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Version3.2.

UserManual
Backhaul&MicrowaveLinks

AT321_UMM_E1

AT321_UMM_E1

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
Release:AT321_UMM_E1(February2014)
Copyright19972014Forsk.AllRightsReserved.
Publishedby:
Forsk
7ruedesBriquetiers
31700Blagnac,France
Tel:+33562747210
Fax:+33562747211
Thesoftwaredescribedinthisdocumentisprovidedunderalicenceagreement.Thesoftwaremayonlybeusedorcopiedunderthetermsandconditionsofthelicenceagreement.
Nopartofthecontentsofthisdocumentmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeanswithoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisher.
Theproductorbrandnamesmentionedinthisdocumentaretrademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheirrespectiveregisteringparties.
Thepublisherhastakencareinthepreparationofthisdocument,butmakesnoexpressedorimpliedwarrantyofanykindandassumesnoresponsibilityforerrorsoromissions.No
liabilityisassumedforincidentalorconsequentialdamagesinconnectionwithorarisingoutoftheuseoftheinformationcontainedherein.

Atoll 3.2.1 User Manual

2014 Forsk

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

AT321_UMM_E1

TableofContents

TableofContents...................................................5
Introduction ......................................................13
AboutForsk ........................................................................................... 13
GettingHelp .......................................................................................... 13
PrintingHelpTopics .................................................................................. 13
AboutAtollDocumentation ............................................................................ 13
ContactingTechnicalSupport .......................................................................... 14

WorkingEnvironment ...............................................17

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.2
1.1.1.3
1.1.2
1.1.2.1
1.1.2.2
1.1.2.3
1.1.2.4

TheAtollWorkArea .................................................................................... 17
SelectingaWindow................................................................................... 18
SelectingaWindowTab .............................................................................. 18
SelectingaWindowfromtheWindowMenu ............................................................ 19
UsingtheWindowsdialogbox ........................................................................ 19
OrganisingtheAtollWorkspace......................................................................... 20
CreatingaNewMapWindow ......................................................................... 20
ArrangingToolandExplorerWindowsUsingtheMouse................................................... 20
UsingTabGroups ................................................................................... 21
ResettingtheWorkspaceLayouttotheDefaultView...................................................... 21

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5

TheExplorerWindow................................................................................... 21
WorkingwiththeExplorerWindow ...................................................................... 22
WorkingwiththeSiteExplorer .......................................................................... 23
AutomaticallyHidingExplorerWindows.................................................................. 23
DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows......................................... 24
WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows .......................................................... 25

1.3
1.3.1
1.3.1.1
1.3.1.2
1.3.1.3
1.3.2
1.3.2.1
1.3.2.2
1.3.2.3
1.3.2.4
1.3.2.5
1.3.2.6
1.3.2.7
1.3.3
1.3.3.1
1.3.3.2

WorkingwithObjects................................................................................... 25
UsingtheObjectContextMenu......................................................................... 25
RenaminganObject................................................................................. 26
DeletinganObject .................................................................................. 26
DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject.................................................................. 26
ModifyingMicrowaveLinkExtremitiesandSitesontheMap ................................................. 27
MarkingOverlappingLinksontheMap ................................................................. 27
SelectingOneoutofSeveralLinks...................................................................... 28
MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse ........................................................................ 28
MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation..................................................................... 28
ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse ................................................... 28
ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse......................................... 29
SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse .............................................. 29
DisplayPropertiesofObjects ........................................................................... 30
DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects ............................................................... 30
ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects ...................................................... 35

1.4
1.4.1
1.4.1.1
1.4.1.2
1.4.1.3
1.4.1.4
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8

WorkingwithMaps ..................................................................................... 36
ChangingtheMapScale ............................................................................... 36
ZoomingInandOut ................................................................................. 37
ZoomingInonaSpecificArea......................................................................... 37
ChoosingaScale.................................................................................... 37
ChangingBetweenPreviousZoomLevels ............................................................... 37
UsingFullScreenMode ................................................................................ 37
MovingtheMapintheDocumentWindow ............................................................... 38
UsingthePanoramicWindow........................................................................... 38
CentringtheMapWindowonanObject .................................................................. 38
CentringtheMapWindowonaTableRecord.............................................................. 39
AdjustingtheMapWindowtoaSelection................................................................. 39
MeasuringDistancesontheMap ........................................................................ 39

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

1.4.9
1.4.10
1.4.11
1.4.12
1.4.12.1
1.4.12.2
1.4.12.3
1.4.12.4
1.4.12.5
1.4.12.6
1.4.13
1.4.13.1
1.4.13.2
1.4.13.3
1.4.13.4
1.4.13.5
1.4.13.6
1.4.14
1.4.15

Forsk2014

DisplayingRulersAroundtheMap.......................................................................40
DisplayingtheMapScale ...............................................................................40
DisplayingtheMapLegend.............................................................................41
UsingZonesintheMapWindow.........................................................................41
TheFilteringZone...................................................................................41
TheComputationZone ...............................................................................42
TheFocusZone .....................................................................................43
UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools ......................................................................44
UsingaPrintingZone ................................................................................46
UsingaGeographicExportZone .......................................................................46
EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints .......................................................................48
AddingaVectorLayer ................................................................................48
CreatingPolygons,Lines,andPoints ....................................................................48
EditingtheShapeofPolygonsandLines .................................................................49
CombiningorCroppingPolygonsUsingtheToolbar .......................................................49
EditingaPoint......................................................................................51
EditingContours,Lines,andPointsUsingtheContextMenu ................................................51
CopyingtheContentofaZoneintoAnotherApplication .....................................................52
MapWindowPointers.................................................................................52

1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.2.1
1.5.2.2
1.5.2.3
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5.5.1
1.5.5.2
1.5.5.3
1.5.6
1.5.7
1.5.8
1.5.9
1.5.10

WorkingwithDataTables ................................................................................53
OpeningaDataTable ..................................................................................54
Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields.............................................................54
AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields .................................................................54
AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable............................................................55
DeletingaFieldfromanObjectTypesDataTable.........................................................55
OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesdialogboxfromaTable ...............................................56
DefiningtheTableFormat ..............................................................................56
EditingtheContentsofaTable..........................................................................59
EditingTableEntriesDirectlyintheTable................................................................59
CopyingandPastinginTables .........................................................................60
SearchingforandReplacingTextEntriesinTables ........................................................62
ViewingaStatisticalAnalysisofTableContents ............................................................63
ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets ............................................................63
ImportingTablesfromTextFiles .........................................................................65
ExportingTablestoXMLFiles ...........................................................................66
ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles.........................................................................66

1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.2.1
1.6.2.2
1.6.2.3
1.6.3
1.6.4
1.6.5

PrintinginAtoll.........................................................................................67
PrintingDataTablesandReports ........................................................................67
PrintingaMap........................................................................................67
PrintingRecommendations ...........................................................................68
DefiningthePrintingZone ............................................................................68
DefiningthePrintLayout .............................................................................69
PreviewingYourPrinting...............................................................................71
PrintingaDockingWindow.............................................................................72
PrintingAntennaPatterns..............................................................................72

1.7
1.7.1
1.7.1.1
1.7.1.2
1.7.1.3
1.7.1.4
1.7.1.5
1.7.2
1.7.2.1
1.7.2.2
1.7.3
1.7.3.1
1.7.3.2
1.7.3.3
1.7.4
1.7.4.1
1.7.4.2
1.7.5
1.7.5.1
1.7.5.2

Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData.......................................................................72
GroupingDataObjects .................................................................................72
GroupingDataObjectsbyaSelectedProperty............................................................73
ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu ....................................................................73
GroupingMicrowaveLinksbySite ......................................................................74
AdvancedGrouping..................................................................................75
ExamplesofGrouping ................................................................................75
SortingData..........................................................................................76
SortingDatainTables ................................................................................76
AdvancedSorting....................................................................................77
FilteringData.........................................................................................78
FilteringinDataTablesbySelection ....................................................................78
AdvancedDataFiltering..............................................................................79
RestoringAllRecords ................................................................................81
UserConfigurations ...................................................................................81
SavingaUserConfiguration...........................................................................82
LoadingaUserConfiguration ..........................................................................82
SiteLists .............................................................................................83
CreatingaSiteList ...................................................................................83
AddingaSitetoaListintheNetworkExplorer ...........................................................83

AT321_UMM_E1

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

1.7.5.3
1.7.5.4
1.7.5.5
1.7.5.6
1.7.5.7
1.7.5.8
1.7.6
1.7.6.1
1.7.6.2
1.7.6.3
1.7.6.4
1.7.6.5
1.7.6.6
1.7.7
1.7.8

AddingaSitetoaListfromtheMapWindow............................................................ 84
AddingSitestoaListUsingaZone ..................................................................... 84
EditingaSiteList .................................................................................... 85
ImportingaSiteList ................................................................................. 85
ExportingaSiteList.................................................................................. 85
FilteringonaSiteList................................................................................ 86
FolderConfigurations ................................................................................. 86
CreatingaFolderConfiguration........................................................................ 86
ApplyingaSavedFolderConfiguration .................................................................. 86
ReapplyingtheCurrentFolderConfiguration ............................................................ 87
SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile.......................................................... 87
LoadingaFolderConfigurationfromanExternalFile ...................................................... 87
DeletingaFolderConfiguration........................................................................ 87
CreatingandComparingViews .......................................................................... 88
FilteringDataUsingaFilteringZone...................................................................... 88

1.8
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.3.1
1.8.3.2
1.8.3.3
1.8.4
1.8.5
1.8.6
1.8.7

TipsandTricks......................................................................................... 88
UndoingandRedoing.................................................................................. 89
RefreshingMapsandFolders........................................................................... 89
SearchingforObjectsontheMap ....................................................................... 89
SearchingforaMapObjectbyItsName ................................................................ 89
SearchingforaMapObjectusingAnyTextProperty ...................................................... 90
SearchingforaPointontheMap...................................................................... 90
UsingtheStatusBartoGetInformation .................................................................. 91
SavingInformationDisplayedintheEventViewer .......................................................... 91
UsingIconsfromtheToolbar ........................................................................... 92
UsingShortcutsinAtoll................................................................................ 94

AtollProjects ......................................................99

2.1

BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject ............................................................... 99

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2
2.2.1.3
2.2.2
2.2.2.1
2.2.2.2
2.2.2.3
2.2.2.4
2.2.2.5

CreatinganAtollDocument .............................................................................. 99
CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate .......................................................... 99
TemplatesAvailable................................................................................ 100
CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate ........................................................ 100
DefiningaNewAtollDocument ...................................................................... 101
WorkinginaMultiUserEnvironment................................................................... 103
TheAtollMultiUserEnvironment .................................................................... 104
CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase ........................................................ 105
WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase .............................................................. 106
RefreshinganAtollDocumentfromtheDatabase ....................................................... 108
ArchivingtheModificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase ......................................... 108

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2

MakingaBackupofYourDocument...................................................................... 111
ConfiguringAutomaticBackup......................................................................... 112
RecoveringaBackup ................................................................................. 112

2.4

MakingandSharingPortableAtollProjects................................................................ 113

GeographicData ..................................................117

3.1

GeographicDataTypes ................................................................................. 117

3.2

SupportedGeographicDataFormats ..................................................................... 118

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.3.1
3.3.3.2
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.5.1
3.3.5.2
3.3.5.3
3.3.6

ImportingGeoDataFiles ............................................................................... 119


ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile................................................................. 119
ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile ................................................................ 120
ImportingMSIPlanetData ........................................................................... 121
ImportingOneMSIPlanetDataType................................................................. 121
ImportingaMSIPlanetDatabase.................................................................... 122
ImportingaWMSRasterformatGeoDataFile............................................................ 123
OrganisingGeoDataFiles............................................................................. 125
GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders .................................................................... 125
CreatingFoldersforVectorsandImages ............................................................... 126
MovingaVectororImageintoaDedicatedFolder ....................................................... 126
EmbeddingGeographicData........................................................................... 127

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

3.3.7

RepairingaBrokenLinktoaGeoDataFile............................................................... 127

3.4

DigitalTerrainModels ................................................................................. 127

3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5

ClutterClasses ....................................................................................... 128


AssigningNamestoClutterClasses..................................................................... 128
DefiningClutterClassProperties....................................................................... 128
AddingaClutterClass................................................................................ 129
RefreshingtheListofClutterClasses ................................................................... 129
DisplayingTotalSurfaceAreaperClutterClass ........................................................... 130

3.6

ClutterHeights....................................................................................... 130

3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3

Contours,Lines,andPoints ............................................................................. 130


ManagingtheDisplayofaVectorLayer ................................................................. 130
ManagingthePropertiesoftheVectorLayer ............................................................ 131
MovingaVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer.......................................................... 131

3.8
3.8.1
3.8.2

ScannedImages...................................................................................... 132
ImportingSeveralScannedImages ..................................................................... 132
DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofScannedImages ....................................................... 132

3.9
3.9.1
3.9.2

GeoclimaticMaps..................................................................................... 133
ManagingGeoclimaticMapProperties ................................................................. 133
DisplayingGeoclimaticStatistics ....................................................................... 133

3.10

DisplayingOnlineMaps ................................................................................ 134

3.11
3.11.1
3.11.2
3.11.2.1
3.11.2.2
3.11.2.3

SettingthePriorityofGeoData......................................................................... 135
SettingtheDisplayPriorityofGeoData ................................................................. 135
SettingthePriorityofGeoDatainCalculations........................................................... 136
Example1:TwoDTMMapsRepresentingDifferentAreas................................................ 136
Example2:ClutterClassesandDTMMapsRepresentingtheSameArea.................................... 137
Example3:TwoClutterClassMapsRepresentingaCommonArea ......................................... 137

3.12

DisplayingInformationAboutGeoData .................................................................. 138

3.13
3.13.1
3.13.2

GeographicDataSets.................................................................................. 138
ExportingaGeoDataSet ............................................................................. 139
LoadingaGeoDataSet .............................................................................. 139

3.14
3.14.1
3.14.1.1
3.14.1.2
3.14.1.3
3.14.1.4
3.14.2

EditingGeographicData ............................................................................... 140


EditingClutterClassMaps............................................................................ 140
CreatingaClutterPolygon .......................................................................... 140
EditingClutterPolygons............................................................................ 140
DisplayingtheCoordinatesofClutterPolygons......................................................... 141
DeletingClutterPolygons ........................................................................... 141
EditingGeoclimaticMaps............................................................................. 141

3.15
3.15.1
3.15.1.1
3.15.1.2
3.15.2
3.15.3
3.15.4
3.15.5

SavingGeographicData................................................................................ 142
SavingModificationstoanExternalFile ................................................................. 143
ExportinganEditedClutterClassMapinaRasterFormatFile ............................................. 143
ExportinganEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile .................................................. 144
UpdatingtheSourceFile ............................................................................. 144
CombiningSeveralRasterFilesintoOneFile ............................................................. 144
ExportinganEmbeddedFile .......................................................................... 145
CreatingaNewFilefromaLargerFile .................................................................. 146

Forsk2014

AntennasandEquipment.......................................... 149

4.1

DefiningtheListofManufacturers....................................................................... 150

4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5

DefiningAntennas.................................................................................... 150
CreatinganAntenna................................................................................. 151
ImportingMicrowaveAntennas ....................................................................... 152
EditingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns ................................................................... 153
DisplayingAntennaPatternsWithaFixedScale.......................................................... 154
PrintingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns.................................................................. 154

4.3
4.3.1

MicrowaveRadios.................................................................................... 154
CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries....................................................................... 155

AT321_UMM_E1

4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.6.1
4.3.6.2
4.3.6.3
4.3.7
4.3.7.1
4.3.7.2
4.3.7.3

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

CreatingaRadioSeries ............................................................................... 155


ModifyingtheCharacteristicsofaRadioSeries ........................................................... 156
DescriptionofaRadio................................................................................ 160
CreatingorModifyingaRadio ......................................................................... 165
ImportingMicrowaveRadios .......................................................................... 166
ImportingSingleRadioEquipmentFilesintoAtoll........................................................ 166
PreparingMultipleRadioEquipmentFilesforImporting.................................................. 166
ImportingMultipleRadioEquipmentFilesintoAtoll ..................................................... 167
AdvancedConfiguration .............................................................................. 167
InterferenceReductionFactor........................................................................ 167
TheoreticalGraphs................................................................................. 170
DefiningEquipmentConfigurations ................................................................... 171

4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2

MicrowaveFeeders .................................................................................... 176


DefinitionofFeeders................................................................................. 176
CreatingorModifyingFeeders......................................................................... 177

4.5
4.5.1
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
4.5.2
4.5.2.1
4.5.2.2

MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility........................................................... 177
DefiningCompatibilityManually ....................................................................... 177
UsingtheMicrowaveAntenna/FeederCompatibilityTable ................................................ 178
UsingtheMicrowaveAntennaRadioCompatibilityTable................................................. 178
UsingAssistantstoDefineCompatibility ................................................................. 178
UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/FeederCompatibility .............................................. 179
UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/RadioCompatibility ............................................... 179

CalculationsandPropagationModels .................................185

5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3

WorkingwithBackhaulPropagationModels ............................................................... 185


WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel ......................................................... 185
WorkingwiththeMicrowaveITURP.452Model.......................................................... 188
WorkingwiththeMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel ................................................... 189

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4

DefiningBackhaulCalculationParameters................................................................. 191
GlobalParameters................................................................................... 191
MicrowaveLinkParameters........................................................................... 195
DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink........................................................ 196
DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks............................................................ 200
DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowaveLinks ................................ 202
RecalculatingMicrowaveLinkParameters .............................................................. 206

BackhaulNetworks ................................................211

6.1

DesigningaBackhaulNetwork ........................................................................... 211

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.2
6.2.2.3
6.2.2.4
6.2.2.5
6.2.3

PlanningandOptimisingMicrowaveSites ................................................................. 212


CreatingSites....................................................................................... 212
SiteDescription .................................................................................... 213
CreatingorModifyingaSite ......................................................................... 213
SiteSurveyTools .................................................................................... 214
DisplayingtheLineofSightAreaAroundOneSite ....................................................... 214
AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidateSites ..................................................... 215
DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites ................................................... 218
FindingtheBestRouteBetweenTwoSites ............................................................. 219
Displayinga360ViewAroundOneSite ............................................................... 220
ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites ..................................................................... 222

6.3
6.3.1
6.3.1.1
6.3.1.2
6.3.1.3
6.3.1.4
6.3.1.5
6.3.2
6.3.2.1
6.3.2.2
6.3.2.3
6.3.2.4

CreatingLinks......................................................................................... 223
CreatingMicrowaveLinks............................................................................. 223
DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink ....................................................................... 224
CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink ............................................................... 230
DefiningPortParameters............................................................................ 231
PlacingaNewMicrowaveLinkUsingtheMicrowaveLinkTemplate......................................... 232
ManagingMicrowaveLinkTemplates.................................................................. 233
CreatingOtherTransmissionLinks ...................................................................... 235
DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks ................................................................. 235
CreatingorModifyingOtherTransmissionLinks ......................................................... 236
PlacingOtherTransmissionLinksDirectlyontheMap.................................................... 236
DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes..................................................................... 237

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

Forsk2014

6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.6.1
6.3.6.2
6.3.6.3
6.3.6.4
6.3.6.5
6.3.7
6.3.8

ModifyingSitesandLinksDirectlyontheMap ........................................................... 238


SettingMicrowaveandOtherTransmissionLinksasActive ................................................. 238
DisplayingTipsforSitesandLinks ...................................................................... 239
AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink.......................................................... 239
DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater ..................................................................... 240
OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable................................................................. 240
CreatingorModifyingaPassiveRepeater.............................................................. 241
PlacingaPassiveMicrowaveRepeaterontheMapUsingtheMouse ....................................... 241
CreatingSeveralPassiveRepeaters ................................................................... 242
CheckingDataConsistency ........................................................................... 242
SettingtheWorkingAreaofanAtollDocument.......................................................... 243

6.4
6.4.1
6.4.1.1
6.4.1.2
6.4.1.3
6.4.1.4
6.4.1.5
6.4.1.6
6.4.1.7
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
6.4.2.2
6.4.2.3

AnalysingthePathProfile .............................................................................. 243


DisplayingthePathProfile ............................................................................ 243
ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile .................................................................... 243
StudyingMicrowaveLinkClearance .................................................................. 244
DefiningtheDisplayoftheMicrowaveLinkProfile...................................................... 244
AnalysingaParticularPointAlongtheProfile........................................................... 246
ZoomingInontheProfile ........................................................................... 246
PrintingaMicrowaveLinkProfile .................................................................... 247
ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues .............................................................. 247
DeterminingMicrowaveLinkAntennaHeights........................................................... 251
AdjustingMicrowaveAntennaHeightsUsingtheMouse................................................. 251
DefiningMicrowaveAntennaHeights ................................................................. 251
AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights .................................................. 252

6.5
6.5.1
6.5.1.1
6.5.1.2
6.5.1.3
6.5.1.4
6.5.1.5
6.5.1.6
6.5.2
6.5.2.1
6.5.2.2
6.5.2.3
6.5.3
6.5.3.1
6.5.3.2

AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability..................................................................... 252
AnalysingaSingleMicrowaveLink..................................................................... 253
CalculatingMicrowaveLinkRequiredMargins .......................................................... 253
CalculatingaMicrowaveAnalysisReport.............................................................. 254
CalculatingaMicrowaveLinkDesignSummary......................................................... 255
ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports..................................................... 256
PrintingaMicrowaveReport........................................................................ 257
ExportingaMicrowaveReport....................................................................... 257
AnalysingMicrowaveLinks ........................................................................... 258
DefiningLinkBudgetAnalysisParameters ............................................................. 258
CalculatingMultipleMicrowaveLinkBudgets .......................................................... 259
LinkBudgetCalculationValidity ...................................................................... 259
PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis ............................................................ 260
CreatingMultihops................................................................................ 260
PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis .......................................................... 262

6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.2.1
6.6.2.2
6.6.2.3
6.6.3

StudyingReflection ................................................................................... 262


DisplayingReflection ................................................................................ 262
AnalysingReflections................................................................................ 264
DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport .............................................................. 264
ConfiguringtheReflectionAnalysisReport............................................................. 266
ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters............................................................. 267
SolutionsforReflectionProblems ...................................................................... 268

6.7
6.7.1
6.7.1.1
6.7.1.2
6.7.1.3
6.7.2
6.7.2.1
6.7.2.2
6.7.3
6.7.4

PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels ...................................................................... 269


CheckingMicrowaveLinkSiteParities.................................................................. 270
CheckingSiteParitiesontheMap.................................................................... 270
CreatingaReportonSiteParities .................................................................... 272
UsingtheFindonMapTooltoDisplayChannelReuse ................................................... 273
AllocatingChannelsInteractively ...................................................................... 273
AllocatingChannelstoaMicrowaveLink .............................................................. 274
DefiningtheAllocationCalculationParameters ......................................................... 274
WorkingwiththeFrequencySpectrumAnalyser ......................................................... 275
DisplayingThirdorderIntermodulationProducts ......................................................... 277

6.8
6.8.1
6.8.1.1
6.8.1.2
6.8.2
6.8.3
6.8.3.1

AnalysingInterference................................................................................. 278
InterferenceReductionFactor......................................................................... 278
DefiningIRFGraphsManually ....................................................................... 279
DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant................................................................ 279
UsingIRFinInterferenceCalculations .................................................................. 281
AnalysingtheInterferenceonaSingleMicrowaveLink.................................................... 281
DisplayingInterferenceintheFormofaReport ........................................................ 281

10

AT321_UMM_E1

6.8.3.2
6.8.3.3
6.8.3.4
6.8.4
6.8.4.1
6.8.4.2
6.8.4.3

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
TableofContents

DisplayingSite A/Site BInterferenceDetails ............................................................ 283


DefiningtheInterferenceAnalysisParameters.......................................................... 283
DisplayingInterferenceontheMap................................................................... 285
AnalysingtheInterferenceonMultipleMicrowaveLinks ................................................... 287
DefiningInterferenceAnalysisParameters ............................................................. 287
PerforminganInterferenceAnalysisonMultipleMicrowaveLinks.......................................... 290
ManagingInterferenceCalculationValidity ............................................................. 291

6.9
6.9.1
6.9.2

ExportingCustomReports .............................................................................. 292


ExportingaCustomReportforOneMicrowaveLink....................................................... 292
ExportingaCustomReportforSeveralMicrowaveLinks.................................................... 292

6.10
6.10.1
6.10.1.1
6.10.1.2
6.10.2
6.10.2.1
6.10.2.2
6.10.3
6.10.3.1
6.10.3.2
6.10.3.3
6.10.3.4
6.10.3.5
6.10.3.6
6.10.3.7
6.10.3.8
6.10.3.9
6.10.3.10

AdvancedConfiguration ................................................................................ 293


DefiningFrequencies ................................................................................. 293
DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands ............................................................. 293
DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands ......................................................... 294
DefiningPerformanceParameters ...................................................................... 297
DefiningLinkClasses................................................................................ 297
DefiningPerformanceObjectives..................................................................... 298
ModellingPointtoMultipointSystems.................................................................. 301
CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................................. 301
PointtoMultipointSystemProperties................................................................. 303
SettingallMicrowaveLinksofaPointtoMultipointSystemasActive....................................... 304
AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................. 304
AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................. 304
DeletingaMicrowaveLinkfromaPointtoMultipointSystem ............................................. 305
DeletingaPointtoMultipointSystem ................................................................. 305
MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable .................. 305
AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHub .................................................... 306
AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHubUsingtheMouse..................................... 306

BackhaulCapacityPlanning .........................................309

7.1
7.1.1
7.1.1.1
7.1.1.2
7.1.2
7.1.2.1
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.3
7.1.3
7.1.3.1
7.1.3.2
7.1.3.3
7.1.3.4
7.1.3.5
7.1.3.6
7.1.4
7.1.5

CreatingtheLogicalTransportLayer ...................................................................... 310


TransportLayerOverview ............................................................................. 310
BackhaulNodes.................................................................................... 311
BackhaulSegments ................................................................................. 311
CreatingNodes ...................................................................................... 312
NodeProperties ................................................................................... 312
CreatingaNodeonaSite............................................................................ 313
CreatingMultipleNodesbyImportingaTextFile........................................................ 313
CreatingSegments ................................................................................... 314
SegmentProperties ................................................................................ 315
CreatingaSegmentonanExistingLink ................................................................ 315
CreatingaSegmentoverMultipleLinks ................................................................ 316
CreatingMultipleSegmentsoveraSingleLink .......................................................... 317
ConnectingaNode................................................................................. 318
CreatingaSubnetwork .............................................................................. 318
DisplayingtheSubnetworkTopology .................................................................... 320
InsertingaSiteIntoaPhysicalLink...................................................................... 321

7.2

CheckingLogicalandPhysicalLayerConsistency ............................................................ 321

7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.3.1
7.3.3.2
7.3.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7

DimensioningtheBackhaulNetwork...................................................................... 322
DimensioningaSubnetwork ........................................................................... 323
DimensioningaRoute................................................................................ 324
DisplayingtheDimensioningResultsontheMap .......................................................... 325
DisplayingtheTrafficLoad ........................................................................... 325
DisplayingtheRemainingBandwidth.................................................................. 325
DisplayingDimensioningResultsUsingTipText ......................................................... 326
DisplayingtheResultsoftheDimensioningAnalysis ....................................................... 326
EstimatingTrafficDecreaseandIncrease ................................................................ 327
SettingtheMaximumTrafficLoad...................................................................... 327
OverbookingEthernetTraffic.......................................................................... 328

7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2

NetworkFailureSimulation ............................................................................. 328


SimulatingaSiteFailure .............................................................................. 328
SimulatingaLinkFailure .............................................................................. 328

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Index........................................................... 329

12

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
Introduction

AT321_UMM_E1

Introduction
Atoll is a 64bit multitechnology wireless network design and optimisation platform that supports wireless operators
throughoutthenetworklifecycle,frominitialdesigntodensificationandoptimisation.
AtollMicrowaveisbasedontheleadingAtollplatformwhichincludesahighperformanceGISandadvanceddataanduser
managementfeatures.AtollMicrowavecansharethesitedatabasewithAtollradioplanningandoptimisationmodules,thus
allowingeasydataconsistencymanagementacrosstheoperatororganisation.
ThisUserManualprovidesguidanceanddetailedinstructionstohelpyouuseAtolleffectively.

AboutForsk
Forskisanindependentcompanyprovidingradioplanningandoptimisationsoftwaresolutionstothewirelessindustrysince
1987.
In1997,ForskreleasedthefirstversionofAtoll,itsflagshipradioplanningsoftware.Sincethen,Atollhasevolvedtobecome
a comprehensive radio planning and optimisation platform and, with more than 5000 installed licenses worldwide, has
reachedtheleadingpositionontheglobalmarket.Atollcombinesengineeringandautomationfunctionsthatenableopera
torstosmoothlyandgraduallyimplementSONprocesseswithintheirorganisation.
Today,Forskisaglobalsupplierwithover300customersin100countriesandstrategicpartnershipswithmajorplayersinthe
industry.ForskdistributesandsupportsAtolldirectlyfromofficesandtechnicalsupportcentresinFrance,USA,andChinaas
wellasthroughaworldwidenetworkofdistributorsandpartners.
SincethefirstreleaseofAtoll,Forskhasbeenknownforitscapabilitytodelivertailoredandturnkeyradioplanningandopti
misationenvironmentsbasedonAtoll.
Tohelpoperatorsstreamlinetheirradioplanningandoptimisationprocesses,Forskprovidesacompleterangeofimplemen
tationservices,includingintegrationwithexistingITinfrastructure,automation,aswellasdatamigration,installation,and
trainingservices.

GettingHelp
TheonlinehelpsystemthatisinstalledwithAtollisdesignedtogiveyouquickaccesstotheinformationyouneedtousethe
producteffectively.ItcontainsthesamematerialastheAtoll3.2.1UserManual.
YoucanbrowsetheonlinehelpfromtheContentsview,theIndexview,oryoucanusethebuiltinSearchfeature.
YoucanalsodownloadthemanualsfromtheForskwebsite.

PrintingHelpTopics
Youcanprintindividualtopicsorchaptersfromtheonlinehelp.
Toprinthelptopicsorchapters:
1. InAtoll,clickHelp>HelpTopics.
2. IntheContentstab,expandthetableofcontents.
3. RightclickthesectionortopicthatyouwanttoprintandclickPrint.ThePrintTopicsdialogboxappears.
4. InthePrintTopicsdialogbox,selectwhatyouwanttoprint:

Ifyouwanttoprintasingletopic,selectPrinttheselectedtopic.
Ifyouwanttoprintanentiresection,includingalltopicsandsectionsinthatsection,selectPrinttheselected
headingandallsubtopics.

5. ClickOK.

AboutAtollDocumentation
ThefollowingPDFmanualsareavailableforAtollandAtollMicrowaveandcanbedownloadedfromtheForskwebsiteat:
http://www.forsk.com/support.

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
Atoll3.2.1AdministratorManual
Atoll3.2.1DataStructureReferenceGuide
Atoll3.2.1TechnicalReferenceGuide

13

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
Introduction

2014Forsk

Atoll3.2.1TaskAutomationGuide
Atoll3.2.1ModelCalibrationGuide

ToreadPDFmanuals,youcandownloadAdobeReaderfromtheAdobewebsiteat:
http://get.adobe.com/reader/
Hardcopymanualsarealsoavailable.Formoreinformation,contacttoyourForskrepresentative.

ContactingTechnicalSupport
Forsk provides global technical support for its products and services. To contact the Forsk support team, visit the Forsk
Supportwebsiteat:
http://www.forsk.com/support.
Alternatively,dependingonyourgeographiclocation,contactoneofthefollowingsupportteams:

ForskHeadOffice
ForregionsotherthanNorthandCentralAmericaandChina,contacttheForskHeadOfficesupportteam:

Tel.:+33562747225
Fax:+33562747211
Email:support@forsk.com

OpeningHours:MondaytoFriday9.00amto6.00pm(GMT+1:00)
Exceptonthefollowingbankholidaysin2013:January1st,April1st,May1st,May8th,May9th,May20th,August
15th,November1st,November11th,December25th

ForskUS
ForNorthandCentralAmerica,contacttheForskUSsupportteam:

Tel.:1888GOATOLL(18884628655)
Fax:13126744822
Email:support_us@forsk.com

OpeningHours:MondaytoFriday8.00amto8.00pm(EasternStandardTime)

ForskChina
ForChina,contacttheForskChinasupportteam:

Tel:+862085570016
Fax:+862085538285
Email:atollsupport@forsk.com.cn

OpeningHours:MondaytoFriday9.00amto5.30pm(GMT+08:00)Beijing,Chongqing,HongKong,Urumqi.

14

Chapter1
WorkingEnvironment
ThischapterpresentstheAtollworkingenvironmentand
explainsthetoolsandshortcutsavailable.

Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics:

"TheAtollWorkArea"onpage 17

"TheExplorerWindow"onpage 21

"WorkingwithObjects"onpage 25

"WorkingwithMaps"onpage 36

"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 53

"PrintinginAtoll"onpage 67

"Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData"onpage 72

"TipsandTricks"onpage 88

Atoll3.2.1UserManual

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2014Forsk

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
Chapter1:WorkingEnvironment

AT321_UMM_E1

1 WorkingEnvironment
TheAtollworkingenvironmentisbothpowerfulandflexible.Itprovidesacomprehensiveandintegratedsetoftoolsand
featuresthatallowyoutocreateanddefineyourmicrowaveplanningprojectinasingleapplication.Atollincludesadvanced
multitechnologynetworkplanningfeatures(e.g.,CDMA/LTE),andacombinedsingleRAN,multiRATGSM/UMTS/LTEMonte
Carlosimulatorandtrafficmodel.Youcansavetheentireprojectasasinglefile,oryoucanlinkyourprojecttoexternalfiles.
The Atoll working environment uses familiar Windows interface components, with the ability to have several document
windowsopenatthesametime,supportfordraganddrop,contextmenus,andsupportforstandardWindowsshortcuts,for
example,forcuttingandpasting.Atollnotonlyenablesyoutocreateandworkonyourplanningproject,butalsooffersyou
awiderangeofoptionsforcreatingandexportingresultsbasedonyourproject.Theworkingenvironmentprovidesawide
selectionoftoolstofacilitatemicrowaveplanning,suchasatooltolocateeitherasite,apointonthemap,oravector.
TheNetworkexplorer,theGeoexplorer,andtheParametersexplorerplayacentralroleinAtoll.Theexplorerscontainmost
oftheobjectsinadocumentarrangedinfolders.
Usingtheexplorerwindows,youcanmanageallobjectsintheAtolldocument:sites,calculations,etc.,aswellasgeographic
datasuchastheDigitalTerrainModel(DTM),andclutterclasses.Youcan,forexample,definevariouscoveragepredictions
orconfiguretheparametersordisplayofdataobjects.
Thecontentofthefoldersintheexplorerwindowscanbedisplayedintables,allowingyoutomanagelargeamountsofdata.
Youcansortandfilterthedatainatable,orchangehowthedataisdisplayed.Youcanalsoenterlargeamountsofinformation
intoatablebyimportingdataorbycuttingandpastingtheinformationfromanyWindowsspreadsheetintothetable.
ThemapistheworkingareaforyourdocumentandAtollprovidesmanytoolsforworkingwiththemap.Youcanchangethe
viewbymovingorzoominginoroutandyoucanchoosewhichobjectsaredisplayedandhowtheyaredisplayed.Youcan
alsoexportthecurrentdisplaydefinition,orconfiguration,touseitinotherdocuments.
ThischapterprovidesanoverviewoftheAtollworkingenvironment.
Thischapterexplainsthefollowingtopics:

"TheAtollWorkArea"onpage 17
"TheExplorerWindow"onpage 21
"WorkingwithObjects"onpage 25
"WorkingwithMaps"onpage 36
"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 53
"PrintinginAtoll"onpage 67
"Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData"onpage 72
"TipsandTricks"onpage 88.

1.1 TheAtollWorkArea
TheAtollworkarea,showninFigure 1.1onpage 18,consistsofthemainwindowwherethemapwindowanddatatablesand
reportsaredisplayedandtheexplorerwindows.Theexplorerwindowscontainthedata,objects,andparametersofadocu
ment,arrangedinfolders.Itispresentedindetailin"TheExplorerWindow"onpage 21.

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Toolbar

Documentwindow
(map)
Workspace
Geoexplorer
(docked)

Panoramicwindow
(floating)

FindonMapwindow
(docked)
Figure 1.1:Atolluserinterface
Atolloffersavarietyoftoolstohelpyouplananetworkandenablesyoutokeepallthetoolsyouneedopenatthesametime
tosimplifyyourwork.Additionally,youcanhaveseveralAtolldocumentsopenatthesametimeorseveraldifferentviewsof
thesamedocumentopenatthesametime.
YoucanmanagetheplacementandappearanceofthesetoolsandwindowstomakeyourusageofAtollasefficientaspossi
ble.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"SelectingaWindow"onpage 18
"OrganisingtheAtollWorkspace"onpage 20.

1.1.1 SelectingaWindow
Whenworkingonaproject,youusuallyhavemorethanonewindowopen.YoumighthaveseveralAtolldocumentsopen,or
youmighthaveseveralwindowsopeninonedocument,includingdatatablesandmorethanonemapwindow.
Windowtabsofdifferentdocumentsaredisplayedusingadifferentcolour.Thetabtitleofthecurrentlyselectedwindowis
displayed in bold characters. In order to avoid very long window tabs, window tab titles longer than approximately
40 charactersaretruncated.However,thecompletetitleisvisibleintiptextdisplayedwhenthemouseisplacedoverthe
windowtab.ThetiptextalsodisplaysthepathtotheATLfiletowhichthewindowbelongs.
InAtollyoucanmovefromonedocumentwindowtoanotherinseveraldifferentways:

"SelectingaWindowTab"onpage 18
"SelectingaWindowfromtheWindowMenu"onpage 19
"UsingtheWindowsdialogbox"onpage 19.

1.1.1.1 SelectingaWindowTab
InAtoll,allopenwindowsordatatablesareidentifiedbyatabatthetopofthemapwindowortabgroup(seeFigure 1.2).
Toselectawindowtab:

18

Clickthetabofthewindowyouwanttoselect.

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
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AT321_UMM_E1

Figure 1.2:Windowtabs
Iftherearemorewindowsopenthancanbedisplayedatthetopofthemapwindow,youcanselectthewindowyouwant,
you can select the window you want from the Window menu (for more information, see "Selecting a Window from the
WindowMenu"onpage 19)orusingtheWindowsdialogbox(formoreinformation,see"UsingtheWindowsdialogbox"on
page 19).
Youcanalsorearrangethewindowsbyclickinganddraggingatabhorizontallytoanew
position.

1.1.1.2 SelectingaWindowfromtheWindowMenu
Whenyouhaveseveraldocumentwindows,datatables,ormapwindowsopen,youcanselectawindowusingtheWindow
menu.
ToselectawindowfromtheWindowmenu:
1. ClickWindow.TheWindowmenuappears.
2. SelectthewindowyouwanttoworkwithfromthelistintheWindowmenu.

YoucanalsoselectawindowbyclickingtheActiveFilesbutton(
)totherightofthe
tabsinthemapwindowandselectingthewindowfromthelistthatappears.

1.1.1.3 UsingtheWindowsdialogbox
AtolloffersaWindowsdialogboxtosimplifyworkingwithmultiplewindows.YoucanusetheWindowsdialogboxtoselect
adocumentwindowordatatablethatisalreadyopen,tocloseadocumentwindow,ortosavetheAtolldocumentassociated
withthatwindow.
TousetheWindowsdialogbox:
1. SelectWindow >Windows.TheWindowsdialogboxopens.
Selectingawindow:
a. SelectthewindowfromtheSelectlist.
b. ClickActivate.TheWindowsdialogboxclosesandtheselectedwindowismadetheactiveone.
Savingoneormoredocuments:
a. SelectthewindoworwindowsassociatedwiththedocumentsyouwanttosavefromtheSelectlist.
Youcanselectcontiguouswindowsbyclickingthefirstwindowanddraggingtothelastwindowoftheselection,
orbyclickingthefirstcell,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastwindow.Youcanselectnoncontiguouswindowsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachwindowinthelistseparately.
b. ClickSave.Thedocumentsassociatedwiththeselecteddocumentwindowsaresaved.
Closingoneormorewindows:
a. SelectthewindoworwindowsyouwanttoclosefromtheSelectlist.
Youcanselectcontiguouswindowsbyclickingthefirstwindowanddraggingtothelastwindowoftheselection,
orbyclickingthefirstcell,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastwindow.Youcanselectnoncontiguouswindowsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachwindowinthelistseparately.

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b. ClickCloseWindow(s).Theselecteddocumentwindowsareclosed.Ifoneofthewindowsisthelastdocument
windowopenofadocumentandthereareunsavedchanges,youareaskedwhetheryouwanttosavethechanges
beforeclosing.
2. ClickOKtoclosetheWindowsdialogbox.

1.1.2 OrganisingtheAtollWorkspace
Atollenablesyoutoorganisetheworkspacetobestsuityourneeds.Youcancreateseveralmapwindowsofthesameproject,
therebysimultaneouslyviewingseveralareasofthesameproject.Youcanalsorearrangethewindowsoftheworkspaceto
suityourneeds.Youcanmovethemtodifferentareasoftheworkspaceorgroupthem.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingaNewMapWindow"onpage 20
"ArrangingToolandExplorerWindowsUsingtheMouse"onpage 20
"UsingTabGroups"onpage 21
"ResettingtheWorkspaceLayouttotheDefaultView"onpage 21.

1.1.2.1 CreatingaNewMapWindow
WhenworkingonanAtollproject,especiallywhenyouareworkingonalarger,complexradioplanningproject,youmight
wanttobeabletoviewadifferentpartoftheprojectwithoutlosingthefocusontheoriginalarea.Atollenablesyoutoopen
severalmapwindowsofthesameproject.Thispermitsyoutoverifydataortovisuallycomparetwoseparateareasofthe
project.
Toopenanewmapwindow:

SelectWindow >NewMapWindow.AnewmapwindowofthecurrentAtollprojectopens.Youcanworkwiththe
newmapwindowasyouwouldwithanyAtollmapwindow.

1.1.2.2 ArrangingToolandExplorerWindowsUsingtheMouse
Whileworkingonaradioplanningproject,youwillnormallyhaveseveraltoolorexplorerwindowsopenatthesametime.
Atollenablesyoutousethemousetopositiontoolandexplorerwindowstooptimiseyourworkspace.Youcanclickthetitle
ofthetoolorexplorerthatyouwanttorepositionanddragittoanewpositionorfloatitovertheworkspace.
Toarrangetoolandexplorerwindowsusingthemouse:
1. Clickthetitleofthetoolorexplorer.

2. Dragthewindowicontowardsthenewposition.
ApositioningiconappearsovertheAtollworkspace.

3. Placethewindowiconoverthepartofthepositioningiconcorresponding
tothenewpositionofwindow.
AnoutlineappearsovertheAtollworkspacetoindicatethenewposition
ofthewindow.

Ifyoureleasethewindowiconwithoutplacingitoverpositioningicon,youcanfloatthe
toolorexplorerwindowovertheworkspace.

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AT321_UMM_E1

4. Releasethemouse.
Thewindowtakesitsnewposition.

1.1.2.3 UsingTabGroups
When working with large numbers of documents or document windows, you can facilitate your work by arranging the
windowsingroupsoftabbedwindows.Onlymapwindowsdatatablescanbegroupedintabgroups;tabgroupsdonotapply
totoolsandexplorerwindows.
Tomoveadocumentwindowtoatabgroup:
1. Clickthetitleofthedocumentwindow.

2. Dragthewindowicontowardsthecentreofthemapwindow.

3. Releasethemouse.Acontextmenuappears.

4. Selectoneofthefollowingitemsfromthecontextmenu:

NewHorizontalTabGroup:Anewhorizontaltabgroupiscreatedandtheselecteddocumentwindowis
added.
NewVerticalTabGroup:Anewverticaltabgroupandtheselecteddocumentwindowisadded.

YoucanalsoaddadocumentwindowtoanewtabgroupbyclickingitstitleandthenselectingNewHorizontalTab
GrouporNewVerticalTabGroupfromtheWindowmenu.
Ifyoudragthewindowicontotheloweredgeorrightedgeofanexistingtabgroup
evenifthereisonlyonetabgroupanoutlineappearstoindicatethetabgroupthe
windowwillautomaticallybeaddedtowhenyoureleasethemouse.

