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Adjectives

An Adjective is a describing word that qualifies a noun or a pronoun. An adjective


modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words.
There are five kinds of adjectives.
1. Possessive Adjective
2. Descriptive Adjective
3. Numeral Adjective
4. Demonstrative Adjective
5. Interrogative Adjective
Order of Adjectives
The word order of adjectives -

is used when there is more than one adjective describing a noun.

is usually: opinion, size, age, shape, colour, origin, material, and purpose.

is used as a guideline.

Use commas to separate long lists of adjectives. For example: I work in that large, modern,
steel building. Do not use a comma between an adjective and the noun it describes: steel
building. It is not necessary to use a comma with a short list of common adjectives: That wise
old man is my father.
Possessive Adjective is the adjective which is used to point out the noun that is in
possession of someone. These are My, Your, Our, Their, His, Her and Its.
1. This is my car.
2. Your seat is reserved.
Descriptive Adjective is the adjective that is used to tell the quality of a noun.
1. He is a tall boy.
2. She is a beautiful lady.
Numeral Adjective is the adjective which is used to show the number of noun.
1. Taj Mahal is the seventh wonder of the world.
2. She has a few pictures. (few is an indefinite numeral adjective)

Demonstrative Adjective is the adjective which is used to point out the noun. They
are this, these, that, and those.
1. That lady is very beautiful.
2. These muffins smell good.
Interrogative Adjective is the adjective that is used to ask the question. They are
where, what, which, etc.
1. Which animal do you like?
2. Where is the doctor?
Now, we have seen the types of Adjectives. Lets see the forms of Adjectives.
Depending on usage, Adjective can be as follows
1. Attributively - Adjective placed before noun/pronoun
1. This is a juicy mango (juicy placed before mango)
2. This is a shining car (shining placed before car)
2. Predicatively - Adjective placed after noun/pronoun
1. This mango is juicy (juicy placed after mango)
2. This car is shining (shining placed after car)
Rules:
1. Older is used for person, animal, or thing. Whereas, Elder is used for members of
same family.
1.

She is my older sister. (same family)

2.

She is my elder sister.

3.

Reeta is elder than Raj.

4.

Reeta is older than Raj

2. Mutual means reciprocal. Whereas Common means belonging to two or more


1.
2.

The common love between the couple blossomed over the years.
The mutual love between the couple blossomed over the years. (both love
each other)

3.

The siblings exhibit mutual traits.

4.

The siblings exhibit common traits.

3. Further means 'in addition to'. Farther is used in terms of distance (more distance)
1.
2.

Any farther notice will not be issued.


Any further notice will not be issued. (In addition to notice already issued,
no more notice is going to be issued)

3.

Delhi is further than Mumbai.

4.

Delhi is farther than Mumbai.

4. While comparing, more/most is NOT used with words like tall, little, big, small, easy,
cold, hot, etc.
1.

This tea is more hotter than that.

2.

This tea is hotter than that.

3.

He is more bigger than me.

4.

He is bigger than me.

5. One, Two, Three etc. are called Cardinal Numbers. First, Second, Third etc are called
Ordinal Numbers. By rule, the Ordinal Number is always used before Cardinal
Number.
1.

Complete the ten first questions of this chapter as homework.

2.

Complete the first ten questions of this chapter as homework.

6. Words like Interior, Superior, Junior, Senior, Prefer, etc are always used with 'To'
1.

Ram is superior than me.

2.

Ram is superior to me.

3.

Tea is preferable than coffee.

4.

Tea is preferable to coffee.

7. 'Some' is used for affirmative sentences, uncountable nouns, and requests. 'Any' is
used with negative sentences and interrogative sentences.
1.

Will you have any milk? (request)

2.

Will you have some milk?

3.

I have any passes left with me. (affirmative sentence)

4.

I have some passes left with me.

5.

I don't have some more money. (negative)

6.

I don't have any more money.

7.

Don't you have some shame? (negative interrogative)

8.

Don't you have any shame?

8. Oral means 'through mouth' whereas verbal means 'related to words; whether spoken
or written'
1.

Give the medicine to the child verbally.

2.

Give the medicine to the child orally.

3.

She took her verbal exam last week. (word proficiency test)

4.

The fight was merely a verbal confrontation. (war of words)

9. Each means to emphasize all persons in a group. Every means all persons in general.
1.

Each man should follow his own path. (we are speaking about all man in a
particular group)

2.

Every man should follow his own path. (we are speaking about all man in
general)

3.

He was carrying a suitcase in every hand. (Each is used when there are
two objects; every is not used)

4.

He was carrying a suitcase in each hand.

5.

I get a health check-up done each six months. (Every is used to refer to
repeated, regular events)

6.

I get a health check-up done every six months.

10. Sick means feeling slight indisposition. Whereas Ill means actually having some sort
of disease or long term medical condition.

1.

I am ill and tired of her.

2.

I am sick and tired of her. (feeling negative emotion)

3.

I am feeling ill. (it's a feeling)

4.

I am feeling sick.

5.

I am ill. (he might actually have a medical condition and is announcing it)

6.

I am sick. (feeling of indisposition or nausea)

11. Near means least distance. Next is a position or rank.


1.

His house is next to mine. (Both houses are adjoining)

2.

His house is near to mine. (The house might be somewhere nearby.)

12. 'Few' is a negative statement and means not many. 'A few' is a positive statement and
means at least some. 'The few' means whatever there is
1.

Few students performed well in the exam. (not many students performed
well)

2.

A few students performed exceptionally well (well, at least some performed


very well)

3.

The few students that passed were awarded certificates (whoever passed got
a certificate)

13. 'Little' is a negative statement and means not much. 'A little' is a positive statement
and means at least some. 'The little' means whatever there is
1.

His teacher's scolding have little effect on him. (not much influence)

2.

His teacher's scolding have a little effect on him (there is some effect of the
scolding)

3.

The little effect his teacher's scolding had is now gone (whatever effect
there was, is now gone)

14. Much represents quantity. Many represents a number. Many a always follows a
singular verb
1.

There is much work left to do. (work can't be counted)

2.

Many students are absent today. (Students can be counted)

3.

Many a people has suffered in the war. (singular has is used)

15. Lesser is used with uncountable nouns, time, money and distance. Fewer is used with
Countable nouns.
1.

I have less than 20 rupees. (money)

2.

I have fewer than 20 rupees.

3.

He spends lesser time studying. (time)

4.

No fewer than 40 girls attended the class.

5.

No lesser than 40 girls attended the class.

16. Later represents late in time. Whereas latter represents second in rank or position
1.

I'll come to you later. (after some time)

2.

I'll come to you latter.

3.

See you later.

4.

The latter of the two is the guilty one. (the second person is the guilty one)

5.

The later of the two is the guilty one.


Adverb

Adverbs give more information about verbs. And modify adjectives.


Example
Jill walks slowly.
Explanation
Adverbs -

describe the action of a verb.

usually end in "ly."

have irregular forms.

usually follow the verb they describe.

Adverbs describe how, when, where, and how often an action happens.

Explanation
Adverbs -

answer the questions: When? How often? How long? and Where?

can come at the beginning, end, or in the middle of a sentence.