling action. Thereafter the surface shall be
marked out in panels (not exceeding 0.6m x 0.6m) and
indented with a granolithic roller.

(xiii)

As soon as the surface has hardened sufficiently to prevent


damage, it shall be cured for a minimum period of 48 hours
by:
(a) spraying the surface with a curing compound complying
2
with Clause 1027 at a rate of 0.25 litres/m .
or
(b) covering the surface with building paper, plastic, or
other waterproof sheeting, kept in close contact with the
surface. The covering shall overlap the sides of the slab
and shall be securely held in position.

Appendix
For coloured concrete work method (ii) shall be used.
(xiv) Concreting shall cease when atmospheric temperature is
below 3 C on a falling thermometer and shall not resume
until a temperature of at least 1 C on a rising
thermometer has been reached.
4 (i) Bedding shall be a layer of clean sharp sand or crushed
rock fines complying with BS 882 grading C or M, 30mm
to 50mm thick.
(ii) Blocks shall be 200 x 100 x 65mm thick rectangular in
accordance with Table 10.3 of the Guidelines, and 1/2 is
the minimum size of a part block.
(iv) There is no absolute requirement in relation to colour but
lightest colours should be used for pedestrian areas.
(iv) Blocks shall be laid to a herring bone pattern with blocks
laid generally parallel and at right angles to the kerb face.
(v)

Details at service covers and other openings shall be


agreed with the Head of Roads and Transportation prior
to laying.

5 (i) Dense Macadam basecourse to Clause 906 shall be


20mm size to Clause 6.5 ofBS 4987, 1993.
(ii) Rolled Asphalt wearing course to Clause 910 shall be O/
3 recipe type F mix to Table 6 Column 6.1 of BS
594:1992.
(iii) Close graded macadam wearing course to Clause 912
shall be 14mm size to Clause 7.3 of BS 4987, 1993.
(v)

6mm or 10mm limestone or other approved chippings


2
shall be spread at 1 Kg/m .