1.1.2.4 ResettingtheWorkspaceLayouttotheDefaultView
Atolloffersauserinterfacethatcanbeeasilyandquicklycustomisedtosuityourneedsandyourcurrenttask.However,you
mightwanttoquicklyreturnthelayoutoftheworkspacetoitsdefaultsettings.
Toreturnthelayoutoftheworkspacetothedefaultsettings:

SelectWindow >ResetWindowLayout.Thisresetsthedisplayofallwindowsandtoolbarstotheirdefaultpositions
andsizes.

1.2 TheExplorerWindow
TheexplorerwindowplaysacentralroleinAtoll.Thetabsoftheexplorerwindowcontainthedataandobjectsofadocument,
arrangedinfolders.EachobjectandfolderintheNetwork,Geo,andParametersexplorershasacontextspecificmenuthat

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youcanaccessbyrightclicking.Youcanmodifyitemsatthefolderlevel,withchangesaffectingallitemsinthefolder,oryou
canaccessandedititemsindividually.Aswell,mostfoldercontentscanalsobeaccessedinatable,allowingyoutomanage
largeamountsofinformation.Forinformationonworkingwithtables,see"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 53.
Inthissection,thefollowingaredescribed:

"WorkingwiththeExplorerWindow"onpage 22
"WorkingwiththeSiteExplorer"onpage 23
"AutomaticallyHidingExplorerWindows"onpage 23
"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 24
"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 25.

1.2.1 WorkingwiththeExplorerWindow
Therearethreemainexplorers:theNetworkexplorer,theGeoexplorer,andtheParametersexplorer;eachexplorerhas
objectsandfolderscontainingobjects.
Tomovefromonetabtoanother:

SelecttheexplorerattheleftoftheAtollworkingenvironment.

Youcanopenafolderinanexplorertoviewitscontents.EachfoldercontainingatleastoneobjecthasanExpand( )or
Contractbutton( )totheleftofitsname.
Toexpandafoldertodisplayitscontents:

ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofitsname.

Thethreeexplorersare:

TheNetworkExplorer:TheNetworkexplorerenablesyoutomanageradiodataandcalculations.Dependingon
themodulesinstalledwithAtoll,theNetworkexplorerhasthefollowingfolders:

TheGeoexplorer:TheGeoexplorerenablesyoutomanagegeographicdata.Thenumberoffoldersdependson
thenumberandtypesofgeographicaldatatypes(vectordata,scannedimages,etc.)youimportorcreate:

Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Digitalterrainmodel
Geoclimaticparameters
Anyothergeodatamap

TheParametersexplorer:TheParametersexplorerenablesyoutomanagethepropagationmodelsandaddi
tionalmodules.Itcontains:

22

Sites
Transmitters
Predictions
UMTSSimulations,CDMA2000Simulations,WiMAXSimulations,WiFiSimulations,orLTESimulations
Trafficanalysis(GSM/GPRS/EDGEprojectsonly)
Interferencematrices(GSM/GPRS/EDGE,LTE,andWiMAXprojectsonly)
Subscriberlists(LTE,WiMAX,andWiFiprojectsonly)
Multipointanalyses
Automaticcellplanningresults(GSM/GPRS/EDGE,UMTS,LTE,andWiMAXonly)
Hexagonaldesign
Microwavelinks
CWMeasurementsanddrivetestdata

PropagationModels:TheParametersexplorerhasaPropagationModelsfolderwiththefollowingpropagation
models:
CostHata
ErcegGreenstein(SUI)
ITU1546
ITU3707(Vienna93)
ITU5265
ITU529
LongleyRice
MicrowaveITURP.452Model
MicrowavePropagationModel
OkumuraHata
StandardPropagationModel
WLL

Atoll3.2.1UserManual
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AT321_UMM_E1

RadioNetworkEquipment:TheRadioNetworkEquipmentfoldercontainsantennamodels,transmittermodels,
repeaterandsmartantennaequipment,andwaveguides,cables,andfeeders.
TrafficParameters:TheTrafficParametersfoldercontainsservices,mobilitytypes,terminals,userprofiles,and
environments.
Network Settings: The Network Settingsfolder containsstation templates, frequencies and frequency bands,
bearers,receptionequipment,qualityindicators,etc.
Microwavelinknetworksettingsandequipment
TheAFPmodelsavailableinyourAtollinstallation.
AnyadditionalmodulecreatedusingtheAPI.

1.2.2 WorkingwiththeSiteExplorer
UsingtheSiteexplorer,youcanviewthetransmittersthatareonanysiteandthenviewthepropertiesofanytransmitter.
Thetransmittersoftheselectedsitearedisplayedinahierarchicalseriesoffolders(seeFigure 1.3).
TodisplaytheSiteexplorer:

SelectView >SiteExplorer.TheSiteexplorerappears.

Figure 1.3:TheSiteexplorer
TheSiteexplorerappearswhereitwaslastplaced.Ifyouresetthewindowlayout,itappearsasatabalongwiththeNetwork,
Geo,andParametersexplorers.
Todisplaythetransmittersonasite:
1. SelectthesiteinthemapwindoworintheSitesfolderintheNetworkexplorer.
2. SelecttheSiteexplorer.ThesiteisdisplayedintheSiteexplorer.Thetransmitterslocatedonthatsitearedisplayed
infoldersidentifyingtheirradioplanningtechnology.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofafoldertoexpandthefolderandviewthecontents.

Youcanviewthepropertiesofatransmitter(orthepropertiesofoneofitscells,ifany)
displayedintheSiteexplorerbydoubleclickingit.

1.2.3 AutomaticallyHidingExplorerWindows
Byhavingtheexplorersvisible,youhaveimmediateaccesstotheirdataandobjects.Sometimes,however,thatyoumight
wantmoreofthemapwindowtobedisplayed.Atollenablesyoutoautohidetheexplorers,therebyenablingyoutoseemore
ofthemapwindow.Whenautohideisactivatedonanexplorerwindow,allthreeexplorerwindowsarereducedtovertical
tabsattheedgeoftheworkarea(seeFigure 1.4).Thehiddenexplorersreappearswhenyoumovethepointeroverit.

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Figure 1.4:AutohideactivatedfortheexplorerwindowsandforFindonMap
Toautohidetheexplorerwindows:

Intherighthandcorneroftheexplorerwindowtitlebar,besidetheCloseicon( ),clicktheAutohideicon(
Theexplorerwindowsarereducedtoverticaltabsattheedgeoftheworkarea(seeFigure 1.4).

).

Youcandisplaytheexplorerwindowbyrestingthepointeroverthenameoftheexplorerwindow.
Todeactivateautohide:

In the righthand corner of the explorer title bar, beside the Close icon (
explorerwindowsarerestoredtotheirformerpositions.

), click the Autohide icon (

). The

Youcandisplaytheexplorerbyrestingthepointeroverthenameoftheexplorer.
Youcanalsoautohidemosttoolwindows,forexample,theFindonMapwindow,the
Legendwindow,theDriveTestDatawindow,etc.

1.2.4 DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorer
Windows
Youcanusetheexplorerwindowstodisplayorhideobjectsonthemap.Byhidingonetypeofobject,anothertypeofobject
ismoreplainlyvisible.Forexample,youcouldhideallpredictionsbutone,sothattheresultsofthatpredictionaremore
clearlydisplayed.
Hiding an object affects only its visibility in the map window; it will still be taken into
considerationduringcalculations.

Tohideanobjectonthemap:
1. Selecttheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)thatcontainsthatobject.
2. Clearthecheckbox( )immediatelytotheleftoftheobjectname.Thecheckboxappearscleared(
isnolongervisibleonthemap.

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Youcanhidethecontentsofanentirefolderbyclearingthecheckboxtotheleftofthe
foldername.Whenthecheckboxofafolderappearsgreyed( ),itindicatesthatthe
foldercontainsbothvisibleandhiddenobjects.

1.2.5 WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows
InAtoll,themapismadeofobjectsarrangedinlayers.Thelayersonthetop(asarrangedontheNetworkandGeotabs)are
themostvisibleonthescreenandinprint.Thevisibilityofthelowerlayersdependsonwhichlayersareaboveandvisible(see
"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 24)andonthetransparencyoftheselayers
(see"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 33).
Tomovealayerupordown:
1. Selecttheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)thatcontainsthatobject.
2. Clickanddragtheobjecttoitsnewposition.Asyoudragtheobject,ahorizontalblacklineindicateswheretheobject
willremainwhenyoureleasethemousebutton(seeFigure 1.5).

Figure 1.5:Movingalayer
Beforeyouprintamap,youshouldpayattentiontothearrangementofthelayers.For
moreinformation,see"PrintingRecommendations"onpage 68.

1.3 WorkingwithObjects
InAtoll,theitemsfoundintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)anddisplayedonthemaparereferredto
asobjects.MostobjectsinAtollbelongtoanobjecttype.Forexample,atransmitterisanobjectofthetypetransmitter.
Atollenablesyoutocarryoutmanyoperationsonobjectsbyclickingtheobjectdirectlyorbyrightclickingtheobjectand
selectingtheoperationfromthecontextmenu.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"UsingtheObjectContextMenu"onpage 25
"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkExtremitiesandSitesontheMap"onpage 27
"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

1.3.1 UsingtheObjectContextMenu
InAtoll,anobjectscontextmenugivesyouaccesstocommandsspecifictothatobjectaswellastocommandsthatare
commontomostobjects.Inthissection,thefollowingcontextmenucommandscommontoallobjectstypesareexplained:

Rename:"RenaminganObject"onpage 26.
Delete:"DeletinganObject"onpage 26.
Properties:"DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject"onpage 26.

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1.3.1.1 RenaminganObject
YoucanchangethenameofanobjectinAtoll.
Torenameanobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjecteitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).Thecontext
menuappears.
2. SelectRenamefromthecontextmenu.
3. EnterthenewnameandpressENTERtochangethename.
InAtoll,objectssuchassitesarenamedwithdefaultprefixes.Individualobjectsaredistin
guishedfromeachotherbythenumberaddedautomaticallytothedefaultprefix.Youcan
changethedefaultprefixforsitesbyeditingtheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seethe
AdministratorManual.

1.3.1.2 DeletinganObject
Youcandeleteobjectsfromeitherthemaporfromtheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).
Todeleteanobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjecteitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).Thecontext
menuappears.
2. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Theselectedobjectisdeleted.

1.3.1.3 DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject
YoucanmodifythepropertiesofanobjectinthePropertiesdialogbox.
ToopenthePropertiesdialogboxofadataobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjecteitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).Thecontext
menuappears.
Whenyouareselectingdataobjectsonthemap,itcanbedifficulttoensurethatthe
correctobjecthasbeenselected.
Whenasiteisselected,thesite(anditsname)issurroundedbyablackframe(
).
Whenatransmitterisselected,bothendsofitsiconhaveagreenpoint(
).
Whenthereismorethanonemicrowavelinkwiththesameazimuth,clickthe
transmittersinthemapwindowtoopenacontextmenuthatallowsyoutoselectthe
transmitteryouwant(see"SelectingOneoutofSeveralLinks"onpage 28).
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
SwitchingBetweenPropertydialogboxes
YoucanswitchbetweenthePropertiesdialogboxesofitems(antennas,sites,etc.)inthesamefolderordefinedviewinthe
explorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)byusingthebrowsebuttons(
ofeachPropertiesdialogbox:

:jumptothefirstiteminthelist

:jumptothepreviousiteminthelist

:jumptothenextiteminthelist

:jumptothelastiteminthelist

)inthelowerleftcorner

Ifyouhavemadeanychangestothepropertiesofanitem,Atollpromptsyoutoconfirmthesechangesbeforeswitchingto
thenextPropertiesdialogbox.
Youcanusethis,forexample,toaccessthepropertiesofcositetransmitterswithoutclosingandreopeningtheProperties
dialogbox.Switchingisperformedwithinthefolderor,ifyouhavecreatedaview,withintheview.Forexample:

26

Iftransmittersaregroupedbysite,youcanswitchonlywithinonesite(cositetransmitters).
Iftransmittersaregroupedbyaflag,youcanswitchonlywithinthisgroup.
Iftransmittersaregroupedbyactivityandbyaflag,youcanswitchonlywithintransmittershavingthesameactivity
andthesameflag.

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Thebrowsebuttonsarenotavailable:

Whencreatinganewitem.
WhenopeninganitemsPropertiesdialogboxbydoubleclickingitsrecordinatable.
Forrepeaterproperties.
Forpropagationmodelproperties.

TheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxisexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

1.3.2 ModifyingMicrowaveLinkExtremitiesandSitesontheMap
Inacomplexmicrowaveplanningproject,itcanbedifficulttofindthedataobjectintheNetworkexplorer,althoughitmight
bevisibleinthemapwindow.AtollletsyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxofsitesandmicrowavelinksdirectlyfromthe
map.Youcanalsochangethepositionofasitebydraggingit,orbylettingAtollfindahigherlocationforit.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"MarkingOverlappingLinksontheMap"onpage 27
"SelectingOneoutofSeveralLinks"onpage 28
"MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 28
"MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation"onpage 28
"ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse"onpage 28
"ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 29
"SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse"onpage 29.

1.3.2.1 MarkingOverlappingLinksontheMap
Atollenablesyoutomarkonthemapthelinksthatoverlap.

1.3.2.1.1

MarkingOverlappingMicrowaveLinksontheMap:
Tomarkoverlappingmicrowavelinksonthemap:
1. IntheNetworkfolder,rightclicktheLinks>MicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Inthecontextmenu,selectthePropertiescommand.TheMicrowaveLinksPropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. OntheDisplaytaboftheMicrowaveLinksPropertiesdialogbox,selectMarkoverlappinglinks.
4. ClicktheBrowsebuttonbesidetheMarkoverlappinglinkscheckbox.TheSymbolstyledialogboxappears.
5. ModifythesymbolasdesiredandclickOKtoclosetheSymbolStyledialogue.

1.3.2.1.2

MarkingOverlapping"OtherTransmission"LinksontheMap:
Tomarkoverlapping"othertransmission"linksonthemap:
1. IntheNetworkfolder,rightclicktheLinks>OtherTransmissionLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Inthecontextmenu,selectthePropertiescommand.TheOtherTransmissionLinksPropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. OntheDisplaytaboftheOtherTransmissionLinksPropertiesdialogbox,selectMarkoverlappinglinks.
4. ClicktheBrowsebuttonbesidetheMarkoverlappinglinkscheckbox.TheSymbolstyledialogboxappears.
5. ModifythesymbolasdesiredandclickOKtoclosetheSymbolStyledialogue.

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1.3.2.2 SelectingOneoutofSeveralLinks
Ifthereismorethanonelinkwiththesameazimuth,Atollenablesyoutoselectaspecificlink.
Toselectoneofseverallinkswiththesameazimuth:
1. In the map window, click the links. A context menu appears with a list of the links with the same azimuth (see
Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.6:Selectingonelink
2. Selectthelinkfromthecontextmenu.

Whenyouselectalink,bothendsappearwhiteandthelinkitselfappearsoutlined(
).
Whenoneofthelinksisalreadyselectedonthemap,rightclickingonitslocationwilldisplaythecontextmenu
oftheselectedlink.

1.3.2.3 MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse
YoucanmoveasitebyeditingthecoordinatesontheGeneraltaboftheSitePropertiesdialogbox,orbyusingthemouse.
Tomoveasiteusingthemouse:
1. Clickanddragthesitetothedesiredposition.Asyoudragthesite,theexactcoordinatesofthepointerscurrentloca
tionarevisibleintheStatusbar.
2. Releasethesitewhereyouwouldliketoplaceit.Bydefault,Atolllocksthepositionofasite.Whenthepositionofa
siteislocked,Atollasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttomovethesite.
3. ClickYestoconfirm.
Whilethismethodallowsyoutoplaceasitequickly,youcanadjustthelocationmore
preciselybyeditingthecoordinatesontheGeneraltaboftheSitePropertiesdialogbox.

1.3.2.4 MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation
Ifyouwanttoimprovethelocationofasite,intermsofreceptionandtransmission,Atollcanfindahigherlocationwithina
specifiedradiusfromthecurrentlocationofthesite.
TohaveAtollmoveasitetoahigherlocation:
1. Rightclickthesiteinthemapwindow.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectMovetoaHigherLocation.
3. IntheMovetoaHigherLocationdialogbox,entertheradiusoftheareainwhichAtollshouldsearchandclickOK.
Atollmovesthesitetothehighestpointwithinthespecifiedradius.

1.3.2.5 ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse
YoucansettheazimuthofalinksantennabymodifyingitontheRadiotaboftheMicrowaveLinkPropertiesdialogbox,or
youcanmodifyitonthemap,usingthemouse.

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Tomodifytheazimuthofamicrowavelinkantennausingthemouse:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,movetheMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderontopoftheSitesfolder
asexplainedin"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 25.
2. Onthemap,clickthelinkextremitywhoseazimuthyouwanttomodify.
3. Movethepointertotheendoftheantennawithagreencircle( ).Anarcwithanarrow
appearsunderthepointer.
4. Clickthegreencircleanddragittochangetheantennasazimuth.
Thecurrentazimuthoftheantennaisdisplayedinthefarleftofthestatusbar.Itisdefined
indegrees,with0indicatingnorth.
5. Releasethemousewhenyouhavesettheazimuthtothedesiredangle.
TheantennasazimuthrelativetothelinkdirectionismodifiedontheRadiotaboftheMicro
waveLinkPropertiesdialogbox.
Ifyoumakeamistakewhenchangingtheazimuth,youcanundoyourchangesbyusing
Undo(byselectingEdit >Undo,bypressingCTRL+Z,orbyclicking
undothechangesmade.

inthetoolbar)to

1.3.2.6 ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse
Bydefault,antennasareplacedonthesite.However,antennasareoccasionallynotlocateddirectlyonthesite,butashort
distanceaway.InAtoll,youcanchangethepositionoftheantennarelativetothesiteeitherbyadjustingtheDxandDy
parametersorbyenteringthecoordinatesoftheantennapositionontheGeneraltaboftheMicrowavelinkPropertydialog
box.DxandDyarethedistanceinmetresoftheantennafromthesiteposition.Youcanalsomodifythepositionofthe
antennaonthemap,usingthemouse.
Tomoveamicrowavelinkextremityusingthemouse:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,movetheMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderonthetopoftheSites
folderasexplainedin"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 25.
2. Onthemap,clickthelinkextremityyouwanttomove.
3. Movethepointertotheendoftheantennawithagreenrectangle( ).Acrossappearsunder
thepointer.
4. Clickthegreenrectangleanddragittochangetheantennaspositionrelativetothesite.
Thecurrentcoordinates(xandy)oftheantennaaredisplayedinthefarrightofthestatus
bar.
5. Releasethemousewhenyouhavemovedtheselectedlinkextremitytothedesiredposition.
ThepositionoftheselectedlinkextremityismodifiedontheGeneraltaboftheMicrowave
LinkPropertiesdialogbox.
Ifyoumakeamistakewhenchangingthepositionofthelinkextremity,youcanundoyour
changesbyusingUndo(byselectingEdit >Undo,bypressingCTRL+Z,orbyclicking
inthetoolbar)toundothechangesmade.

1.3.2.7 SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse
InAtoll,youcanchangethelinkextremityandplaceitonanothersiteusingthemouse.
Toselectanothersiteforthelinkextremityonthemap:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,movetheMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderonthetopoftheSites
folderasexplainedin"WorkingwithLayersUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 25.
2. Onthemap,clickthelinkextremityyouwanttomove.
3. Movethepointertotheendoftheantennawithagreenrectangle( ).Acrossappearsunder
thepointer.

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4. Clickthegreenrectangleanddragittotheothersiteonthemap.
5. Releasethemousewhentheframeappearsaroundthesite,indicatingitisselected.
ThesitefortheselectedlinkextremityismodifiedontheGeneraltaboftheMicrowaveLink
Propertiesdialogboxandthelinkisrenamed.

Ifyoumakeamistakewhenchangingthepositionofthelinkextremity,youcanundoyour
changesbyusingUndo(byselectingEdit >Undo,bypressingCTRL+Z,orbyclicking
inthetoolbar)toundothechangesmade.

1.3.3 DisplayPropertiesofObjects
InAtoll,mostobjects,suchaslinksorsites,belongtoanobjecttype.Howanindividualobjectappearsonthemapdepends
onthesettingsontheDisplaytaboftheobjecttypesPropertiesdialogbox.TheDisplaytabissimilarforallobjecttypes
whoseappearancecanbeconfigured.OptionsthatareinapplicableforaparticularobjecttypeareunavailableontheDisplay
tabofitsPropertiesdialogbox(seeFigure 1.7).
Inthissection,thedisplayoptionsareexplained,followedbyafewexamplesofhowyoucanusethemwhileworkingonyour
Atolldocument(see"ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 35).
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30
"ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 35.

1.3.3.1 DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects
WhenyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxofagroupofobjects,forexample,whenyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxof
theSitesfolder,theDisplaytabwillshowoptionsapplicabletoallobjectsinthatgroup(seeFigure 1.7).

Figure 1.7:TheDisplaytabforSites
WhenyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxofanindividualobject,theDisplaytabwillonlyshowtheoptionsapplicabletoan
individualobject(seeFigure 1.8).

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Figure 1.8:TheDisplaytabforanindividualsite
Todefinethedisplaypropertiesofanobjecttype:
1. Rightclicktheobjecttypefoldereitheronthemaporintheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer).The
contextmenuappears
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytab.Dependingontheobjecttype,thefollowingoptionsareavailable:

"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 31
"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 33
"DefiningtheVisibilityScale"onpage 33
"DefiningtheObjectTypeLabel"onpage 33
"DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText"onpage 34
"AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend"onpage 34

4. Setthedisplayparameters.
5. ClickOK.
DefiningtheDisplayType
Dependingontheobjectselected,youcanchoosefromthefollowingdisplaytypes:unique,discretevalues,valueintervals,
advanced,orautomatic.
Tochangethedisplaytype:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. SelectthedisplaytypefromtheDisplayTypelist:

Unique: defines the same symbol for all objects of this type. By defining a unique symbol for an object type,
objectsofdifferenttypes,suchassites,areimmediatelyidentifiable.
i.

Tomodifytheappearanceofthesymbol,clickthesymbolinthetablebelow.TheSymbolStyledialogboxap
pears.Modifythesymbolasdesired.

ii. ClickOKtoclosetheSymbolStyledialogbox.

Discretevalues:definesthedisplayofeachobjectaccordingtothevalueofaselectedfield.Thisdisplaytypecan
beusedtodistinguishobjectsofthesametypebyonecharacteristic.Forexample,youcouldusethisdisplaytype
todistinguishtransmittersbyantennatypes,ortodistinguishinactivesitesfromactiveones.
Atoll applies colours automatically on 36colour cycles. As opposed to shading, this is
particularlyusefultodistinguishneighbouringzoneswhichhaveveryclosecolourvalues.
BysettingsomeoptionsintheAtoll.inifile,youcanconfigureAtolltolooponasmany
userdefinedcoloursasyouwant.Youcanalsooverrideuserdefinedcolours,ifany,and
forceshading(fromredtoblue)bysettinganotheroptionintheAtoll.inifile.Formore
information,seetheAdministratorManual.
iii. SelectthenameoftheFieldbywhichyouwanttodisplaytheobjects.
iv. YoucanclicktheActionsbuttontoaccesstheActionsmenu.Forinformationonthecommandsavailable,see
"UsingtheActionsButton"onpage 32.

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v. Tomodifytheappearanceofasymbol,clickthesymbolinthetable.TheDisplayParametersdialogboxap
pears.Modifythesymbolasdesired.
vi. ClickOKtoclosetheDisplayParametersdialogbox.

Valueintervals:definesthedisplayofeachobjectaccordingtosetrangesofthevalueofaselectedfield.Thisdis
playtypecanbeused,forexample,todistinguishsignalstrengthandthealtitudeofsites.
i.

SelectthenameoftheFieldbywhichyouwanttodisplaytheobjects.

ii. Definetherangesdirectlyinthetablebelow.
iii. YoucanclicktheActionsbuttontoaccesstheActionsmenu.Forinformationonthecommandsavailable,see
"UsingtheActionsButton"onpage 32.
iv. Tomodifytheappearanceofasymbol,clickthesymbolinthetableandmodifythesymbolintheDisplayPa
rametersdialogbox.
v. ClickOKtoclosetheDisplayParametersdialogbox.

Advanced:onlyavailableformicrowavelinks;thisisacombinedmodewhereyoucanselectseparateuniqueor
discretesettingsforthelinecolour,width,andstyleofthelink.Thisallowsyou,forexample,toassignonefield
valuetothewidthofthelineandanotherfieldvaluetothecolour.
i.

ForColour,Width,andStyle,selecteitherUniquetospecifyauniquelinecolour,widthorstyle;orselectDis
cretevaluestoassociatealinecolour,widthorstyletoafieldvalue.

i.

IfyouselectedDiscretevalues,selectthenameoftheFieldbywhichyouwanttodisplaytheobjectsandde
finetherangesdirectlyinthetablebelow.

ii. Tomodifythelinecolour,widthorstyleofthelink,clickthesymbolinthetable.TheDisplayParametersdi
alogboxappears.
iii. Modifythesymbolasdesired.
iv. ClickOKtoclosetheDisplayParametersdialogbox.

Whenyoucreateanewmapobject,forexample,anewsite,youmustclickthe
Refreshbutton(
)toassignacolourtothenewlycreatedobjectaccordingto
thedisplaytype.
Youcandefinethedefaultsymbolusedforsitesandhowitisdisplayedbyediting
anoptionintheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.

UsingtheActionsButton
TheActionsbuttonontheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxallowsyoutomodifythedisplaytypeasdefinedin"Defin
ingtheDisplayType"onpage 31.
ToaccesstheActionsmenu:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. ClicktheActionsbutton.TheActionsmenugivesyouaccesstothefollowingcommands:

32

Properties:TheDisplayParametersdialogboxopens,whichenablesyoutodefinetheappearanceoftheselected
symbolinthetable.
Selectall:Allthevaluesinthetableareselected.
Delete:Theselectedvalueisremovedfromthetable.
Insertbefore:Whentheselecteddisplaytypeisvalueintervals,anewthresholdisinsertedinthetablebeforethe
thresholdselectedinthetable.
Insertafter:Whentheselecteddisplaytypeisvalueintervals,anewthresholdisinsertedinthetableafterthe
thresholdselectedinthetable.
Shading:TheShadingdialogboxappears.
When"ValueIntervals"istheselecteddisplaytype,youselectShadingtodefinethenumberofvalueintervals
andconfiguretheircolour.EntertheupperandlowerlimitsofthevalueintheFirstBreakandLastBreak
boxesrespectively,andenteravalueintheIntervalbox.DefinethecolourshadingbychoosingaStartColour
andanEndColour.Thevalueintervalswillbedeterminedbythesetvaluesandcolouredbyashadegoing
fromthesetstartcolourtothesetendcolour.
When"DiscreteValues"istheselecteddisplaytype,youselectShadingtochooseaStartColourandanEnd
Colour.
DisplayConfiguration:SelectLoadifyouwanttoimportanexistingdisplayconfiguration.SelectSaveifyouwant
tosavethedisplaysettingsofthecurrentobjectinadisplayconfigurationfile,sothatyoucansharethemwith
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DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes
Youcanchangethetransparencyofsomeobjects,suchaspredictions,andsomeobjecttypes,suchasclutterclasses,toallow
objectsonlowerlayerstobevisibleonthemap.
Tochangethetransparency:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. MovetheTransparencyslidertotherighttomaketheobjectorobjecttypemoretransparentortothelefttomake
itlesstransparent.
DefiningtheVisibilityScale
Youcandefineavisibilityrangeforobjecttypes.Anobjectisvisibleonlyifthescale,asdisplayedontheMaptoolbar,iswithin
thisrange.Thiscanbeusedto,forexample,preventthemapfrombeingclutteredwithsymbolswhenyouareatacertain
scale.
Visibilityrangesaretakenintoaccountforscreendisplay,andforprintingandpreviewingprinting.Theydonotaffectwhich
objectsareconsideredduringcalculations.
Todefineanobjectvisibilityrange:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. EnteraVisibilityScaleminimuminthebetween 1:textbox.
3. EnteraVisibilityScalemaximumintheand 1:textbox.
DefiningtheObjectTypeLabel
Formostobjecttypes,suchassites,youcandisplayinformationabouteachobjectintheformofalabelthatisdisplayedwith
theobject.Youcandisplayinformationfromeveryfieldinthatobjecttypesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthatyouadd.
Todefinealabelforanobjecttype:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. ClicktheBrowsebuttonbesidetheLabelbox.TheFieldSelectiondialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.9).

Figure 1.9:Definingalabel
3. Selectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayinthelabel:
a. Toselectafieldtobedisplayedinthelabelfortheobjecttype,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldslistandclick
tomoveittotheSelectedFieldslist.
b. ToremoveafieldfromtheSelectedFieldslist,selectthefieldintheSelectedFieldslistandclick
it.

toremove

c. Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
begroupedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.
4. ClickOKtoclosetheFieldSelectiondialogboxandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.

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Formostobjecttypes,youcanalsodisplayobjectinformationintheformoftiptextthat
isonlyvisiblewhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Thisoptionhastheadvantage
ofnotfillingthemapwindowwithtext.Formoreinformationontiptext,see"Definingthe
ObjectTypeTipText"onpage 34.
Whenyouhavedefinedalinkforamicrowavelink,youcanchangeitspositiononthemapusingthemouse.
Tochangethepositionofamicrowavelinklabelusingthemouse:
1. Selectthelinkinthemapwindow.
2. Clickthelinklabelanddragittothenewposition.
Whenyoumoveoneofthesitesdefiningamicrowavelinkorwhenyouloadaconfigura
tion,Atollresetsthepositionofthelabeltoitsdefaultposition.

DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText
Formostobjecttypes,suchassitesandmicrowavelinks,youcandisplayinformationabouteachobjectintheformoftiptext
thatisonlyvisiblewhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Youcandisplayinformationfromeveryfieldinthatobject
typesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthatyouadd.
Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer),thetiptextdisplaysthetotalnumbersofitemspresentinthe
Sites,Links,MultiHops,andPointtoMultipointfolders,andtheview.
Todefinetiptextforanobjecttype:
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. ClicktheBrowsebuttonbesidetheTipTextbox.TheFieldSelectiondialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.9).
3. Selectthefieldswhichyouwanttodisplayinthetiptext:
a. Toselectafieldtobedisplayedinthetiptextfortheobjecttype,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldslistand
click

tomoveittotheSelectedFieldslist.

b. ToremoveafieldfromtheSelectedFieldslist,selectthefieldintheSelectedFieldslistandclick
it.

toremove

Formostobjecttypes,youcanalsodisplayobjectinformationintheformofalabelthatis
displayedwiththeobject.Thisoptionhastheadvantageofkeepingobjectrelatedinfor
mation permanentlyvisible.Formore informationontip text,see"DefiningtheObject
TypeLabel"onpage 33.
Onceyouhavedefinedthetiptext,youmustactivatethetiptextfunctionbeforeitappears.
Todisplaytiptext:

ClicktheDisplayTipsbutton(

)onthetoolbar.Tiptextwillnowappearwhenthepointerisovertheobject.

AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend
Youcandisplaytheinformationdefinedbythedisplaytype(see"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 31)inyourAtolldocu
ments legend. Only visible objects appear in the Legend window. For information on displaying or hiding objects, see
"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMapUsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 24.
Forexample,ifontheDisplaytabofasignallevelprediction,theintervalsdefinedare:

Signallevel>=65
red
65>Signallevel>=105 shadingfromredtoblue(9intervals)
Signallevel<105
notshowninthecoverage.

TheentriesintheLegendcolumnwillappearintheLegendwindow.

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Figure 1.10:DefinedthresholdsastheywillappearintheLegend
Withvalueintervals,youcanenterinformationintheLegendcolumntobedisplayedonthelegend.Ifthereisnoinformation
enteredinthiscolumn,themaximumandminimumvaluesaredisplayedinstead.
1. AccesstheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogboxasexplainedin"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.
2. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckbox.Thedefineddisplaywillappearonthelegend.
TodisplaytheLegendwindow:

SelectView>LegendWindow.TheLegendwindowappears.

YoucanalsodisplaythecommentsdefinedinthepropertiesofacoveragepredictionintheLegendwindowbysettingan
optionintheAtoll.inifile.FormoreinformationaboutsettingoptionsintheAtoll.inifile,seetheAdministratorManual.

1.3.3.2 ExamplesofUsingtheDisplayPropertiesofObjects
Inthissectionarethefollowingexamplesofhowdisplaypropertiesofobjectscanbeused:

"AutomaticDisplayTypeServerCoveragePredictions"onpage 35
"ShadingSignalLevelCoveragePrediction"onpage 36.

AutomaticDisplayTypeServerCoveragePredictions
Whenmakingabestserverprediction,Atollcalculates,foreachpixelonthemap,whichserverprovidesthebestreception.
Iftheselecteddisplaytypefortransmittersis"Automatic,"Atollcolourseachpixelonthemapaccordingtothecolourofthe
transmitterthatisbestreceivedonthatpixel.Thisway,youcanimmediatelyidentifythebestreceivedtransmitteroneach
pixel.Thefollowingtwofiguresshowtheresultsofthesamebestserverareaandhandovermargincoverageprediction.
InFigure 1.11,thetransmitterdisplaytypeis"DiscreteValues,"withthesitenameasthechosenvalue.Thedifferencein
colourisinsufficienttomakeclearwhichtransmitterisbestreceivedoneachpixel.InFigure 1.12,thetransmitterdisplaytype
is"Automatic."BecauseAtollensuresthateachtransmitterhasadifferentcolourthanthetransmitterssurroundingit,the
predictionresultsarealsoimmediatelyvisible.

Figure 1.11:Valueintervaldisplaytype

Figure 1.12:Automaticdisplaytype

Todisplaytheresultsofaservercoveragepredictionwiththetransmitterssettotheautomaticdisplaytype:
1. RightclicktheTransmittersfolderintheNetworkexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytab.
4. Select"Automatic"astheDisplayType.
5. ClickOK.
6. ClicktheRefreshbutton(

)toupdatethedisplayofthepredictionresults.

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ShadingSignalLevelCoveragePrediction
Atolldisplaystheresultsofasignallevelpredictionasvalueintervals.Onthemap,thesevalueintervalsappearasdifferences
ofshading.YoucanusetheShadingcommandtodefinetheappearanceofthesevalueintervalstomaketheresultseasierto
readormorerelevanttoyourneeds.Forexample,youcanchangetherangeofdatadisplayed,theintervalbetweeneach
break,oryoucanchangethecolourstomaketheintervalsmorevisible.
Inthisexample,Figure 1.13showstheresultsofthebestsignallevelplotfrom60 dBmto105 dBm.However,ifyouaremore
interestedinreceptionfrom80 dBmto105 dBm,youcanchangetheshadingtodisplayonlythosevalues.Theresultisvisi
bleinFigure 1.14.

Figure 1.13:Shadingfrom60 dBmto105 dBm

Figure 1.14:Shadingfrom80 dBmto105 dBm

Tochangehowtheresultsofasignallevelcoveragepredictionaredisplayed:
1. ExpandthePredictionsfolderintheNetworkexplorerandrightclickthesignallevelprediction.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytab.
4. ClickActionstodisplaythemenuandselectShading.TheShadingdialogboxappears.
5. ChangethevalueoftheFirstBreakto"80".LeavethevalueoftheLastBreakat"105."
6. ClickOKtoclosetheShadingdialogbox.
7. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogboxandapplyyourchanges.

1.4 WorkingwithMaps
Atollhasthefollowingfunctionstohelpyouworkwithmaps:

"ChangingtheMapScale"onpage 36
"UsingFullScreenMode"onpage 37
"MovingtheMapintheDocumentWindow"onpage 38
"UsingthePanoramicWindow"onpage 38
"CentringtheMapWindowonanObject"onpage 38
"CentringtheMapWindowonaTableRecord"onpage 39
"AdjustingtheMapWindowtoaSelection"onpage 39
"MeasuringDistancesontheMap"onpage 39
"DisplayingRulersAroundtheMap"onpage 40
"DisplayingtheMapScale"onpage 40
"DisplayingtheMapLegend"onpage 41
"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 41
"EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 48
"CopyingtheContentofaZoneintoAnotherApplication"onpage 52.
"MapWindowPointers"onpage 52.

1.4.1 ChangingtheMapScale
Youcanchangethescaleofthemapbyzoominginorout,byzoominginonaspecificareaofthemap,orbychoosingascale.

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Atollalsoallowsyoutodefineazoomrangeoutsideofwhichcertainobjectsarenotdisplayed(see"DefiningtheVisibility
Scale"onpage 33).

1.4.1.1 ZoomingInandOut
Atolloffersseveraltoolsforzoominginandoutonthemap.Whenyouzoominoroutonthemap,youdosobasedonthe
positionofthecursoronthemap.
Tozoominonthemap:
1. ClicktheZoomicon(

)ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+Q).

2. Clickthemapwhereyouwanttozoomin.
You can alsozoom in by pressingCTRL++, by selectingZoom > Zoom In fromthe View
menu,orbyholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandrotatingthemousewheelbuttonforward.

Tozoomoutonthemap:
1. ClicktheZoomicon(

)ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+Q).

2. Rightclickthemapwhereyouwanttozoomout.
YoucanalsozoomoutbypressingCTRL+,byselectingZoom >ZoomOutfromtheView
menu,orholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandrotatingthemousewheelbuttonbackward.

1.4.1.2 ZoomingInonaSpecificArea
Tozoominonaspecificareaofthemap:
1. ClicktheZoomAreaicon(

)ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+W).

2. Clickinthemapononeofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttoselect.
3. Dragtotheoppositecorner.Whenyoureleasethemousebutton,Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.

1.4.1.3 ChoosingaScale
Tochooseascale:
1. Clickthearrownexttothescalebox(

)ontheMaptoolbar.

2. Selectthescalefromthelist.
Ifthescalevalueyouwantisnotinthelist:
1. Clickinthescalebox(

)ontheMaptoolbar.

2. Enterthedesiredscale.
3. PressENTER.Atollzoomsthemaptotheenteredscale.

1.4.1.4 ChangingBetweenPreviousZoomLevels
Atollsavesthelastfivezoomlevels,allowingyoutoquicklymovebetweenpreviouszoomlevelsandzoomedareas.
Tomovebetweenzoomlevels:
)toreturntoazoomlevelyouhavealreadyused(orpressALT+).

ClickthePreviousZoombutton(

Onceyouhavereturnedtoapreviouszoomlevel,clicktheNextZoombutton(

)toreturntothelatestzoomlevel

(orpressALT+).

1.4.2 UsingFullScreenMode
Atollenablesyoutoexpandthemapwindowtofilltheentirecomputerscreen,temporarilyhidingtheexplorerwindowsand
thetoolbars.ThemenusremainvisibleandaCloseFullScreenbuttonappears,enablingyoutoquicklyreturntothenormal
view.

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Toenablefullscreenmode:

SelectView >FullScreen.Themapwindowexpandstofillthecomputerscreen.
YoucanmovetheCloseFullScreenbuttonbyclickinganddraggingtheFullScreentitle
baraboveit.IfyouinadvertantlymovetheCloseFullScreenbuttonoffscreen,youcan
stillreturntothenormalviewbyselectingView >FullScreenagainorbypressingESC.

Withthetoolbarsandscrollbarshidden,youcanstillnavigatearoundthemapwindowusingthekeyboardshortcuts:

CTRL++:Zoominonthemap

CTRL+:Zoomoutonthemap

CTRL+Q:SelectZoomIn/Outtool(leftclicktozoominandrightclicktozoomout)

CTRL+D:Movethemapinthemapwindow

ALT+:Previouszoomandlocationonthemap

ALT+:Nextzoomandlocationonthemap.

1.4.3 MovingtheMapintheDocumentWindow
Youcanmovethemapinthedocumentwindowusingthemouse.
Tomovethemapinthedocumentwindow:
1. ClicktheMoveMapWindowbutton(

)ontheMaptoolbar(orpressCTRL+D).

2. Movethepointeroverthemapanddragthemapinthedesireddirection.
Youcanalsomovethemapinthedocumentwindowbyplacingthepointeroverthemap,
pressingthemousewheel,anddraggingthemapinthedesireddirection.

1.4.4 UsingthePanoramicWindow
ThePanoramicwindowdisplaystheentiremapwithalloftheimportedgeographicdata.Adarkrectangleindicateswhatpart
ofthegeographicdataispresentlydisplayedinadocumentwindow,helpingyousituatethedisplayedareainrelationtothe
entiremap.
YoucanusethePanoramicwindowto:

Zoominonaspecificareaofthemap
Resizethedisplayedmaparea
Movearoundthemap.

Tozoominonaspecificareaofthemap:
1. ClickinthePanoramicwindowononeofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttozoominon.
2. Dragtotheoppositecorner.Whenyoureleasethemousebutton,Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.
Toresizethedisplayedmaparea:
1. ClickinthePanoramicwindowonacornerorborderofthezoomarea(i.e.,thedarkrectangle).
2. Dragthebordertoitsnewposition.
Tomovearoundthemap:
1. Clickinthezoomarea(i.e.,thedarkrectangle)inthePanoramicwindow.
2. Dragtherectangletoitsnewposition.

1.4.5 CentringtheMapWindowonanObject
Youcancentrethemaponanyselectedobject,forexample,atransmitter,asite,oneorallpredictions,oronanyzoneinthe
ZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer.Whencentringthemapwindowonanobjectthecurrentscaleiskept.
Youcanselecttheobjectinthemapwindoworintheexplorer.

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Tocentrethemapwindowonaselectedobject:
1. Rightclicktheobjectinthemapwindoworintheexplorer.
2. SelectCentreinMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.
Ifyouwanttoquicklyfindanobject,suchasasite,onthemap,youcanselectitinthe
explorerandthenselecttheCentreinMapWindowcommand.

1.4.6 CentringtheMapWindowonaTableRecord
Youcancentrethemaponanyrecordinthefollowingtables:

Sitestable
Transmitterstable
Anyvectortable.

Whencentringthemapwindowonanobjectthecurrentscaleiskept.
Tocentrethemapwindowonatablerecord:
1. Openthetable.
2. Rightclicktherecord.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectCentreinMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

1.4.7 AdjustingtheMapWindowtoaSelection
YoucanadjustthemapwindowtodisplaythecontentsoftheSitesfolder(orofaview),orasetofmeasurementdatapoints,
oroneorallpredictions,oranyobjectorzoneintheGeoexplorer.Whenyouadjustthemapwindowtodisplayaselection,
Atolloptimisesthedisplaybychangingthescaleandpositionsothattheselection(forexample,thesites)iscompletely
displayedinthemapwindow.
Toadjustthemapwindowtoafolderortoanobjectintheexplorer:
1. Rightclickthefolderorobjectintheexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectAdjustMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.
Youcanalsoadjustthemapwindowtoarecord(polygonorline)inavectortable.Themap
windowisthenadjustedsothatthepolygon(orline)entirelyoccupiesthedisplayedmap.

1.4.8 MeasuringDistancesontheMap
You can measure distances on the map by using the Distance Measurement tool. The Distance Measurement tool also
displaystheazimuthofalinesegment.YoucanalsousetheDistanceMeasurementtooltomeasuredistancebetweenseveral
pointsalongapolyline.Asyoumeasure,Atolldisplaysthefollowinginformation:

Path:Thetotaldistancebetweenthefirstpointandthelastpointofalinesegmentorapolyline.
Line:Thedistancebetweenthefirstpointandthepointersposition(foralinesegment),ordistancebetweenthelast
pointandthepointersposition(forapolyline).
Total:Thetotaldistancebetweenthefirstpointandthepointerslocation.
Azimuth:Theazimuthofthepointerspositionwithrespecttothefirstpointofalinesegment,orwithrespecttothe
lastpointofapolyline.

Tomeasureadistanceonthemapbetweentwopoints:
1. ClicktheDistanceMeasurementbutton(

)onthetoolbar.Themousecursorturnsintoascalecursor(

).

2. Clickthestartingpointonthemap.Theinformationdisplayedinthestatusbarchangesfrom"Ready"tothefollowing:

Figure 1.15:DistanceMeasurementinformationinthestatusbar
AndthefollowingpopupappearsnexttothescalecursoriftheDisplayTipsbutton(

)onthetoolbarisactive:

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Figure 1.16:DistanceMeasurementinformationinapopup
3. Asyoumovethepointerawayfromthefirstpoint,Atollmarkstheinitialpositionandconnectsittothepointerwith
aline.Thestatusbardisplaysthedistancecoveredbythepointerthusfar("Path=0m"and"Line=Total"),andthe
azimuthofthepointerslocationwithrespecttothefirstpoint.Asyoumovethepointerawayfromthefirstpoint,the
measurement"Line"increasesfrom0 mtothedistancecoveredbythepointerthusfar.
4. Clickthemapwhereyouwanttoendthemeasurement.
Thestatusbardisplaysthesameinformationasinstep 2.(exceptthat"Path=Total"and"Line=0m").
5. Doubleclickanywhereonthemaptoexitdistancemeasurementandclearthelinesegmentfromthemap.
Tomeasureadistanceonthemapbetweenseveralpoints:
1. ClicktheDistanceMeasurementbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

2. Clickthefirstpointonthemap.Asyoumovethepointerawayfromthefirstpoint,Atollmarkstheinitialpositionand
connectsittothepointerwithaline.Thestatusbardisplaysthedistancemeasuredthusfar("Path=0m"and"Line
=Total"),andtheazimuthofthepointerslocationwithrespecttothefirstpoint.Asyoumovethepointerawayfrom
thefirstpoint,themeasurement"Line"increasesfrom0 mtothedistancecoveredbythepointerthusfar.
3. Clickthenextpointonthemap.Thestatusbardisplaysthesameinformationasinstep 2.(exceptthat"Path=Total"
and"Line=0m").
4. Continueclickingpointsuntilyouhaveclickedthelastpoint.IntheexampleshowninFigure 1.17,"BRU062"isthe
firstpoint,"BRU069"isthelastpoint,thepointerslocationis567 mawayfromthelastpointanditsazimuthis248
withrespecttothelastpoint.
5. Doubleclickanywhereonthemaptoexitdistancemeasurementandclearthepolylinefromthemap.

Figure 1.17:Measurementdatainthestatusbar

1.4.9 DisplayingRulersAroundtheMap
Youcandisplayrulersaroundthemapinthedocumentwindow.
Todisplayorhiderulers:
1. InViewmenu,selectRulers>Top,Bottom,Left,Right,orAllRulerstoenableordisablethecorrespondingrulers.

1.4.10 DisplayingtheMapScale
Youcandisplaythemapscaleinthemapwindow.
Todisplaythemapscale:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. InthePropertiesdialogbox,clicktheCoordinatestab.
3. UnderDisplayrulersandscale,selecttheScaleonmapcheckbox.

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4. ClickOK.

1.4.11 DisplayingtheMapLegend
Youcandisplayamaplegend,whichcontainstheinformationontheobjecttypesthatyouhaveaddedtoit.Forinformation
onaddingobjecttypestothelegend,see"AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend"onpage 34.
Todisplaythelegend:

SelectView >LegendWindow.

1.4.12 UsingZonesintheMapWindow
IntheGeoexplorer,Atollprovidesyouwithasetoftoolscalledzones.Zonesareatypeofpolygon,whichcanbecreatedand
modified in the same way as contours, lines, or points. Zones can be used to define areas of the map for the following
purposes:

FilteringZone:Thefilteringzoneisagraphicalfilterthatrestrictstheobjectsdisplayedonthemapandinthe
Networkexplorertotheobjectsinsidethefilteringzone.Italsorestrictswhichobjectsareusedincalculationssuch
ascoveragepredictions,etc.
Formoreinformationonthefilteringzone,see"TheFilteringZone"onpage 41.

ComputationZone:Thecomputationzoneisusedtodefinewhichmicrowavelinksaretobetakenintoconsider
ationincalculations(i.e.,linkbudget,interferenceanalysis,etc.,).Atoll
Formoreinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42.

FocusZone:Withthefocuszone,youcanselecttheareasofcoveragepredictionsorothercalculationsonwhich
youwanttogeneratereportsandresults.
Formoreinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43.

PrintingZone:Theprintingzoneallowsyoutodefinetheareatobeprinted.
Formoreinformationonprintingusingtheprintingzone,see"UsingaPrintingZone"onpage 46.

GeographicExportZone:Thegeographicexportzoneisusedtodefinepartofthemaptobeexportedasabitmap.
Formoreinformationonthegeographicexportzone,see"UsingaGeographicExportZone"onpage 46.
Zonesaretakenintoaccountwhetherornottheyarevisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhave
drawnazone,itwillbetakenintoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxinthe
ZonesfolderoftheGeoexplorerisselected.Forexample,ifyouhavefilteredthesites
usingafilteringzone,thesitesoutsidethefilteringzonewillnotbetakeninto
considerationincoveragepredictions,evenifyouhaveclearedthefilteringzones
visibilitycheckbox.Youwillhavetodeletethezoneifyounolongerwanttoselectsites
usingafilteringzone.

Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"TheFilteringZone"onpage 41
"TheComputationZone"onpage 42
"TheFocusZone"onpage 43
"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 44
"UsingaPrintingZone"onpage 46
"UsingaGeographicExportZone"onpage 46.

1.4.12.1 TheFilteringZone
ThefilteringzoneisagraphicalfilterthatrestrictstheobjectsdisplayedonthemapandintheNetworkexplorertotheobjects
insidethefilteringzone.Italsorestrictswhichobjectsareusedincalculationssuchascoveragepredictions,etc.Bylimiting
thenumberofsites,youcanreducethetimeandcostofcalculationsandmakevisualisationofdataobjectsonthemap
clearer.
Thefilteringzoneisappliedwhetherornotitisvisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnazone,itwillbetakenintoaccount
whetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderoftheGeoexplorerisselected.Youmustdeletethezoneifyouno
longerwanttorestricttheselectiontositeswithinthefilteringzone.

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Tocreateafilteringzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofZonesfoldertoexpandthefolder.

3. RightclicktheFilteringZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:

DrawPolygon
i.

Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.

ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.

DrawRectangle
i.

Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefilteringzone.

ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefilteringzone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,
thefilteringzonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Thefilteringzoneisdelimitedbyablueline.Thedataobjectsoutsideoftheselectedzonearefilteredout.Inthe
Networkexplorer,anyfolderwhosecontentisaffectedbythefilteringzoneappearswithaspecialicon(
catethatthefoldercontentshavebeenfiltered.

),toindi

Youcanalsocreateafilteringzoneasfollows:

)andNewRectangle(
)buttonsavailableintheVector
VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon(
Editortoolbartodrawthefilteringzone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasafilteringzonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeo
explorerandUseAs >FilteringZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingfilteringzonewithany
existingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >FilteringZonefromthe
contextmenu.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,forexample,apolygondescribinganadministrative
area,youcanimportitanduseitasafilteringzone.YoucanimportthepolygonbyrightclickingtheFilteringZone
folderintheGeoexplorerandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu.

FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateafilteringzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingtheFiltering
ZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Onceyouhavecreatedafilteringzone,youcanuseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoeditthecontour.Formoreinformationon
thepolygoneditingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 44.
Youcansavethefilteringzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,inthe
followingways:

Savingthefilteringzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationonsavingthe
fiiltering zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on
page 82.
Exportingthefilteringzone:Youcanexportthefilteringzonebyrightclickingthe
FilteringZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthecontextmenu.

1.4.12.2 TheComputationZone
ThecomputationzonedefinestheareawhereAtollperformscalculations.Whenyoumakealinkbudgetoryoustudyinter
ference,Atollcalculatesallthemicrowavelinksthatareactive,filtered(i.e.,thatareselectedbythecurrentfilterparame
ters),andintersectthecomputationzone.
Whenworkingwithalargenetwork,thecomputationzonecanrestrictyourcoveragepredictionstothepartofthenetwork
youarecurrentlyworkingon.Byallowingyoutoreducethenumberofmicrowavelinksstudied,Atollreducesboththetime
andcomputerresourcesnecessaryforcalculations.
Ifnocomputationzoneisdefined,Atollperformscalculationsonallmicrowavelinksthatareactiveandfilteredandforthe
entireextentofthegeographicaldataavailable.
Thecomputationzoneisconsideredwhetherornotitisvisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnacomputationzone,itis
takenintoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderoftheGeoexplorerisselected.Youmustdelete
thezoneifyounolongerwanttodefineanareaforthecalculations.

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Tocreateacomputationzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)toexpandtheZonesfolder.

3. RightclicktheComputationZone.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:

DrawPolygon
i.

Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.

ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.

DrawRectangle
i.

Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethecomputationzone.

ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethecomputationzone.Whenyoureleasethe
mouse,thecomputationzonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Thecomputationzoneisdelimitedbyaredline.
Youcanalsocreateacomputationzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon(
)andNewRectangle(
)buttonsavailableintheVector
Editortoolbartodrawthecomputationzone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasacomputationzonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeo
explorerandselectingUseAs >ComputationZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingcompu
tationzonewithanyexistingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >
ComputationZonefromthecontextmenu.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,forexample,apolygondescribinganadministrative
area,youcanimportitanduseitasacomputationzone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheComputationZonein
theGeoexplorerandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateacomputationzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingtheCom
putationZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Onceyouhavecreatedacomputationzone,youcanuseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoeditit.Formoreinformationonthe
polygoneditingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 44.
Youcansavethecomputationzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,
inthefollowingways:

Savingthecomputationzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationonsaving
thecomputationzoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserConfiguration"on
page 82.
Exportingthecomputationzone:Youcanexportthecomputationzonebyright
clickingtheComputationZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthe
contextmenu.

1.4.12.3 TheFocusZone
Thefocuszonecandefineanareaonwhichstatisticscanbedrawnandonwhichreportsaremade.
Itisimportantnottoconfusethecomputationzoneandthefocuszone.Thecomputationzonedefinesthesitesandmicro
wavelinkscalculatedinlinkbudget,interferencepredictions,etc.andthepotentialinterfererswhilethefocuszonefiltersthe
displayedresults.
Atollbasesstatisticsontheareacoveredbythefocuszone.Ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atollusesthecomputationzone.
However,byusingafocuszoneforthereport,youcandisplaythestatisticsforaspecificnumberofsites,insteadofdisplaying
statisticsforeverysitethathasbeencalculated.
Atollconsidersthefocuszonewhetherornottheyarevisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnafocuszone,itistakeninto
accountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorerisselected.Youmusttodeletethezone
ifyounolongerwanttodefineanareaforthereports.
Afocuszonecanconsistofmorethanonepolygon.Thepolygonsofafocuszonemustnot
intersectoroverlapeachother.

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Todefineafocuszone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)toexpandtheZonesfolder.

3. RightclicktheFocusZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:

DrawPolygon
i.

Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthefocuszone.

ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthefocuszonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethefocuszone.

DrawRectangle
i.

Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefocuszone.

ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethefocuszone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,the
focuszonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Afocuszoneisdelimitedbyagreenline.IfyouclearthezonesvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderintheGeo
explorer,itwillnolongerbedisplayedbutwillstillbetakenintoaccount.
Youcanalsocreateafocuszoneinoneofthefollowingways:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon(
)andNewRectangle(
)buttonsavailableintheVector
Editortoolbartodrawthefocuszone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasafocuszonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorer
andselectingUseAs >FocusZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingfocuszonewithany
existingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >FocusZonefromthe
contextmenu.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,forexample,apolygondescribinganadministrative
area,youcanimportitanduseitasafocuszone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheFocusZonefolderintheGeo
explorerandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateafocuszonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingtheFocusZone
folderintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.
Youcansavethefocuszone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,inthe
followingways:

Saving the focus zone in the user configuration: For information on saving the
focuszoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserConfiguration"onpage 82.
Exportingthefocuszone:YoucanexportthefocuszonebyrightclickingtheFocus
ZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthecontextmenu.

1.4.12.4 UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools
Atollprovidesseveralwaysofeditingacomputationzone,focuszone,andfilteringzones.Youcaneditthesezonesbyediting
thepointsthatdefinethem,bycombiningseveralpolygons,orbydeletingpartsofthepolygonsthatmakeupthesezones.
Whenyounolongerneedthezone,youcandeleteitfromthemap.
Thecomputationandfocuspolygonscancontainholes.Holeswithinpolygonalareasaredifferentiatedfromoverlayingpoly
gonsbytheorderofthecoordinatesoftheirvertices.Thecoordinatesoftheverticesofpolygonalareasareinclockwiseorder,
whereasthecoordinatesoftheverticesofholeswithinpolygonalareasareincounterclockwiseorder.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

1.4.12.4.1

"EditingPolygonZones"onpage 44
"RemovingaPolygonZone"onpage 46.

EditingPolygonZones
Atollenablesyoutoeditapolygonzoneinseveraldifferentways.Thefirststepistoselectit,eith7erby:

SelectingthepolygonzoneintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer
Selectingthepolygonzonebyclickingitonthemap,or
SelectingthepolygonzonefromthelistintheVectorEditortoolbar.

Thesecondstepistoputthezoneineditingmode:

44

RightclickthezoneyouwanttoeditinthemapwindowandselectEditZonefromthecontextmenu,or
RightclickthezoneintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorerandselectEditZonefromthecontextmenu.

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IfthezonehasbeenselectedfromthelistintheVectorEditortoolbar,itisautomatically
putineditingmode.

Onceyouhavethepolygonzoneineditingmode,youcanedititasexplainedinthefollowingsections:

"EditingthePointsofaPolygonZone"onpage 45
"EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheToolbar"onpage 45
"EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheContextMenu"onpage 46.

EditingthePointsofaPolygonZone
Toeditapointofapolygonzone:
1. Putthepolygonzoneineditingmodeasexplainedin"EditingPolygonZones"onpage 44.
2. Selectthepolygonzone.Youcannowedititby:

Movingapoint:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.

Addingapointtothepolygonzone:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepolygonzoneborderwhereyouwanttoaddapoint.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectInsertPointfromthecontextmenu.Apointisaddedtothepolygonzoneborderatthe
positionofthepointer.

Deletingapointfromapolygonzone:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectDeletePointfromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.
EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheToolbar
InAtoll,youcancreatecomplexpolygonzonesbyusingthetoolsontheVectorEditortoolbar.Thefiltering,computation,
andfocuszonepolygonscancontainholes.Holeswithinpolygonalareasaredifferentiatedfromoverlayingpolygonsbythe
orderofthecoordinatesoftheirvertices.Thecoordinatesoftheverticesofpolygonalareasareinclockwiseorder,whereas
thecoordinatesoftheverticesofholeswithinpolygonalareasareincounterclockwiseorder.
ToeditapolygonzoneusingtheiconsontheVectorEditortoolbar:
1. Putthepolygonzoneineditingmodeasexplainedin"EditingPolygonZones"onpage 44.
2. Clickthecontourtoedit.TheVectorEditortoolbarhasthefollowingbuttons:

:Tocombineseveralpolygonzones:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheCombinebutton(

).

ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthenewpolygonzone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygonzone.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygonzone.
v. Drawmorepolygonzonesifdesired.Atollcreatesagroupofpolygonsoftheselectedandnewcontours.If
polygonzonesoverlap,Atollmergesthem.

:Todeletepartoftheselectedpolygonzone:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheDeletebutton(

).

ii. Drawtheareayouwanttodeletefromtheselectedpolygonzonebyclickingonceonthemapwhereyouwant
tobegindrawingtheareatodelete.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthearea.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethearea.Atolldeletestheareafromtheselectedcontour.

:Tocreateapolygonoutoftheoverlappingareaoftwopolygons:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheIntersectionbutton(

).

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ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthepolygonthatwilloverlaptheselectedone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygon.Atollcreatesanewpolygonoftheoverlappingareaofthetwopolygons
anddeletesthepartsofthepolygonsthatdonotoverlap.

:Tosplittheselectedpolygonintoseveralpolygons:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheSplitbutton(

).

ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthepolygonthatwillsplittheselectedone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygon.Atollseparatestheareacoveredbythepolygonfromtheselectedpolygon
andcreatesanewpolygon.
EditingPolygonZonesUsingtheContextMenu
Whenyouareeditingpolygonzones,youcanaccesscertaincommandsusingthecontextmenu.
Toeditapolygonzoneusingthecontextmenu:
1. Clickthepolygonzoneyouwanttoedit.
2. Rightclickthepolygonzonetodisplaythecontextmenuandselectoneofthefollowing:

Properties: Select Properties to open the Properties dialog box of the selected polygon zone. The Properties
dialogboxgivesthecoordinatesofeachpointthatdefinesthepositionandshapeofthepolygonzone.
InsertPoint:SelectInsertPointtoaddapointtotheborderofthecontouratthepositionofthepointer.
Move:
i.

SelectMovefromthecontextmenutomovethecontour,line,orpointonthemap.

ii. Movethecontour,line,orpoint.
iii. Clicktoplacethecontour,line,orpoint.

1.4.12.4.2

Quitedition:SelectQuitEditiontoexiteditingmode.

Delete:SelectDeletetoremovetheselectedcontour,line,orpointfromthemap.

RemovingaPolygonZone
Whenyounolongerneedapolygonzone,youcanremovethezoneandredisplayalldataobjects.
Toremoveapolygonzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofZonesfoldertoexpandthefolder.

3. Rightclickthefoldercontainingthezoneyouwanttoremove.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectDeleteZone.Thepolygonzoneisremovedandalldocumentdataisnowdisplayed.
YoucanalsodeleteitbyrightclickingitsborderonthemapandselectingDeletefrom
thecontextmenu.

1.4.12.5 UsingaPrintingZone
Theprintingzoneallowsyoutodefineanareatobeprinted.Forinformationonusingtheprintingzone,see"Definingthe
PrintingZone"onpage 68.

1.4.12.6 UsingaGeographicExportZone
If you want to export part of the map as a bitmap, you can define a geographic export zone. After you have defined a
geographicexportzone,Atollallowsyoutoexportonlytheareacoveredbythezoneifyouexportthemapasarasterimage.
Todefineageographicexportzoneandexportthemap:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)toexpandtheZonesfolder.

3. RightclicktheGeographicExportZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.

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4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:

DrawPolygon
i.

Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.

ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.

DrawRectangle
i.

Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethezone.

ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinethezone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,thezone
willbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.

FitZonetoMapWindow
Atollcreatesageographicexportzonethatfitsthemapwindow.

Thegeographicexportzoneisdelimitedbyalightpurpleline.Ifyouclearthegeographicexportzonesvisibilitycheck
boxintheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer,itwillnolongerbedisplayedbutwillstillbetakenintoaccount.
Youcanalsocreateageographicexportzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon(
)andNewRectangle(
)buttonsavailableinthe
VectorEditortoolbartodrawthegeogaphicexportzone.
Existingpolygon:Youcanuseanyexistingpolygonasageographicexportzonebyrightclickingitonthemapor
intheGeoexplorerandselectingUseAs >GeographicExportZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombine
anexistinggeographicexportzonewithanyexistingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorer
andselectingAddTo >GeographicExportZonefromthecontextmenu.The"effective"geographicexportzone
willbetherectangleencompassingtheseveralpolygonscomposingthegeographicexportzone.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,youcanimportitanduseitasageographicexport
zone.YoucanimportitbyrightclickingtheGeographicExportZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselecting
Importfromthecontextmenu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:Youcancreateageographicexportzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclicking
itonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Onceyouhavecreatedageographicexportzone,youcanuseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoeditit.Formoreinfor
mationonthepolygoneditingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 44.
Youcansavethegeographicexportzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocu
ment,inthefollowingways:

Savingthegeographicexportzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationon
savingthegeographicexportzoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserCon
figuration"onpage 82.
Exportingthegeographicexportzone:Youcanexportthegeographicexportzone
by rightclicking the Geographic Export Zone in the Geo explorer and selecting
Exportfromthecontextmenu.

Thegeographicexportzonecanonlyexportinrasterformat.Youcannotexportinraster
formatifthecoveragepredictionwasmadepertransmitter(forexample,coverage
predictionswiththedisplaytypesetbytransmitter,byatransmitterattribute,bysignal
level,bypathloss,orbytotallosses).Onlythecoverageareaofasingletransmittercan
beexportedinrasterformat.
5. SelectFile >SaveImageAs.TheMapExportdialogboxappears,withtheoptionGeographicexportzoneselected.
6. ClickExport.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
7. IntheSaveasdialogbox,selectadestinationfolder,enteraFilename,andselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
Thefollowingfileformatsaresupported:BMP,PNG,ArcViewGrid(TXT),TIFF,BIL,JPEG2000,andJPG.Ifyouwantto
usethesavedfileasadigitalterrainmodel,youshouldselecttheTIF,BIL,orTXTformat.WhensavinginBILformat,
Atollallowsyoutosavefileslargerthan2 Gb.
8. ClickSave.TheExportedImageSizedialogboxappears.
9. Youcandefinethesizeoftheexportedimageinoneoftwoways:

Scale:Ifyouwanttodefinethesizebyscale,selectScale,enterascaleinthetextboxandaresolution.Ifyouwant
toexporttheimagewithrulers,selectIncludeRulers.
Pixelsize:Ifyouwanttodefinethesizebypixelsize,selectPixelsize,andenterapixelsizeinthetextbox.

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Ifyouwanttousetheexportedfileasadigitalterrainmodel,youmustdefinethesizeof
theexportedimagebypixelsize.Atollthencreatesageoreferencefilefortheexported
image.
10. ClickOK.

1.4.13 EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints
Atollusesdifferenttypesofpolygons,lines,andpointsinthemapwindow.Forexample,thezonessuchasthecomputation
andfocuszone,describedin"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 41,arespecifictypesofpolygons.Othertypesofpoly
gons,calledcontours,alongwithlinesandpoints,canbeusedtoaddadditionalinformationtogeographicdata.
Atollprovidesseveralwaysofeditingpolygons,lines,andpoints.Youcanmoveordeletethepointsthatdefinepolygons,
lines,andpoints.Youcaneditpolygonsbyeditingthepointsthatdefinethem,bycombiningseveralpolygons,orbydeleting
partsofthepolygons.
Polygons,includingthecomputationandfocuszonepolygonscancontainholes.Holeswithinpolygonalareasaredifferenti
atedfromoverlayingpolygonsbytheorderofthecoordinatesoftheirvertices.Thecoordinatesoftheverticesofpolygonal
areasareinclockwiseorder,whereasthecoordinatesoftheverticesofholeswithinpolygonalareasareincounterclockwise
order.
Whenyounolongerneedthepolygon,line,orpoint,youcandeleteitfromthemap.
Thissectionexplainsthedifferentwaysofeditingpolygons,lines,andpoints:

"AddingaVectorLayer"onpage 48
"CreatingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 48
"EditingtheShapeofPolygonsandLines"onpage 49
"CombiningorCroppingPolygonsUsingtheToolbar"onpage 49
"EditingaPoint"onpage 51
"EditingContours,Lines,andPointsUsingtheContextMenu"onpage 51.

1.4.13.1 AddingaVectorLayer
Youcanaddvectorobjectssuchaspolygons,linesorpointstogeographicalmapinformationinaprojectbyfirstcreatinga
vectorlayer.Youcanalsomodifycertaingeographicdatamaps,forexample,geoclimaticmaps,byaddingavectorlayerto
themandaddingpolygons,linesandpointsafterwards.Forinformationonmodifyingcertaingeographicdatamapsbyadding
avectorlayer,see"EditingGeoclimaticMaps"onpage 141.
ToaddavectorlayertotheGeoexplorer:

ClicktheNewVectorLayerbutton(

)ontheVectorEditortoolbar.

Atollcreatesafoldercalled"Vectors"intheGeoexplorer.
Forinformationonaddingvectorobjectssuchascontours,lines,andpointstothevectorlayer,see"CreatingPolygons,Lines,
andPoints"onpage 48.

1.4.13.2 CreatingPolygons,Lines,andPoints
Onceyouhavecreatedavectorlayer,asexplainedin"AddingaVectorLayer"onpage 48,youcanaddpolygons,lines,and
pointstoit.
Toaddapolygon,line,orpointtoavectorlayer:
1. RightclickthevectorlayerintheGeoexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.ThetoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareavailable.
Youcanalsomakethevectortoolsavailablebyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfrom
theVectorEditortoolbarlist.BecauseAtollnamesallnewvectorlayers"Vectors"by
default,itmightbedifficulttoknowwhichvectorfolderyouareselecting.Byrenaming
eachvectorfolder,youcanensurethatyouselectthecorrectfolder.Forinformationon
renamingobjects,see"RenaminganObject"onpage 26.
IftheVectorEditortoolbarisnotvisible,selectView >Toolbars >VectorEditor.
3. ClickoneofthefollowingbuttonsontheVectorEditortoolbar:

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NewPolygon:
a. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontour.
b. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
c. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.
NewRectangle:
a. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectangle.
b. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectangle.
c. Releasethemousetocreatetherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Ifthepolygonorrectangleisonthevectorlayerofageoclimaticmap,,youmustdefinethe
valuethepolygonorrectanglerepresentsandmapthevectorlayer.Formoreinformation,
see"EditingGeoclimaticMaps"onpage 141.
NewLine:
a. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegintheline.
b. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheline.
c. Doubleclicktoendtheline.
NewPoint:Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttoplacethepoint.
4. PressESCtodeselectthecurrentlyselectedbuttonontheVectorEditortoolbar.

1.4.13.3 EditingtheShapeofPolygonsandLines
Youcanedittheshapeofpolygonsandlinesonthevectorlayer.
Toedittheshapeofpolygonsandlines:
1. Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)containingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayer
folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectDrawfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.
Youcanalsoactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromthe
VectorEditortoolbarlist.

3. Selectthecontourorline.Youcanusethefollowingmethodstoeditthecontourorline:

Moveapoint:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.Ifyouareeditingarectangle,theadjacentpointsontherectanglechange
positionaswell,inorderfortherectangletoretainitsshape.

Addapointtoacontouroraline:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthecontourborderorlinewhereyouwanttoaddapoint.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectInsertPointfromthecontextmenu.Apointisaddedtothecontourborderorlineatthe
positionofthepointer.

Deleteapointfromacontouroraline:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectDeletePointfromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

1.4.13.4 CombiningorCroppingPolygonsUsingtheToolbar
InAtoll,youcancreatecomplexcontoursbyusingthetoolsontheVectorEditortoolbar.

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ToeditavectorobjectusingtheiconsontheVectorEditortoolbar:
1. Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)containingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayer
folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectDrawfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.
YoucanactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromtheVector
Editortoolbarlist.

3. Clickthecontourtoedit.TheVectorEditortoolbarenablesyoutoperformthefollowingfunctions:

:Tocombineanexistingcontourwithanewone:
i.

OntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheCombinebutton(

).

ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthenewcontour.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.
v. Drawmorecontoursifdesired.Atollcreatesagroupofpolygonsoftheselectedandnewcontours.Ifcontours
overlap,Atollmergesthem.

:Tocombinetwoexistingcontours:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheCombinebutton(

).

ii. Clickthecontourthatyouwanttocombinewiththeselectedone.Atollcombinesthetwoselectedcontours
intoasingleobject,mergingthemiftheyoverlap.

:Todrawaholeintheselectedcontour:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheDeletebutton(

).

ii. Clickonceinsidethecontourwhereyouwanttobegindrawingtheareatodelete.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthearea.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethearea.Atolldeletestheareafromtheselectedcontour.

:Todeleteanareaoftheselectedcontourthatisoverlappedbyanothercontour:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheDeletebutton(

).

ii. Clickthecontour(whichoverlapstheselectedcontour)todeletetheoverlappingareafromthefirstselected
contour.Atolldeletestheareacoveredbythesecondcontourfromthefirstcontour.

:Tocreateacontouroutoftheoverlappingareaofanexistingcontourandanewone:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheIntersectionbutton(

).

ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontourthatwilloverlaptheselectedone.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
iv. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.Atollcreatesanewcontouroftheoverlappingareaofthetwocontoursand
deletesthepartsofthecontoursthatdonotoverlap.

:Tocreateacontouroutoftheoverlappingareaoftwoexistingcontours:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheIntersectionbutton(

).

ii. Clickthecontour(whichoverlapstheselectedcontour)thatyouwanttointersectwiththefirstselectedcon
tour.Atollcreatesanewcontourfromtheareaofthetwocontoursthatoverlapsanddeletesthepartsofthe
contoursthatdonotoverlap.

:Tosplittheselectedcontourintotwocontours:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheSplitbutton(

).

ii. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontourthatwillsplittheselectedcontour.
iii. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.

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iv. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.Atolldeletestheareadefinedbythenewlydrawncontourfromtheselected
contour,therebycreatingtwonewcontours.

:Tosplitoverlappingcontoursintothreecontours:
i.

IntheVectorEditortoolbar,clicktheSplitbutton(

).

ii. Clickthecontour(whichoverlapstheselectedcontour)thatyouwanttousetocropthefirstselectedcontour.
Atollseparatestheoverlappingareafromthefirstselectedcontour,therebycreatingthreecontours:thefirst
contourminustheareaoverlappedbythesecond,thesecondcontour(whichremainsunchanged,andathird
contourcreatedfromtheareadeletedfromthefirstselectedcontour.

1.4.13.5 EditingaPoint
Toeditapoint:
1. Intheexplorer(theNetworkexplorerortheGeoexplorer)containingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayer
folder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectDrawfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.
YoucanactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromtheVector
Editortoolbarlist.

3. Selectthepoint.Youcanusethefollowingmethodstoeditthepoint:

Movethepoint:
i.

Clickthepoint.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.

Deletethepoint:
i.

Clickthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

1.4.13.6 EditingContours,Lines,andPointsUsingtheContextMenu
Whenyouareeditingcontours,lines,andpoints,youcanaccesscertaincommandsusingthecontextmenu.
Toeditavectorobjectusingthecontextmenu:
1. Clickthevectorobjectyouwanttoedit.
2. Rightclickthevectorobjecttodisplaythecontextmenuandselectoneofthefollowing:

Delete:SelectDeletetoremovetheselectedcontour,line,orpointfromthemap.
ConverttoLine:SelectConverttoLinetoconverttheselectedcontourtoaline.
ConverttoPolygon:SelectConverttoPolygontoconverttheselectedlinetoacontour.
OpenLine:SelectOpenLinetoremovethesegmentbetweenthelastandthefirstpoint.
CloseLine:SelectCloseLinetoaddasegmentbetweenthelastandthefirstpointoftheline.
InsertPoint:SelectInsertPointtoaddapointtotheborderofthecontouratthepositionofthepointer.
Move:
i.

SelectMovefromthecontextmenutomovethecontour,line,orpointonthemap.

ii. Movethecontour,line,orpoint.
iii. Clicktoplacethecontour,line,orpoint.

QuitEdition:SelectQuitEditiontoexiteditingmode.
Properties:SelectPropertiestoopenthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedcontour,line,orpoint.TheProp
ertiesdialogboxhastwotabs:

General:TheGeneraltabdisplaysthenameofthevectorLayer,theSurfaceoftheobject,andanyProperties
ofthecontour,line,orpoint.
Geometry:Thistabdisplaysthecoordinatesofeachpointthatdefinesthepositionandshapeofthecontour,
line,orpoint.

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Onlythecommandsrelevanttotheselectedcontour,line,orpointaredisplayedinthe
contextmenu.

1.4.14 CopyingtheContentofaZoneintoAnotherApplication
Youcancopythecontentofoneofthefollowingzonesofthemapwindowintoadocumentcreatedusinganotherapplication:

Filteringzone
Focuszone
Computationzone
Hotspot
Printingzone
Geographicalexportzone

Tocopythecontentofazoneintoadocumentcreatedusinganotherapplication:
1. Selectthezoneinthemapwindow,orexpandtheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorerandselectthezone.
Youcancopythecontentsofthezoneinthefollowingways:

SelectEdit >Copy(orpressCtrl+C)tocopyabitmapimageoftheselectedzone,or

a. SelectEdit >AdvancedCopy.TheAdvancedCopydialogboxappears.
b. Selectoneofthefollowing:

Bitmapimage:SelectBitmapImagetocopythecontentsofthezoneasabitmapandthenselecteitherScreen
resolutionorCustomresolutionandenterthecustomresolutioninthetextbox.Thedefaultcustomresolu
tionis50 m.
MetafileImage:SelectMetafileImagetocopythecontentsofthezoneasaWindowsmetafile.
GeoreferenceCoordinates:SelectGeoreferenceCoordinatestocopythegeoreferencecoordinatestothe
clipboard.Theywillbepastedasthecoordinates.

2. OpentheapplicationintowhichyouwanttopastetheimageandselectEdit >Paste(orpressCtrl+V).Thezoneofthe
mapispastedasanimage(orasgeoreferencecoordinates)intothenewdocument.

1.4.15 MapWindowPointers
InAtoll,thepointerappearsindifferentformsaccordingtoitsfunction.Eachpointerisdescribedbelow:
Appearance

Description

Meaning
Thezoneselectionpointerindicates:

Selectionarrow

Onthemap,thatyoucandefineazonetoprintorcopy
InthePanoramicwindow,thatyoucandefinethezonetobedisplayedonthe
map.
Todefineazone,clickanddragdiagonally.

Thepolygondrawingpointerindicatesthatyoucandrawazonetofiltereithersites
orlinks,drawcomputation/focus/filtering/printing/geographicexportzones,or
Polygondrawing
drawvectororrasterpolygonsonthemap.Todrawapolygon,clickoncetostart,
pointer
andeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
Closethepolygonbyclickingtwice.
Therectangledrawingpointerindicatesthatyouthatcandrawcomputation/focus/
Rectangledrawing
filtering/printing/geographicexportzones,ordrawvectororrasterrectangleson
pointer
themap.Todefineazone,clickanddragdiagonally.

52

Hand

Thehandpointerindicatesthatyoucanmovethevisiblepartofthedisplayedmap.

Zoomtool

Thezoompointerindicatesthatyoucanclicktozoominandrightclicktozoomout
atthelocationofthemousepointer

Zoomarea

Thezoomareapointerindicatesthatyoucanzoominonanareaofthebyclicking
anddraggingtodefinethearea.

Pencil

Thepencilpointerindicatesthatyoucancreateapolygonalclutterzone,byclicking
oncetostartthepolygon,oncetocreateeachcorner,andbydoubleclickingto
closethepolygon.

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Appearance

Description

Meaning

Deletion

Thedeletionpointerindicatesthatyoucandeleteanewlycreatedpolygonalclutter
zonebyclickingitsborder.

Positionindicator

Thepositionindicatorpointerindicatesthatyoucanselecttheborderofapolygon.
Rightclickingthepolygonborderopensacontextmenuallowingyoutoaddapoint,
deletethepolygon,orcentrethemaponthepolygon.

Select/create
points

Theselect/createpointspointerindicatesthatyoucanmodifythepolygoninthe
mapwindow.Youcanaddanewpointandmodifythepolygoncontourbyclicking
ononeoftheedgesanddragging.Youcanmoveanexistingpointbyclickingand
dragginganexistingpoint.Youcanrightclicktoopenacontextmenutodeletea
point,deletethepolygon,orcentrethemaponthepolygon.

Microwavelink
start
End

Themicrowavelinkpointerindicatesthatyoucanclickapointonthemaptocreate
thefirstpointofamicrowavelink.Onceyouhavecreatedthefirstpoint,the
microwavelinkpointerchangesandthenextclickendsthelink.

Themultihopandmultipointpointerindicatesthatyoucanclickoncetocreatethe
Multihoporpoint firstpointofamultihoplinkorthehubofapointtomultipointlink.Inthecaseofa
tomultipoint
multihoplink,eachsubsequentclickcreatesanotherpointinthelink.Inthecaseof
microwavelink
apointtomultipoint,eachsubsequentlinkcreatesanewpoint,connectedtothe
hubbyalink.
Rotatehub
antennaofpoint
tomultipointlink

Therotatehubantennapointerindicatesthatyoucanclickthehubantennaand
dragittoanewpositiontochangetheazimuthofthehubantenna.

Themeasurementpointerindicatesthatyoucanclickonthemaptosetthestart
Measurementson
pointofyourmeasurement.Asyoumovethepointer,thedistancebetweenthefirst
themap
pointandthepointerisdisplayedinthestatusbar.

Terrainsection

Theterrainsectionpointerindicatesthatyoucancreateaterrainsectionbyclicking
onceonthemaptocreatethefirstpointandoncemoretocreatethesecondpoint.
TheterrainprofilebetweenthetwopointsisdisplayedinthePointAnalysiswindow
andstoredunderTerrainSectionsintheGeoexplorer.

1.5 WorkingwithDataTables
Atollstoresobjectdata(sites,antennas,microwavelinks,etc.)intheformoftables,containingallparametersandcharacter
isticsoftheobjects.Thedatacontainedinpredictionreportsisalsostoredintheformoftables.
Youcanaddcolumnstothedatatableandyoucandeletecertaincolumns.Whenyoucreateanewcolumn,youcancreatea
defaultvalueforafieldthatyoucreate.Youcanalsocreatealistofchoices(fortextfields)fromwhichtheusercanchoose
whenfillinginthefield.
Youcanfilter,sort,andgroupthedatacontainedinthesetables,andviewastatisticalanalysisofthedata.Youcanalsoexport
thedataorimportdataintotheAtolldatatables.Theoptionsforworkingwithdatatablesareavailablefromthecontext
menuorfromtheTabletoolbardisplayedabovethetable.
Youcanbrowsethedataintablesbyeitherusingtheverticalorhorizontalscrollbars,themousewheel,orbymovingthrough
thetablecellbycellusingthecursorkeysorthetabkey.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54
"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 54
"EditingtheContentsofaTable"onpage 59
"OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesdialogboxfromaTable"onpage 56
"DefiningtheTableFormat"onpage 56
"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 60
"ViewingaStatisticalAnalysisofTableContents"onpage 63
"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 63
"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 65
"ExportingTablestoXMLFiles"onpage 66
"ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles"onpage 66.

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1.5.1 OpeningaDataTable
Toopenadatatable:
1. SelecttheNetworkorParametersexplorer.
2. Rightclickthedatafolderforwhichyouwanttodisplaythedatatable.
3. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.

1.5.2 Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields
Thedataforeachobjecttypeisstoredintheformofadatatable.EverydatatableinAtolliscreatedwithadefaultsetof
columns,eachcorrespondingtoafield.Inthissection,thefollowingfunctionsareexplained:

"AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields"onpage 54
"AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable"onpage 55
"DeletingaFieldfromanObjectTypesDataTable"onpage 55

1.5.2.1 AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields
Thefieldscontainedinanobjecttypestablearedefinedinadialogbox.
Toaccessanobjecttypestablefields:
1. IntheNetworkorParametersexplorer,openthedatatableasdescribedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclickthetableinthemapwindow.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectTableFieldsfromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappearswhereyoucanviewtheexistingfieldsandaddor
deletenewones.
Thedialogboxdisplaysthefollowinginformationforeachtypeofdata(seeFigure 1.18):

Name:Thenameofthefieldinthedatabase.
Legend:Thenameofthefieldasitappearsintheuserinterface.
Legendsofsomefieldsmaybefollowedby:

"(NOTUSED)"indicatingthatthefieldisnotusedinthecurrentAtollrelease.The
correspondingcolumnishiddeninthedatatable.
"(OBSOLETE)"indicatingthatthefieldisobsoleteandwillberemovedinafuture
Atollrelease.Thecorrespondingcolumnisnotavailableinthedatatable.

Type:Thetypeofthefield.
Size:Themaximumsizeofthefield.
Default:Thedefaultvalueofthefield.
Group:Alistofgroups(separatedbyasemicolons";")towhichthefieldbelongs.WhenopeninganAtolldocu
mentfromadatabase,youcanselectgroupsofcustomfieldstobeloadedfromthedatabase,insteadofloading
allcustomfields.

Figure 1.18:TheTabletab

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You canset defaultvaluesandchoicelists forstandardAtolldatabase fields.Formore


information,seetheAdministratorManual.

1.5.2.2 AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable
Youcanaddacustomfieldtoanyobjecttypesdatatable.
Toaddacustomfieldtoanobjecttypesdatatable:
1. Accesstheobjecttypestablefieldsasexplainedin"AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields"onpage 54.
2. ClickAdd.TheFieldDefinitiondialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.19).
3. TheFieldDefinitiondialogboxhasthefollowingtextboxes:

Name:EntertheNameforthefieldthatwillappearinthedatabase
Type:Selectatypeforthefield(text,shortinteger,longinteger,single,double,true/false,date/time,orcurrency)
Size:TheSizefieldisonlyavailableifyouhaveselected"text"astheType.Enterasizeincharacters.
Group:Ifnecessary,youcandefinethegroupstowhichthiscustomfieldwillbelongseparatingeachgroupname
withasemicolon.WhenyouopenanAtolldocumentfromadatabase,youcanthenselectgroupsofcustomfields
tobeloadedfromthedatabase,insteadofloadingallcustomfields.
Legend:EnterthenameforthefieldthatwillappearintheAtolluserinterface.
Readonly:SelecttheReadonlycheckboxifyoudonotwantthecustomfieldtobemodifiableintheuserinter
face.
Defaultvalue:Ifnecessary,enteradefaultvaluethatwillappeareachtimeyoucreateanewrecordofthisobject
type.
Choicelist:TheChoicelistfieldisonlyavailableifyouhaveselected"text"astheType.Youcancreateachoice
listbyenteringthelistitemsintheChoicelisttextboxandpressingENTERaftereachlistitem,keepingeachchoice
onaseparateline.
SelecttheRestrictedcheckboxifyouwantthecustomfieldtoonlyacceptvalueslistedintheChoicelisttextbox.
CleartheRestrictedcheckboxifyouwanttoallowuserstoentervaluesotherthanthoseinthechoicelist.

4. ClickOKtoreturntotheobjecttypetable.
Userorcustomfieldsareforinformationonlyandarenotconsideredincalculations.You
canfindthesefieldsontheOtherPropertiestabofanobjecttypesPropertiesdialogbox.

Figure 1.19:TheFieldDefinitiondialogbox

1.5.2.3 DeletingaFieldfromanObjectTypesDataTable
Youcandeletecustomfieldsfromanobjecttypesdatatable.Customfieldsarethefieldsthattheuseraddstoanobject
typesdatatable,asexplainedin"AddingaFieldtoanObjectTypesDataTable"onpage 55.

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Todeleteacustomfieldfromanobjecttypesdatatable:
Alldatastoredinthefieldislostwhenyoudeletethefielditself.Makesurethatyouare
notdeletingimportantinformation.

1. Accesstheobjecttypestablefieldsasexplainedin"AccessinganObjectTypesTableFields"onpage 54.
2. Selectthecustomfieldthatyouwanttodelete.
Somefieldscannotbedeleted.IfyouselectafieldandtheDeletebuttonremains
unavailable,theselectedfieldisnotacustomfieldandcannotbedeleted.

3. ClickDelete.Thefieldisdeletedfromtheobjecttypesdatatable.

1.5.3 OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesdialogboxfroma
Table
YoucanopentheRecordPropertiesdialogboxofanobject,forexample,asite,antenna,transmitter,orcell,fromitsdata
table.
ToopentheRecordPropertiesdialogboxofanobject:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclicktherecordforwhichyouwanttoseetheproperties.
3. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
YoucanalsoopentheRecordPropertiesdialogboxbydoubleclickingtherecord.Toavoid
editingtherecordwhenyoudoubleclick,doubleclicktheleftmarginoftherecordinstead
oftherecorditself.YoucanalsoselecttherecordandclicktheRecordPropertiesbutton
(

)intheTabletoolbar.

1.5.4 DefiningtheTableFormat
Atollletsyouformatthedatatablestoimprovepresentationofthedata.Youcanchangetheformatofthedatatableby:

"FormattingtheColumnHeaders"onpage 56
"FormattingTableCells"onpage 57
"ChangingColumnWidthorRowHeight"onpage 57
"DisplayingorHidingaColumn"onpage 58
"FreezingorUnfreezingaColumn"onpage 58
"MovingColumns"onpage 59

FormattingtheColumnHeaders
Todefinetheformatofthecolumnheaders:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectFormat>HeaderFormatfromthecontextmenu.TheFormatdialogboxappears.
4. TheFormatdialogboxhasthefollowingtabs:

Font:YoucanselecttheFont,Outline(thefontstyle),fontSize,Effects,andTextcolour.
Colour:YoucanselectthecolourofthecolumnheadersbyselectingaForegroundcolour,aBackgroundcolour,
andapatternfromthelistbox.Youcanalsoselecta3DEffectfortheheader.
Borders:YoucanselecttheBorder,theType,andtheColourforeachcolumnheader.
Alignment:YoucanselectboththeHorizontalandVerticalalignmentofthecolumnheadertext.TheAlignment
tabhasadditionaloptionsaswell,allowingyoutoenableWraptext,Autosize,andAllowenter.

5. ClickOK.

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FormattingTableCells
Todefinetheformatofthetablecells:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectFormat>CellFormatfromthecontextmenu.TheFormatdialogboxappears.
4. TheFormatdialogboxhasthefollowingtabs:

Font:YoucanselecttheFont,Outline(thefontstyle),fontSize,Effects,andTextColour.
Colour:Youcanselectthebackgroundcolour(Interior)ofthecolumnheaders,byselectingaForegroundcolour,
aBackgroundcolour,andapatternfromthelistbox.Youcanalsoselecta3DEffectfortheheader.
Borders:YoucanselecttheBorder,theType,andtheColourforeachcolumnheader.
Alignment:YoucanselectboththeHorizontalandVerticalalignmentofthecolumnheadertext.TheAlignment
tabhasadditionaloptionsaswell,allowingyoutoenableWraptext,Autosize,andAllowenter.

5. ClickOK.
ChangingColumnWidthorRowHeight
Youcanchangethecolumnwidthandrowheightinadatatable.Whenyouchangethecolumnwidth,youchangethewidth
onlyfortheselectedcolumn.Whenyouchangetherowheight,however,youchangetherowheightforeveryrowinthe
table.
Tochangethecolumnwidth:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Clicktheborderseparatingtwocolumnheadersanddragtochangethecolumnwidth(seeFigure 1.20).
Tochangetherowheight:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Clicktheborderseparatingtworowsanddragtochangetherowheight(seeFigure 1.21).
Thewidthorheightofthecolumnsorrowschangeonceyoureleasethemouse.

Figure 1.20:Changingcolumnwidth

Figure 1.21:Changingrowheight

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DisplayingorHidingaColumn
Youcanchoosewhichcolumnsindatatablestodisplayorhide.
Todisplayorhideacolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectDisplayColumnsfromthecontextmenuorclicktheDisplayColumnsbutton(
ColumnstoBeDisplayeddialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.22).

)intheTabletoolbar.The

4. Todisplayacolumn,selectitscheckbox.
5. Tohideacolumn,clearitscheckbox.
YoucanalsohideacolumnbyrightclickingonitsheaderandselectingHideColumns
fromthecontextmenuorbyclickingtheHideColumnsbutton(
)intheTable
toolbar.YoucanhidemorethanonecolumnbypressingCTRLwhileselectingthe
columnsandthenclickingtheHideColumnsbutton(

).

6. ClickClose.

Figure 1.22:TheColumnstoBeDisplayeddialogbox
FreezingorUnfreezingaColumn
InAtoll,youcanfreezeoneormorecolumnsofadatatablesothattheyalwaysremainvisibleasyouscrollhorizontally
throughthetable.Forexample,whilescrollingthroughtheSitestable,youmightwanttohavetheNamecolumnalwaysvisi
ble.Youcankeepthiscolumn,oranyothercolumnvisible,byfreezingit.
Tofreezeacolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Selecttheheaderofthecolumnyouwanttofreeze.Clickanddragoverseveralheaderstoselectmorethanone
columntofreeze.
Youcanonlyfreezeadjacentcolumns.

3. RightclicktheselectedheaderorheadersandselectFreezeColumnsfromthecontextmenuorclicktheFreezeCol
umnsbutton(
)intheTabletoolbar.Frozencolumnsaregroupedtotheleftofthetableandseparatedfromother
columnswithaverticalredline.
Youcannotfreezeacolumninareporttable.

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Tounfreezecolumns:

RightclickthetableandselectUnfreezeAllColumnsfromthecontextmenuorclicktheUnfreezeAllColumnsbutton
(

)intheTabletoolbar.

MovingColumns
InAtoll,youcanchangethecolumnordersothatyoucangroupsimilarcolumnsorpresentdatainadeterminedorder.
Tomoveacolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Selecttheheaderofthecolumnyouwanttomove.Clickanddragoverseveralheaderstoselectmorethanone
columntomove.
Youcanonlymoveseveralcolumnsatthesametimewhentheyareadjacent.

3. Clickagainontheselectedcolumnanddragtothedesiredarea.Asyoudragthecolumn,thepositionthecolumnwill
occupyisindicatedbyaredline(seeFigure 1.23).

Figure 1.23:Movingcolumns
4. Releasethemousebuttontoplacethecolumn.

ItmightbenecessarytoclickRefresh

intheMaptoolbarforyourchangestoappear.

1.5.5 EditingtheContentsofaTable
YoucaneditthecontentofatableinAtollinseveraldifferentways:

"EditingTableEntriesDirectlyintheTable"onpage 59
"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 60
"SearchingforandReplacingTextEntriesinTables"onpage 62.

1.5.5.1 EditingTableEntriesDirectlyintheTable
Toedittableentriesdirectlyinthetable:
1. ClicktheNetworkorParametersexplorer.
2. Rightclickthedatafolderofwhichyouwanttodisplaythedatatable.
3. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.
4. Editthecontentofthetablebyenteringthevaluedirectlyinthefield(seeFigure 1.24).
5. Clickelsewhereinthetablewhenyouhavefinishedupdatingthetable.Yourchangesareautomaticallysaved.
Ifalistofoptionshasbeendefinedforafield,youcanselectavaluefromthelist(see
Figure 1.25)orenteranewvalue.

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Figure 1.24:Editingdatainthetransmittersdatatables

Figure 1.25:Choosingdatainthetransmittersdatatables

1.5.5.2 CopyingandPastinginTables
InAtoll,youcancopyandpastedataintablesusingtheCopy(CTRL+C),Cut(CTRL+X),andPaste(CTRL+V)commandsonthe
Editmenu.Youcancopyandpastedatatocreatenewrecordsoryoucancopyandpastethesamedataintoseveralcells.
Inthissection,thefollowingisexplained:

1.5.5.2.1

"CopyingandPastingaTableRecord"onpage 60
"PastingtheSameDataintoSeveralCells"onpage 61.

CopyingandPastingaTableRecord
Youcancreateanewrecordintablesbycopyinganexistingrecord,pastingitintoanewrowandeditingthedetailsthatare
different.
EachrecordinatablemusthaveauniqueName.

Tocreateanewrecordbycopyingandpasting:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Clickintheleftmarginofthetablerowcontainingtherecordtoselecttheentirerow.
3. SelectEdit >Copytocopythetablerow.
4. ClickintheleftmarginofthetablerowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

)toselecttheentirerow.

5. SelectEdit >Pastetopastethecopieddataintothenewrow.Atoll,createsanewrecordfromthecopieddata.The
nameofthenewrecordisthesameasthatofthecopiedrecord,precededby"Copyof."Youcaneditthisname.

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1.5.5.2.2

PastingtheSameDataintoSeveralCells
Youcanpastethesamedataintoseveralcells,usingFillUporFillDown.
Topastethesamedataintoseveralcells:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Clickonthecellwiththedatayouwanttocopyanddragtoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata(see
Figure 1.26).

Figure 1.26:Selectingthecells
3. Copyintotheselectedcells:

Tocopythecontentsofthetopcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,rightclicktheselectionandselectEdit >
FillDownfromthecontextmenuorclicktheFillDownbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar(seeFigure 1.27).

Figure 1.27:Copyingthecontentsofthetopcell

Tocopythecontentsofthebottomcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,rightclicktheselectionandselect
Edit >FillUpfromthecontextmenuorclicktheFillUpbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar(seeFigure 1.28).

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Figure 1.28:Copyingthecontentsofthebottomcell

1.5.5.3 SearchingforandReplacingTextEntriesinTables
InAtoll,youcansearchforandreplacetextstringsinthetableentries:

1.5.5.3.1

"SearchingforTextEntriesinTables"onpage 62
"ReplacingTextEntriesinTables"onpage 62

SearchingforTextEntriesinTables
InAtoll,youcansearchfortextstringsinthetableentries.
Tosearchfortextstringsinatable:
1. PressCTRL+SHIFT+F.TheFinddialogboxappears.
YoucanalsoclicktheFindbutton(

)inthetabletoolbar.

2. IntheFindbutton,definewhatyouwanttofind:
a. EnterthetextyouwanttofindintheFindwhatbox.
b. SelectwhetheryouwanttosearchUporDownfromyourcurrentpositioninthetable.
c. Ifdesired,selecttheMatchcasecheckbox.
3. ClickFindNext.

1.5.5.3.2

ReplacingTextEntriesinTables
InAtoll,youcansearchforandreplacetextstringsinthetableentries.
Tosearchforandreplacetextstringsinatable:
1. PressCTRL+SHIFT+R.TheReplacedialogboxappears.
YoucanalsoclicktheReplacebutton(

)inthetabletoolbar.

2. IntheReplacebutton,definethetextyouwanttofindandreplace:
a. EnterthetextyouwanttofindintheFindwhatbox.
b. EnterthetextyouwanttoreplacethetextintheFindwhatboxintheReplacewithbox.
c. Ifdesired,selecttheMatchcasecheckbox.
3. ClickFindNext.AtollproceedstothenextentryofthetextenteredintheFindwhatbox.
Youcanreplacethetextfound:

62

Replace:AtollreplacestheselectedtextwiththeentryintheReplacewithbox.

ReplaceAll:AtollreplacesalloccurrencesofthetextintheFindwhatboxwiththeentryintheReplacewithbox.

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1.5.6 ViewingaStatisticalAnalysisofTableContents
Youcanviewastatisticalanalysisofthecontentsofanentirecolumninatableorofthecontentsofaselectionofcells.
Toviewastatisticalanalysisoftablecontents:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Selectthecolumndatayouwanttoanalyse:
Toviewastatisticalanalysisofanentirecolumn:

Clickthecolumntitle.Theentirecolumnisselected.

Toviewastatisticalanalysisofaselectionofcellsinonecolumn:

Selectthecellsyouwanttoanalyse.Youcanselectcontiguouscellsbyclickingthefirstcellanddraggingtothe
lastcelloftheselectionyouwanttoanalyse,orbyclickingthefirstcell,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastcell.
YoucanselectnoncontiguouscellsbypressingCTRLandclickingeachcellinthecolumnseparately.
InAtollyoucanorganisedatainseveraldifferentways,allowingyoutoselectonly
certaindata.Formoreinformation,see"Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData"on
page 72.

3. Rightclicktheselectionofcells.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectStatisticsfromthecontextmenu.TheStatisticsdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.29).

Figure 1.29:TheStatisticsdialogbox
Thestatisticsdisplayeddependonthetypeofnumericaldataselected.IfyouleavetheStatisticsdialogboxopen,you
canviewthestatisticalanalysisofothercellsbyselectingtheminthetable.ThecontentsoftheStatisticsdialogbox
areupdatedautomatically.

1.5.7 ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets
YoucanexportentireAtolldatatables,orselectedcolumns,toASCIItextfiles(intextandcommaseparatedvalueformats),
MSExcelfiles(XLS),andXMLSpreadsheet2003files(XML).YoucanopenXMLSpreadsheet2003filesinMSExcel2003and
later.UnlikeXLSfiles,XMLSpreadsheetfilesarenotlimitedto65,536rowsand256columns.
Toexportatable:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectExportfromthecontextmenu.TheExportdialogboxappears.Youcanseehowtheexportedtablewillappear
inthePreviewpane(seeFigure 1.30).

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Figure 1.30:Exportingadatatable
4. SelecttheHeadercheckboxifyouwanttoexportthenamesofthecolumnswiththedata.
5. SelectaDecimalSymbolfromthelist.
6. SelectaFieldSeparatorfromthelist.
7. Selectthefields(displayedascolumnsinthetable)youwanttoexport.Youcandisplayallthefieldsbelongingtoa
tablebyclickingtheExpandbutton( )totheleftofthetablename.Youcanselectcontiguousfieldsbyclickingthe
firstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.YoucanselectnoncontiguousfieldsbypressingCTRLandclicking
eachfieldseparately.
a. Toselectafieldtobeexported,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldsboxandclick
portedFieldslist.AllfieldsintheExportedFieldslistwillbeexported.

tomoveittotheEx

b. ToremoveafieldfromthelistofExportedFields,selectthefieldintheExportedFieldslistandclick
moveit.

tore

c. Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Thefieldsatthe
topoftheExportedFieldsappearattheleftoftheexportedtable.
YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheExportdialogboxasaconfigurationfileby
clickingtheSavebuttonatthetopofthedialogboxandenteringanameforthefileinthe
SaveAsdialogboxthatappears.Thenexttimeyouexportadatatable,youcanclickLoad
intheExportdialogboxtoopenyourconfigurationfilewiththesamesettingsyouused
thistime.
8. ClickExport.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
9. IntheSaveAsdialogbox,entertheFilenameandselecttheformatfromtheSaveastypelist.
10. ClickSavetoexportthetable.
YoucanexporttheSites,Links,MultiHops,andPointtoMultipointtablestotextfilesbyselectingthefolderorviewinthe
NetworkexplorerandpressingCTRL+E.
Forinformationonimportingdataintoadatatable,see"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 65.

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1.5.8 ImportingTablesfromTextFiles
YoucanimportdataintheformofASCIItextfiles(inTXTandCSVformats)intoAtolldatatables.
Toimportatable:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Rightclickthetable.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectImportfromthecontextmenu.TheOpendialogboxappears.
4. SelecttheASCIItextfileyouwanttoopenandclickOpen.TheImportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.31).

Figure 1.31:Importinginformationintoadatatable
5. IfthefilewascreatedusingadifferentCoordinatesystem,clicktheBrowsebuttontoselectthecoordinatesystem
thefilewascreatedwith.Atollconvertsthecoordinatesintheimportedfiletomatchthecoordinatesystemusedin
theAtolldocument.
6. Enterthenumberofthefirstlineofdatainthe1stDataLinebox.
7. SelectaDecimalSymbolfromthelist.
8. SelectaFieldSeparatorfromthelist.
9. UnderFieldMapping,therearetwoheaderrows:

Source:Thecolumnheadersfromthetextfileyouareimporting.
Destination:ThecolumnheadersfromtheAtolldatatable.

AlignthecontentofthesourcefilewiththecontentofthedestinationfilebyclickingthecolumnheaderintheDesti
nation rowand selecting thecorrespondingcolumnfromtheAtoll datafile (seeFigure 1.31). Select<Ignore>for
sourcefilecolumnsthatyoudonotwanttoimport.
Youcanchangethewidthofthecolumnstomakethecontentseasiertoworkwith.See
"ChangingColumnWidthorRowHeight"onpage 57.

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YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheImportdialogboxasaconfigurationfileby
clickingtheSavebuttonatthetopofthedialogboxandenteringanameforthefileinthe
SaveAsdialogboxthatappears.Thenexttimeyouexportadatatable,youcanclickLoad
intheImportdialogboxtoopenyourconfigurationfilewiththesamesettingsyouused
thistime.
10. SelecttheModethatwillbeusedforimport:

Add:usethismodetoaddrecordsfromtheimportedfilewhicharemissinginthecurrenttable.Thisisthesafest
modeasrecordswhicharebothintheimportedfileandthecurrenttablewillnotbemodifiedinthecurrenttable.
Updateandadd:thismode(default)isidenticaltotheAddmodewiththeadditionthatthevaluesofrecordsin
thecurrenttablewillbeupdatedwiththecorrespondingvaluesfromtheimportedfile.

11. ClickImport.ThecontentsareimportedinthecurrenttableaccordingtotheselectedimportMode.
YoucanimportdatafromtextfilesintotheSites,Links,MultiHops,andPointtoMulti
pointtablesbyselectingthecorrespondingfolderorviewintheNetworkexplorerand
pressingCTRL+I.
Forinformationonexportingtheinformationinadatatableintoatextfile,see"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpread
sheets"onpage 63.

1.5.9 ExportingTablestoXMLFiles
YoucanexportthedatatablesinyourAtolldocumenttoXMLfiles.YoucanuseXMLtoexchangeinformationbetweenAtoll
andtheOperationandMaintenanceCenter(OMC).
AtollcreatesoneXMLfileforeachexporteddatatable,andanindex.xmlfilethatcontainsthemappingbetweenthetables
thatwereexportedandtheXMLfilescorrespondingtoeachdatatable.Theindex.xmlfilealsostorestheinformationonthe
system,thetechnology,andtheversionofAtollwithwhichtheXMLfileswerecreated.Formoreinformationaboutthe
formatsoftheXMLfiles,seetheAdministratorManual.
ToexportallthedatatablesinyourdocumenttoXMLfiles:
1. SelectDocument >DataExchange >XMLExport.TheBrowseforFolderdialogboxappears.
2. SelectthefolderwheretheXMLfilesaretobestored.ClicktheMakeNewFolderbuttonifyouwanttocreateanew
foldertostoretheXMLfiles.
3. ClickOK.AllthedatatablesinthedocumentareexportedtoXMLfiles.
ForinformationonimportingthedatatablesfromXMLfilesintoyourdocument,see"ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles"on
page 66.

1.5.10 ImportingTablesfromXMLFiles
YoucanimportdatatablesintoyourAtolldocumentfromXMLfiles.YoucanuseXMLtoexchangeinformationbetweenAtoll
andtheOperationandMaintenanceCenter(OMC).
InorderforAtolltobeabletocorrectlyimportthedatatablesfromXMLfiles,theXMLfilesandthecurrentAtolldocument
mustusethesamesystem,thetechnology,andtheAtollversionusedtocreatetheXMLfilesmustbethesameastheversion
usedtoimportthedata.FormoreinformationabouttheformatsoftheXMLfiles,seetheAdministratorManual.
ToimportdatatablesintoyourdocumentfromXMLfiles:
1. SelectDocument >DataExchange >XMLImport.TheBrowseforFolderdialogboxappears.
2. Selectthefolderwheretheindex.xmlfileislocated.
3. ClickOK.ThedatatablesfromtheXMLfileslistedintheindex.xmlfileareimportedinthedocument.
Tablesareimportedinthesameordertheyappearintheindex.xmlfile.Donotmodifythe
orderoftablesintheindex.xmlfilebecausetheorderinwhichthedataisimportedisvery
important;somedatamustbeimportedbeforeotherdata.Forexample,antennasusedby
transmittersmustbeimportedbeforethetransmittersthemselves.
Whenthedatatablesareimported:

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DatathatexistonlyinthetablesandnotintheXMLfilesarenotdeletedfromthetables.
DatathatonlyexistintheXMLfilesandnotinthetablesareimportedfromtheXMLfilesasnewrecordsinthetables.

Oncetheimportiscomplete,Atollperformsadatabaseintegritycheckandaduplicaterecordschecktoensurethatthe
importdidnotcreatedatabaseproblems.
ForinformationonexportingthedatatablesinyourdocumenttoXMLfiles,see"ExportingTablestoXMLFiles"onpage 66.

1.6 PrintinginAtoll
InAtoll,youcanprintanypartofyourdocument,includingmaps,datatables,documentreports,andantennapatterns.When
printingamap,Atollenablesyoutodefinetheareatobeprinted.Additionally,youcandefinethelayout,forexample,you
canaddalogoorgraphicitem,oralegend.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"PrintingDataTablesandReports"onpage 67
"PrintingaMap"onpage 67
"PrintingaDockingWindow"onpage 72
"PrintingAntennaPatterns"onpage 72.

1.6.1 PrintingDataTablesandReports
DatatablesandreportsarebothpresentedintabularformatinAtollandcan,therefore,beprintedinthesameway.
Ifyouwanttoseehowthetablewillappearonceprinted,see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 71.
Toprintatable:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Ifyouwanttoprintanareaofthetable,selectitbyclickinginonecorneroftheareaanddraggingdiagonallytothe
oppositecorner.
3. SelectFile >Print.
4. Ifyouwanttoprintonlyaselectedarea,chooseSelectedinthePrintdialogbox.
5. ClickOKtoprint.

1.6.2 PrintingaMap
Atollcanprintmapsandgeneratehardcopiesofcoveragepredictions.Atollallowsyoutocustomiseandoptimiseprinted
mapsandsupportsprintingtoavarietyofpapersizes,includingA4andA0.
Beforeprintingamap,youcanusethefollowingoptions:

Youcandefineanareaofthemaptobeprintedinoneofthefollowingways:

Byselectingtheprintarea(see"DefiningthePrintingZone"onpage 68).
Bycreatingafocuszone(see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43)andthenoptingtoprintonlythecontentsofthefocus
zone(see"DefiningthePrintLayout"onpage 69).

Youcanacceptthedefaultlayoutoryoucanmodifytheprintlayout(see"DefiningthePrintLayout"onpage 69).
Youcanpreviewhowthemapwillappearonceprinted(see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 71).
Printinggraphicsisamemoryintensiveoperationandcanputaheavyloadonyour
printer.Beforeprintingforthefirsttime,reviewthe"PrintingRecommendations"on
page 68toavoidmemoryrelatedproblems.

Toprintamap:
1. Selectthedocumentwindowcontainingthemap.
2. Younowhavethefollowingoptionsbeforeprintingthemap:

Youcandefineanareaofthemaptoprintwithaprintingzone(see"DefiningthePrintingZone"onpage 68)or
withafocuszone(see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43).
Youcanmodifytheprintlayout("DefiningthePrintLayout"onpage 69).
Youcanpreviewhowthemapwillappearonceprinted(see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 71).

3. SelectFile >Print.
4. ClickOK.

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1.6.2.1 PrintingRecommendations
Theappearanceofthemapisdeterminedbythearrangementandpropertiesoftheobjectsthemapcontains.ObjectsinAtoll
arearrangedinlayers.Thelayersonthetop(asarrangedontheNetworkandGeotabs)arethemostvisibleonthescreen
andinprint.Thevisibilityofthelowerlayersdependsonwhichlayersareaboveitandonthetransparencyoftheselayers
(forinformationontransparency,see"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 33).
Beforeprintingamap,whenadocumentcontainssurfacelayers(rastermapsorpolygonalvectormaps),lines(vectorssuch
asroads,orairport),andpoints(measurements,etc.),organisethelayersfromtoptobottominthefollowingorder:

Points(vectors)
RoadsandLines(vectors)
Surfacepolygons(vectors)
Multiformatmapsgeoclimatic,trafficmaps(vectororraster),andothers
Clutterclassmaps(transparentrastermaps)
Images,DTM,orclutterheightmaps(nontransparentmaps).

Sitesandtransmittersmustbeabovealltheotherlayers.VisibleobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,forexample,sites,trans
mitters,andpredictions,aredisplayedaboveobjectsintheGeoexplorer.Toimproveperformance,youcanplacevector
layers,suchasroads,overpredictions.Thisensuresthatthosevectorlayersarevisiblewhenyouprintthemap.
ToplacevectorlayersoverpredictionsintheGeoexplorer:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclickthevectorlayeryouwanttomovetotheNetworkexplorer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectMovetoNetworkfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
5. DragthevectorlayertoapositionabovePredictionsbutbelowSites,Antennas,andTransmitters.

1.6.2.2 DefiningthePrintingZone
Youcandefinetheareaofthemaptobeprintedbycreatingaprintingzone.
Tocreateaprintingzone:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)toexpandtheZonesfolder.

3. RightclickthePrintingZonefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selectoneofthefollowing:

DrawPolygon
i.

Clickonceonthemaptostartdrawingthezone.

ii. Clickonceonthemaptodefineeachpointonthemapwheretheborderofthezonechangesdirection.
iii. Clicktwicetofinishdrawingandclosethezone.

DrawRectangle
i.

Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinetheprintingzone.

ii. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectanglethatwilldefinetheprintingzone.Whenyoureleasethemouse,
theprintingzonewillbecreatedfromtherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
Theprintingzoneisdelimitedbyalightgreenline(seeFigure 1.32).Ifyoucleartheprintingzonesvisibilitycheckbox
intheZonesfolderintheGeoexplorer,itwillnolongerbedisplayedbutwillstillbetakenintoaccount.

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Figure 1.32:Printingzone
Youcanalsocreateaprintingzoneasfollows:

VectorEditortoolbar:YoucanusetheNewPolygon(
)andNewRectangle(
)buttonsavailableintheVector
Editortoolbartodrawtheprintingzone.
Existingpolygon:YoucanuseanyexistingpolygonasaprintingzonebyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeo
explorerandselectingUseAs >PrintingZonefromthecontextmenu.Youcanalsocombineanexistingprintingzone
withanyexistingpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemaporintheGeoexplorerandselectingAddTo >PrintingZone
fromthecontextmenu.The"effective"resultingprintingzonewillbetherectangleencompassingtheseveralpoly
gonscomposingtheprintingzone.
Importingapolygon:Ifyouhaveafilewithanexistingpolygon,youcanimportitanduseitasaprintingzone.You
canimportitbyrightclickingthePrintingZonefolderintheGeoexplorerandselectingImportfromthecontext
menu.
FitZonetoMapWindow:YoucancreateaprintingzonethesizeofthemapwindowbyrightclickingthePrinting
ZonefolderandselectingFitZonetoMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Onceyouhavecreatedaprintingzone,youcanchangeitssizebydraggingtheedgesofthezonedisplayedontherulersof
themapwindow.YoucanalsouseAtollspolygoneditingtoolstoedittheprintingzone.Formoreinformationonthepolygon
editingtools,see"UsingPolygonZoneEditingTools"onpage 44.
Youcansavetheprintingzone,sothatyoucanuseitinadifferentAtolldocument,inthe
followingways:

Savingtheprintingzoneintheuserconfiguration:Forinformationonsavingthe
printingzoneinauserconfiguration,see"SavingaUserConfiguration"onpage 82.
Exportingtheprintingzone:Youcanexportthegeographicexportzonebyright
clickingthePrintingZoneintheGeoexplorerandselectingExportfromthecon
textmenu.

1.6.2.3 DefiningthePrintLayout
YoucanusethePrintSetupdialogboxtodefinehowyourmapwillappearwhenyouprintit.InthePrintSetupdialogbox,
youcanperformthefollowingactions:

Setthescaleofthemap.
Choosetoprinttherulerswiththemap.
Choosetoprinttheareaoutsidethefocuszone.
Choosetoprintthelegend.
Addatitle,comment,logo,header,orfooter.
Selectpapersizeandsource,aswellasthepageorientationandthemargins.

Thesesettingscanbesavedasaconfiguration,allowingyoutodefineastandardappearancewhichyoucanthenloadand
usethenexttimeyouprintasimilardocument.

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Todefinetheappearanceofthemapwhenitisprinted:
1. SelectFile >PrintSetup.ThePrintSetupdialogboxappears.

Figure 1.33:PrintSetupdialogbox
YoudefinetheprintsetuponthePagetab,theComponentstab,andtheHeader/Footertab.Youcanseeanychanges
youmakeintheschematicpreviewontherightsideofthePrintSetupdialogbox.
Ifyouhavepreviouslydefinedaconfigurationfilecontainingallthenecessarysettings,you
canclicktheLoadbuttonunderConfigurationfiletoimportthosesettings.

2. ClickthePagetabtodefinethepagesize,margins,andorientationandthescaleoftheprintedmap:
a. UnderOrientation,selectwhetherthepageshouldbeprintedinPortraitorLandscape.
b. UnderPaper,selecttheSizeofthepaperand,optionally,theSourceofthepaper.
c. UnderScaling,definethescaleoftheprintedimageeitherbyselectingFittopage,orbyselectingScaleandde
finingthescale.
d. UnderMargins,setthemarginsofthepageinmillimetres.
3. ClicktheComponentstab.
a. UnderMap,youcandefinetheappearanceoftheprintedmap:

SelecttheRulerscheckboxifyouwanttoprintthemapwithascalearoundit.
SelecttheAreainsidefocuszoneonlycheckboxifyouonlywanttoprintthepartofthemapinsidethefocus
zone.

b. UnderLegend,youcandefinetheplacementofthelegend.

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SelecttheLegendcheckboxifyouwanttoprintalegendwiththemap.

Click a button to set the Position of the legend. The buttons


insidethesquarewillplacethelegendontopofthemap.The
buttonsoutsideofthesquarewillplacethelegendoutsideofthe
map.

ClicktheFontbuttontoopentheFontdialogboxtodefinethefontofthelegend.

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c. SelecttheCommentscheckboxifyouwanttoprintacommentwiththemapandsetitsPosition.Clickingthe
Propertiesbuttonopensadialogboxwhereyoucanentertextandsetvariablessuchasthecurrenttimeanddate.
Ifyouwantthecommenttoappearonthemap(andnotoutsideofit),selecttheOnthemapcheckbox.
4. ClicktheHeader/Footertabtosetthepositionofgraphicitems.
a. SelecttheMaptitlecheckboxtodefineatitleforthemapandsetitsPosition.ClickingthePropertiesbutton
opensadialogboxwhereyoucanentertextandsetvariablessuchasthecurrenttimeanddate.Ifyouwantthe
titletoappearonthemap(andnotoutsideofit),selecttheOnthemapcheckbox.
b. UnderLogo 1andLogo 2,youcandefinegraphicsthatappearforthemap.Thegraphicscanbeacompanylogo
orotherinformation,suchascopyrightinformation,intheformofaBMPgraphic.
i.

Fortheselectedlogocheckbox,clickthePropertiesbutton.TheLogodialogboxappears.
Bydefault,Atollsearchesforafilenamedlogo.bmpintheAtollinstallationfoldertouseasthedefaultheader
logo.However,youcanselectadifferentfile.

ii. IntheLogodialogbox,clickFile.TheOpendialogboxappears.
iii. SelecttheyourgraphicinBMPformatandclickOpen.
OnlyBMPgraphicscanbeusedaslogos.Ifyourlogoisinadifferentformat,youmustfirst
convertitusingagraphicsprogrammetotheBMPformat.

iv. SelectthecorrectWidthandHeight(inpixels).
v. ClickOK.
c. SelecttheHeader/FooterNotecheckboxifyouwanttodefineaheaderorfooterforthemapandsetitsPosition.
ClickingthePropertiesbuttonopensadialogboxwhereyoucanentertextandsetvariablessuchasthecurrent
timeanddate.Ifyouwanttheheaderorfootertoappearonthemap(andnotoutsideofit),selecttheOnthe
mapcheckbox.
5. YoucanpreviewhowyourmapwillappearwhenitisprintedbyclickingthePreviewbutton.Formoreinformation,
see"PreviewingYourPrinting"onpage 71.
6. Onceyouhaveconfiguredyoursettings,clickOKtoclosethePrintSetupdialogbox,orclickPrinttoprintthedocu
ment.
YoucansavethecurrentsettingsasaconfigurationfilebyclickingtheSavebuttonunder
Configurationfile.Thisenablesyoutoreusethesamesettingsthenexttimebyloading
them.

1.6.3 PreviewingYourPrinting
Whenyouwanttoprintmaps,datatables,orreports,youcanpreviewyourprinting.
Topreviewyourprinting:
1. Selectthemaportableyouwanttoprint.
2. SelectFile >PrintPreview.ThePrintPreviewwindowappears.YoucanalsoaccessthePrintPreviewwindowdirectly
fromthePrintSetupdialogboxbyclickingthePreviewbutton.
InthePrintPreviewtoolbar,youcan:

ClickthePrintbutton(

)toopenthePrintdialogbox.

ClicktheNextPageandPreviousPagebuttons( and )topreviewdifferentpagestoprint.Ifyourprintingzone


containsmorethanonepolygon,eachprintingzoneappearsonaseparatepage.

ClicktheToggleOne/TwoPagesDisplaybutton(

ClicktheZoomInbutton(

ClicktheZoomOutbutton(
)tozoomoutontheprintpreview.
ClickClosetoclosetheprintpreview.

)toswitchdisplayfromonetotwopagessidebyside.

)tozoominontheprintpreview.

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1.6.4 PrintingaDockingWindow
Youcanprintthecontentofmanydockingwindowsusingthecontextmenu;selectingFile >Printonlyprintsthecontentsof
adocumentwindow,asexplainedin"PrintingaMap"onpage 67.Thedockingwindowswhosecontentsyoucanprintare:

LegendWindow(formoreinformationonthistool,see"AddinganObjectTypetotheLegend"onpage 34)
PointAnalysisTool
CWMeasurementAnalysisTool(formoreinformationonthistool,seetheMeasurementsandModelCalibration
Guide.
DriveTestDataAnalysisTool
MicrowaveLinkAnalysis(formoreinformationonthistool,see"StudyingReflection"onpage 262)

Toprintthecontentofadockingwindow:
1. Openthedockingwindowyouwanttoprint.

IfyouwanttoprintaPointAnalysiswindow,clickthetabyouwanttoprint.

2. Rightclickthewindowyouwanttoprint.
3. SelectPrintfromthecontextmenu.ThePrintdialogboxappears.
4. ClickOKtoprint.

1.6.5 PrintingAntennaPatterns
Youcanprintthehorizontalorverticalpatternofanantenna.
Toprintanantennapattern:
1. ClicktheParametersexplorer.
2. OpentheAntennastable:
ToopenthemicrowaveAntennastable:
a. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.

b. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.
c. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.
3. Rightclicktheantennawhosepatternyouwanttoprint.
4. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. SelecttheHorizontalPatterntabortheVerticalPatterntab.
6. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectLinearorLogarithmicfromthecontextmenu.
7. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectPrintfromthecontextmenu.

1.7 Grouping,Sorting,andFilteringData
InAtollyoucanorganisedatainseveraldifferentways,allowingyoutoselectonlycertaindataandthen,forexample,modify
onlyselecteddataorruncalculationsontheselecteddata.Atollallowsyoutoquicklygroup,sort,orfilterdatabyoneor
multiplecriterion,orbyseveral.
Afteryouhavedefinedhowyouwillgroup,sort,orfilterdata,youcansavethisinformationasafolderconfiguration.
Inthissectionthefollowingwillbeexplained:

"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 72
"SortingData"onpage 76
"FilteringData"onpage 78
"FolderConfigurations"onpage 86
"CreatingandComparingViews"onpage 88

1.7.1 GroupingDataObjects
YoucangroupobjectsaccordingtoaselectedpropertyintheNetworkexplorer.Theobjectstobegroupedcanbeinadata
folderorinaview(see"CreatingandComparingViews"onpage 88).Youcanalsodefinethepropertiesbywhichyoucan
groupobjects.GroupingobjectsintheNetworkexplorerissimilartosortingdatainthedatatablebecauseitputsallrecords
withtheselectedpropertytogether.

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Onceyouhavegroupeddataobjects,youcanaccesstheirPropertiesdialogboxfromthecontextmenutoeditpropertieson
allgroupedobjects.Youcansavethegroupingparametersasafolderconfiguration.Forinformation,see"FolderConfigura
tions"onpage 86.
Thissectionexplains:

"GroupingDataObjectsbyaSelectedProperty"onpage 73
"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 73
"AdvancedGrouping"onpage 75.

Forexamplesofgroupingdataobjects,see"ExamplesofGrouping"onpage 75.

1.7.1.1 GroupingDataObjectsbyaSelectedProperty
YoucangroupdataobjectsbyaselectedpropertyusingtheGroupBycommandonthecontextmenu.
Togroupdataobjectsbyaselectedproperty:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouwanttogroup.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. FromtheGroupBysubmenu,selectthepropertybywhichyouwanttogrouptheobjects.Theobjectsinthefolder
aregroupedbythatproperty.
If the range of properties available in the Group By submenu has been configured as
explainedin"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 73,youcanselectadditional
propertiesbyselectingMoreFieldsfromtheGroupBysubmenu.Forinformationonusing
thedialogboxthatappears,see"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 73.
Toundothegrouping:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouhavegrouped.
3. Fromthecontextmenu,selectfromtheGroupBy >None.
See"ExamplesofGrouping"onpage 75.

1.7.1.2 ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu
Some data objects, such as transmitters, have a large number of properties that will appear by default in the Group By
submenu.YoucanmakeiteasiertogroupdataobjectsbyconfiguringtheGroupBysubmenutodisplayonlytheproperties
thatarerelevantforgrouping.
ToconfiguretheGroupBysubmenu:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. RightclickthefolderwhoseGroupBysubmenuyouwanttoconfigure.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. ClicktheConfigureMenubuttonnexttotheGroupByfieldthatshowshowthedataobjectsarepresentlygrouped.
TheMenuConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.34).

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Figure 1.34:TheMenuConfigurationdialogbox
6. SelectthefieldsyouwanttoappearintheGroupBysubmenu.Youcandisplayallthefieldsbelongingtoatableby
clickingtheExpandbutton( )totheleftofthetablename.Youcanselectcontiguousfieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,
pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.YoucanselectnoncontiguousfieldsbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfield
separately.

ToselectafieldtoappearintheGroupBysubmenu,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick
moveittotheGroupingFieldslist.

to

ToremoveafieldfromthelistofGroupingFields,selectthefieldintheGroupingfieldslistandclick
removeit.

to

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
begroupedintheorderofthefieldsintheGroupingfieldslist,fromtoptobottom.

7. ClickOKtoclosetheMenuConfigurationdialogboxandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.TheGroupBy
submenuwillnowcontainonlythefieldsyouselected.

1.7.1.3 GroupingMicrowaveLinksbySite
Youcanfindallthemicrowavelinksthatareconnectedtoaspecificsitebygroupingalllinksbysite.
Togroupmicrowavelinksbysite:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofMicrowaveRadioLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.

3. RightclicktheLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectClassifybySitefromthecontextmenu.Atollcreatesviewsforeachsitewithamicrowavelinkandsortsthe
linksbysite(seeFigure 1.35).

Figure 1.35:Groupingmicrowavelinksbysite
Torestorenormaldisplayofmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofMicrowaveRadioLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.

3. RightclicktheLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectClassifybySitefromthecontextmenu.ThedefaultdisplayofthecontentsoftheLinksfolderisrestored.

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1.7.1.4 AdvancedGrouping
Youcangroupdataobjectsbyoneormoreproperties,usingtheGroupBybuttononthePropertiesdialogbox.
Togroupdataobjectsbyoneormoreproperties:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouhavegrouped.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. ClicktheGroupBybutton.TheGroupdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.36).

Figure 1.36:TheGroupdialogbox
6. Selectthefieldsbywhichyouwanttogrouptheobjects.Youcanselectcontiguousfieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,
pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.YoucanselectnoncontiguousfieldsbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfield
separately.

Toselectafieldtobeusedtogrouptheobjects,selectthefieldintheAvailableFieldslistandclick
ittotheGroupingFieldslist.

tomove

ToremoveafieldfromthelistofGroupingFields,selectthefieldintheGroupingFieldslistandclick
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
begroupedintheorderofthefieldsintheGroupingFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.

to

7. ClickOKtoclosetheGroupdialogboxandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogboxandgrouptheobjects.
Toundothegrouping:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderorviewwhoseobjectsyouhavegrouped.
3. Fromthecontextmenu,selectfromtheGroupBy >None.

1.7.1.5 ExamplesofGrouping
ThisexampleshowsanAtolldocumentthatcontainsalargenumberofsitesandthereforetransmitters.Whileitiseasyto
seeonthemapwhichtransmittersarepartofwhichsite,intheNetworkexplorer,youcanonlyseeaverylonglistoftrans
mittersundertheTransmitterfolder.
ByrightclickingtheTransmitterfolderandselectingGroupBy >Site,youcangroupthetransmittersbythesitetheyare
locatedon.TheresultofgroupingcanbeseeninFigure 1.37.

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Figure 1.37:Transmittersgroupedbysite
Youcanalsogroupobjectsbythecomputationorfocuszone.Younormallycreateacomputationorfocuszonewhenyou
wanttoconcentrateonagivensubsetoftransmitters,forexample,whenyouareworkingonacertainareaofthenetwork.
Bygroupingthembycomputationorfocuszone,thetransmittersyouareworkingonareimmediatelyvisibleundertheTrans
mitterfolder.
ByrightclickingtheTransmitterfolderandselectingGroupBy >Polygon >FocusZone,youcangroupthetransmittersinthe
focuszonetogether.TheresultofgroupingcanbeseeninFigure 1.37.Thetransmittersarenowintwogroups:thoseinside
thefocuszoneandthoseoutsidethefocuszone.

Figure 1.38:Transmittersgroupedbysite

1.7.2 SortingData
InAtoll,youcansortthedocumentdataeitherinthedatatablesorusingtheSortfunctionofPropertiesdialogbox.Youcan
sortthedatainascending(AtoZ,1to10)ordescending(ZtoA,10to1)order.
Youcansortthedatabyeitheroneorbyseveralcolumns.Whenyousortdatabyseveralcolumns,Atollsortstherecordsby
thefirstcolumnandthen,withineachgroupofidenticalvaluesinthefirstcolumn,Atollthensortstherecordsbythesecond
column,andsoon.
Onceyouhavesorteddataobjects,youcansavethesettingsasafolderconfiguration.Forinformation,see"FolderConfigu
rations"onpage 86.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

"SortingDatainTables"onpage 76
"AdvancedSorting"onpage 77

1.7.2.1 SortingDatainTables
Whensortingdataintables,youcansortbyoneorseveralcolumns:

"SortingbyOneColumn"onpage 76
"SortingbySeveralColumns"onpage 77.

SortingbyOneColumn
Tosortdatainatablebyonecolumn:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Selecttheheaderofthecolumnthatyouwanttosorton.Theentirecolumnisselected.
3. Rightclickthecolumnheader.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selecthowyouwanttosort:

76

SortAscending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthelowestvalueinthereferencecolumntothehighestvalue.

SortDescending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthehighestvalueinthereferencecolumntothelowestvalue.

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Youcanalsosortdatainatablebyselectingthecolumnasdescribedandthenclicking
eithertheSortAscending(

)orSortDescending(

)buttonsintheTabletoolbar.

SortingbySeveralColumns
Youcanonlysortinatablebyadjacentcolumns.Ifyouwanttosortbycolumnsthatarenotadjacent,youcanmovethe
columnsfirstasexplainedin"MovingColumns"onpage 59.
Ifyouwanttosortdatabyseveralcolumnswithoutmovingthecolumns,youcanusethe
SortfunctiononthePropertiesdialogbox.Forinformation,see"AdvancedSorting"on
page 77.
Tosortdatainatablebyseveralcolumns:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Clicktheheaderofthefirstcolumnanddragovertheadjacentcolumnsthatwillbeyoursortreferences.Theentire
columnisselected.
3. Rightclickthecolumnheaders.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Fromthecontextmenu,selecthowyouwanttosort:

SortAscending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthelowestvalueinthefirstreferencecolumntothehighest
value.

SortDescending:sortthedatatablerecordsfromthehighestvalueinthefirstreferencecolumntothelowest
value.
Youcanalsosortdatainatablebyselectingthecolumnasdescribedandthenclicking
eithertheSortAscending(

)orSortDescending(

)buttonsintheTabletoolbar.

1.7.2.2 AdvancedSorting
YoucansortdatabyseveralcriteriausingtheSortfunctionofthePropertiesdialogbox.
TosortdatausingtheSortfunctionofthePropertiesdialogbox:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosedatayouwanttosort.Thecontextmenuappears
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabinthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. ClicktheSortbutton.TheSortdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.39).
6. Forthefirstcolumnyouwanttosorton:
a. SelectthecolumnnamefromtheSortbylist.
b. Choosewhetheryouwanttosortinascendingordescendingorder.
7. Foreachothercolumnyouwanttosorton:
a. SelectthecolumnnamefromtheAndbylist.
b. Choosewhetheryouwanttosortinascendingordescendingorder.
8. ClickOK.

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Figure 1.39:TheSortdialogbox

1.7.3 FilteringData
InAtoll,youcanfilterdataaccordingtooneorseveralcriteria.Youcanfilterdatatoworkwithasubsetofdata,ortoreduce
theamountofrecordsdisplayedinlargedocuments.
Thefiltereddataobjectsarethedataobjectsthatremainafteryouhaveappliedyourfiltercriteria.
Youcansavethefilteringparametersasafolderconfiguration.Forinformation,see"FolderConfigurations"onpage 86.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

"FilteringinDataTablesbySelection"onpage 78
"AdvancedDataFiltering"onpage 79
"RestoringAllRecords"onpage 81.

1.7.3.1 FilteringinDataTablesbySelection
Youcanfilteradatatablebyselectingoneormorevalues.Onceyouhaveselectedoneormorevalues,youcanchooseto
viewonlyrecordsthathavethesamevalueoronlyrecordsthatdonothavethatvalue.
Tofilteradatatableononeormorefields:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. Selectthevaluetofilteron.YoucanselectmultiplevaluesbypressingCTRLasyouclicktheothervalues.
3. Rightclicktheselectedvalueorvaluesandselectoneofthefollowingfromthetablescontextmenu:

FilterbySelection:Allrecordswiththeselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcanmodifythefilteredrecords
ormakecalculationsonthemasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentiredatatable(seeFigure 1.40onpage 79).

FilterExcludingSelection:Allrecordswithouttheselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcanmodifythefil
teredrecordsormakecalculationsonthemasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentiredatatable(seeFigure 1.41
onpage 79).

Whenthedatainatablearefiltered,afiltericon( )appearsatthetopoftheleftmost
columnandinthecorrespondingcolumnheader(s),asshowninFigure 1.40and
Figure 1.41.Theiconintheleftmostcolumncanproveusefulwhenthecolumn
containingthefiltereddataisnotdisplayedduetoalargetablewidth.

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Figure 1.40:Filteringbyselection

Figure 1.41:Filteringexcludingselection
Youcanalsofilterdatainatablebyselectingthevaluesasdescribedandthenclicking
eithertheFilterbySelection(
toolbar.

)orFilterExcludingSelection(

)buttonsintheTable

1.7.3.2 AdvancedDataFiltering
YoucanspecifycomplexfiltersbycombiningfilteringconditionsonmultiplefieldsusingANDandORoperators.Advanced
datafilteringusesatabletoexpressthefilteringconditionswherecolumnsareusedtospecifythecriteriaforeachfieldand
thechoiceoftherowisusedtoexpressthelogicaloperators.Thefollowingprinciplesallowyoutoexpresscomplexcondi
tions:

ToexpressafilterononeorseveralfieldscombinedwithanANDoperator(forexample:a=1ANDb>5ANDb<10)
specifyallthecriteriaonasingleCriteriarow,asinFigure 1.42.Inthefollowingexample,thefilteredtabledisplays
antennasforwhichthemanufacturernamestartswithKandforwhichthegainisbetween15and20dBi:

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Figure 1.42:TheAdvancedFiltertabConditionsonmultiplefieldscombinedwithanANDoperator

ToexpressafilteronasinglefieldcombinedwithanORoperator(forexample:a<1ORa>2)specifythefirstcriteria
ontheCriteriarowandothercriteriaontheOrrow,asinFigure 1.43.Inthefollowingexample,thefilteredtabledis
playsantennasforwhichthegainiseither17,or18,orabove20dBi:

Figure 1.43:TheAdvancedFiltertabConditionsonasinglefieldcombinedwithanORoperator

ToexpressafilteronmultiplefieldscombinedwithanORoperator(forexample:a=1ORb=2)specifythefirstcriteria
inthefirstcolumnoftheCriteriarowandtheothercriteriaontheORrowofthenextcolumn,asinFigure 1.44.You
cancombinetheORexpressionswithANDexpressions.Inthefollowingexample,thefilteredtabledisplaysantennas
forwhicheitherthemanufacturernamestartswithK,orthegainisbetween15and20dBi:

Figure 1.44:TheAdvancedFiltertabConditionsonmultiplefieldscombinedwithANDandORoperators
Inthefilteringtable,thepriorityofANDandORconditionsisdefinedbycombiningthemfirsthorizontally,thenvertically.

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Tocreateanadvancedfilter:
1. Openthedatatableasexplainedin"OpeningaDataTable"onpage 54.
2. ClicktheAdvancedFilterbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar.TheFilterdialogboxappears.

YoucanalsoaccesstheFilterdialogboxbyclickingtheFilterbuttonofthetables
Propertiesdialogbox.

3. ClicktheFiltertab:
a. SelectaFieldfromthelist.
b. UnderValuestoInclude,youwillfindallthevaluesrepresentedintheselectedfield.Selectthecheckboxesnext
tothevaluesyouwanttoincludeinthefilter.ClickClearAlltoclearallcheckboxes.
MakingselectionsontheFiltertaboftheFilterdialogboxisequivalenttofilteringbyselec
tionasexplainedin"FilteringinDataTablesbySelection"onpage 78.

4. ClicktheAdvancedtab:
a. IntheColumnrow,selectthenameofthefieldtobefilteredfromthelist.Selectasmanyfieldsasyouwant(see
Figure 1.42).Underneatheachfieldname,specifytheconditiononwhichthefieldwillbefilteredasexplainedin
thefollowingtable:
Formula

Dataiskeptinthetableonlyif

=X

ValueequaltoX(Xcanbeanumberorcharacters)

<>X

ValuenotequaltoX(Xcanbeanumberorcharacters)

<X

NumericalvalueislessthanX

>X

NumericalvalueisgreaterthanX

<=X

NumericalvalueislessthanorequaltoX

>=X

NumericalvalueisgreaterthanorequaltoX

=*X*

TextobjectsthatcontainX

=X*

TextobjectsthatstartwithX

TocombineconditionswithanANDoperator,entertheconditionsinseparatecolumnsonthesamerow.
TocombineconditionswithanORoperator,entertheconditionsonseparaterows.
5. ClickOKtofilterthedataaccordingtothecriteriayouhavedefined.

1.7.3.3 RestoringAllRecords
Afteryouhaveappliedfiltercriteriatorecords,youmaywanttocancelthefiltercriteriaanddisplayalltherecordsagain.
Torestoreallrecords:

ClicktheRemoveFilterbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar.

1.7.4 UserConfigurations
InAtoll,youcansavemanyparametersandsettingsinuserconfigurationsandthenloadtheminotherdocuments.User
configurationsareusedtostoreparametersandsettingsthatarenotstoredindatabases.Userconfigurationfilesenableyou
toensurethatallusersinamultiuserenvironmentusethesamesettings.
ThefileextensionofuserconfigurationfilesisCFG.ThefileextensionGEOis,however,usedifonlythegeographicdataset
orzonesarebeingsavedinauserconfigurationfile.UserconfigurationfilesareXMLfilesandcanbeopenedintextandXML
editors.

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Youcansavethefollowinginformationinuserconfigurationfiles:

Geographicdataset:Fullpathsofimportedgeographicmaps,mapdisplaysettings(suchas,thevisibilityscale,trans
parency,tiptext,etc.),clutterdescription(code,name,height,standarddeviations,etc.),andrasteroruserprofile
trafficmapdescription.
Whenyousavethegeographicdatasetinauserconfigurationfile,thecoordinate
systemofallvectorgeographicdatamustbethesameasthatoftherastergeographic
data.

Mapcentreandzoomlevel:XandYcoordinatesofthecentreofthemapwindowandthezoomlevel.
Zones:Filtering,focus,computation,printing,andgeographicexportzonesinthecurrentdocument.
Folderconfigurations:Sort,group,andfiltersettings(thecurrentfolderconfiguration,evenifnotsaved,andother
definedconfigurationsforthefolders),thefilteringzone,thedisplaysettingsofnetworkdatafolders(includingmeas
urementdisplaysettings),andLTEandWiMAXAFPparameters(includingconstraintweightsforfrequencyplanning,
physicalcellIDplanning,andpreambleindexplanning).
MicrowaveLinkParameters:Thesettingsofmicrowavelinks.
Macros:Fullpathsofanymacros.MacrosareloadedforentireAtollsessionsandnotforaspecificAtolldocument.
YoucanexportthemacrostoauserconfigurationevenifyoudonothaveanAtolldocumentopen.

Foradetaileddescriptionoftheuserconfigurationfile,seetheAdministratorManual.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"SavingaUserConfiguration"onpage 82
"LoadingaUserConfiguration"onpage 82.

1.7.4.1 SavingaUserConfiguration
Youcancreateauserconfigurationbysavingtheselectedsettingstoanexternalfile.
Tosaveauserconfiguration:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Save.TheUserConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.45).

Figure 1.45:Savingauserconfiguration
2. Selectthecheckboxesofthesettingsthatyouwanttoexportaspartoftheuserconfiguration.
3. ClickOK.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. EnteraFilenamefortheuserconfigurationfileandclickSave.Thefolderconfigurationhasbeensaved.

1.7.4.2 LoadingaUserConfiguration
YoucanloadauserconfigurationthatwascreatedbyyouoranotheruserintoyourcurrentAtolldocument.Iftheuserconfig
urationcontainsmacroinformation,itwillonlybeloadedifnodocumentiscurrentlyopen.WhenthereisnoAtolldocument
open,onlymacroinformationisloadedfromtheuserconfiguration.
Toloadauserconfiguration:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Load.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. Selecttheuserconfigurationfilewiththedatayouwanttouseinyourcurrentdocument.
3. ClickOpen.TheUserConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.46).

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Figure 1.46:Loadingauserconfiguration
4. Selectthecheckboxesofthesettingsthatyouwanttoload.
5. ClickOK.Theuserconfigurationisloadedintoyourcurrentdocument.

1.7.5 SiteLists
InAtoll,youcancreatelistsofsites.Onceyouhavecreatedasitelist,youcanmodifythelistanduseittofilterdatatobe
abletoworkwithasubsetofdata,ortofacilitateworkingwithlargedocumentsbyreducingthenumberofrecordsdisplayed.
Inamultiuserenvironment,sitelistscanbestoredinthedatabase.Whenyouopenadocumentfromadatabase,youcan
selectthesitestoloadaccordingtoanydefinedsitelists.Inalargeradioplanningproject,thisallowsyoutomoreeffectively
manageyourresourcesbyreducingtheunnecessarydatayouretrievefromthedatabase.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingaSiteList"onpage 83
"AddingaSitetoaListintheNetworkExplorer"onpage 83
"AddingaSitetoaListfromtheMapWindow"onpage 84
"AddingSitestoaListUsingaZone"onpage 84
"EditingaSiteList"onpage 85
"ImportingaSiteList"onpage 85
"ExportingaSiteList"onpage 85
"FilteringonaSiteList"onpage 86.

1.7.5.1 CreatingaSiteList
Youcancreatelistsofsitesthatyoucanthenusetofilterthedatadisplayed.
Tocreateasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttocreatethelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttocreateasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. EnterthenameofthenewlistintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

).

Youcancreateaseriesofblanksitelistsbyimportingatextfilewiththenamesofthe
newlists.YoucanimportthetextfilebyclickingtheActionsbuttonontheSiteLists
dialogboxandthenselectingImportfromthemenuthatappears.Youcanalsoexport
thenamesofallexistingsitelistsbyselectingExportfromthesamemenu.

1.7.5.2 AddingaSitetoaListintheNetworkExplorer
YoucanaddasitetoalistbyselectingitfromtheNetworkexplorer.

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Toaddasitetoalist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)totheleftofSitesfoldertoexpandthefolder.

3. Rightclickthesiteyouwanttoaddtothelist.Thecontextmenuappears.
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoaddasitetoalist:

SelectAddSitetoaListfromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappears.

4. Selectthenameofthelistfromthedialogbox.
Youcancreateanewlistbyenteringanameinthelistinsteadofselectingthename
fromthelist.Theselectedsitewillbeaddedtothenewlist.

5. ClickOK.Thesiteisaddedtotheselectedlist.
YoucanquicklycreateacompletelistbyfirstfilteringthecontentsoftheSitesfolderas
explainedin"FilteringData"onpage 78.Then,byrightclickingtheSitesfolderand
selectingSiteLists >AddSitestoaListfromthecontextmenu,youcanaddthefiltered
contentsoffoldertothelistyouselect.

1.7.5.3 AddingaSitetoaListfromtheMapWindow
Youcanaddasitetoalistbyselectingitfromthemapwindow.
Toaddasitetoalist:
1. Inthemapwindow,rightclickthesitethatyouwanttoaddtoalist.
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoaddasitetoalist:

SelectAddSitetoaListfromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappears.

2. Selectthenameofthelistfromthedialogbox.
Youcancreateanewlistbyenteringanameinthelistinsteadofselectingthename
fromthelist.Theselectedsitewillbeaddedtothenewlist.

3. ClickOK.Thesiteisaddedtotheselectedlist.

1.7.5.4 AddingSitestoaListUsingaZone
Youcanaddthesitescontainedinazonetoasiteortransmitterlist.
Toaddthesitescontainedinazonetoalist:
1. Createazone(asexplainedin"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 41)thatcontainsthesitesthatyouwantto
addtoalist.Youcanuseafiltering,computation,focus,printing,orgeographicexportzone.
2. IntheGeoexplorer,rightclickthezoneandselectthefollowingfromthecontextmenu:

AddSitestoaList:SelectAddSitestoaListtoaddthesitesinthezonetoasitelist.Adialogboxappears.

3. Selectthenameofthelistfromthedialogbox.
Youcancreateanewlistbyenteringanameinthelistinsteadofselectingthename
fromthelist.Theselectedsitewillbeaddedtothenewlist.

4. ClickOK.Thesitescontainedinthezoneareaddedtotheselectedlist.

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1.7.5.5 EditingaSiteList
YoucaneditasitelistusingtheSiteListtable.
Toeditasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttoeditthelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoeditasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. SelectthenameofthelistyouwanttoeditandclickProperties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. Youcannoweditthelist:
Toaddasitetothelist:

SelectthenameofthesiteintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

).

Todeleteasitefromthelist:
a. Clickintheleftmarginoftherowcontainingthesitetoselectit.
b. PressDELtodeletethesitefromthelist.
5. ClickOKwhenyouhavefinishededitingthesitelist.

1.7.5.6 ImportingaSiteList
YoucanimportasitelistfromatextfilebyusingtheSiteListtable.
Toimportasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttoimportthelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoimportasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. Select thename of the list into which you want toimportentries and click Properties. ThePropertiesdialogbox
appears.
4. InthePropertiesdialogbox,clicktheImportbutton.TheOpendialogboxappears.
5. SelectthetextfilewiththesitenamesyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.Thecontentsofthetextfileareaddedto
thelist.
6. ClickOKinthePropertiesdialogboxwhenyouhavefinishedimportingthefile.

1.7.5.7 ExportingaSiteList
YoucanexportasitelisttoatextfileusingtheSiteListtable.
Toexportasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhereyouwanttoexportthelist:
Sitelist:ifyouwanttoexportasitelist:
a. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectSiteLists >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSiteListstableappears.
3. SelectthenameofthelistyouwanttoexportandclickProperties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. InthePropertiesdialogbox,clicktheExportbutton.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
5. EnterafilenameandclickSave.Thesitelistissavedasatextfile.

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1.7.5.8 FilteringonaSiteList
YoucanusesiteortransmitterliststofilterthecontentsoftheSitesfolder.
Tofilterfoldercontentsusingasitelist:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosecontentsyouwanttofilter.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. OntheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogbox,clicktheFilterbutton.TheFilterdialogboxappears.
5. Ifyouhavecreatedalist,therewillbeanadditionaltab:

Sites:ClicktheSiteListstab.

6. Selectthecheckboxofthelistorliststhatyouwanttodisplay.
7. ClickOKtoclosetheFilterdialogbox.
8. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.OnlysitesthatbelongtotheselectedlistarenowdisplayedintheNetwork
explorerandinthemapwindow.

1.7.6 FolderConfigurations
InAtoll,theparametersthatdefinehowdatacontainedinafolderisgrouped,sorted,orfilteredarereferredtoasafolder
configuration.Youcandefinefolderconfigurationsandsavethem,whichallowsyoutoconsistentlyapplythesamegrouping,
filtering,orsortingcriteria.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingaFolderConfiguration"onpage 86
"ApplyingaSavedFolderConfiguration"onpage 86
"ReapplyingtheCurrentFolderConfiguration"onpage 87
"SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile"onpage 87
"LoadingaFolderConfigurationfromanExternalFile"onpage 87
"DeletingaFolderConfiguration"onpage 87.

1.7.6.1 CreatingaFolderConfiguration
InAtoll,youcansavetheparametersthatdefinehowdatacontainedinafolderisgrouped,filtered,orsortedasafolder
configuration.
Tocreateaconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosesettingsyouwanttosave.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabinthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. Ifyouhavenotyetdoneso,setthefollowingparametersasdesired:

GroupBy(see"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 72)
Sort(see"SortingData"onpage 76)
Filter(see"FilteringData"onpage 78).

6. UnderFolderconfiguration,clickSave.
7. EnterthenameoftheconfigurationintheSaveConfigurationdialogbox.
8. ClickOKtosavetheconfigurationandclickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.
Thesavedfolderconfigurationisonlyavailableforthecurrentfolderandcanbereappliedtothefolderbyselectingitfrom
theFolderConfigurationsubmenuonthefolderscontextmenu.

1.7.6.2 ApplyingaSavedFolderConfiguration
Youcanapplyafolderconfigurationthathasbeencreatedandsavedforthecurrentfolder.
Toapplyasavedfolderconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefoldertowhichyouwanttoapplyafolderconfiguration.Thecontextmenuappears.

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3. OntheFolderConfigurationsubmenu,selectthenameofthefolderconfigurationyouwanttoapply.Thefoldercon
figurationisappliedtothecurrentfolder.

1.7.6.3 ReapplyingtheCurrentFolderConfiguration
Ifyouhavegrouped,filtered,orsortedadatafolder,youhavecreatedandappliedafolderconfiguration.Ifyouthenaddor
modifydata,thepropertiesofthesemaynotmatchthefolderconfigurationthatyoupreviouslymadeonthedatafolder.In
thiscase,youcanreapplythesamefilterorsortsettingstothenewormodifieddata.
Toreapplythefolderconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwhosefolderconfigurationyouwanttoreapply.
3. SelectUpdateFolderConfigurationfromthecontextmenu.Thepreviouslyconfiguredfolderconfigurationisreap
pliedtothedata.

1.7.6.4 SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile
Whenyoucreateafolderconfiguration,yousaveitinthecurrentATLdocument.However,youcansaveitaspartofauser
configurationinanexternalfile,sothatitcanbeusedinotherdocuments.
Tosaveafolderconfigurationinanexternalfile:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Save.TheUserConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.45onpage 82).
2. SelecttheFolderConfigurationcheckbox.
Ifyouwanttoexportotherconfigurationsatthesametime,selectthosecheckboxesaswell.
3. ClickOK.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. EnteraFilenamefortheCFGfileandclickSave.Thefolderconfigurationhasbeensaved.

1.7.6.5 LoadingaFolderConfigurationfromanExternalFile
Onceyouhavesavedafolderconfigurationasexplainedin"SavingaFolderConfigurationinanExternalFile"onpage 87,you
canloaditintoyourcurrentdocument.
Toloadafolderconfiguration:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Load.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. SelecttheCFGfilewiththefolderconfigurationyouwanttoimport.
3. ClickOpen.TheUserConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 1.46onpage 83).
4. SelecttheFolderConfigurationcheckbox.
Ifyouwanttoimportotherconfigurationsatthesametime,selectthosecheckboxesaswell.
5. ClickOK.Thefolderconfigurationisimported.

1.7.6.6 DeletingaFolderConfiguration
YoucandeleteafolderconfigurationfromtheAtolldocumentwhenyounolongerneedit.
Todeleteafolderconfiguration:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderwiththefolderconfigurationyouwanttodelete.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheGeneraltabinthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. UnderFolderconfiguration,selectthenameoftheconfigurationfromthelist.
6. ClickDelete.Thefolderconfigurationisdeleted.
Whenyoudeleteafolderconfiguration,Atolldoesnotaskforconfirmation;itisdeleted
immediately.

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1.7.7 CreatingandComparingViews
You can compare the effects of different grouping, sorting, or filtering settings by creating views of object folders in the
Networkexplorerandapplyingdifferentsettingstoeachview.Eachviewcontainsacopyofthedataintheobjectfolderin
whichitwascreated.
Tocreateaviewofafolder:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,rightclickthefolderyouwanttocreateaviewof.
2. SelectCreateViewfromthecontextmenu.Aviewiscreatedcontainingacopyoftheoriginalfoldercontent.
Youcannowperformthefollowingactionsontheview:

Grouping(see"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 72)
Sorting(see"SortingData"onpage 76)
Filtering(see"FilteringData"onpage 78).
Ifyouhavecreatedseveralviews,youcanrenameeachonetoprovideamore
descriptivename.Forinformationonrenaminganobject,see"RenaminganObject"on
page 26.

Onceyouhaveperformedtheactionsoneachview,youcancomparethedifferencesbydisplayingeachview,withitsgroup
ing,sorting,orfilteringsettings,onthemap.Formoreinformationondisplayproperties,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"
onpage 30.
Tocompareviews:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,clearthecheckboxestotheleftofeachview.Thedataobjectsarenotdisplayedonthemap.
2. Selectthecheckboxofoneoftheviews,leavingthecheckboxesoftheotherviewscleared.Thedataobjectsofthe
selectedview,withitsassociatedgrouping,sorting,orfilteringsettings,aredisplayedonthemap.
3. Clear this check box and select the check box of a different view. How the objects are displayed on the map will
change,dependingonthedifferentgrouping,sorting,orfilteringsettingsoftheselectedview.
Youcanremoveviewsbydeletingthem.Whenyoudeleteaview,thedatacontainedarenotdeleted.Whenyoudeletethe
lastview,thedatareappearundertheinitialfolder.
Todeleteaview:

SelecttheviewtobedeletedandpressDEL.
If,afterdeletingthelastview,thedatadonotreappearundertheinitialfolder,youcan
refreshthedisplaybyrightclickingthefolderandselectingGroupBy >Nonefromthe
contextmenu.

1.7.8 FilteringDataUsingaFilteringZone
InAtoll,youcansimplifycalculationsbyusingapolygononthemaptolimittheamountofdataconsideredincalculations.
Bylimitingthenumberofsites,youcanreducethetimeandcostofcalculationsandmakethedisplayofdataobjectsonthe
mapclearer.Youcanselectapreexistingcomputationorfocuszoneasafilterzoneoryoucandrawanewfilteringzone.
Thedataobjectsfilteredbythepolygonarereflectedonthemapandinthedatatables.IntheNetworkexplorer,anyfolder
whosecontentisaffectedbythefilteringzoneappearswithaspecialicon(
beenfiltered.

),indicatingthatthefoldercontentshave

Whenyouhaveappliedapolygonfilter,youcanperformthefollowingactionsonthefiltereddata:

Grouping(see"GroupingDataObjects"onpage 72)
Sorting(see"SortingData"onpage 76)
Filtering(see"FilteringData"onpage 78).

Formoreinformationoncreatingandeditingafilteringzone,see"TheFilteringZone"onpage 41.

1.8 TipsandTricks
ThissectionprovidesshortcutsandtrickstohelpyouworkmoreefficientlyinAtoll:

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"RefreshingMapsandFolders"onpage 89
"SearchingforObjectsontheMap"onpage 89
"UsingtheStatusBartoGetInformation"onpage 91
"SavingInformationDisplayedintheEventViewer"onpage 91
"UsingIconsfromtheToolbar"onpage 92
"UsingShortcutsinAtoll"onpage 94.

1.8.1 UndoingandRedoing
YoucanundoorredomostactionsinAtolluptoamaximumof10 actions.Ifyouperformanactionthatcannotbeundone,
suchassimulations,theUndoandRedohistoriesareerased.
Forexample,youcanundoorredo:

Mostmodificationsintheworkspace:suchascreating,deleting,andmovingasite,astationoragroupofstations,
modifyingtheantennaazimuth,movingatransmitter,ordeletingatransmitter,
TasksperformedintheExplorer:suchascreatinganddeletingobjects(sites,transmitters,antennas,repeatersor
remoteantennas,links,groupsofhexagons,measurementpaths,coveragepredictions,maps,propagationmodels,
etc.).
Tasksperformedintables:suchasaddingordeletingrecords,pastingintables.

Toundoanaction:

SelectEdit >Undo.

Toredoanactionthatyouhaveundone:

SelectEdit >Redo.

1.8.2 RefreshingMapsandFolders
Undercertaincircumstances,forexample,whenyouadddatathatisinconsistentwithanappliedfilter,thedatadisplayedon
themaporintheNetworkexplorermaynotbeactual.YoucanrefreshthedisplaytogetAtolltoreloadthedataandreapply
thecurrentfolderconfigurations.
TorefreshthedisplayoftheNetworkexplorerandthemap:

ClicktheRefreshbutton(

)onthetoolbarorpressF5.

1.8.3 SearchingforObjectsontheMap
AtollprovidestheFindonMaptoolforfindingdataobjectsonthemap.Youcansearchforsomeobjects(sites,vectors,micro
wavelinks,otherlinktypes)bytheirnameorbyanytextfield,usingFindonMap.YoucanalsouseFindonMaptosearchfor
apointonthemapbyitsXandYcoordinates,orbyitspostaladdress.Additionally,FindonMapenablesyoutofindtechnol
ogyspecificattributessuchasachannelinamicrowaveproject.UsingFindonMaptofindtechnologyspecificattributesis
coveredinthechapterforthattechnology.
Thissectionexplains:

"SearchingforaMapObjectbyItsName"onpage 89
"SearchingforaMapObjectusingAnyTextProperty"onpage 90
"SearchingforaPointontheMap"onpage 90.

1.8.3.1 SearchingforaMapObjectbyItsName
YoucanuseFindonMaptosearchforthefollowingmapobjectsbyname:

Vectors
Sites
Microwavelinks
Otherlinktypes

TosearchforamapobjectbynameusingtheFindonMaptool:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,choosethemapobjectyouaresearchingfor:

Vector
Site
MWLink
OtherLink

ThemapobjectyouselectappearsintheFieldbox.

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3. Enterthenameoftheobjectinthetextboxmarkedwithanequalsign("=").Youcanuseanasterisk("*")asawild
cardbyenteringitasthefirstcharacter.Forexample,entering"*X*"willfindallnameswhichcontain"X".
AtollautomaticallybeginssearchinganddisplaystheresultsintheFindonMapwindow.
4. Selecttheobjectfromthelist.Atollcentresitinthemapwindow.Youcanalsorightclicktheobjectinthelisttodis
playthecontextmenufortheobject.

1.8.3.2 SearchingforaMapObjectusingAnyTextProperty
YoucanuseFindonMaptosearchforthefollowingmapobjectsusinganytext(i.e.,nonnumeric)property:

Vectors
Sites
Microwavelinks
Otherlinktypes

TosearchforamapobjectbyatextpropertyusingtheFindonMaptool:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,choosethemapobjectyouaresearchingfor:

Vector
Site
MWLink
OtherLinkType

3. FromtheFieldlist,selectthetextpropertyonwhichyouwanttosearch,forexample"SupportType"whenyouare
lookingfora"Site".
4. Enterthenameoftheobjectinthetextboxmarkedwithanequalsign("=").Youcanuseanasterisk("*")asawild
cardbyenteringitasthefirstcharacter.Forexample,entering"*X*"willfindallnameswhichcontain"X".
AtollautomaticallybeginssearchinganddisplaystheresultsintheFindonMapwindow.
5. Selecttheobjectfromthelist.Atollcentresitinthemapwindow.Youcanalsorightclicktheobjectinthelisttodis
playthecontextmenufortheobject.

1.8.3.3 SearchingforaPointontheMap
YoucanuseFindonMaptosearchforapointbyitsXandYcoordinatesorbyitspostaladdress.
Makesurethatthecoordinatesystemusedinyourdocumentusesthesameprojection
systemasthetileserver.Failingtodosowillleadtoinappropriatebehaviourwhenan
onlinemapisspecified(disproportionateandbadlyrenderedmaptiles)asyoudragthe
mapawayfromtheareatargetedbythespecifiedprojectioncoordinatesystem.

1.8.3.3.1

SearchingforaPointontheMapbyitsCoordinates
TosearchforapointonthemapbyitsXandYcoordinates:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,choosePosition.
3. EntertheXandYcoordinatesofthepoint,usingthesameunitsasdefinedunderDisplayontheCoordinatestabof
theDocumentPropertiesdialogbox(see"ProjectionandDisplayCoordinateSystems"onpage 101).
4. ClickSearch.Atollcentresthepointinthemapwindow.

1.8.3.3.2

SearchingforaPointontheMapbyitsFullorPartialPostalAddress
Tosearchforapointonthemapbyitsfullorpartialpostaladdress:
1. SelectTools >FindonMap.TheFindonMapwindowappears.
2. FromtheFindlist,chooseOnline.
3. EnterapostalAddress.Youcanspecifyafullorpartialaddress,e.g.streetname,precinct,city,county,country,etc.
4. ClickSearch.AtollautomaticallybeginssearchinganddisplaystheresultsintheFindonMapwindow.
5. Selectaresultfromthelist.Atollcentresitinthemapwindow.

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1.8.4 UsingtheStatusBartoGetInformation
Atolldisplaysthefollowinginformation,ifavailable,aboutthecurrentpositionofthemousepointerinrightsideofthestatus
bar(seeFigure 1.47):

thecurrentXYcoordinates(accordingtothedefineddisplaycoordinatesystem)
thealtitude(asdefinedintheDTM)
theclutterclass(asdefinedintheclutterclassesproperties)
theclutterheight(asdefinedintheclutterheightfile,orintheclutterclasses).

XYcoordinates

Altitude

Clutterclass

Figure 1.47:Informationdisplayedinthestatusbar

1.8.5 SavingInformationDisplayedintheEventViewer
AtolldisplaysinformationaboutthecurrentdocumentintheEventViewer.TheEventViewerdisplaysinformation( ),
warning( ),anderror( )messages,aswellastheprogressofcalculations.Youcansavetheinformationdisplayedinthe
EventViewertoalogfile.
TosaveeventsintheEventViewertoalogfile:
1. IftheEventViewerisnotdisplayed,selectView >EventViewertodisplayit.
2. ClicktheeventintheEventViewertoselectit.Clickanddragtoselectseveralevents.
3. Rightclicktheselectevent(s).Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectSaveAs.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
5. IntheSaveAsdialogbox,selectadestinationfolder,enteraFilename,andselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
6. ClickOK.Theselectedeventsaresavedinthetextfile.
YoucanalsoautomaticallygeneratelogfilesforeachAtollsessionandselectthelevelofinformationdisplayedintheEvent
viewer.Formoreinformationaboutthesesettings,seetheAdministratorManual.

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1.8.6 UsingIconsfromtheToolbar
YoucanaccessmanycommandsinAtollbyclickingitsicononthetoolbar.Someofthemarealsolinkedtoshortcutkeys(see
"UsingShortcutsinAtoll"onpage 94).
Thedifferenticonslocatedinthetoolbararelistedbelow:

IntheStandardtoolbar
OpentheProjectTemplatesdialogbox(CTRL+N)
OpentheOpendialogbox(CTRL+O)
Savethecurrentdocument(CTRL+S)
Newfromanexistingdatabase
Refreshfromdatabase
Savependingchangesindatabase
Importafile
Loadauserconfiguration
Saveauserconfiguration
Cuttheselecteddata(CTRL+X)
Copytheselecteddata(CTRL+C)
Pastethecontentoftheclipboard(CTRL+V)
Undothelastmodification(CTRL+Z)
Redothepreviousundonemodification(CTRL+Y)
Printthecurrentwindow(tableormap)(CTRL+P)
Previewthecurrentwindowbeforeprinting(tableormap)
OpentheAtollHelp

IntheMaptoolbar
Refreshdisplayofmapandfolders(F5)
Selectanobjectanddisablezoomingandpanningtools.
Movethemap(CTRL+D)
Mapscalecurrentlyused
Previousview(zoomandlocation)(ALT+)
Nextview(zoomandlocation)(ALT+)
Zoominoroutonthemapandcentreonthecursorlocation(CTRL+Q)
Defineazoomareaonthemap(CTRL+W)
Displayaterrainsection
Measuredistancesonthemap
Turnontiptext
Findonthemap

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IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar
Currentlyselectedmicrowavelinkmodel
Createanewmicrowavelinkoranotherlinktype
Createanewrepeaterfortheselectedmicrowavelink
Createanewmultihopmicrowavelink
Createanewmultipointmicrowavelink
Openthemicrowavelinkprofileanalysiswindow
Showorhidethechannelarrangement
ExportacustomreportforaMicrowaveLinksfolder
Stopthecalculationsinprogress

IntheTransportLayertoolbar
Createanewnode
Createanewsegment
OpentheTransportAnalysisTool

IntheVectorEditortoolbar
Createanewvectorlayer(ineithertheGeoortheNetworkexplorer)
Selectthevectorlayertoedit
Drawanewpolygon
Drawanewrectangle
Drawanewline
Drawpoints
Combineseveralvectorpolygons
Cutoutareasinpolygons
Createnewpolygonfromoverlappingareas
Splitonepolygonalongthedrawnlines.

IntheWindowstoolbar
DisplaytheNetworkexplorer
DisplaytheGeoexplorer
DisplaytheParametersexplorer
DisplaytheEventViewer
DisplaytheLegendWindow
DisplaythePanoramicWindow

IntheTabletoolbar
Importdatafromafileintothetable
Exportdatafromthetabletoafile

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Displaythepropertiesofthecurrentrecord
Centrethecurrentrecordonthemap
Definewhichcolumnsshouldbedisplayed
Hidetheselectedcolumns
Freezetheselectedcolumns
Unfreezeallfrozencolumns
Filterbytheselectedfields
Filterexcludingallrecordswiththeselectedvalues
Defineanadvancedfilter
Removethefilter
Sorttheselectedcolumnsinascendingorder
Sorttheselectedcolumnsindescendingorder
Displaystatistics
Copythecontentsofthetopselectedrowintotherowsbelow
Copythecontentsofthebottomselectedrowintotherowsabove
Selecttheentiretable
Alignthecontentsoftheselectedcolumnstotheleft
Centrethecontentsoftheselectedcolumns
Alignthecontentsoftheselectedcolumnstotheright
Displaytheselectedcolumnsinbold
Displaytheselectedcolumnsinitalics
Findspecifiedtextinthetable
Replacespecifiedtextinthetable
Whenyouplacethecursoroveranicon,tiptextappears,givingashortdescription.

1.8.7 UsingShortcutsinAtoll
Atollprovidesmanyshortcutsthatenableyoutoaccesscommonlyusedtoolsandcommandsmorequickly.
Theshortcutsavailablearelistedbelow(someofthesamecommandscanbeaccessedusingatoolbaricon;see"UsingIcons
fromtheToolbar"onpage 92):

94

UsingtheCTRLkey:

CTRL++:Zoominonthemap(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+:Zoomoutonthemap(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+A:Selectallrecordsinatable

CTRL+C:Copytheselecteddata(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+D:

andclickthemap)
andrightclickthemap)

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Intables:Copythefirstcellofaselectiondownintoallselectedcells

Inthemapwindow:Movethemapinthemapwindow(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+E:ExportthetableoftheselectedSites,Links,MultiHops,orPointtoMultipointfolderorviewtoatext
file.Formoreinformation,see"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 63.

CTRL+F:

OpentheFindonMapwindowwhenthemapisactive(inthetoolbar,click

OpentheFinddialogboxwhenatableisactive(inthetoolbar,click

)
)

CTRL+H:OpentheReplacedialogboxwhenatableisactive(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+I:ImportthetableoftheselectedSites,Links,MultiHops,orPointtoMultipointfolderorviewfromatext
file.Formoreinformation,see"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 65.

CTRL+N:OpentheProjectTemplatesdialogbox(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+SHIFT+N:Createanewdocumentfromanexistingdatabase

CTRL+O:OpentheOpendialogbox(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+P:Printthecurrentwindow(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+Q:SelectZoomIn/Outtool(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+S:Savethecurrentactivedocument(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+U:Copythelastcellofaselectionupintoallselectedcells

)
)
)
)

CTRL+V:Pastethecontentoftheclipboard(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+W:Defineazoomareaonthemap(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+X:Cuttheselecteddata(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+Y:Redothepreviousundonemodification(inthetoolbar,click

CTRL+Z:Undothelastmodification(inthetoolbar,click

)
)

UsingtheALTkey:

ALT+:Previouszoomandlocationonthemap(inthetoolbar,click

ALT+:Nextzoomandlocationonthemap(inthetoolbar,click

ALT+F8:OpentheAddinsandMacrosdialogbox

UsingtheFunctionKeys

F5:Refreshdisplayofmapandfolders(toolbar:select

YoucanalsoaccessmenusandcommandsbypressingtheALTkeyandtypingthe
underlinedletterinthemenuorcommandname.

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Chapter2
AtollProjects
ThischapterexplainshowtostartanewAtollproject.

Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:

"BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject"on
page 99

"CreatinganAtollDocument"onpage 99

"MakingaBackupofYourDocument"onpage 111

"MakingandSharingPortableAtollProjects"on
page 113

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2 AtollProjects
Whenyouwanttostartanewproject,youbaseitonatemplatethathasthedataandfolderstructurenecessaryforthetech
nologyyouareusing.OnceyouhavestartedyournewAtollproject,youcanmodifythenetworkparameterstomeetyour
particularneeds.Atollsuppliesanumberoftemplatesforvarioustechnologies.Youcanalsocreateyourowntemplatesby
openinganexistingtemplate,makingthechangesnecessarytomeetyourownneedsandthensavingitasanewtemplate.
Whenyouopenanexistingproject,youcanselectitfromtheFilemenuifitisoneofthelastprojectsyouhaveworkedon,
oryoucanopenitfromtheOpendialogbox.Atollcanworkwithlinkedgeographicdatafiles,soitmayhappenthatoneof
thelinkedfileswasmovedorrenamedsincethelasttimeyouworkedonthatproject.Atollenablesyoutofindthefileand
repairthelink.
Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:

"BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject"onpage 99
"CreatinganAtollDocument"onpage 99.

2.1 BeforeStartingaMicrowavePlanningProject
Foreverymicrowaveplanningprojectyoumustassembletheinformationnecessary:

Microwaveequipment:sites,antennas,andotherequipment.Formoreinformationonequipment,seethetech
nologyspecificchapters.
Microwavedata:frequencybands,technologyspecificparameters,coordinatesystems,etc.Formoreinformation
onmicrowavedata,seethetechnologyspecificchapters.
Geographicdata:clutterclasses,clutterheights,DTM,etc.Formoreinformationongeographicdata,seeChapter3:
GeographicData.

Oncethenecessarydatahasbeenassembled,youcancreatetheAtolldocument.

2.2 CreatinganAtollDocument
Whatevertheradiotechnologyyouwillbemodelling,youcreateanAtolldocumentinoneoftwoways:

Fromadocumenttemplate:YoucancreateanewAtolldocument,includingamultiRATdocument,fromatemplate.
Atollisdeliveredwithatemplateforeachtechnologyyouwillbeplanningfor.Forinformationoncreatingadocument
fromatemplate,see"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate"onpage 99.
Youcanalsocreateyourowntemplatebybasingitonanexistingdocumentthatyouhavealreadycustomisedwith,
forexample,certaingeodataorantennas.

Fromanexistingdatabase:WhenyoucreateanewAtolldocumentfromadatabase,thedatabaseyouconnectto
has been created with the technology or technologies, in the case of a multiRAT document, and data you need.
Workingwithadatabaseallowsseveraluserstosharethesamedatawhileatthesametimemanagingdataconsist
ency.TheexactprocedureforcreatinganewAtolldocumentfromadatabasediffers,dependingonthedatabasecon
taining the data. Atoll canwork with several common databases. For information on starting a document from a
database,see"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase"onpage 105.

2.2.1 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate
YoucancreateanewAtolldocumentfromatemplate.Atollhasatemplateforeachtechnologyyouwillbeplanningfor.Each
templateprovidesdataandadatastructuresuitableforthetechnology.Forexample,thetablesandfieldsfortransmitters
aswellastheradioparametersavailabledifferaccordingtotheproject.Aswell,theobjectsthatareavailableareappropriate
forthetechnology.Forexample,UMTScellsareonlyavailableinUMTSdocumentsandTRXareonlyavailableinGSMTDMA
documents.
IfyoucreateamultiRATdocument,Atollenablesyoutoselectthemultipleradiotechnologiesyouwillbeplanningfor.Ina
multiRATdocument,thedataanddatastructuresforeachradiotechnologyplannedforaremadeavailableinthenewAtoll
document.
Onceyouhaveselectedtheappropriatetemplateforyourmicrowaveplanningproject,youconfigurethebasicparameters
oftheAtolldocument(see"DefiningaNewAtollDocument"onpage 101).
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"TemplatesAvailable"onpage 100
"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate"onpage 100
"DefiningaNewAtollDocument"onpage 101

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2.2.1.1 TemplatesAvailable
DependingonyourconfigurationofAtoll,thefollowingtemplatesareavailable:

MicrowaveRadioLinks:Thistemplateenablesyoutocreateaphysicalbackhaulnetwork,includingmicrowaveand
othertransmissionlinks(fibreopticlinksorleasedlines).

Backhaul:Thistemplateenablesyoutocreatebothaphysicalandalogicalbackhaulnetwork.Thelogicallayerallows
youtoperformbackhaulcapacityplanningactivities.

2.2.1.2 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate
Tocreateanewdocumentfromatemplate:
1. SelectFile >New >FromaDocumentTemplate.TheProjectTemplatesdialogboxappears.
2. SelectthetemplateonwhichyouwanttobaseyourdocumentandclickOK.Atollcreatesanewdocumentbasedon
thetemplateselected.

Ifthetemplateyouselectedwas"MultiRAT,"Atolldisplaysadialogboxenablingyoutoselecttheradiotechnol
ogiesyouwanttomodelinthenewdocument:GSM,UMTS,orLTE.

Figure 2.1showsanewAtolldocumentbasedontheUMTSHSPAtemplate.TheNetworkexplorernowhasafolderstructure
suitableforaUMTSHSPAradioplanningproject,with,amongotherUMTSspecificelements,UMTSHSPAHSPAsimulations.
Figure 2.2showsthecontentsoftheGeoexplorerofthenewdocument.Figure 2.3showsthecontentsoftheParameters
explorer, with other UMTS HSPA parameters. The Antennas folder is expanded to show the UMTScompatible antennas
suggestedbyAtoll.Thesecanbemodifiedorreplaced.

Figure 2.1:NewAtolldocumentbasedonatemplate

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Figure 2.2:NewAtolldocumentGeoexplorer

Figure 2.3:NewAtolldocumentParametersexplorer

WhenyoucreateanAtolldocumentfromatemplate,thedocumentisnotconnectedtoadatabase.
Toverifywhetherthedocumentisconnectedtoadatabase:

SelectDocument >Database >ConnectionProperties.Thefollowingmessageappears.

Figure 2.4:Atemplatebaseddocumentisnotconnectedtoadatabase

2.2.1.3 DefiningaNewAtollDocument
OnceyouhavecreatedanewAtolldocumentasexplainedin"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaTemplate"onpage 100,
youconfigurethebasicparametersoftheAtolldocument.Youcanacceptthedefaultvaluesforsomeparameters,suchas
basicmeasurementunits,butyoumustsetprojectionanddisplaycoordinatesystems.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

2.2.1.3.1

"ProjectionandDisplayCoordinateSystems"onpage 101
"SettingaCoordinateSystem"onpage 102
"SelectingtheDegreeDisplayFormat"onpage 102
"SettingMeasurementUnits"onpage 103
"DefiningaProjectDescription"onpage 103

ProjectionandDisplayCoordinateSystems
InAtoll,youdefinethetwocoordinatesystemsforeachAtolldocument:theprojectioncoordinatesystemandthedisplay
coordinatesystem.Bydefault,thesamecoordinatesystemisusedforboth.
Aprojectionisamethodforproducingallorpartofaroundbodyonaflatsheet.Thisprojectioncannotbedonewithout
distortion, thus the cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area or shape) which is to be
shown appropriately at theexpense of theother characteristics, or he must compromise on several characteristics1. The
projectedzonesarereferencedusingcartographiccoordinates(meter,yard,etc.).
Twoprojectionsystemsarewidelyused:

TheLambertConformalConicprojection:aportionoftheearthismathematicallyprojectedonaconeconceptually
secantatoneortwostandardparallels.Thisprojectiontypeisusefulforrepresentingcountriesorregionsthatlay
primarilyeasttowest.
TheUniversalTransverseMercatorprojection(UTM):aportionoftheearthismathematicallyprojectedonacylinder
tangenttoameridian(whichistransverseorcrosswisetotheequator).Thisprojectiontypeisusefulformappinglarge
areasthatareorientednorthsouth.

Ageographicsystemisnotaprojection,butarepresentationofalocationontheearth'ssurfacefromgeographiccoordinates
(degreeminutesecondorgrade)givingthelatitudeandlongitudeinrelationtotheoriginmeridian(ParisfortheNTFsystem
andGreenwichfortheED50system).Thelocationsinthegeographicsystemcanbeconvertedintootherprojections.
1.
Snyder,John.P.,MapProjectionsUsedbytheUSGeologicalSurvey,2ndEdition,UnitedStatesGovernmentPrinting
Office,Washington,D.C.,313pages,1982.

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Atollhasdatabasesincludingmorethan980internationalcoordinatesystemreferences,adatabasebasedontheEuropean
PetroleumSurveyGroupandanotheroneregroupingonlyFrance'scoordinatesystems.Atollusesthecartographiccoordi
natesystemsforprojectionandeithercartographicorgeographiccoordinatesystemsfordisplay.
Themapsdisplayedintheworkspacearereferencedwiththesameprojectionsystemastheimportedgeographicdatafiles;
thus,theprojectionsystemdependsontheimportedgeographicfile.Bychoosingaspecificdisplaysystem,youcansee(using
therulersorstatusbars)thelocationofsitesonthemapinacoordinatesystemdifferentfromtheprojectioncoordinate
system.Youcanalsopositiononthemapsitesreferencedinthedisplaysystem:thecoordinatesareautomaticallyconverted
fromtheprojectionsystemtothedisplaysystemandthesiteisdisplayedonthemap.
Figure 2.5showsthatthegeographicdatafileofBrusselswasimported.ThemapshowsBrusselsprojectedwiththeUTM
cartographicsystem(coordinatesinmetres).Ontheotherhand,sitecoordinatesaredisplayedintheWGS84geographical
system(coordinatesindegreesminutesseconds).

Figure 2.5:UTMsystemusedwithWGS84system
Allimportedrastergeographicfilesmustbeusethesamecartographicsystem.Ifnot,you
mustconvertthemtoasinglecartographicsystem.

2.2.1.3.2

SettingaCoordinateSystem
Becauseyouareworkingwithmaps,youmustsetacoordinatesystemforyourAtolldocument.Bydefault,projectionand
displaycoordinatesystemsarethesame,butyoucanchooseadifferentdisplaycoordinatesystemifyouwant.
Todefinethecoordinatesystem:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. OntheCoordinatestab,clicktheBrowsebuttontotherightoftheProjectionfield.TheCoordinateSystemsdialog
boxappears.
3. IntheCoordinateSystemsdialogbox,selectacataloguefromtheFindinlist.Fortheprojectionsystem,onlycarto
graphicsystems(
)areavailable.
4. Selectacoordinatesystemfromthelist.
Ifyoufrequentlyuseaparticularcoordinatesystemyoucanaddittoacatalogueof
favouritesbyclickingAddtoFavourites.

5. ClickOK.TheselectedcoordinatesystemappearsintheProjectionfieldand,bydefault,intheDisplayfieldaswell.
6. Ifyouwishtosetadifferentcoordinatesystemforthedisplay,clicktheBrowsebuttontotherightoftheDisplayfield
andrepeatstep 3.tostep 5.Forthedisplaysystem,bothcartographicsystems(identifiedbythe
graphicsystems(

2.2.1.3.3

)areavailable.

SelectingtheDegreeDisplayFormat
Atollcandisplaylongitudeandlatitudeinfourdifferentformats.Forexample:

102

265629.9N
26d56m29.9sN

symbol)andgeo

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26.93914N
+26.93914

Tochangethedegreedisplayformat:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. OntheCoordinatestab,selecttheformatfromtheDegreeFormatlist.
3. ClickOK.
Thedegreeformatoptionsapplyonlytothegeographiccoordinatesystems.

2.2.1.3.4

SettingMeasurementUnits
WhenyoucreateanewAtolldocument,Atollsetscertainmeasurementunitsforreception,transmission,antennagain,
distance,heightandoffset,andtemperaturetointernaldefaults.Youcanacceptthesedefaultmeasurementunits,oryou
canchangethemusingthePropertiesdialogbox.
Tosetthemeasurementunits:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. OntheUnitstab,selectthedesiredunitforthefollowingmeasurements:

Radio:

Geo:

Radiatedpower:Selecteither"EIRP"(EffectiveIsotropicallyRadiatedPower)or"ERP"()
Antennagain:Selecteither"dBi"(decibel(isotropic))or"dBd"(decibel(dipole))
Transmission:Selecteither"dBm"(decibel(milliWatt)),"W"(Watt),or"kW"(kiloWatt)
Reception:Selecteither"dBm"(decibel(milliWatt)),"dBV"(decibel(microvolt)),"dBV/M"(decibel(micro
voltpermetre)),or"V/M"(voltspermetre)
Distance:Selecteither"m"(metres),"Km"(kilometres),or"mi"(miles)
Heightandoffset:Selecteither"m"(metres)or"ft"(feet)

Climate:

Temperature:Selecteither"C"(Celsius)or"F"(Fahrenheit)

3. ClickOK.

2.2.1.3.5

DefiningaProjectDescription
Atollallowsyoutodefineafewparameters,suchasauthororprojectstatus,thatwillcanbeusedtodescribetheAtollproject
youareworkingon.Thedescriptionyouentercanbeconsultedbyanyoneworkingonthisproject.
Todefineaprojectdescription:
1. SelectDocument >Properties.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. ClicktheProjecttab.OntheProjecttab,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Title:YoucansetadescriptivenamefortheprojectthatisdifferentfromthefilenameoftheAtollprojectfile.
Timestamp:YoucanenteratimestampfortheprojectandthenclicktheLockbuttontopreventitfrombeing
changed.BydefaultAtollentersthecurrenttimeasthetimestamp.EachtimeyouaccesstheProjecttab,Atoll
willupdatethetimestamp.
Owner:Youcanenterthenameofthepersonresponsiblefortheproject,andthenclicktheLockbuttontopre
ventitfrombeingchanged.BydefaultAtollentersthenameyouusedtologontothecomputer.
Status:Youcanenteradescriptionoftheprojectstatus.
Logo:YoudefinealogofortheprojectbyclickingtheBrowsebuttonandbrowsingtoagraphicfilethatcanbe
usedasalogofortheproject.ThelogowillbeusedinreportsexportedinRTFformat
Comments:YoucanenteranycommentsintheCommentsfield.

3. ClickOK.

2.2.2 WorkinginaMultiUserEnvironment
Amultiuserenvironmentisonewhereanumberofusers,orgroupsofusers,worksimultaneouslyongivenpartsofasingle,
large(perhapsnationwide)network.Differentusergroupsmightbeworkingonregionalorsmallersectionsofthenetwork.
Thissectiondescribesthedifferentcomponentsofmultiuserenvironmentsandoutlinestheirpurpose.

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WhenyoucreateanewAtolldocumentfromadatabase,Atollloadsthedatatowhichyouhaverightsfromdatabaseinto
yournewdocumentandthendisconnectsitfromthedatabase.Theconnectiontothereferencedatabaseisreactivatedonly
whennecessary,thusensuringaccesstothedatabasebyotherusers.
Whenyouworkonadocumentcreatedfromadatabase,youareworkingondatathatyouaresharingwithotherusers.
Consequently,thereareissuesrelatedtosharingdatathatdonotarisewhenyouareworkingonastandalonedocument.
Forexample,whenyouarchiveyourchangestothedatabase,thechangesyouhavemademayoccasionallyinterferewith
changesotherusershavemadeandyouwillneedtoresolvethisconflict.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"TheAtollMultiUserEnvironment"onpage 104
"CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase"onpage 105
"WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase"onpage 106
"RefreshinganAtollDocumentfromtheDatabase"onpage 108
"ArchivingtheModificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase"onpage 108.

2.2.2.1 TheAtollMultiUserEnvironment
AnAtollmultiuserenvironmentconsistsofthefollowingitems,connectedoveranetwork:

AcentralAtollproject:ThecentralAtollprojectcanonlybeaccessed,modified,andupdatedbytheAtolladminis
trator.ThroughthiscentralAtollproject,theAtolladministratorcanmanageallthedatasharedbyalltheindividual
Atollusersorgroupsofusers.

Shareddata:ShareddataisinitiallysetupbytheadministratorusingthecentralAtollprojectandarethenaccessed,
modified,workedon,andupdatedbytheAtollusersandtheadministrator.Theshareddataismainlyofthefollowing
threetypes:

104

Thecentraldatabase:ThecentraldatabasestoresalltheradiodataofalltheAtolluserdocuments.Itisinitiated
throughthecentralAtollprojectbytheadministrator,andisthensubdividedintosectionsonwhichusersor
groupsofuserscanworksimultaneously.Oncethedatabaseisinplace,userscanmodifytheirprojects,refresh
theirprojectsfromthedatastoredinthedatabase,andarchivetheirmodificationsinthedatabase.Theuseofa
databasemeansthatpotentialdataconflictsduetomodificationsfromotherusers,modifiedordeletedrecords,
forexample,canbedetectedandresolved.

Sharedgeographicdata:Sharedgeographicdatafilesareusuallystoredonacommonfileserverwithafastaccess
connection.Sincegeographicdatafilesareusuallylarge,theyareusuallylinkedtoanAtollfile,i.e.,theyarestored
externally,soastominimisethesizeoftheAtollfile.Userswhomodifygeographicdatalocally,forexample,
editingeditclutterortrafficintheirrespectiveprojects,usuallystorethesemodificationslocally,sincethesemod
ificationsrarelyhaveanimpactonotherusers.

UserDocuments:Individualuserdocumentsareinitialisedbytheadministratorbutarelaterworkeduponandman
agedbyeachuser.UserdocumentsareAtollfileswhichareconnectedtothecentraldatabase,loadonlytherequired
partofthegeographicdata(asdefinedbytheCFGfile,forexample),andhaveaccesstothesharedpathlossmatrices
folder.

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Figure 2.6:ComponentsofMultiuserEnvironments
Forinformationoncreatingandmaintainingthedatabase,seetheAdministratorManual.

2.2.2.2 CreatingaNewAtollDocumentfromaDatabase
Whenyoucreateanewdocumentfromadatabase,youmustconnecttothedatabase.Onceconnected,Atollloadsthedata
baseintoanewAtolldocument.Thentheconnectedisinterrupted.Anewconnectionwiththedatabasewillbecreatedonly
whennecessary,inordertoallowotherusersaccesstothedatabase.
Theexactprocedureofconnectingwiththedatabasediffersfromonedatabasetoanother.Atollcanworkwiththefollowing
databases:

MicrosoftAccess
MicrosoftSQLServer
Oracle
MicrosoftDataLinkfiles

Thefollowingsectionsgiveexamplesofconnectingtotwodifferentdatabasesandloadingdata:

"ConnectingtoaDatabase"onpage 105.
"SelectingtheDatatoLoadFromtheDatabase"onpage 106.

AnexampleofanewAtolldocumentcreatedfromadatabaseisshownin:

2.2.2.2.1

"WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase"onpage 106

ConnectingtoaDatabase
Tocreateanewdocumentfromadatabase:
1. SelectFile >New >FromanExistingDatabase.TheOpenfromaDatabasedialogboxappears.
2. IntheFilesoftypelist,selecttheoptioncorrespondingtothetypeofyourdatabase.Dependingonthetypeofthe
database,adialogboxmayappearwhereyoucanenteryourUserName,Password,andServer.

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BysettinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile,youcanconfigureAtolltoalwaysusea
defineddatabasetype(MSAccess,SQLServer,orOracle).TheOpenfromaData
base dialog box will not appear. Instead the databasespecific authentication
dialogboxwillappearimmediately.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministrator
Manual.
Additionaldialogboxesmightopenaskingyoutochoosewhichprojectinthedata
basetoloadorwhichsitelisttoload.

3. ClickOK.TheDatatoLoaddialogboxappears,allowingyoutoselectthedatatoloadintoAtollasanewdocument
(see"SelectingtheDatatoLoadFromtheDatabase"onpage 106).

2.2.2.2.2

SelectingtheDatatoLoadFromtheDatabase
Whenyoucreateanewdocumentfromadatabase,youcanselectthedatatobeloadedfromthedatabasetocreatethe
documentintheDatatoloaddialogbox.YoucanselectwhichProject,SiteList,CustomFieldsGroups,andNeighboursto
load.Ifyouloadtheintratechnologyortheintertechnologyneighbourlist,Atollwillalsoloadtheassociatedexceptional
pairstable.

Figure 2.7:Selectingthedatatoload

2.2.2.3 WorkingWithaDocumentonaDatabase
Figure 2.8showsanewAtolldocumentbasedcreatedfromadatabase.TheNetworkexplorernowhasafolderstructuresuit
ableforaUMTSradioplanningproject.TheSitesfolderisexpandedtoshowthatadocumentcreatedfromadatabasecan
haveadditionaldata,suchassites,unlikeadocumentcreatedfromatemplate.Thesecanbemodifiedorreplaced.Figure 2.9
andFigure 2.10showthecontentsoftheGeoandParameterstabsofthenewdocument,respectively.

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Figure 2.8:NewAtolldocumentopenedfromadatabase
Thenewdocumentmightopenwithnositedisplayedinthemapwindow.Thisisbecause
thenorthwestpointoftheprojectisbydefaulttheaxisorigin.Youcanrecentrethedocu
mentonthedatadisplayedintheNetworkexplorerbyexpandingtheSitesfolder,right
clickinganysite,andselectingCentreinMapWindowfromthecontextmenu.

Figure 2.9:NewAtolldocumentGeoexplorer

Figure 2.10:NewAtolldocumentParametersexplorer

WhenyoucreateanAtolldocumentfromadatabase,youcanviewthecharacteristicsofthedatabaseconnection.
Toviewthecharacteristicsofthedatabaseconnection:
1. Select Document > Database > Connection Properties. The Database Connection dialog box appears (see
Figure 2.11).
2. Youcannow:

Disconnectyourdocumentfromthedatabase.
Ifyoudisconnectyourdocumentfromthedatabase,itwillbebecomeastandalone
documentandyouwillnotbeabletoreconnectittothedatabase.

Modifyyourconnectiontothedatabase.

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Figure 2.11:TheDatabaseConnectiondialogbox

2.2.2.4 RefreshinganAtollDocumentfromtheDatabase
Asyouareworkingonyourdocument,otheruserswhohaveaccesstothedatabasemayhavemodifiedsomeofthedata.You
canensurethatyouhavethemostrecentdatainyourdocumentbyrefreshingtheinformationfromthedatabase.How
frequently you refresh the document depends on how frequently the database is updated. If the database is updated
frequently,youshouldrefreshyourdocumentfrequentlyaswell,inordertocontinueworkingwiththemostuptodatedata.
TorefreshanAtolldocumentfromthedatabase:
1. SelectDocument >Database >RefreshFromtheDatabase.TheRefreshdialogboxappears.
2. Inthedialogbox,youcandooneofthefollowingifyouhavemodifiedyourdocumentbuthavenotyetsavedthose
changesinthedatabase:

Archiveyourchangesinthedatabase:Thisoptionallowsyoutoarchiveyourchangestotheserverinsteadof
refreshingyourdocumentfromtheserver.
Refreshunmodifieddataonly:Thisoptionallowsyoutorefreshfromthedatabaseonlythoseitemsthatyouhave
notmodifiedinyourdocument.
Cancelyourchangesandreloaddatabase:Thisoptionallowsyoutocancelanychangesyouhavemadeandstart
overfromthepointofthelastarchivetothedatabase.

If you chose Refresh unmodified data only or Cancel your changes and reload
database,Atollproceedswithoutaskingforconfirmation.
If you chose Archive your changes in the database, the Archive dialog box
appears.ForinformationonusingtheArchivedialogbox,see"ArchivingtheMod
ificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase"onpage 108.

3. Under Take into account, you can select the neighbour lists, Intratechnology Neighbours and Intertechnology
Neighbours,torefresh.
4. UnderModificationsSincetheLastRefresh,youcanselecttheGenerateReportcheckboxtocreateareportforthe
refreshprocess.
5. ClickOK.Thedocumentisrefreshedaccordingtotheselectedoptions.
Ifyouselectedtogenerateareport,AtollcreatesatextfileinCSV(CommaSeparatedValues)formatinthetemporaryfiles
systemfolder,andopensit.Youcanthenrenamethefileandsaveitwhereyouwant.Thereportlistsallthemodifications
(deletions,additions,andupdates)thatwerestoredinthedatabasesincethelasttimeyourefreshedoropenedyourdocu
ment.

2.2.2.5 ArchivingtheModificationsofanAtollDocumentintheDatabase
WhenyouareworkingonanAtolldocumentthatisattachedtoadatabase,youshouldfromtimetotimearchivethemodi
ficationsyouhavemadetothedataonthedatabase.Howfrequentlyyoushouldarchiveyourdocumentdependsonseveral
factors:theamountandsizeofchangesyoumake,thenumberofotherusersusingthedatabasewhomightbenefitfromyour
modifications,etc.Whatyoucanarchivedependsontheuserrightsthedatabaseadministratorhasgiventoyou.Forexample,
you can have read access to the antennas table, allowing you to create a new Atoll document with the given antennas.
However, because only the administrator canmodifythe properties of theantennas,you will not be able to archiveany
changesyoumaketotheantennaswithoutwriteaccesstothetable.
TheAtollarchivingprocessisflexible.Youcanarchiveallyourmodificationsoronlythesiterelatedmodifications.Aswell,
whenyouarearchiving,Atollshowsyouallmodificationsthatwillbearchivedand,ifyouwant,youcanarchiveonlysomeof
themorevenundomodificationsyouhavemadelocally.Occasionally,otherusersmighthavemodifiedsomeofthesame
dataand,whenyouarchiveyourchanges,Atollwillinformyouofthepossibleconflictsandhelpyouresolvethem.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

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"ArchivingOnlySiteRelatedDataintheDatabase"onpage 109
"ResolvingDataConflicts"onpage 109.

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2.2.2.5.1

ArchivingAllModificationsintheDatabase
Toarchiveallyourmodificationsinthedatabase:
1. SelectDocument >Database >Archive.TheArchivedialogboxappears(seeFigure 2.12).
2. IntheArchivedialogbox,youcandothefollowing:

ClickRunAlltoarchiveallyourchangestothedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingchangesandclickRuntoarchivetheselectedmodificationtothedatabase
SelectoneitemunderPendingchangesandclickDifferencestoviewthedifferencesbetweenthelocalitemand
theitemonthedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingchangesandclickUndotorefreshthemodificationwiththeoriginaldatafromthe
database.

Figure 2.12:TheArchivedialogbox
3. Ifsomeofthedatahasbeenmodifiedonthedatabasesinceyoulastrefreshed,Atollstopsthearchivingprocessand
asksyoutoresolvetheconflict.Forinformationonmanagingconflicts,see"ResolvingDataConflicts"onpage 109.
4. Whenyouarefinishedarchiving,clickClose.

2.2.2.5.2

ArchivingOnlySiteRelatedDataintheDatabase
Atollallowsyoutoarchiveonlysiterelateddataifyouwant.Whichdataisarchiveddependsontheradiotechnologyyouare
workingwith.Forexample,inaUMTSHSPAradioplanningproject,thesiterelateddatais:sites,transmitters,cells,andneigh
bours.
Toarchiveonlythesiterelateddatainthedatabase:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectArchive.TheArchivedialogboxappearswithonlysiterelateddatadisplayed.
4. IntheArchivedialogbox,youcandothefollowing:

ClickRunAlltoarchiveallyourchangestothedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingChangesandclickRuntoarchivetheselectedmodificationtothedatabase
SelectoneitemunderPendingChangesandclickDifferencestoviewthedifferencesbetweenthelocalitemand
theitemonthedatabase.
SelectoneitemunderPendingChangesandclickUndotorefreshthemodificationwiththeoriginaldatafromthe
database.

5. Ifsomeofthedatahasbeenmodifiedonthedatabasesinceyoulastrefreshed,Atollstopsthearchivingprocessand
asksyoutoresolvetheconflict.Forinformationonmanagingconflicts,see"ResolvingDataConflicts"onpage 109.
6. Whenyouarefinishedarchiving,clickClose.

2.2.2.5.3

ResolvingDataConflicts
Atollenablesseveraluserstousethesamedatabasebyallowingusertoloadthedataandthenfreeingthedatabaseforother
users. However, this also creates the possibility of two users modifying the same data. When a second user attempts to
archivehischanges,Atollwarnsthemthatthedatahasbeenchangedsincetheylastrefreshedthedataandthatthereisa
conflict.
Atollcanresolvedataconflicts.WhenAtollfindsaconflict,itdisplaysthewarningwindowshowninFigure 2.13.

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Figure 2.13:Conflictwarning
Youhavethreeoptions:

Ignore:IfyouclickIgnore,Atollignoresitemscausingconflictsinthetablebeingarchived,archivesallothermodifi
cationsinthetable,andcontinueswiththenexttable.Youcanresolvetheconflictsafterthearchivingprocesshas
ended.However,ifconflictsarefoundinothertables,AtollwillwarnyouwiththeDatabaseTransferErrordialogbox
again.
IgnoreAll:IfyouclickIgnoreAll,Atollignoresallitemscausingconflictsinalltablesbeingarchived,andarchivesall
othermodifications.Youcanresolvetheconflictsafterthearchivingprocesshasended.
Abort: If you click Abort, the archiving process stops. You can attempt to resolve conflicts before restarting the
archivingprocess.

Whetheryouabortthearchiveprocesstoresolvetheconflictimmediately,orwaituntiltheendofthearchiveprocess,the
proceduretoresolvetheconflictisthesame.
Toresolvedataconflictsonebyone:
1. InthePendingChangespaneoftheArchivedialogbox,selecttheconflictyouwanttoresolveandclickResolve.There
aretwodifferenttypesofdataconflicts:

Onamodifiedrecord:Youareintheprocessofarchivingyourmodificationsonthedatabaseandanotheruser
hasmodifiedthesamedatasinceyoulastarchivedorrefreshedyourdata.Aconflictiscausedonlybydifferences
inthesamefieldofthesamerecordbetweenthedatabaseandthecurrentAtolldocument.
TheConflictinChangesdialogboxappears,withthefieldsinconflicthighlighted(seeFigure 2.14).IntheConflict
inChangesdialogbox,youcanseethevalueofthefieldinthedatabaseintheDatabasevaluescolumn,aswell
asthevalueofthesamefieldinyourdocumentintheCurrentvaluescolumn.

Figure 2.14:TheConflictinChangesdialogbox

Ifyouwanttooverwritethedatabasevaluewiththevalueofthesamefieldinyourdocument,selectthecheck
boxnexttothehighlightedchangeandclickOkay.Yourmodificationwillbewrittentothedatabase,overwrit
ingthevaluethere.

Ifyouwanttoacceptthevalueofthefieldinthedatabase,clearthecheckboxnexttothehighlightedchange
andclickOkay.Yourmodificationwillbelostandthevalueinthedatabasewillremainunchanged.

Onadeletedrecord:Youareintheprocessofarchivingyourmodificationsonthedatabaseandanotheruserhas
deletedarecordsinceyoulastarchivedorrefreshedyourdata.Forinformation,see"ResolvingDataConflicts"on
page 109.
Atolldisplaysamessageexplainingthattherecordyouaretryingtoupdatehasbeendeletedfromthedatabase
(seeFigure 2.15).Selectoneofthefollowing:

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Figure 2.15:Conflictonadeletedrecord

Yes:SelectYestostoreyourmodificationsinthedatabase,therebyrecreatingthedeletedrecord.
No:SelectNotoabandonyourmodificationstothisrecordanddeletethisrecordfromyourdocument.
Cancel:SelectCanceltocancel.

2. ClickClosetoclosetheArchivedialogbox.
Toresolveallthedataconflicts:
1. In the Pending Changes pane of the Archive dialog box, select any conflict and click Resolve All. Atoll displays a
messageexplaininghowResolveAllworks(seeFigure 2.16).Selectoneofthefollowing:

Figure 2.16:Resolvingallthedataconflictssimultaneously

Yes:SelectYestoacceptallthemodificationsmadebyotherusersinthedatabaseandupdateyourdocument
withvaluesfromthedatabase.
No:SelectNotooverwritethemodificationsmadebyotherusersinthedatabasewiththevaluesfromyourdoc
ument.
Cancel:SelectCanceltocancel.

2. ClickClosetoclosetheArchivedialogbox.
Youshouldonlyresolveallthedataconflictswhenyouarecertainaboutthe
modifications.

2.3 MakingaBackupofYourDocument
Atollcancreateandautomaticallyupdatebackupsofdocumentsyouareworkingon.Onceyouhavesavedthedocument,
Atollcreatesabackupoftheoriginaldocumentandupdatesitatadefinedinterval.Forexample,foradocumentnamed"file
name.atl,"Atollwillcreateabackupfilecalled"filename.atl.bak"inthesamefolderastheoriginaldocument.Youcandefine
theupdateintervaleachtimeyoustartAtoll.
YoucanalsoconfigureAtolltocreateautomaticbackupsofexternalpathlossmatrices(LOSfiles)bysettinganoptioninthe
Atoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.
Whenyouhaveactivatedautomaticbackup,Atollautomaticallycreatesabackupforeverydocumentopen.Consequently,if
youhavealotofdocumentsopen,thisoperationcantakealongtime.However,youcanoptimisetheprocessbyopening
largedocumentsinseparateAtollsessions,insteadofinthesameAtollsession.Thisalsoimprovesmemorymanagement
because each instance of Atoll has its own 2 GB (under 32bit operating systems; 4 GB under 64bit operating systems)
memoryallocation.IfyouopentwolargedocumentsinthesameAtollsession,thesedocumentswillusethesame2 GB
memorypool.IfyouopenthemintwodifferentAtollsessions,eachdocumentwillhaveitsown2 GBallocatedmemory.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"ConfiguringAutomaticBackup"onpage 112
"RecoveringaBackup"onpage 112.

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2.3.1 ConfiguringAutomaticBackup
YoucansetupautomaticbackupforeachAtollsession.
Toconfigureautomaticbackup:
1. SelectTools>ConfigureAutoBackup.TheAutoBackupConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 2.17).

Figure 2.17:AutoBackupConfigurationdialogbox
2. SelecttheActivateAutoBackupcheckbox.
3. SelectthePromptbeforestartingAutoBackupcheckboxifyouwantAtolltoaskyoubeforesavingthebackupof
yourfileeverytime(seeFigure 2.18).
4. Enteratimeinterval,inminutes,betweenconsecutivebackupsintheAutomaticallysavebackupseverytextbox.
Itcantakealongtime toback uplargedocuments. Therefore,youshould setacorre
spondinglylongerintervalbetweenbackupswhenworkingwithlargedocumentsinorder
tooptimisetheprocess.
5. ClickOK.
IfyouselectedthePromptbeforestartingautomaticbackupcheckbox,Atollpromptsyoueachtimebeforebackingupthe
document.IfyouclickOK,Atollproceedstobackupallopendocuments.IfyouclickCancel,Atollskipsthebackuponce.

Figure 2.18:Automaticbackupprompt
Theautomaticbackuptimerisstoppedwhilethepromptisdisplayed.AtolldisplaysamessageintheEventViewereverytime
abackupfileisupdated.Ifyouareperformingcalculations,i.e.,coveragepredictionsorsimulations,theautomaticbackupis
delayeduntilthecalculationshaveended.Thetimerstartsagainoncethecalculationsareover.Ifyousavetheoriginaldocu
mentmanually,thetimerisresetto0.

2.3.2 RecoveringaBackup
YoucaneasilyrecoveryourbackupdocumentandopenitinAtolljustlikeanyotherAtolldocument.
Torecoveryourbackupdocument:
1. UsingWindowsExplorer,navigatetothefoldercontainingyouroriginalAtolldocumentanditsbackup.
2. Iftheoriginaldocumentwasnamed"filename.atl,"thebackupdocumentwillbeinthesamefolderandwillbecalled
"filename.atl.bak".RenamethedocumentandremovetheBAKextension.Forexample,youcouldchangethename
to"filenamebackup.atl."
IfyoujustremovetheBAKextension,yourbackupfilewillhavethesamefilenameas
theoriginalfileandWindowswillnotallowyoutorenamethefile.Therefore,itissafer
togiveanewnametothebackupfileandkeeptheoriginalfileuntilyouaresurewhich
versionismostrecent.

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3. OpentherenamedbackupdocumentinAtoll.Youwillbeabletorecoveralltheworkuptothelasttimethebackup
wassaved.

2.4 MakingandSharingPortableAtollProjects
YoucancreateportableAtolldocumentsintwoways:

byembeddingallthegeographicdataintheATLfile,or
bycreatingacompressedarchive(ZIPfile)containingtheATLfileandallgeographicdatalinkedtotheAtolldocument.

Inmostworkingenvironments,geographicdatafilesarestoredonacommonfileserverandarelinkedtotheATLdocuments
ofdifferentusersoveranetwork.Oftenthesegeographicdatafilesarequitelarge,anditisnotfeasibletoembedthesefiles
inanATLfileforreasonsrelatedtofilesize,memoryconsumption,andperformance.Itis,therefore,moreusefultomakea
projectportablebycreatinganarchivethatcontainstheATLandallgeographicdatafiles.
AtollletsyoumakeanarchivecontainingtheATLfileandallgeographicdatadirectlyfromtheFilemenu.
TomakeanarchivecontainingtheATLfileandalllinkedgeographicdatafiles:
1. SelectFile >SavetoZip.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
2. Selectthefolderwherethecreatedarchiveistobestored,enteraFilenameforthearchivetobecreated,andselect
"ZipFiles(*.zip)"fromtheSaveastypelist.
AtollcreatesaZIPfilecontaining:

AcopyoftheATLfilewiththesamenameasthenameofthearchive(ZIPfile).
TheATLfileaddedtothearchivecontainsallthedatathatmightbeembeddedinit(pathlossmatrices,geographic
data,coveragepredictions,simulationresults,measurementdata,etc.).

A".losses"foldercontainingapathloss.dbffileandaLowRessubfolderwhichcontainsthepathloss.dbffilecorre
spondingtotheextendedpathlossmatrices.
Externallystoredpathlossmatricesarenotaddedtothearchivebecausetheyarenotnecessaryformakinga
portabledocument;theycanberecalculatedbasedonthenetworkandgeographicdataintheATLfile.Thepath
loss.dbffilesarestoredinthearchivebecausetheyareneededwhenreopeningthearchiveinAtoll.

A"Geo"folderwithallthelinkedgeographicdataavailableintheGeoexplorerfortheAtolldocument.
ThisfoldercontainssubfolderswiththesamenamesasthefoldersintheGeoexplorer.Geographicdatathatare
foundoutsidefoldersintheGeoexplorerarestoredinfilesundertheGeofolder,anddatapresentwithinfolders
intheGeoexplorerarestoredinsidetheirrespectivefolders.Ifthegeographicdatafileslinkedtothedocument
arelocatedonaremotecomputer,suchasafileserveroveranetwork,theyarefirstcopiedtothelocalcomputer
intheWindowstemporaryfilesfolderandthenaddedtothearchive.

Oncetheportablearchiveiscreated,youcanopenitdirectlyfromAtollwithoutfirsthavingtoextractitusinganothertool.
ToopenanarchivecontaininganATLfileandalllinkedgeographicdatafiles:
1. SelectFile >OpenfromZip.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. SelecttheZIPfilethatcontainstheATLfileandlinkedgeographicdatafiles.
3. ClickOpen.TheBrowseForFolderdialogboxappears.
4. SelectthefolderwhereyouwanttoextractthecontentsoftheZIPfile.
5. Click OK. Atoll extracts all the files from the archive to the selected folder. If necessary, it createsthe subfolders
requiredforextractingthecontentsoftheGeofolder.OnceAtollhasfinishedextractingfilesfromthearchive,it
openstheextractedATLfile.GeographicdataextractedfromthearchivearelinkedtotheATLfile.

Youdonotneedtohaveacompressionutility,suchasWinZiporWinRAR,installed
onthecomputerwhenworkingwitharchivedATLfiles.
Thehighestcompressionlevelisusedwhencreatingthearchive.

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Chapter3
GeographicData
Thischapterprovidesinformationonworkingwith
geographicdatainanAtollproject.

Inthischapter,thefollowingareexplained:

"GeographicDataTypes"onpage 117

"SupportedGeographicDataFormats"onpage 118

"ImportingGeoDataFiles"onpage 119

"DigitalTerrainModels"onpage 127

"ClutterClasses"onpage 128

"ClutterHeights"onpage 130

"Contours,Lines,andPoints"onpage 130

"ScannedImages"onpage 132

"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133

"DisplayingOnlineMaps"onpage 134

"SettingthePriorityofGeoData"onpage 135

"DisplayingInformationAboutGeoData"onpage 138

"GeographicDataSets"onpage 138

"EditingGeographicData"onpage 140

"SavingGeographicData"onpage 142

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3 GeographicData
SeveraldifferentgeographicdatatypesareusedinanAtolldocument.Forexample:thedigitalterrainmodel(DTM),clutter
classes,clutterheights,onlinemaps,geoclimaticmaps,andscannedimagesaretypesofthegeographicdatathatyoucan
importorcreate.Somedatatypes,suchasclutterclasses,canbeusedtogivemorerealisticcalculations.Othertypessuchas
scannedimages,areusedtocreateamorerealisticdisplayoftheregionunderstudy.
Youcanimportawidevarietyofbothvectorandrasterformatgeodatafiles.WhenyouimportageodatafileintoAtoll,you
candecideinwhichfolderitgoes.TheGeoexplorerwindowhasfoldersforthecommonlyuseddatatypes.Therefore,choos
ingafolderischoosingwhatthefilewillbeusedfor.Youcanalsocreateyourowndatatypebyimportingafileanddefining
whatdataistobeused.
OnceyouhaveimportedafileintotheAtolldocument,youcaneditthedata,definehowthegeodatawillbedisplayed.Atoll
alsoallowsyoutomanagemultiplefilesforasingledatatype,decidingthepriorityofdatafileswithdifferentinformationor
differentresolutions.YoucanalsodisplaygeodataoveritemsintheNetworkexplorer,eitherbytransferringthemtothe
Networkexplorer,orbyimportingthemdirectlytotheNetworkexplorer.
Youcanalsocreateandeditgeographicdata.Youcanaddavectorlayertocertaindatatypestowhichyoucanaddcontours,
lines,orpoints,createnewgeographicdata,ormodifyexistingdata.Youcanalsocreaterasterbasedgeographicdatasuch
astrafficmapsorclutterclasses.
Youcanexportmostgeodataobjects(forexample,DTM,clutterclasses,clutterheights,rasterpolygons,orvectorlayers)for
useinotherAtolldocumentsorinotherapplications.Atollalsoallowsyoutosavechangesyoumaketogeodataobjectsback
totheoriginalfiles.Thisenablesyoutoupdatetheoriginalfilesand,throughtheprocessofsavingthem,recompactthefile.
Thischapterexplainsthefollowingtopics:

"GeographicDataTypes"onpage 117
"SupportedGeographicDataFormats"onpage 118
"ImportingGeoDataFiles"onpage 119
"ClutterClasses"onpage 128
"ClutterHeights"onpage 130
"DigitalTerrainModels"onpage 127
"Contours,Lines,andPoints"onpage 130
"ScannedImages"onpage 132
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133
"SettingthePriorityofGeoData"onpage 135
"EditingGeographicData"onpage 140
"SavingGeographicData"onpage 142.

3.1 GeographicDataTypes
An Atoll document can contain several different geographic data types. Atoll supports a wide range of file formats for
geographicdatafiles.ThedifferentgeographicdatatypesplaydifferentrolesintheAtolldocument:

Geographicdatausedinpropagationcalculation:

Digitalterrainmodel
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights

Geographicdatausedfordisplaypurposes:

Scannedmaps
Onlinemaps
Imagesfromwebmapservices(WMS)
Contours,lines,andpointsrepresenting,forexample,roads,railways,orregions.

Inthissection,thefollowingdatatypesaredescribed:

"DigitalTerrainModel"onpage 118
"ClutterClasses"onpage 118
"ClutterHeights"onpage 118
"Contours,Lines,andPoints"onpage 118
"ScannedImages"onpage 118
"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 118
"OnlineMaps"onpage 118

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DigitalTerrainModel
TheDTMdescribestheelevationofthegroundoversealevel.YoucandisplaytheDTMindifferentways:bysinglevalue,
discretevalues,orbyvalueintervals(see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30).
TheDTMisautomaticallytakenintoaccountbythepropagationmodelduringcomputations.
ClutterClasses
Theclutterclassgeodatafiledescribeslandcoverorlanduse.Clutterclassesaretakenintoaccountbythepropagationmodel
duringcomputations.
Eachpixelinaclutterclassfilecontainsacode(fromamaximumof256possibleclasses)whichcorrespondstoaclutterclass,
orinotherwordstoacertaintypeofgrounduseorcover.Theheightperclasscanbedefinedaspartoftheclutterclass,
however,theheightwillbedefinedasanaverageheightforeachclutterclass.Forinformationondefiningtheheightperclut
terclass,see"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 128.Clutterheightscanalsobedefinedbyaseparateclutterheights
file(see"ClutterHeights"onpage 118).Aclutterheightmapcanrepresentheightmuchmoreaccuratelybecauseitallowsa
differentheighttobeassignedforeachpixelofthemap.
ClutterHeights
ClutterheightmapsdescribethealtitudeofclutterovertheDTMwithonealtitudedefinedperpixel.Clutterheightmapscan
offermorepreciseinformationthandefininganaltitudeperclutterclassbecause,inaclutterheightfile,itispossibletohave
differentheightswithinasingleclutterclass.
Whenclutteraltitudeisdefinedbothinclutterclassesandinaclutterheightmap,clutteraltitudeistakenfromtheclutter
heightmap.
Youcandisplaytheclutterheightmapindifferentways:bysinglevalue,discretevalues,orbyvalueintervals(see"Display
PropertiesofObjects"onpage 30).
Theonlypropagationmodelsthatcantakeclutterheightsintoaccountincalculationsare
theStandardPropagationModelandtheWLLmodel.

Contours,Lines,andPoints
Atollsupportscontours,lines,andpointstorepresentpolygonssuchasregions,orlinessuchasroadsorcoastlines,orpoints.
Theyareusedfordisplayonlyandhavenoeffectoncomputations.Contourscanalsobeusedtocreatefilteringpolygonsor
computationorfocuszones.
ScannedImages
Scannedimagesaregeographicdatafileswhichrepresenttheactualphysicalsurroundings,forexample,roadmapsorsatel
liteimages.Theyareusedtoprovideaprecisebackgroundforotherobjectsorforlessprecisemapsandareusedonlyfor
display;theyhavenoeffectoncalculations.
GeoclimaticMaps
Geoclimaticmapsarevectorfilescontaininginformationonclimaticconditionssuchasraindensity,vapourdensity,temper
ature,andrefractivity.Geoclimaticmapsareusedinmicrowavelinkdocumentstocalculateradiowaveattenuation.
TrafficDataMaps
Trafficdatamapscontaininformationoncapacityandserviceusepergeographicarea.Trafficdatamapsareusedfornetwork
capacityanalyses.
OnlineMaps
Youcandisplayvarioustypesofonlinemapsinthemapwindow.FromtheGeoexplorer,youcanaccessthesemapsdirectly
orbyspecifyingtheirserverURLs.

3.2 SupportedGeographicDataFormats
Atollsupportsthefollowinggeographicdataformats:

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DTMfilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(8or16bitinteger),BIL(8,16or32bitinteger,32bitfloat),Planet(16bit
integer),BMP(8bitinteger),GRDVerticalMapper(16bitinteger),andErdasImagine(8,16or32bitinteger,32bit
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Clutterheightfilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(8or16bitinteger),BIL(8,16or32bitinteger,32bitfloat),Planet
(16bitinteger),BMP(8bitinteger),GRDVerticalMapper(16bitinteger),andErdasImagine(8,16or32bitinteger,
32bitfloat)
Clutterclassandtrafficfilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(8bit),BIL(8bit),IST(8bit),BMP(8bit),Planet,GRCVertical
Mapper(8bit),andErdasImagine(8bit)
Vectordatafilesinthefollowingformats:AGD,DXF,Planet,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Vectortrafficfilesinthefollowingformats:AGD,DXF,Planet,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Scannedimagefilesinthefollowingformats:TIF(1to24bit),JPEG(1to24bit),JPEG2000(1to24bit),BIL(1to
24bit),IST(1to24bit),BMP(1to24bit),Planet,ErdasImagine(1to24bit),GRCVerticalMapper(1to24bit),and
ECW(8or24bit)
Geoclimaticfilesinthefollowingformats:AGD,DXF,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Otherdatainthefollowingformats:TIF(16bit),BIL(16bit),IST(16bit),Planet,BMP(16bit),ErdasImagine(16bit),
GRD/GRCVerticalMapper(16bit),AGD,DXF,SHP,MIF,andTAB.
Allimportedrastermapsmusthavethesameprojectioncoordinatesystem.

3.3 ImportingGeoDataFiles
YoucanimportthegeographicdatayouneedintothecurrentAtolldocument.Asexplainedin"SupportedGeographicData
Formats"onpage 118,Atollsupportsavarietyofbothrasterandvectorfileformats.Whenyouimportanewgeodatafile,
AtollrecognisesthefileformatandsuggeststheappropriatefolderintheGeoexplorer.Youcanembedgeodatafilesinthe
Atolldocumentwhileyouareimportingthemorafterwards(see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 127).
YoucansharethepathsofimportedmapsanddisplaysettingswithotherusersbyusingAtollsuserconfigurationfiles.For
informationonexportingthepathsofyourdocumentsfilesortoimportthepathfromanotherdocumentusinguserconfig
urationfiles,see"GeographicDataSets"onpage 138.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

"ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile"onpage 119
"ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile"onpage 120
"ImportingMSIPlanetData"onpage 121
"ImportingaWMSRasterformatGeoDataFile"onpage 123
"GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders"onpage 125
"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 127.
Youcanusedraganddroptoimportgeodatafilesintoadocument.Theformatis
automaticallyrecognisedandAtollpresentsyouwiththeappropriatedialogbox.

3.3.1 ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile
AllrastergeodatafilesmustberepresentedinthesameprojectioncoordinatesystemastheAtolldocumentitself.
Toimportageographicdatafileinarasterformat:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. Selectthegeodatafileyouwanttoimport.
Youcanimportmorethanonegeodatafileatthesametime,providingthatthegeodatafilesareofthesametype.
Youcanselectcontiguousfilesbyclickingthefirstfile,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfileyouwanttoimport.You
canselectnoncontiguousfilesbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfile.
3. ClickOpen.TheFileImportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.1).
IftheVectorImportdialogboxappears,goto"ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile"
onpage 120.

Dependingonthetypeofgeodatafileyouareimporting,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:

DTM:SelectAltitudes(DTM)fromtheDataTypelist.
ClutterClasses:SelectClutterClassesfromtheDataTypelist.

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ClutterHeights:SelectClutterHeightsfromtheDataTypelist.
ScannedImages:SelectImageorScanfromtheDataTypelist.

4. Bydefault,theimportedfileislinkedtotheAtolldocument.ToembedthedatafileintheAtolldocument,selectthe
EmbedinDocumentcheckbox.Forinformationonembeddingfiles,see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 127.
5. ClickImport.ThegeodatafileisimportedandlistedintheGeoexplorer.
Whenyouimportatrafficdatamap,thetrafficmapsPropertiesdialogboxappears:
a. UnderTerminals(%),enterthepercentageofeachtypeofterminalusedinthemap.Thetotalpercentagesmust
equal100.
b. UnderMobilities(%),enterthepercentageofeachmobilitytypeusedinthemap.Thetotalpercentagesmust
equal100.
c. UnderServices(%),enterthepercentageofeachservicetypeusedinthemap.Thetotalpercentagesmustequal
100.
d. UnderClutterDistribution,enterforeachclutterclassthepercentageofindoorusers.
e. ForUMTSandCDMA,selectwhethertheusersareactiveintheUplink/Downlink,onlyintheDownlink,oronly
intheUplink.
f. ClickOK.

Figure 3.1:Importingaclutterclassfile

3.3.2 ImportingaVectorformatGeoDataFile
Whenyouimportgeodatafilesinvectorformat,theirgeographicsystemcanbeconvertedtothesystemusedbytheAtoll
document.Whenyouimportextremelylargevectorgeodatafiles,forexample,vectorfilesthatcoveranentirecountry,you
mustensurethatatleastthecentreoftheboundingboxdefiningthevectorfileiswithintheprojectioncoordinatesystem
definedfortheAtolldocument.
Toimportavectorformatgeographicdatafile:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. Selectthegeodatafileyouwanttoimport.
Youcanimportmorethanonegeodatafileatthesametime,providingthatthegeodatafilesareofthesametype.
Youcanselectcontiguousfilesbyclickingthefirstfile,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfileyouwanttoimport.You
canselectnoncontiguousfilesbypressingCTRLandclickingeachfile.
3. ClickOpen.TheVectorImportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.2).
IftheFileImportdialogboxappears,goto"ImportingaRasterformatGeoDataFile"on
page 119.

Dependingonthetypeofgeodatafileyouareimporting,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:

VectorData:

SelectGeofromtheImporttolist.
When you importvectordata,youcansimultaneouslyimportthecorrespondingdisplay configuration file
(CFG)bysettinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.Thedisplayconfigurationfilewillonlybeimportedifithasthe

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samefilenameandifitislocatedinthesamedirectoryastheimportedvectorformatfile.Formoreinforma
tionaboutsettingoptionsintheAtoll.inifile,seetheAdministratorManual.

GeoclimaticFile:
i.

SelectGeoclimaticParametersfromtheImporttolist.
ThetemperaturesinthegeoclimaticfilemustbeexpressedinCelsiuswhetherthemeas
urementunitdefinedfortemperaturesintheAtolldocumentisFarhenheitorCelsius.

4. Bydefault,theimportedfileislinkedtotheAtolldocument.ToembedthedatafileintheAtolldocument,selectthe
EmbedinDocumentcheckbox.Forinformationonembeddingfiles,see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 127.
5. ClickImport.ThegeodatafileisimportedandlistedintheGeoexplorer.

Figure 3.2:VectorImportdialogbox

YoucanimportellipsesandarcsfromMapInfofiles(MIFandTAB).Rectanglesare
interpretedaspolygons.
YoucandefinemappingsbetweenthecoordinatesystemusedfortheMapInfo/
ESRIvectorfiles,definedinthecorrespondingMIF/PRJfiles,andAtoll.Thisway,
whenyouimportavectorfile,Atollcandetectthecorrectcoordinatesystemauto
matically.Formoreinformationaboutdefiningthemappingbetweencoordinate
systems,pleaserefertotheAdministratorManual.

3.3.3 ImportingMSIPlanetData
MSIPlanetdataiscontainedinaseriesoffilesdescribedinindexfiles.TheindexfileisinASCIItextformatandcontainsthe
informationnecessarytoidentifyandproperlyinterpreteachdatafile.WhenyouimportMSIPlanetdata,youcanimport
eachtypeofdataseparately,byimportingthecorrespondingindexfile,oryoucanimportseveralMSIPlanetdatafilesat
thesametime,byimportingseveralindexfiles.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

"ImportingOneMSIPlanetDataType"onpage 121
"ImportingaMSIPlanetDatabase"onpage 122.

3.3.3.1 ImportingOneMSIPlanetDataType
WhenyouwanttoimportacertaintypeofMSIPlanetdata,suchasaDTMorclutterheights,youimporttheindexfile
containingtheinformationnecessarytoimportthesetoffilescontainingthedata.
ToimportonetypeofMSIPlanetdata:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. SelecttheindexfileyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.TheDataTypedialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.3).

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Figure 3.3:ImportinganMSIPlanetindexfile
3. SelectthetypeofdatayouareimportingandselecttheEmbedcheckboxifyouwanttoembedthedatainthecurrent
Atolldocument.
4. ClickOKtoimportthedataintothecurrentAtolldocument.

3.3.3.2 ImportingaMSIPlanetDatabase
YoucanimportallavailableMSIPlanetdataatthesametimebyimportingallindexfiles.
ToimporttheMSIPlanetdatabase:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. Select"Planetdatabase"fromtheFilesofTypelist.ThePlanetDataImportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.4).

Figure 3.4:ImportinganMSIPlanetdatabase
3. Foreachtypeofdatathatyouwanttoimport:
a. Selectthecorrespondingcheckbox.
b. Ifyouwanttoembedthedata,selecttheEmbedcheckbox.
c. TolocatetheMSIPlanetindexfile,click

.TheOpendialogboxappears.

d. SelecttheMSIPlanetindexfileandclickOpen.Thepathandnameofthefileappearsinthecorrespondingfield
ofthePlanetDatatoBeImporteddialogbox.
4. Ifyouarealsoimportingnetworkdata,selectthenetworkTechnology.
5. Whenyouhaveselectedallthetypesofdatayouwanttoimport,clickOK.ThedataisimportedintothecurrentAtoll
document.

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3.3.4 ImportingaWMSRasterformatGeoDataFile
YoucanimportrasterimagesfromaWebMapService(WMS)serverintoyourAtolldocument.TheimagescanbeinTIF,BMP,
PNG,orJPEGformats.Allimagesimportedatthesametimeareimportedasasingleimage.Beforeyouimportthem,youcan
arrangethembyplacingthemoreimportantimages,suchasroads,ontop;oryoucanplacetheleasttransparentimage
towardsthebottomsothattheotherimagesimportedatthesametimeremainvisible.
Theimagewillbereferencedinthedocument;itcannotbeembedded.OnlyWMSdatamappedwithaprojectionsystem(for
example,theLambertConformalConicortheUniversalTransverseMercatorprojection)canbeimported.Beforeimporting
animagefromaWMSserver,youmustensurethatthecoordinatesystemusedinyourdocumentisthesameprojection
systemsupportedbytheserver.Allrastergeodatafilesmustberepresentedinthesameprojectioncoordinatesystemas
thatusedbytheAtolldocumentitself.
Toimportageographicdatafilefromawebmapservice:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. FromtheFilesofTypelist,selectConnectiontoaWebMapServicesserver...(*.url).TheWebMapServicesData
Importdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheURLoftheWMSserverfromtheServerURLlistorenteritdirectly.

Figure 3.5:ServerURLlistintheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogbox
The list ofWMS servers thatappearsin the ServerURLlistisdefined by entries in the
Atoll.inifile.Forinformationondefiningtheseentries,seetheAdministratorManual.

4. ClicktheConnectbutton.AtollconnectstotheURLoftheWMSserveranddisplaystheinformationavailablealong
withadescriptionoftheservice(Figure 3.5onpage 123).

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Figure 3.6:ServerURLlistintheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogbox
5. IntheleftpaneoftheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogbox,clicktheExpandbutton(
youwanttoaddintherightpane.

)tonavigatetotheitem

6. Selectthecheckboxthatprecedestheimageortheimagegroup,i.e.agroupprecededbyanExpandbutton(
Theimagesyouselectareautomaticallylistedintherightpane.

).

Unlessyouselectoneorseveralimages,theimageorthegroupofimageslistedintherightpanewillbeimported.
Toselecttheimagesyouwanttoimport:
i.

Clickthefirstimage,pressSHIFT,andthenclickthelastimagetoselectcontiguousimages.

ii. PressCTRLandclickeachimageseparatelytoselectnoncontiguousimages.

Figure 3.7:ServerURLlistintheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogbox
7. Arrangetheorderinwhichyouwantmultipleimagestoappearbyselectingeachimageintherightpaneandclicking
tomoveittowardsthetopor tomoveittowardthebottom.Theimageswillbeimportedasasingleobjectand
theirappearancewilldependontheorderyoudefinehere.
8. Ifyouwant,youcanalsoclick

toreversetheorderofthelist.

9. ClickImportintheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogbox.TheWMSMapImportdialogboxappears.

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Figure 3.8:WMSMapImportdialogbox
ThefollowinginformationisgivenabouttheimportedWMSdata:

DataTypes:"ImageorScan"isselected.
Name:ThesuggestedNameisthenameoftheimagecurrentlyselectedintheleftpaneoftheWebMapServices
DataImportdialogbox(e.g"RasterFrance1/4000000"),orthenameofthetopfolderwhenmorethanone
imageisselected(e.g.ServeurGeosignal_0").Ifyouwant,youcanenteranewname(e.g."my_server").
GeographicCoordinates:ThegeographiccoordinatesthattheWMSdataisgiven.

10. IntheWMSMapImportdialogbox,clickImport.TheimageisimportedbyreferenceintotheAtolldocument.You
cannotembedaWMSimageinyourdocument.
Ifyouhadselectedmorethanoneimageoranimagegroup,Atollimportsthegroupasasingleobject.Youcannot
modifythisobject.Ifyouwanttoremoveoneoftheimagesoraddanotheroneyouwillhavetogothroughtheimport
processagain.
11. IntheWebMapServicesDataImportdialogbox,clickClose.
12. IntheOpendialogbox,clickCanceltoexit.

3.3.5 OrganisingGeoDataFiles
Atollprovidesthefollowingfeaturestohelpyouorganisegeodatafiles:

"GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders"onpage 125
"CreatingFoldersforVectorsandImages"onpage 126
"MovingaVectororImageintoaDedicatedFolder"onpage 126

3.3.5.1 GroupingGeoDataFilesinFolders
Bydefault,whenyouimportscannedimagesandcontours,lines,andpoints,theyappeardirectlyintheGeoexplorer.Other
datafiles,suchasclutterclasses,arelistedtogetherinasingleClutterClassesfolder.Youcan,however,groupscannedimages
andcontours,lines,andpointsintofoldersaswell.
Oncegrouped,thesegeodatafilescanbedisplayedorhiddenandmovedmoreeasily.Theyretain,however,theirownindi
vidualdisplaysettings;thedisplaysettingscannotbemanagedatthefolderlevel.
Youcreatethefolderwhenyouimportthefirstgeodatafilethatwillbeimportedintoit.Whenyouimportthenextgeodata
file,eitherrasterorvector,youcanimportitdirectlyintothenewfolder.
Tocreateanewgeodatafolderwhenimporting:
1. SelectFile >Import.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. SelectthegeodatafileandclickOpen.Ifthefiletobeimportedisarasterfile,theFileImportdialogboxappears(see
Figure 3.1).Ifthefiletobeimportedisavectorfile,theVectorImportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.2).
3. FromtheDataTypelist(ontheFileImportdialogbox)ortheImportTolist(ontheVectorImportdialogbox),select
NewfolderinGeo.TheNewFolderdialogboxappears.
If you want to import your file to the Network explorer, you can select New folder in
Network.

4. EnteranameforthefolderinFolderNameboxandclickOK.
5. ClickImport.Yourfileisimportedintothenewlycreatedfolder.

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YoucannowimportothergeodatafilesintothisfolderbyselectingitfromtheDataTypelist(ontheFileImportdialogbox)
ortheImportTolist(ontheVectorImportdialogbox)whenyouimport.
YoucantransfergeodatathathasbeenimportedfromtheGeoexplorertotheNetwork
explorer,orviceversa.RightclickthedataintheExplorerwindowandselectMoveto
NetworkorMovetoGeo.

3.3.5.2 CreatingFoldersforVectorsandImages
AtollenablesyoutocreatefoldersforvectorsandimagesintheNetworkandGeoexplorers.Youcancreateasmanylevels
offoldersasyouwant.Onceyouhavecreatedavectororimagefolder,youcanmovevectorsandimagesintoit.Formore
information,see"MovingaVectororImageintoaDedicatedFolder"onpage 126.
TocreateavectororimagefolderintheNetworkorGeoexplorer:
1. RightclickanywhereintheNetworkorGeoexplorer,exceptonafolderoracommand.ANewFolderforVectorsor
Imagespopupappears.
2. ClicktheNewFolderforVectorsorImagespopup.Atollcreatesanewfolder,Newfolder<X>,atthetopoftheNet
workorGeoexplorerwhere<X>isanumberassignedbyAtollsequentially,accordingtothenumberoffolderswith
defaultnamesinthecorrespondingfolder,seeFigure 3.9onpage 126.

Figure 3.9:NewfolderforvectorsorimagesinNetworkandGeoexplorers
Youcanchangethenameofthefoldertogiveitamoredescriptivename.

3.3.5.3 MovingaVectororImageintoaDedicatedFolder
OnceyouhavecreatedfoldersforvectorsorimagesintheNetworkorGeoexplorersasexplainedin"CreatingFoldersfor
VectorsandImages"onpage 126,youcanorganisethevectorsandimagesbymovingthemintothesefolders.Atollallows
youtomovevectorsandimagesfromtherootlevelofthecorrespondingexplorertoafolder,orfromonefoldertoanother.
Tomoveavectororimagetoadedicatedfolder:
1. Selecttheexplorerwherethevectororimageyouwanttomovecanbeseen(NetworkorGeo).
2. Clickonthevectororimageyouwanttomoveand,withoutreleasingthemousebutton,dragthevectororimageand
dropitoverthenameofthedestinationfolder.Youcanonlydropavectororimageinadestinationfolderwhenthis
folderishighlighted,asshowninFigure 3.10.

Figure 3.10:Usingdraganddroptomoveavectororimagetoadedicatedfolder
Youcanalsomoveafolderofanylevelintoanotherfolder,aslongasthedestination
folderdoesnotbelongtothefolderyouwanttomove.

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3.3.6 EmbeddingGeographicData
Bydefault,whenyouimportageodatafile,Atollcreatesalinktothefile.Youcan,however,choosetoembedthegeodata
fileinyourAtolldocument,eitherwhenyouimportitorlater.WhenAtollislinkedtoageodatafile,thegeodatafileremains
separateandmodifyingorsavingtheAtolldocumenthasnoeffectonthegeodatafile.Whenthegeodatafileisembedded
intheAtolldocument,itissavedaspartofthedocument.
Bothlinkingandembeddingpresentadvantagesanddisadvantages.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.
Ifyouareusingdistributedcalculations,youmustlinkyourgeodatafiles.Distributed
calculationswillnotworkwithembeddedgeodatafiles.Forinformation,seethe
AdministratorManual.
ToembedageodatafileinthecurrentAtolldocumentwhileyouareimporting:

SelecttheEmbedinDocumentcheckboxontheFileImportorVectorImportdialogbox.

ToembedageodatafilethatisalreadylinkedtothecurrentAtolldocument:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefileyouwanttoembedinthecurrentdocument.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. ClicktheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. ClickEmbed.
6. ClickOK.ThegeodatafileisnowembeddedinthecurrentAtolldocument.

3.3.7 RepairingaBrokenLinktoaGeoDataFile
Bydefault,whenyouimportageodatafile,Atollcreatesalinktothefile;thegeodatafileremainsseparateandmodifying
orsavingtheAtolldocumenthasnoeffectonthegeodatafile.If,however,thegeodatafileismoved,thelinkwillbebroken.
TorepairabrokenlinkfromwithintheAtolldocument:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.

Ifthegeodatafileisinafolder,suchastheClutterClasses,TrafficMaps,orDTMfolder,click toexpandthe
folder.

2. Rightclickonthegeodatafilewhoselinkyouwanttorepair.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. OntheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogbox,clicktheFindbutton.
5. Browsetothegeodatafile,selectitandclickOK.

3.4 DigitalTerrainModels
TheDigitalTerrainModel(DTM)isageographicdatafilerepresentingtheelevationofthegroundoversealevel.
TomanagethepropertiesoftheDTM:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheDigitalTerrainModelfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. ClicktheDisplaytabtodefinethedisplaypropertiesfortheDTM.

ForinformationonDisplaytabsettings,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

5. MovetheReliefslidertowardsFlat,ifyouwanttodisplayveryfewlittlereliefortowardsx6ifyouwanttoemphasise
thedifferencesinaltitude.
6. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.

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3.5 ClutterClasses
Theclutterclassgeodatafiledescribeslandcoverorlanduse.
Eachpixelofaclutterclassfilecontainsacode(fromamaximumof256possibleclasses)whichcorrespondstoaclutterclass,
orinotherwordstoacertaintypeofgrounduseorcover.Theheightperclasscanbedefinedaspartoftheclutterclass,
howeverthisheightisonlyanaverageperclass.Aclutterheightmapcanrepresentheightmuchmoreaccuratelybecauseit
allowsadifferentheighttobeassignedforeachbinofthemap.Forinformationonclutterheightmaps,see"ClutterHeights"
onpage 130.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

"AssigningNamestoClutterClasses"onpage 128
"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 128
"AddingaClutterClass"onpage 129
"RefreshingtheListofClutterClasses"onpage 129
"DisplayingTotalSurfaceAreaperClutterClass"onpage 130.

3.5.1 AssigningNamestoClutterClasses
Theclutterclassfileidentifieseachclutterclasswithacode.Tomakeiteasiertoworkwithclutterclasses,youcanassigna
descriptivenametoeachclutterclassname.Whenaclutterclasshasadescriptivename,itisthenamethatappearsintip
textandreports.
WhenyouimportaclutterclassfileinBIL,TIF,JPEG2000,orIMPformat,Atollcanautomaticallyassignnamestoclutter
classesiftheclutterclassfilehasacorrespondingMNUfile.TheMNUfilecontainsalistwiththeclutterclasscodesandtheir
correspondingnames.FormoreinformationontheMNUfileformatandoncreatinganMNUfile,seetheTechnicalReference
Guide.
Toassignnamestoclutterclasses:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. ClicktheDescriptiontabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. IntheNamecolumn,enterdescriptivetextforeachclassidentifiedintheCodecolumn.

3.5.2 DefiningClutterClassProperties
Theparametersareappliedinrelationtothelocationofthereceiverbeingstudiedandtheclutterclassofthereceiverloca
tion.TheseparameterscanbesetonthePropertiesdialogbox:
Todefineclutterclassproperties:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. ClicktheDescriptiontabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. EnteraNameandaverageHeight(m)foreachcode.

IfHeightisleftblank,propagationmodelsthatusethisvalueuse0bydefault.
If clutter class heights are modified, you must recalculate path loss matrices by
clickingForceCalculation(
lations.

)toapplythechangestoanypredictionsandsimu

6. Enterdefault values inthe first row of the table on the Description tab.orinformation about each field, seethe
descriptionsinthefollowingstep.
Thedefaultvaluesareusedifnocluttermapisavailable.Evenifthereisaclutterclassesmap,youcanselecttheUse
defaultvaluesonlycheckboxontheatthebottomoftheDescriptiontabtomakeAtollusethevaluesspecifiedin
thisrowinsteadofthevaluesdefinedperclutterclass.
7. Ifdesired,youcanenteravalueforeachofthefollowingfieldsapplicabletothecurrentdocument:

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ModelStandardDeviation(dB):tocalculateshadowinglossesonthepathloss,asrelatedtoauserdefined
celledgecoverageprobability.
IndoorLoss(dB):tobeappliedtothepathlossandusedincoveragepredictions,pointanalysis,andMonte
Carlosimulations.Usethissettingtodefineavalueofindoorlossperfrequency.Ifanetworkitemoperates
onafrequencyforwhichtheindoorlossisnotdefinedintheindoorlossgraph,anindoorlossvalueisinter
polatedfromthevaluesavailableinthegraph.

8. Ifyouwanttousedefaultvaluesforallclutterclasses,selecttheUseonlydefaultvaluescheckboxatthebottomof
theDescriptiontab.
9. ClicktheDisplaytabtodefinethedisplaypropertiesforclutterclasses.InadditiontotheDisplaytaboptionsdescribed
in"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30,eachclutterclassdisplaytypehasavisibilitycheckbox.Byselectingor
clearingthevisibilitycheckbox,youcandisplayorhideclutterclassdisplaytypesindividually.
Selectingwhiteasthecolourforaclutterclassvalueorvalueintervalwillcausethatclutter
classvalueorvalueintervaltobedisplayedastransparent.

10. ClickOK.
YoucancopythedescriptiontableintoanewAtolldocumentafterimportingtheclutter
classesfile.Tocopythedescriptiontable,selecttheentiretablebyclickingthecellinthe
upperleftcornerofthetableandpressCTRL+C.OntheDescriptiontaboftheclutter
classesPropertiesdialogboxinthenewAtolldocument,pressCTRL+Vtopastethe
valuesinthetable.

3.5.3 AddingaClutterClass
Youcanaddanewclutterclasstoyourdocument.
Toaddanewclutterclasstotheyourdocument:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheDescriptiontabfromthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. Intheblankrowmarkedwith
column.

atthebottomofthetable,enteranunusednumberfrom1to255intheCode

6. Fillintheremainderofthefieldsasdescribedinstep 5.andstep 7.of"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 128.


7. ClickOK.
Youcannowusethenewclutterclasswhenmodifyingtheclutterclassmap.Forinformationonmodifyingtheclutterclass
map,see"CreatingaClutterPolygon"onpage 140.

3.5.4 RefreshingtheListofClutterClasses
Undercertaincircumstances,itcanhappenthatthelistofclutterclassesontheDescriptiontaboftheclutterclassesProper
tiesdialogboxcontainsunusedclutterclasses.Forexample,ifyouhaveimportedtwoclutterclassfilesandthendeletedone
ofthem,thelistofclutterclasseswillstillcontaintheclutterclassesofthedeletedfile,eveniftheyarenotusedintheremain
ingfile.Wheneveryouwanttoensurethatthelistofclutterclassesisaccurateandcurrent,youcanrefreshthelist.
Torefreshthelistoftheclutterclasses:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
4. SelecttheDescriptiontabfromthePropertiesdialogbox.
5. ClickRefresh.Atollremovestheunusedclutterclassesfromthelist.
6. ClickOK.

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3.5.5 DisplayingTotalSurfaceAreaperClutterClass
Youcandisplaythetotalsurfaceareacoveredbyeachclutterclassinthedocument.Atolldisplaysthesurfaceareacovered
byeachclutterclassinthefocuszoneifthereisone,inthecomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszoneand,ifthereisnofocus
orcomputationzone,Atolldisplaysthetotalsurfaceareacoveredbyeachclutterclassintheentiredocument.Thisinforma
tionisalsoavailableinpredictionreports.
Todisplaythesurfaceareacoveredbyeachclutterclass:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectStatisticsfromthecontextmenu.
TheStatisticsdialogboxappears,displayingthesurfacearea(Siinkm)ofeachclutterclass(i)anditspercentage(%
ofi)inthecomputationzoneorfocuszone,ifoneexists.
Si
% of I = -------------- 100
Sk

3.6 ClutterHeights
ClutterheightmapsdescribethealtitudeofclutterovertheDTM.Clutterheightfilesallowforahigherdegreeofaccuracy
becausetheyallowmorethanoneheightperclutterclass.Inaclutterheightfile,aheightisgivenforeachpointonthemap.
Ifyoudefineclutterheightasapropertyofclutterclasses,theheightisgivenasanaverageperclutterclass.
When a clutter height file is available, Atoll uses its clutter height information for calculations using certain propagation
models(theStandardPropagationModelandWLLmodel),fordisplay(intiptextandinthestatusline),andforCWmeasure
mentsandtestmobiledatapaths.Ifnoclutterheightfileexists,Atollusestheaverageclutterheightperclutterclassas
definedintheclutterclassesproperties(see"DefiningClutterClassProperties"onpage 128).
Tomanagethepropertiesofclutterheights:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterHeightsfolder.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. ClicktheDisplaytabtodefinethedisplaypropertiesforclutterheights.

ForinformationonDisplaytabsettings,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

5. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.
Theclutterheightofthecurrentpointerpositionasgivenintheclutterheightfileorintheclutterclassesisdisplayedinthe
statusbar.

3.7 Contours,Lines,andPoints
InAtoll,youcanimportorcreatevectorobjectssuchascontours,lines,andpoints.Theimportedorcreatedvectorsareused
primarilyfordisplaypurposes,butpolygonscanbeusedasfilters,orcomputationorfocuszones.
InanAtolldocument,vectorobjectssuchascontours,lines,andpointsarearrangedinvectorlayers.Whenyouimporta
vectorfile,with,forexample,roads,Atolladdsthefileasanewvectorlayercontainingallthevectorobjectsinthefile.The
vectorobjectdatacanbemanagedinthevectorlayertable.Forinformationonworkingwithdatatables,see"Workingwith
DataTables"onpage 53.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"ManagingtheDisplayofaVectorLayer"onpage 130
"ManagingthePropertiesoftheVectorLayer"onpage 131
"MovingaVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer"onpage 131.

3.7.1 ManagingtheDisplayofaVectorLayer
Importedgeographicvectorfilescanhavedifferentattributesdependingontheirfileformats.Atollcanuseadditionalinfor
mationrelatedtovectorsasdisplayparameters.Inaddition,Atollcanreadthreedimensionalvectordata.

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Tomanagethedisplayofavectorlayer:
1. ClicktheNetworkorGeoexploreronwhichthevectorlayerislocated.
2. Rightclickthevectorlayer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. SelecttheDisplaytabofthePropertiesdialogbox.Forinformationonusingthedisplaytab,see"DisplayProperties
ofObjects"onpage 30.
You can manage the display of an individual vector object by rightclicking the vector
objectinthevectorlayerfolderandselectingPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

3.7.2 ManagingthePropertiesoftheVectorLayer
Thepropertiesoftheobjectsonthevectorlayercanbemanagedintwoways:eitherfromatablecontainingallvectorsand
theirattributesorfromthePropertiesdialogbox.
VectorLayerTable
Allthevectorobjectsofavectorlayerandtheirattributesarelistedinthevectortable.
Toopenthevectorlayertable:
1. OntheExplorerwindowtabcontainingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayerfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.Thevectortableappears.
YoucaneditthecontentsofthistableusingthecommandsfromthecontextmenuorfromtheEdit,Format,andRecords
menus.FormoreinformationoneditingtablesinAtoll,see"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 53.
VectorLayerPropertiesdialogbox
ThevectorlayerPropertiesdialogboxhasthreetabs:aGeneraltab,aTabletab,andaDisplaytab.
ToopenthePropertiesdialogboxofavectorlayer:
1. OntheExplorerwindowtabcontainingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayerfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
3. ClicktheGeneraltab.Thefollowingoptionsareavailable:

Name:Thenameofthevectorlayer.Youcanrenamethevectorlayerusingthisfield.
SourceFile:ThecompletepathofthevectorlayerfileifthefileislinkedtotheAtolldocument;otherwisethefile
isdescribedasembedded.

Find:ClicktheFindbuttontoredefinethepathwhenthefileslocationhaschanged.
Embed:ClicktheEmbedbuttontoembedalinkedvectorlayerfileintheAtolldocument.

CoordinateSystem:Whenavectorlayerislinked,thecoordinatesystemusedisthefiles,asspecifiedwhenthe
filewasimported.Whentheavectorlayerisembedded,thecoordinatesystemusedisdocuments,asspecified
whenthefilewasembedded.

Change:ClicktheChangebuttontochangethecoordinatesystemofthevectorlayer.

Sort:ClicktheSortbuttontosortthedatacontainedinthevectorlayer.Forinformationonsorting,see"Advanced
Sorting"onpage 77.

Filter: Click the Filter button to filter the data contained in the vector layer. For information on filtering, see
"AdvancedDataFiltering"onpage 79.

4. ClicktheTabletab.YoucanusetheTabletabtomanagethevectorlayertablecontent.ForinformationontheTable
tab,see"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 54.
5. ClicktheDisplaytab.YoucanusetheDisplaytabtomanagethevectorlayerdisplay.ForinformationontheTabletab,
see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

3.7.3 MovingaVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer
InAtoll,allobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,suchastransmitters,antennas,andpredictions,aredisplayedoverallobjectsin
theGeoexplorer.Youmaywish,however,toensurethatcertaingeodata,forexample,majorgeographicalfeatures,roads,
etc.,remainvisibleinthemapwindow.YoucandothisbytransferringthegeodatafromtheGeoexplorertotheNetwork
explorerandplacingitabovedatasuchaspredictions.

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TotransferavectorlayertotheNetworkexplorer:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthevectorlayeryouwanttotransfer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectMovetoNetworkfromthecontextmenu.ThevectorlayeristransferredtotheNetworkexplorer.
YoucantransferthevectorlayerbacktotheGeoexplorerbyrightclickingitintheNetworkexplorerandselectingMoveto
Geofromthecontextmenu.FormoreinformationaboutdisplaypriorityinAtoll,see"SettingthePriorityofGeoData"on
page 135.

3.8 ScannedImages
Scannedimagesaregeographicdatafileswhichrepresenttheactualphysicalsurroundings,forexample,roadmapsorsatel
liteimages.Theyareusedtoprovideaprecisebackgroundforotherobjectsorforlessprecisemaps.Theyhavenoeffecton
calculations.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"ImportingSeveralScannedImages"onpage 132
"DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofScannedImages"onpage 132.

3.8.1 ImportingSeveralScannedImages
YoucanimportscannedimagesintothecurrentAtolldocumentoneatatime,asexplainedin"ImportingGeoDataFiles"on
page 119,oryoucanimportagroupofimagesbyimportinganindexfilelistingtheindividualimagefiles.Theindexfileisa
textfilewiththeinformationforeachimagefileonaseparateline.
Eachlinecontainsthefollowinginformation,withtheinformationseparatedbyaspace:

Filename:Thenameofthefile,withitspathrelativetothecurrentlocationoftheindexfile.
XMIN:ThebeginningXcoordinateofthefile.
XMAX:TheendXcoordinate,calculatedasXMIN+(numberofhorizontalbinsxbinwidth).
YMIN:ThebeginningYcoordinateofthefile.
YMAX:TheendYcoordinate,calculatedasYMIN+(numberofhorizontalbinsxbinwidth).
0:Thezerocharacterendsthesequence.

nice1.tif 984660 995380 1860900 1872280 0


nice2.tif 996240 1004900 1860980 1870700 0
Filename

XMIN

XMAX

YMIN

YMAX

Toimportanindex
1. SelectFile >Import.
2. SelecttheindexfileandclickOpen.TheFileImportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.1).
3. SelectImageorScanfromtheDataTypelist.
4. ClickImport.TheimagefilesimportedandlistedintheGeoexplorer.

3.8.2 DefiningtheDisplayPropertiesofScannedImages
Becauseimportedimagescannotbemodified,theyhavefewerdisplayparametersthanotherobjecttypes.
Todefinethedisplaypropertiesofascannedimage:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthescannedimage.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.11).
4. SelecttheDisplaytabandsetthefollowingoptions:

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Colour:SelecteitherAutomatic,Shadesofgray,orWatermarkfromthelist.
TransparentColour:SelectWhitefromthelistifyouwishpartsofthescannedimagethatarecolouredwhiteto
betransparent,allowingobjectsinlowerlayerstobevisible.
Lightness:Movetheslidertolightenordarkenthescannedimage.
Contrast:Movetheslidertoadjustthecontrast.

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VisibilityScale:Enteravisibilityscaleminimuminthebetween 1:textboxandmaximumintheand 1:textbox.


Whenthedisplayedorprintedscaleisoutsidethisrange,thescannedimageisnotdisplayed.

5. ClickOK.

Figure 3.11:ScannedimagePropertiesdialogbox

3.9 GeoclimaticMaps
Geoclimaticmapsarevectorfilescontaininginformationonclimaticconditionssuchasraindensity,vapourdensity,temper
ature,andrefractivity.Geoclimaticmapsareusedinmicrowavelinkdocumentstocalculateradiowaveattenuation.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"ManagingGeoclimaticMapProperties"onpage 133
"DisplayingGeoclimaticStatistics"onpage 133.

3.9.1 ManagingGeoclimaticMapProperties
Tomanagethepropertiesofageoclimaticmap:
1. RightclicktheGeoclimaticParametersfolderintheGeoexplorer.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
3. Thefollowingtabsareavailable:

DataMapping:TheDataMappingtabenablesyoutoselectwhichvaluefromeachimportedvectorfileispartof
thegeoclimaticmap.TheimportedvectorfilesarelistedintheNamecolumn,withtherelevantdataselectedin
theFieldcolumn.YoucanselecttheparameteritcorrespondstofromtheParameterscolumn.
Display: The Display tab enables you to define how the geoclimatic map appears in the map window. Value
intervalistheonlyavailabledisplaytype.
Forinformationonusingthedisplaytab,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

4. Click toexpandtheGeoclimaticParametersfolder.
5. RightclickanygeoclimaticfileintheGeoclimaticParametersfolder.
6. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
7. ClicktheTabletab.TheTabletabenablesyoutomanagethecontentsoftheclasstable.Forinformationonworking
withtheTabletab,see"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 54.

3.9.2 DisplayingGeoclimaticStatistics
Youcandisplaytherelativeandabsolutedistributionofeachvalueintervalaccordingtothedefinedvalueintervalsinthe
displayproperties(forinformationondefiningvalueintervals,see"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 31)ofageoclimatic
map.Atolldisplaysthestatisticsforthefocuszoneifthereisone,forthecomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszoneand,if
thereisnofocusorcomputationzone,Atolldisplaysthestatisticsfortheentiredocument.
Todisplaythestatisticsofthegeoclimaticdata:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheGeoclimaticParametersfolder.
3. SelectStatisticsfromthecontextmenu.TheStatisticswindowappearswiththedistributionsofeachvalueinterval.

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Statisticsaredisplayedonlyforvisibledata.See"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMap
UsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 24.

3.10 DisplayingOnlineMaps
Severaltypesofonlinemapscanbedisplayedinthemapwindow.Theseonlinemapshavenoeffectonpredictionandsimu
lationresults.
Aprojectioncoordinatesystemmustbespecifiedbeforeanonlinemapcanbedisplayed.
Youmustalsoensurethatthecoordinatesystemthatyouspecifyinyourdocumentisthe
same projection system that is supported by the tile server. If the coordinate systems
differ,maptilesmightbedisproportionatelyandbadlyrenderedwhenyoudragthemap
awayfromtheareatargetedbythespecifiedprojectioncoordinatesystem.

ThemaptilesthatyouloadintoAtollarestoredinaspecificcachedirectorynamedafter
thecorrespondingtileserver.Bydefault,thelocationofthiscacheis"%TEMP%\Online
Maps".YoucanchangethislocationbyeditingtheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,see
theAdministratorManual.
Todisplayanonlinemap:
1. Specifyaprojectioncoordinatesystem(see"SettingaCoordinateSystem"onpage 102).
2. IntheGeoexplorer,rightclicktheOnlineMapsfolder(

).Thecontextmenuappears.

3. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheAddaTileServerdialogboxappears.

Figure 3.12:AddaTileServerdialogbox
4. IntheAddaTileServerdialogbox,setthefollowingoptions:

Name:Specifyanametoidentifythethirdpartytileserver.
ServerURL:EntertheURLofthethirdpartytileserver.

Youcanalsoaddanonlinemapfromalistofpredefinedtileservers(seeFigure 3.13).Clickaniteminthelisttoauto
maticallyfilltheNameandServerURLfields.

Figure 3.13:PredefinedTileServersforOnlineMaps
AserverURLincludesatilesetwhere:

"%z"representsthedetaillevel,and"%x"and"%y"thetilecoordinates,or
"%q"representsaquadkeyidentifyingasingletileataparticulardetaillevel.

5. ClickOKtoclosetheAddaTileServerdialogbox.Anewitem(
thatyouspecifiedintheAddaTileServerdialogbox.

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6. In the Geo explorer, select the check box preceding the online map that you specified. The selected online map
appearsinthebackgroundofthemapwindowaccordingtothescalethatisdefinedinthetoolbar.

3.11 SettingthePriorityofGeoData
AtollliststheimportedDTM,clutterclassortrafficobjectsintheirrespectivefoldersandcreatesaseparatefolderforeach
importedvectordatafileandscannedimage.Eachobjectisplacedonaseparatelayer.Thus,thereareasmanylayersas
importedobjects.ThelayersarearrangedfromtoptobottominthemapwindowastheyappearintheGeoexplorer.
ItisimportanttorememberthatallobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,suchastransmitters,antennas,andpredictions,are
displayedoverallobjectsintheGeoexplorer.

3.11.1 SettingtheDisplayPriorityofGeoData
Thereareseveralfactorsthatinfluencethevisibilityofgeodata:

Thedisplaycheckbox:ThecheckboximmediatelytotheleftoftheobjectnameintheGeoexplorercontrolswhether
ornottheobjectisdisplayedonthemap.Ifthecheckboxisselected( ),theobjectisdisplayed;ifthecheckboxis
cleared( ),theobjectisnotdisplayed.Ifthecheckbox,isselectedbutshaded( ),notallobjectsinthefolderare
displayed. For more information, see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer Windows" on
page 24.
Theorderofthelayers:ThelayeratthetopoftheGeoexplorerisontopofallotherlayersinthemapwindow.Data
onlayersbelowisonlyvisiblewherethereisnodataonthetoplayerorifyouadjustthetransparencyoftheobjects
onthetoplayer.YoucanusedraganddroptochangetheorderoflayersbydraggingalayerintheGeoexplorer
towardsthetoporthebottomofthetab.
AllobjectsintheNetworkexplorer,suchastransmitters,antennas,andpredictions,are
displayedoverallobjectsintheGeoexplorer.Vectorgeodata,however,canbetrans
ferredtotheNetworkexplorer,wheretheycanbeplacedoverdatasuchaspredictions.
Inthisway,youcanensurethatcertainvectorgeodata,forexample,majorgeographical
features,roads,etc.,remainvisibleinthemapwindowFormoreinformation,see"Moving
aVectorLayertotheNetworkExplorer"onpage 131.

Thetransparencyofobjects:Youcanchangethetransparencyofsomeobjects,suchaspredictions,andsomeobject
types,suchasclutterclasses,toallowobjectsonlowerlayerstobevisibleonthemap.Formoreinformation,see
"DefiningtheTransparencyofObjectsandObjectTypes"onpage 33.
Thevisibilityrangeofobjects:Youcandefineavisibilityrangeforobjecttypes.Anobjectisvisibleonlyinthemap
windowifthescale,asdisplayedonthezoomtoolbar,iswithinthisrange.Formoreinformation,see"Definingthe
VisibilityScale"onpage 33.

InFigure 3.14,vectordata(includingthelinearvectorsHIGHWAYS,COASTLINE,RIVERLAKE,MAJORROADS,MAJORSTREETS,
RAILWAYSandAIRPORT),clutterclasses,DTMandscannedimagehavebeenimportedandaUMTSenvironmenttrafficmap
hasbeeneditedinsidethecomputationzone.Inthemapwindow,thelinearobjects(ROADS,RIVERLAKE,etc.)arevisibleboth
insideandoutsidethecomputationzone.Theclutterclasslayerisvisibleintheareawherethereisnotrafficdata(outside
thecomputationzone).Ontheotherhand,theDTMlayerwhichisbeneaththeclutterclasslayerandthescannedmapwhich
isbeneaththeDTMlayer,arenotvisible.

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Figure 3.14:DisplayingGeodatalayers

3.11.2 SettingthePriorityofGeoDatainCalculations
Thepriorityofgeodataincalculationsisdeterminedinmuchthesamewayasitisfordisplay.
WhenyoumakecalculationsinAtoll,thedatatakenintoaccountineachfolder(ClutterClasses,DTM,etc.)isthedatafrom
thetopdown.Inotherwords,Atolltakestheobjectontopandobjectsbelowonlywherethereisnodatainhigherlevels;
whatisusediswhatisseen.
Thevisibilityinthecontextofcalculationsmustnotbeconfusedwiththedisplaycheckbox
( ).Evenifthedisplaycheckboxofanobjectiscleared( ),sothattheobjectisnot
displayedonthemap,itwillstillbetakenintoconsiderationforcalculations.
Objectfolders,forexample,theDTM,clutterclasses,clutterheights,andtrafficdensityfolders,cancontainmorethanone
dataobject.Theseobjectscanrepresentdifferentareasofthemaporthesamepartsofthemapwiththesameordifferent
resolutions.Thereforeforeachfolder,youshouldplacetheobjectswiththebestdataatthetop.Thesearenormallythe
objectswhichcovertheleastareabuthavethehighestresolution.Forexample,whencalculatingcoverageinanurbanarea,
youmighthavetwoclutterclassfiles:onewithahigherresolutionforthedowntowncore,wherethedensityofusersis
higher,andonewithalowerresolutionbutcoveringtheentirearea.Inthiscase,byplacingtheclutterclassfileforthedown
towncoreoverthefilewiththelowerresolution,Atollcanbaseitscalculationsforthedowntowncoreontheclutterclass
filewiththehigherresolution,usingthesecondfileforallothercalculations.
ThefollowingsectionsprovideexamplesthatillustratehowdataisusedinAtoll:

"Example1:TwoDTMMapsRepresentingDifferentAreas"onpage 136
"Example2:ClutterClassesandDTMMapsRepresentingtheSameArea"onpage 137
"Example3:TwoClutterClassMapsRepresentingaCommonArea"onpage 137.

3.11.2.1 Example1:TwoDTMMapsRepresentingDifferentAreas
Inthisexample,therearetwoimportedDTMfiles:

"DTM1representsagivenareaandhasaresolutionof50 m.
DTM2representsadifferentareaandhasaresolutionof20 m.

Inthisexample,thefileorderoftheDTMfilesintheExplorerwindowdoesnotmatterbecausetheydonotoverlap;inboth
Case 1andCase 2,Atollwilltakeallthedatafromboth"DTM 1and"DTM 2intoaccount.

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Explorerwindow

Workspace

Case1
DTM

DTM2(20m)
DTM1(50m)

Case2
DTM

DTM1(50m)
DTM2(20m)

Figure 3.15:MultilayermanagementincalculationstwoDTMmapsrepresentingdifferentareas

3.11.2.2 Example2:ClutterClassesandDTMMapsRepresentingtheSameArea
Inthisexample,therearetwoimportedmaps:

AclutterclassmapcalledClutter.
ADTMmapcalledDTM.

IndependentlyoftheorderofthetwomapsintheExplorerwindow,AtollusesboththeclutterandDTMdataincalculations.
InCase 1,theclutterclassmapisontopoftheDTMmap.InCase 2,theDTMmapisontopoftheclutterclassmap.Inboth
Case 1andCase 2,AtollwilluseboththeclutterandDTMdataincalculations.
Explorerwindow

Workspace

Case1
Clutterclasses

Clutter
DTM

DTM
Case2
DTM

DTM
Clutterclasses

Clutter
Figure 3.16:MultilayermanagementincalculationsClutterandDTMmapsrepresentingthesamearea

3.11.2.3 Example3:TwoClutterClassMapsRepresentingaCommonArea
Inthisexample,therearetwoimportedclutterclassesmaps:

"Clutter 1"representsalargeareawitharesolutionof50 m.
"Clutter 2"representsasmallerareawitharesolutionof20 m.Thisareaisalsocoveredby"Clutter 1"

Inthecaseoftwoclutterclassmaps,AtollusestheorderofthemapsintheClutterClassesfolderintheGeoexplorerto
decidewhichdatatouse.InCase 1,"Clutter 2"isontopof"Clutter 1".Atollwillthereforeusethedatain"Clutter 2"where
it is available, and the data from "Clutter 1" everywhere that is covered by "Clutter 1" but not by "Clutter 2." In Case 2,
"Clutter 1"isontopandcompletelycovers"Clutter 2."Therefore,Atollwillonlyusethedatafrom"Clutter 1."

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Explorerwindow

Workspace

Case1
Clutterclasses

Clutter2(20m)

Clutter1(50m)

Case2
Clutterclasses

Clutter1(50m)

Clutter2(20m)

Figure 3.17:Multilayermanagementincalculationstwocluttermapsrepresentingthesamearea

3.12 DisplayingInformationAboutGeoData
Youcandisplayinformationaboutageodatamapbyusingtiptext.Forinformationonhowtodisplayinformationintiptext,
see"DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText"onpage 34.
Todisplayinformationaboutthegeodataintiptext:

Holdthepointeroverthegeodatauntilthetiptextappears.Thesurfaceareaisonlygivenforclosedpolygons.

TiptextonlyappearswhentheTipTextbutton(

)onthetoolbarhasbeenselected.

3.13 GeographicDataSets
InAtoll,onceyouhaveimportedgeographicdataanddefinedtheirparameters,youcansavemuchofthisinformationina
user configuration file. Then, another user, working on a similar Atoll document, can import the user configuration file
containingthepathstotheimportedgeographicdataandmanyofthedefinedparameters.
Whenyousavethegeographicdatasetinauserconfiguration,yousave:

thepathsofimportedgeographicmaps
mapdisplaysettings(visibilityscale,transparency,tipstext,etc.)
clutterdescription(code,name,height,standarddeviations,etc.)
rasteroruserprofiletrafficmapdescription.

Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"ExportingaGeoDataSet"onpage 139
"LoadingaGeoDataSet"onpage 139.
Youcansaveandloadothertypesofinformationwithuserconfigurationfilesaswell.For
information,seetheAdministratorManual.

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3.13.1 ExportingaGeoDataSet
Whenyousaveageodatasetinauserconfigurationfile,theinformationlistedin"GeographicDataSets"onpage 138issaved
intoafile.
Vectorsmustbeinthesamecoordinatesystemastherastermaps.

Tosaveageodatasetinauserconfigurationfile:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Save.TheUserConfigurationdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.18).
2. IntheUserConfigurationdialogbox,selecttheGeographicDataSetcheckbox.

Figure 3.18:TheUserConfigurationdialogbox
3. ClickOK,TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. IntheSaveAsdialogbox,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethefileandenteraFilename.
5. ClickOK.

3.13.2 LoadingaGeoDataSet
When you load a user configuration file containing a geo data set, the information listed in "Geographic Data Sets" on
page 138isloadedintoyourcurrentAtolldocument.
ToloadauserconfigurationfilecontainingageodatasetintoyourcurrentAtolldocument:
1. SelectTools >UserConfiguration >Load.TheOpendialogboxappears.
2. Browsetotheuserconfigurationfile,selectitandclickOpen.
3. TheUserConfigurationdialogboxappears.
Whenyouloadauserconfigurationfileincludingageographicdataset,Atollchecksiftherearealreadygeographic
datainthecurrentAtolldocument.Ifso,theoptionDeleteexistinggeodataappearswithotheroptionsintheUser
Configurationdialogbox.
4. IntheUserConfigurationdialogbox,selectthecheckboxesoftheitemsyouwanttoloadintoyourcurrentAtolldoc
ument.
5. IfyoualreadyhavegeographicdatainyourcurrentAtolldocumentandwouldliketoreplaceitwithanydatainthe
userconfigurationfileyouareloading,selecttheDeleteexistinggeodatacheckbox.
Ifyoudonotwanttoreplaceexistinggeodatawithimporteddata,cleartheDeleteexistinggeodatacheckbox.
6. ClickOK.
YoucanautomaticallystartAtollwithauserconfigurationfilebynamingthefile"Atoll.cfg"
andplacingitinthesamefolderastheAtollexecutable.YoucanalsoedittheWindows
shortcuttoAtollandadd"cfg<CFG_file>"where"<CFG_file>"isthefullpathtotheuser
configurationfile.

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3.14 EditingGeographicData
InAtoll,youcaneditgeodatathatyouhaveimportedoryoucancreategeodata.
Thefollowingtypesofgeographicdatacanbeedited:

Clutterclasses(formoreinformation,"EditingClutterClassMaps"onpage 140)
Contours,lines,andpoints(formoreinformation,"EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 48)
Geoclimaticmaps(formoreinformation,"EditingGeoclimaticMaps"onpage 141)
Trafficdatamaps

3.14.1 EditingClutterClassMaps
Clutterclassmapsandcertaintrafficmapsarerastermaps.Youcaneditthesemapsbycreatingormodifyingpolygons.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"CreatingaClutterPolygon"onpage 140
"EditingClutterPolygons"onpage 140
"DisplayingtheCoordinatesofClutterPolygons"onpage 141.
"DeletingClutterPolygons"onpage 141

3.14.1.1 CreatingaClutterPolygon
InAtoll,youcanmodifyimportedclutterclassmapsorcreateyourownmapsbyaddingdataintheformofpolygons.Youcan
latereditandexportthepolygonsyouhavecreated.Allmodificationsyoumaketoclutterclassmapsaretakenintoaccount
bypropagationmodelcalculations.
Tocreateapolygon:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappearswithaclutterortrafficlist,apolygondrawingtool
apolygondeletiontool

,andaClosebutton(seeFigure 3.19).

Figure 3.19:Editortoolbar
4. Fromthelist,selecttheclutterclassforthepolygonyouwanttocreate.
ClutterclassesaredefinedontheDescriptionstaboftheclutterclassesPropertiesdialog
box.

5. Clickthepolygondrawingbutton(

).Thepointerchangestoapencil(

).

6. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthepolygon.
7. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthepolygon.
8. Doubleclicktoclosethepolygon.
Youcancopytheexactcoordinatesofaclosedpolygonbyrightclickingitonthemapand
selectingPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

3.14.1.2 EditingClutterPolygons
Youcaneditclutterpolygonsbymovingexistingpointsofthepolygonorbyaddingordeletingpoints.
Toeditclutterpolygons:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.

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3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappears(seeFigure 3.19).
4. Selectthepolygon.Youcannowedittheclutterpolygonby:

Movingapoint:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttomove.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. Dragthepointtoitsnewposition.

Addingapoint:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepolygonborderwhereyouwanttoaddapoint.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectInsertPointfromthecontextmenu.Apointisaddedtotheborderatthepositionofthe
pointer.

Deletingapoint:
i.

Positionthepointeroverthepointyouwanttodelete.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. RightclickandselectDeletePointfromthecontextmenu.Thepointisdeleted.

3.14.1.3 DisplayingtheCoordinatesofClutterPolygons
Todisplaythecoordinatesofthepointsdefiningthepolygonarea:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappears(seeFigure 3.19).
4. RightclickthepolygonandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappearswiththecoor
dinatesofthepointsdefiningthepolygonandthetotalarea.
You can select and copy the coordinates displayed in the Properties dialog box of the
polygon.

3.14.1.4 DeletingClutterPolygons
Youcandeleteclutterpolygons.
Todeleteaclutterpolygon:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheEditortoolbarappears(seeFigure 3.19).
4. Clickthepolygondeletiontool(

).Thepointerchanges(

).

5. Clickthepolygonyouwanttodelete.Thepolygonisdeleted.

3.14.2 EditingGeoclimaticMaps
Somegeographicdatamaps,forexamplegeoclimaticmaps,aremadeupofindividualvectorobjects.Youcanmodifyand
createthesegeodatamapsbyaddingavectorlayerandthenaddingvectorobjects(contours,lines,andpoints)tothislayer.
Tocreateavectorlayerandvectorobjectsonageodatamap:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheGeoclimaticParametersfoldertowhichyouwanttoaddavectorlayer.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectAddVectorLayerfromthecontextmenu.Anewdataobjectcalled"Vectors"iscreatedintheselectedgeodata
objectfolder.
4. Rightclickthenewvectorlayer.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.ThevectortoolsontheVectorEditortoolbarareactivated.

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Youcanalsoactivatethevectortoolsbyselectingthevectorlayertoeditfromthe
VectorEditortoolbarlist.BecauseAtollnamesallnewvectorlayers"Vectors"by
default,itmightbedifficulttoknowwhichVectorsfolderyouareselecting.Byrenaming
eachvectorsfolder,youcanensurethatyouselectthecorrectfolder.Forinformationon
renamingobjects,see"RenaminganObject"onpage 26.

6. Todrawapolygon,clicktheNewPolygonbutton(

)ontheVectorEditortoolbar:

a. Clickonceonthemapwhereyouwanttobegindrawingthecontour.
b. Clickeachtimeyouchangeanglesontheborderdefiningtheoutsideofthecontour.
c. Doubleclicktoclosethecontour.
7. Todrawarectangle,clicktheNewRectanglebutton(

)ontheVectorEditortoolbar:

a. Clickthepointonthemapthatwillbeonecorneroftherectangle.
b. Dragtotheoppositecorneroftherectangle.
c. Releasethemousetocreatetherectangledefinedbythetwocorners.
8. RightclickthenewpolygonorrectangleandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.
9. Enteravalue:

GeoclimaticParameters:EnteravalueintheRainIntensityfieldtoindicatetheintensityofrainfallforthepol
ygon.

10. PressESCtodeselecttheNewPolygon(

)ortheNewRectangle(

)buttonontheVectorEditortoolbar.

11. ForAtolltoconsiderthenewvectorlayeraspartofthedatamap,youmustmapthevectorlayer.RightclicktheGeo
climaticParametersfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
12. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
13. ClicktheDataMappingtab.Forthefollowinggeodata:

GeoclimaticParameters:

IntheFieldcolumn,"Rain"isselectedbydefault.

Youcaneditthevectorobjectsasexplainedin"EditingPolygons,Lines,andPoints"onpage 48.

3.15 SavingGeographicData
AtollallowsyoutosaveyourgeographicdatafilesseparatelyfromsavingtheAtolldocument.Atollsupportsavarietyofboth
raster and vector file formats (for more information, see "Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 118). Saving a
geographicfileseparatelyfromsavingtheAtolldocumentenablesyouto:

Savemodificationsyouhavemadetoanexternalfile:Ifyouhavemademodificationstogeodata,youcanexport
themtoanewexternalfile.
Updatethesourcefilewithmodificationsyouhavemade:IfyouhavemademodificationstoageodatatypeinAtoll,
youcansavethesechangestothesourcefile.
Combineseveralrasterfilesintoonefile:IfyouhaveseveralsmallrasterfilesinonefolderoftheGeoexplorer,you
cansavethemasonefile.
ExportanembeddedfiletobeusedinanotherAtolldocumentorinanotherapplication:Youcansaveafiletoan
externalfile,inthesameformatorinanotherone.
Createanewfilefrompartofalargerone:Youcanselectpartofcertaingeodatatypesandthensavetheselected
partasanewfile.

Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

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"SavingModificationstoanExternalFile"onpage 143
"UpdatingtheSourceFile"onpage 144
"CombiningSeveralRasterFilesintoOneFile"onpage 144
"ExportinganEmbeddedFile"onpage 145
"CreatingaNewFilefromaLargerFile"onpage 146

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3.15.1 SavingModificationstoanExternalFile
InAtoll,youcansaveyourmodificationstoanexternalfile.
Thissectionexplainsthefollowing:

"ExportinganEditedClutterClassMapinaRasterFormatFile"onpage 143
"ExportinganEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile"onpage 144.

3.15.1.1 ExportinganEditedClutterClassMapinaRasterFormatFile
Youcanexportclutterclassmodificationsinarasterformatfile,eitherinthesameformatasusedinthecurrentAtolldocu
ment,orinadifferentrasterformat.Youcanalsochoosetoexporttheentireclutterclassgeodata,thepartcontainingthe
computationzone,orjustyourmodificationstothegeodata.
Whenyouhavemademodificationstoarasterformatgeodatafile,exportingeithertheentiregeodataorjustyourmodifi
cationsallowsyoutosavethosemodificationstoanexternalfile.
Toexportclutterclassmodificationsinarasterformatfile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. RightclicktheClutterClassesfolder.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. IntheSaveAsdialogbox,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethefile,enteranameforthefile,andselect
thefileformatfromtheSaveastypelist.Youcanselectfromoneofthefollowingfileformats:

BMPFiles(*.bmp):WhenyouselectBMPformat,AtollautomaticallycreatesthecorrespondingBPWfilecon
tainingthegeoreferenceinformation.
PNG Files (*.png): When you select PNG format,Atoll automatically creates the corresponding PGW file con
tainingthegeoreferenceinformation.
ArcViewGridFiles(*.txt,*.asc):TheArcViewtextformatisintendedonlyforexport;nocorrespondinggeoref
erencefileiscreated.
TIFFFiles(*.tif):Whenyouselecttaggedimagefileformat,AtollautomaticallycreatesthecorrespondingTFWfile
containingthegeoreferenceinformation.
BILFiles(*.bil):WhenyouselecttheBILformat,AtollautomaticallycreatesthecorrespondingHDRfilecontaining
thegeoreferenceinformation.WhenexportinginBILformat,Atollallowsyoutoexportfileslargerthan2 Gb.
VerticalMapperFiles(*.grc,*.grd):FileswiththeextensionGRCorGRDareVerticalMapperfiles.Whenexporting
inGRDorGRCformats,Atollallowsyoutoexportfileslargerthan2 Gb.

5. ClickSave.TheExportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.20).

Figure 3.20:Exportdialogbox
6. UnderRegion,selectoneofthefollowing:

TheEntireProjectArea:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexporttheentireclutterclassgeodatafile,includinganymod
ificationsyouhavemadetothegeodata.Theexportedgeodatafilewillreplacethegeodatafileinthecurrent
Atolldocument.
OnlyPendingChanges:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportarectanglecontaininganymodificationsyouhavemade
totheclutterclasses.TheexportedgeodatafilewillbeaddedasanewobjecttotheClutterClassesgeodata
folder.
The Computation Zone: This option allows you to export the clutter class geo data contained by a rectangle
encompassingthecomputationzone,whetherornotthecomputationzoneisvisible.Theexportedgeodatafile
willbeaddedasanewobjecttotheselectedgeodatafolder.

7. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.Thesug
gestedresolutionvalueisdefinedbythefollowingcriteria:

Ifoneobjecthasbeenmodified,thesuggestedresolutionistheresolutionofthemodifiedobject.

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Ifseveralobjectshavebeenmodified,thesuggestedresolutionisthehighestresolutionofthemodifiedobjects.
Ifthereisnoinitialclutterclassobject,theresolutionwillequalthehighestresolutionoftheDTMmaps.
IftheAtolldocumentinwhichyoucreatedtheclutterclassfilehasnoDTM,nootherclutterclassgeodatafile,
ortrafficobjects,thesuggestedresolutionis100 m.

8. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedinanexternalfile.

3.15.1.2 ExportinganEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile
Youcanexportaneditedvectorlayerasavectorformatfile.Avectorlayercancontaincontours,lines,andpoints.Alongwith
vectorlayersyouhaveaddedtotheGeoexplorer,thefollowingmapscanbeexportedasvectorformatfiles:

Vectorformatgeoclimaticmaps

Onceyousaveavectorlayer,theexportedfilereplacesthevectorlayerasalinkedfile.Youcanembedthefileafterwards
(see"EmbeddingGeographicData"onpage 127).
Youcansimultaneouslyexportthedisplayconfigurationfile(CFG)oftheeditedvector
layerbysettinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.Theexporteddisplayconfigurationfilewill
havethesamefilenameandwillbesavedinthesamedirectoryastheexportedvector
formatfile.FormoreinformationaboutsettingoptionsintheAtoll.inifile,seethe
AdministratorManual.
Toexportavectorlayer:
1. OntheExplorerwindowtabcontainingthevectorlayer,rightclickthevectorlayerfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
3. IntheSaveAsdialogbox,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethefile,enteranameforthefile,andselect
thefileformatfromtheSaveastypelist.Youcanselectfromoneofthefollowingfileformats:

AGD:TheAtollGeographicDataformatisanAtollspecificformat.AsaformatcreatedforAtoll,Atollcanread
AGDfilesfasterthantheothersupportedvectorformats.
SHP:TheArcViewvectorformatcanbeusedforvectorlayerscontainingonlypolygons,onlylines,oronlypoints.
Ifavectorfilehasacombinationofpolygons,lines,andpoints,youshouldusetheAGD,MIF,orTABformats
instead.
MIFandTAB:MapInfoformats.

4. ClickSaveintheSaveAsdialogbox.TheVectorExportdialogboxappears,displayingthecurrentcoordinatesystem
andallowingyoutochangethecoordinatesystembyclickingChange.
5. ClickExport.Thevectorlayerissavedintheformatandwiththenameyouspecifiedandtheexportedfilereplaces
thevectorlayerinthecurrentdocumentasalinkedfile.

3.15.2 UpdatingtheSourceFile
WhileworkingonanAtolldocument,youmaymakechangestogeodata.IfthegeodatafileisembeddedintheAtolldocu
ment,Atollsavesthechangesautomaticallywhenyousavethedocument.Ifthegeodatafileislinked,Atollpromptsyouto
savethechangeswhenyouclosethedocument.
Toupdatethesourcefileofalinkedgeodatafile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefoldercontaininggeodatafilewhosesourcefileyouwanttoupdate.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSavefromthecontextmenu.Thelinkedfileisupdated.
Youwillnotbewarnedthatyouarereplacingthecurrentfile.Therefore,ensurethatyou
wanttoreplacethecurrentfilebeforeproceedingtothefollowingstep.Ifyoudonot
wanttoreplacethecurrentfile,youcansaveyourchangestoanexternalfile("Exporting
anEditedVectorLayerinVectorFormatFile"onpage 144).

3.15.3 CombiningSeveralRasterFilesintoOneFile
Incertaincircumstances,forexample,afterimportinganMSIPlanetindexfile,youmayhaveseveralgeodatafilesofthe
sametype.Youcancombinetheseseparatefilestocreateonesinglefile.Thefileswillbecombinedaccordingtotheirorder
fromthetopdowninthefolderintheGeoexplorer.Ifthefilesoverlaponthemap,thecombinedfilewillshowthefileonthe
top.

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Youcancreateaonefilefromasectionofthefollowinggeodatatypes:

Digitalterrainmodel
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Scannedmaps

Tocombineindividualfilesintoanewfile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderofthegeodatafilesyouwanttocombineintoonefile.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. EnteraFilenameandselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
5. ClickOK.TheExportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.21).
6. UnderRegion,selectTheEntireProjectArea.Thisoptionallowsyoutosavetheentireareacoveredbythegeodata
files,includinganymodificationsyouhavemadetothegeodata.
7. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.Thesug
gestedresolutionvalueisthehighestresolutionofallobjects.
8. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedasanewfile.

3.15.4 ExportinganEmbeddedFile
YoucanexportanembeddedgeodatafiletobeusedinadifferentAtolldocument,orinadifferentapplication.Whenyou
exportanembeddedfile,AtollreplacestheembeddedfileinthecurrentAtolldocumentwiththenewlyexportedfile.
Toexportanembeddedgeodatafile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderoftheembeddedgeodatafileyouwanttoexport.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. EnteraFilenameandselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
5. ClickOK.
Ifthegeodatafileisavectorfile,theVectorExportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.21).

Figure 3.21:TheVectorExportdialogbox
a. TheVectorExportdialogboxdisplaysthecoordinatesystemofthefile.Tochangethecoordinatesystemusedfor
theexportedfile,clickChange.TheCoordinateSystemsdialogboxappears.ForinformationontheCoordinate
Systemsdialogbox,see"SettingaCoordinateSystem"onpage 102.
b. ClickExport.Thegeodatafileisexportedwiththeselectedcoordinatesystem.
Ifthegeodatafileisarasterfile,theExportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.22).

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Figure 3.22:Exportdialogbox
a. UnderRegion,selectoneofthefollowing:

TheEntireProjectArea:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexporttheentirerasterformatgeodatafile,includingany
modificationsyouhavemadetothegeodata.TheexportedfilewillreplacetheembeddedfileintheGeoex
plorer.
OnlyPendingChanges:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportarectanglecontaininganymodificationsyouhave
madetothegeodata.Theexportedfilewillbeaddedasanobjectinthegeodatafolder.
TheComputationZone:Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportthegeodatacontainedbyarectangleencompassing
thecomputationzone,whetherornotthecomputationzoneisvisible.Theexportedfilewillbeaddedasan
objectinthegeodatafolder.

b. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.
c. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedinanexternalfile.

3.15.5 CreatingaNewFilefromaLargerFile
Youcancreateanewfilefromasectionofalargerfile.YoucanusethisnewfileinthesameAtolldocument,orinanewAtoll
document.Tocreateanewfile,youmustfirstdefinetheareabycreatingacomputationzone.
Youcancreateanewfilefromasectionofthefollowinggeodatatypes:

Digitalterrainmodel
Clutterclasses
Clutterheights
Scannedmaps
Geoclimaticmaps

Tocreateanewfilefromasectionofalargerfile:
1. SelecttheGeoexplorer.
2. Rightclickthefolderoftheembeddedgeodatafileyouwanttoexport.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectSaveAsfromthecontextmenu.TheSaveAsdialogboxappears.
4. EnteraFilenameandselectafiletypefromtheSaveastypelist.
5. ClickOK.TheExportdialogboxappears(seeFigure 3.21).
6. UnderRegion,selectTheComputationZone.Thisoptionallowsyoutoexportthegeodatacontainedbyarectangle
encompassingthecomputationzone,whetherornotthecomputationzoneisvisible.Theexportedgeodatafilewill
beaddedasanewobjecttotheselectedgeodatafolder.
7. DefineaResolutioninMetres.Theresolutionmustbeanintegerandtheminimumresolutionallowedis1.
8. ClickOK.Theselecteddataissavedasanewfile.

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Chapter4
Antennasand
Equipment
Thischapterprovidestheinformationtoworkwith
antennasandequipmentinAtoll.

Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningtheListofManufacturers"onpage 150

"DefiningAntennas"onpage 150

"MicrowaveRadios"onpage 154

"MicrowaveFeeders"onpage 176

"MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility"on
page 177

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4 AntennasandEquipment
Atollmodelstheequipmentthatisusedtocreateanetwork,alongwiththecharacteristicsthathaveabearingonnetwork
performance.
Microwaveradioequipmentisusedtoconvertinitialdatatomicrowavefrequencysignals,whichcanthenbetransmitted
overagivenmicrowavelinkandtheequipmentusedtoconvertthereceivedmicrowavefrequencysignalstodata.Themicro
waveradiosystemiscomposedofthreemainsubsystems:

Indoorunit(IDU)
Outdoorunit(ODU)
Antenna

Figure 4.1:Radiosystemcomponents
IndoorUnit(IDU)
TheIDUistheterminationpointoftheenduserequipmentthatgeneratesthedatatobecarriedbythemicrowavelink.It
consistsofthefollowingcomponents:

Theradiomodemthatconvertsthedigitalsignalintoaformsuitableformodulationontheradiocarriersignal
ThepowersupplyfortheOutdoorUnit(ODU)

OutdoorUnit(ODU)
TheODUconvertsthemodulatedsignalfromitslowfrequencyformtoahighfrequencyradiosignalintheappropriateradio
bandandchannelforradiotransmission.
Antenna
Theantennaisthepartofthemicrowavelinkthattransmitselectromagneticenergyfromtransmissionlinesintotheairand
receivestransmittedelectromagneticenergyfromtheairtobethensentontransmissionlines.Theantennacanbeinoneof
manydifferentshapes(forexample,horn,parabolic,flatorplanar,lens,yagi,orarray)toachieveitsspecificobjectives.
Themaincharacteristicsofthemicrowaveantennaarethefollowing:

Directivity:Inpracticalterms,directivityisdefinedas:

Theabilitytosendthetransmittedpowerinonlythedesireddirection
Theabilitytorejectundesiredsignalscomingfromotherdirections.

Gain:ThegainistheamountofpowerradiatedinagivendirectionusingonlytheRFpowerattheinputterminalsof
theantenna.
FronttoBackRatio(FBR):TheFBRistheratioofthepowerradiatedinthedesireddirectiontothepowerradiated
intheoppositedirection,typicallybetween35and50 dB.Ingeneral,thehigherthegainoftheantenna,thehigher
theFBR.
Radiationpattern:Theradiationpatternisadiagramshowingthedirectionoftheradiatedpower.Theportionofthe
patternwherethemaximumgainoccursisoftenreferredtoasthemainlobeofthepattern
Polarisation:Polarisationistheabilitytotransmitonlyoneofthetwoelectromagneticvectorcomponentsofthe
wave(eitherthehorizontalcomponentortheverticalcomponent).Usingpolarisationenablesthesameradiofre
quencytobeusedbydifferentradiosystemsinphysicalproximitytooneanother.

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Verticalpolarisation

Horizontalpolarisation
Figure 4.2:Polarisation

CrossPolarisation Discrimination (XPD): The XPD istheratio of power received inthedesired polarisationtothepower
receivedinundesiredpolarisation.XPDisadesignparameterthatismaximisedinthemainlobeoftheantennapattern.
Thischapterexplainshowtoworkwithantennasandotherequipmentsuchasradiosandfeeders:

"DefiningtheListofManufacturers"onpage 150
"DefiningAntennas"onpage 150
"MicrowaveRadios"onpage 154
"MicrowaveFeeders"onpage 176
"MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility"onpage 177.

4.1 DefiningtheListofManufacturers
Themanufacturersofmicrowaveradios,feeders,andantennasarelistedintheManufacturersfolder.Youcancreateanew
manufactureroryoucanmodifyanexistingone,throughthemanufacturersPropertiesdialogbox.
Tocreateormodifyamanufacturer:
1. Ifyouarecreatinganewmanufacturer:
a. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
b. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
c. RightclicktheManufacturersfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
d. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheManufacturers:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. Ifyouaremodifyingthepropertiesofanexistingmanufacturer:
a. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
b. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
c. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheManufacturersfoldertoexpandthefolder.
d. Rightclickthemanufactureryouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
e. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. Definethefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameofthemanufacturer.
Comments:Anycomments.

4. ClickOK.

4.2 DefiningAntennas
Eachmicrowaveantennaisidentifiedbyanameanddefinedbytheoperatingfrequencyband,manufacturername,horizon
talandverticalantennapatterns,gain,andantennadiameter.
Theoperatingfrequencybandandmanufacturerrelatedinformationareusedasfilteringcriteriawhendefiningcompatible
antenna/equipmentsets.
Fourdifferentantennapatterndiagramsareusedinmicrowaveantennas,i.e.,horizontalandverticalplanediagramsforhori
zontalandverticalpolarization.Eachofthesepatternscanhavebothcopolarandcrosspolarpatternsdefined.
Because an antenna can be horizontally and vertically polarised, Atoll uses the relevant antenna pattern diagrams when
determiningpropagation.
Inthissectionthefollowingaredescribed:

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"CreatinganAntenna"onpage 151
"ImportingMicrowaveAntennas"onpage 152
"EditingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns"onpage 153
"DisplayingAntennaPatternsWithaFixedScale"onpage 154

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"PrintingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns"onpage 154.

4.2.1 CreatinganAntenna
Themicrowaveantennaisusedtoradiateorreceiveelectromagneticenergyintheformofhighfrequencyradiowaves.Atoll
modelsmicrowaveantennasandprovidesdefaultmicrowaveantennas.Aswell,Atollenablesyoutocreatenewantennas
andsettheparametersofeach(i.e.,name,manufacturer,gain,horizontalpattern,verticalpattern,anddiameter).
Whenyoucreateanewantenna,youcancopythehorizontalandverticalantenna
patternsfromaspreadsheetorwordprocessor.

Tocreateanantenna:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheAntennas:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. ClicktheGeneraltab.Youcanenterinformationinthefollowingfields:

Name:Ifnecessary,modifythedefaultname.
Manufacturer:Thenameoftheantennamanufacturer.
FrequencyBand:Thefrequencybandthatthisantennawillbeusedwith.
Gain:Theantennasisotropicgain.
Diameter:Thediameteroftheantenna.
RadomeLosses:Foranantennaequippedwitharadome,thelossescausedbytheradome.
UnderCrossPolarDiscrimination(XPD),Atolldisplaysthecrosspolardiscriminationsforhorizontalandvertical
polarisations.

Horizontal:Theratioofpowerreceivedinthecrosspolarsectiontothepowerreceivedinthecopolarsec
tion,forthehorizontalpolarisation.
Vertical:Theratioofpowerreceivedinthecrosspolarsectiontothepowerreceivedinthecopolarsection,
fortheverticalpolarisation.
Comments:Anyadditionalinformationontheantenna.

6. Definethecopolarandcrosspolarsectionsforeachplaneoftheantenna.
Amicrowaveantennaisdefinedby8radiationpatterns.Oneachofthefourtabsoftheantennapropertiesdialogbox,
youcandefinethecopolarandcrosspolarsectionsforeachplaneoftheantenna:

HorizontalpolarisationHorizontalplane:

HorizontalpolarisationVerticalplane:

Copolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.

VerticalpolarisationHorizontalplane:

Copolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoahorizontallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.

Copolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalinthehorizontalplane.

VerticalpolarisationVerticalplane:

Copolarsection:Verticalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.
Crosspolarsection:Horizontalpolarisedportresponsetoaverticallypolarisedsignalintheverticalplane.

Tocopythecopolarandcrosspolarsectionsforeachplanefromawordprocessororspreadsheetdocument:
a. Switchtothedocumentcontainingthehorizontalpattern.
b. Selectthecolumnscontainingtheanglesandattenuationvaluesofthehorizontalpattern.
c. Copytheselecteddata.

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Figure 4.3:Copyinghorizontalpatternvalues
d. SwitchtoAtoll.
e. Clicktheupperleftcellofthehorizontalpattern.
f. Pastethedatainthetable.
Ifsomevaluesaremissinginthedatasheet,Atollinterpolatesthevaluesinordertoobtainacompleteandreal
isticpatternaroundtheantenna.WhenyoupastethedataintotheAntennas:NewRecordPropertiesdialogbox,
AtollremovesblankrowsinthepatterntablewhenyoupresstheApplybutton.Whenyoucalculatealonganan
gleforwhichnodataisavailable,Atollcalculatesalinearinterpolationfromexistingpatternvalues.
g. ClickApplytodisplaythepattern.
7. ClickOK.

4.2.2 ImportingMicrowaveAntennas
YoucanimportantennafilesinthePlanetmicrowaveantennaformatorinstandardNSMA(NationalSpectrumManagers
Association)formatsdefinedbyrecommendationsWG16.89.003andWG16.99.0501.
Toimportantennafiles:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectImportfromthecontextmenu.TheDataImportdialogboxappears.
5. IntheDataImportdialogbox,chooseoneofthefollowingoptions:

Onefileonly:Choosethisoptionifyouonlywanttoimportonefile.
Entirefolder:Choosethisoptionifyouwanttoimportallthefilesinafolder.

6. ClicktheBrowsebuttontonavigatetothefileorthefoldertobeimported.
7. SelectthefileorfoldertobeimportedandclickOpen.
8. ClickImport.Thefileorfoldersareimported.
Atolldoesnotstoptheimportprocessifanerroroccurs.Atollcontinuesuntilallfilesareimportedandthendisplaysinthe
Eventsviewerhowmanyfileshavebeensuccessfullyandunsuccessfullyimported.
Atollautomaticallycalculatestheantennadiameterfromtheantennagainandaverageoperatingfrequency.Theaverage
operatingfrequencyiscalculatedas(MaximumFrequencyMinimumFrequency)/2.Theantennadiameteriscalculatedusing
thefollowingequationforaradiationefficiencyof55 %:
Gain dBi = 20 Log Diametre m + 20 Frequency MHz 42.2

Diametre m = 10

,whichgives:

Max Frequency Min Frequency


dBi
Gain
+ 2.11 Log ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------2
20

Formoreinformationonantennafileformats,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

1.
ForfurtherinformationaboutthestandardNSMAformat(recommendationWG16.99.050),seethefollowingwebsite:
http://www.fcc.gov/oet/info/software/nsma/nsmaintrp.html.

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4.2.3 EditingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns
Youcanmodifyantennapatternsbyeditingthemindividuallyoryoucancopytheantennapatternsofoneantennaand
replacetheantennapatternsofanotherantenna:

"EditingaSingleRadiationPattern"onpage 153
"CopyinganAntennaPatterntoOneorMoreAntennas"onpage 153.

EditingaSingleRadiationPattern
Youcaneditthehorizontalorverticalpatternsofanantenna.
Toeditthehorizontalorverticalpatternsofanantenna:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheAntennasfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclicktheantennayouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheantennasPropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. Selectthetabofthepatternyouwanttoedit(forinformationonthetabsoftheantennasPropertiesdialogbox,see
"CreatinganAntenna"onpage 151).
7. Edittheantennapatternbyenteringnewvaluesinthetable.
Youcandisplayantennapatternswitheitherlinearorlogarithmicaxes.Youcandefinethe
display by rightclicking the pattern window and choosing the either Linear display or
Logarithmicdisplayfromthecontextmenu.
CopyinganAntennaPatterntoOneorMoreAntennas
YoucancopyantennapatternsintheAntennastable.BycopyingandpastingpatternsintheAntennastableyoucanassign
theantennapatternsofoneantennatoanother.
Tocopyanantennapattern:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheAntennastableappears.
Byresizingrowheightandcolumnwidth,youcanviewallantennapatternsinordertobeabletocomparethem(see
Figure 4.4).

Figure 4.4:MWAntennastable
5. Intherowoftheantennawiththepatternyouwanttocopy,selectthecellwiththepattern.

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6. SelectEdit >Copytocopythecell.
7. Intherowoftheantennayouwanttocopythepatternto,selectthecellwiththepattern.
8. SelectEdit >Pastetopastetheantennapattern.
AtollreplacestheoldpatternwiththenewoneintheAntennastable.

Youcanalsocopyanantennapatternbyrightclickingthepatternonthetabofthe
antennasPropertiesdialogboxandselectingCopyfromthecontextmenu.
PatternsaredisplayedintheAntennastablewitheitherlinearorlogarithmicaxes
asdefinedinthePropertiesdialogboxofanindividualantenna.Youcandefinethe
displaybyrightclickingthepatternofanantennaandchoosingeitherLineardis
playorLogarithmicdisplayfromthecontextmenu.

4.2.4 DisplayingAntennaPatternsWithaFixedScale
Atolldisplaystheverticalandhorizontalantennapatternsusingascalethatisautomaticallyadjustedtothehighestandthe
lowestattenuationvaluesoftheantennabeingdisplayed.Youcan,however,displayallantennasusingafixedscaleinorder
tovisuallycompareorprintantennapatterns.
Tofixtheantennapatterndisplayscale:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclicktheAntennasfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectDisplayPatternsUsingaFixedScalefromthecontextmenu.
AtolldeterminesthelowestandthehighestantennaattenuationvaluesofalltheantennasintheAntennasfolder,
andusesthesevaluestosetthepatternscale.Antennapatternsofalltheantennasarenowdisplayedusingthisscale.

4.2.5 PrintingMicrowaveAntennaPatterns
Toprintthepatternofamicrowaveantenna:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheAntennasfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclicktheantennawhosepatternyouwanttoprint.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheantennasPropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. Selectthetabwiththeantennapatternyouwanttoprint:

HPolar.HPlane:Horizontalpolarizationhorizontalplane
HPolar.VPlane:Horizontalpolarizationverticalplane
VPolar.HPlane:Verticalpolarizationhorizontalplane
VPolar.VPlane:Verticalpolarizationverticalplane

7. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectLineardisplayorLogarithmicdisplayfromthecontextmenu.
8. RightclicktheantennapatternandselectPrintfromthecontextmenu.

4.3 MicrowaveRadios
Theconceptofmicrowavetransceiverradiosisusedtomanageoutputpower,powercontrol,modulationanddemodulation
ofthesignaltobetransmittedandthesignalreceivedattheantenna,todescribethebranchingconfigurationandtodefine
supportedbitrates.
InAtoll,theseparametersaredefinedbyusingradioseriesandradios.Globalparameterssuchasthefrequencybandsin
whichtheradiosoperate,themodulationstheysupport,thetransmissionparameters,etc.,aregroupedanddefinedinthe
radio series while other parameters such as the capacity, sensitivity, etc., are set in the radio properties. This modelling
enablesyoutoregroupradiosbyradioseriesaccordingtotheparametersgivenbyradiomanufacturersandtoquicklycheck
thefrequencyband,modulation,branchingtypecharacteristicssupportedbytheradiosofaradioseries.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

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"ModifyingtheCharacteristicsofaRadioSeries"onpage 156
"DescriptionofaRadio"onpage 160
"CreatingorModifyingaRadio"onpage 165
"ImportingMicrowaveRadios"onpage 166

4.3.1 CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries
Aradioseriesisdefinedbytheglobalcharacteristicssupportedbytheradiosthatbelongtoit,i.e.,thefrequencybandsin
whichradiosoftheseriescanoperate,thesupportedmodulations,thechannelbandwidthsused,andprotectiontypes.Trans
missionrelatedparametersandtransmissionandreceptionlossesforbranchingcanbedefinedaswell.
Aradioseriesisdefinedbythefollowingparameters:

Name:TheNameoftheseries.
Manufacturer:Thenameofthemanufacturer.
Comments:Anyadditionalinformationontheradioseries.
Frequencybands:Thefrequencybandsonwhichradiosoftheseriescanoperate.
Operationmodes:Theoperationmodessupportedbytheradiosoftheseriesforagivenfrequencyband.
Modulations:Themodulationschemessupportedbytheradiosoftheseries,foragivenfrequencyband.
Transmission powers: The transmissionrelated parameters of radios for the selected frequency bandoperation
modemodulationconfiguration.Youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Minimumpower:Thelowestoutputpowersupportedbytheradiosafterapplyingtuning.
Standardpower:Themaximumoutputpowerforthestandardpower(SP)ODUconfiguration.
Highpower:Themaximumoutputpowerforthehighpower(HP)ODUconfiguration.
Lowpower:Themaximumoutputpowerforthelowpower(LP)ODUconfiguration.
Authorisedvalues:Theoutputpowerssupportedbytheradiosafterapplyingtuning.Thevaluesmustbesepa
ratedbyaspace(" ").
MaximumATPC:Youcanenterthemaximumoutputpowersupportedbytheradioafterapplyingapowerrange
reservedforAdaptiveTransmissionPowerControl(ATPC).
Step:YoucanenterthevalueintervalbetweentheallowedoutputpowerswhenATPCisused.
AdaptiveTransmissionPowerControl(ATPC)isusedbythetransmittertoadjustpowerbyincreasingorreducing
itinordertomaintainsignalqualityincaseofmultipathorrainfadingthattemporarilyattenuatesthereceived
signal.TheATPCalsoenablesthetransmittertorespondtoincreasedinterferencelevelsresultingfromATPCon
otherlinks.TheATPCcanbetakenintoconsiderationduringcalculations.

Channelbandwidths:Thechannelbandwidthssupportedbytheradiosoftheseriesintheselectedfrequencyband.
Branchingtypes:Thebranchingtypes(i.e.,protectionconfigurations)supportedbytheradiosoftheseriesinthe
selectedfrequencyband.
ACU(AntennaCouplingUnit)losses:Thelossesrelatedtothebranchingtypeforagivenfrequencyband.Youcan
definethefollowingparameters:

Transmission:Thetransmissionlossesduetotheconnectionwiththemainequipment.
Reception:Thereceptionlossesduetotheconnectionwiththemainequipment.
Protectedreception:Thetransmissionandreceptionlossesduetotheconnectionwiththestandbyequipment.

4.3.2 CreatingaRadioSeries
Atoll provides a wizard to create radio series. For a description of each field, see "Characteristics of a Radio Series" on
page 155.
Tocreatearadioseries:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclicktheRadioSeriesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheradioseriescreationwizardappearswiththeGeneralscreen.

EdittheName.
DefinetheManufacturer.
InsertCommentsifyouwant.
DefinetheFrequencybands.

5. ClickNext.TheOperationModescreenappears:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinetheOperationmode.

6. ClickNext.TheModulationsscreenappears:

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SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s)andoperationmode(s),selectthecheckboxesofsupportedModulations.
Foreachsupportedmodulation,clickitsnameunderModulationsanddefinethecorrespondingTransmission
powerandPowerControlparameters:

Minimum,Standard,High,andLowtransmissionpowervalues
Authorisedvaluesfortransmissionpower
PowercontrolMaximumATPCandStep

7. ClickNext.TheChannelBandwidthsscreenappears:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedChannelbandwidths.

8. ClickNext.TheBranchingscreenappears:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedBranchingtypes.
Foreachbranchingtypeforwhichyouhaveselectedthecheckbox,clickthenameintheBranchingtypeslistand
definetheACU(antennacouplingunit)losses:

Transmission
Reception
Protectedreception

YoucanchangethepropertiesoftheselectedbranchingtypebyclickingthePropertiesbutton.Youcancreateanew
branchingtypebyclickingtheNewbutton.Forinformationonbranchingtypeproperties,see"CreatingorModifying
BranchingTypes"onpage 174.
9. ClickNext.TheRadioCapacitiesscreenappears:

SelectaFrequencyband.
SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
Atolllistsallchannelbandwidthmodulationcombinationsfortheselectedfrequencybandandoperationmode,
anddisplaysthecorrespondingcapacity.Thedisplayedcapacityiseitheranexistingcapacityoronecalculatedby
Atoll(indicatedbyanasteriskappendedtothenamedisplayedinthebox).Youcanmodifythecapacityofeach
bandwidthmodulationcombination:

Clicktheboxcolouredinbluecorrespondingtothebandwidthmodulationcombinationwhosecapacityyou
wanttomodify.Anarrowappearsintherightofthebox.
Clickthearrowandselectthecapacityfromthelistthatappears.
YoucanfurtherdefinethedisplayedcapacitybyrightclickingitandselectingRecordPropertiesfromthe
contextmenu.
Ifyoudonotwanttocreateradioequipmentwithabandwidthmodulationcombination,
youcaneitherselecttheblackitemfromthetopofthelist,orrightclicktheentryand
selectDeletefromthecontextmenu.

10. ClickNext.TheRadioEquipmenttoCreatescreenappearswhereAtolllistsallcombinationsoftheparametersyou
havedefined(frequencyband,operationmode,modulation,andchannelbandwidth).
11. SelectthecheckboxesintheCreatecolumnforeachcombinationforwhichyouwanttocreatearadio.
12. ClickFinish.Atollcreatestheradioseriesandtheradioscorrespondingtotheselectedcombinations.

4.3.3 ModifyingtheCharacteristicsofaRadioSeries
Youcanmodifyanexistingradioseriesandaddnewradios.Youcanaccessthepropertiesofaradioseriesthroughtheradio
seriessPropertiesdialogbox.Foradescriptionofeachfield,see"CharacteristicsofaRadioSeries"onpage 155.
Tomodifytheradioseriescharacteristics:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheRadioSeriesfolder.
4. Rightclicktheradioserieswhosepropertiesyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheradioseriesPropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. ClicktheGeneraltab(seeFigure 4.5).TheGeneraltabdisplaysthefollowingparameters:

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Manufacturer
Comments
Frequencybands

Figure 4.5:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogboxGeneraltab
7. ClicktheOperationModetab(seeFigure 4.6).OntheOperationModetab,youcan:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinetheOperationmode.

Figure 4.6:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogboxOperationModetab
8. ClicktheModulationstab(seeFigure 4.7).OntheModulationstab,youcan:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s)andoperationmode(s),selectthecheckboxesofsupportedModulations.
Foreachsupportedmodulation,clickitsnameunderModulationsanddefinethecorrespondingTransmission
powerandPowerControlparameters:

Minimumpower
Standardpower
Highpower
Lowpower
Authorisedvalues
MaximumATPC
Step

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Figure 4.7:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogboxModulationstab
9. ClicktheChannelBandwidthstab(seeFigure 4.8).OntheChannelBandwidthstab,youcan:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedChannelbandwidths.

Figure 4.8:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogboxChannelBandwidthstab
10. ClicktheBranchingtab(seeFigure 4.9).OntheBranchingtab,youcan:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
Fortheselectedfrequencyband(s),selectthecheckboxesthatdefinethesupportedBranchingtypes.
YoucanchangethepropertiesoftheselectedbranchingtypebyclickingthePropertiesbutton.Youcancreatea
newbranchingtypebyclickingtheNewbutton.Forinformationonbranchingtypeproperties,see"Creatingor
ModifyingBranchingTypes"onpage 174.
Foreachbranchingtypeforwhichyouhaveselectedthecheckbox,clickthenameintheBranchingtypeslistand
definetheACU(antennacouplingunit)losses:

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Figure 4.9:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogboxBranchingtab
11. ClicktheRadioEquipmenttab(seeFigure 4.10).OntheRadioEquipmenttab,youcan:

SelectaFrequencybandor<All>.
SelectanOperationmodeor<All>.
Atolllistsallchannelbandwidthmodulationcombinationsfortheselectedfrequencybandandoperationmode,
anddisplaysthecorrespondingcapacitieswhentheradioexists.Unlikecellscolouredingrey,theonescoloured
inblueindicatethattheradioscorrespondingtotheseconfigurationsexistintheRadiosfolder.

Tocreatenewradios:

Clickthecellcorrespondingtotheconfigurationthatyouwanttoaddasanewradio.Anarrowappearstothe
rightofthecell.
Clickthearrowandselectacapacity.
Clickanothercelltovalidate.
Rightclickthecell.Thecontextmenuappears.
SelectNew.ThecellismarkedinblueandindicatesthattheradioexistsintheRadiosfolder.

Toremoveexistingradios:

Rightclickthecellcorrespondingtotheconfigurationyouwanttoremove.Thecontextmenuappears.
SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreyandindicatesthattheradionolongerexists
intheRadiosfolder.

Tomodifythepropertiesofexistingradios:

Rightclickthecellcorrespondingtotheradioyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheradioPropertiesdialogboxappears.
Changetheparametersasdefinedin"DescriptionofaRadio"onpage 160.

Figure 4.10:RadioseriesPropertiesdialogboxRadioEquipmenttab
12. ClickOK.

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4.3.4 DescriptionofaRadio
Atollenablesyoutodefineradios.Aradiobelongstoaradioseries.Itcorrespondstothecombinationoffrequencyband,
operation mode, modulation and channel bandwidth parameters. Each combination has specific characteristics that are
definedintheradioPropertiesdialogbox.Bydefault,radiosaregroupedintoradioseries.
ThePropertiesdialogboxhaseighttabs:

TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 4.11):

Name:Thenameoftheradio.
Radioseries:Thenameoftheradioserieswhichtheradiobelongsto.
Frequencyband:Thefrequencybandinwhichtheradiooperates.
Operationmode:Theoperationmodethattheradiosupports.
Modulation:Themodulationschemethattheradiosupports.
UnderPower,thefollowingparametersareavailable:

Minimum:Thelowestoutputpowersupportedbytheradioafterapplyingtuning.
Standard:Themaximumoutputpowerforthestandardpower(SP)ODUconfiguration.
High:Themaximumoutputpowerforthehighpower(HP)ODUconfiguration.
Low:Themaximumoutputpowerforthelowpower(LP)ODUconfiguration.
Authorisedvalues:Theoutputpowersallowedbytheradioafterapplyingtuning.
MaxATPC:Themaximumoutputpowersupportedbytheradioafterapplyingapowerrangereservedfor
AdaptiveTransmissionPowerControl(ATPC).
Step:ThevalueintervalbetweentheallowedoutputpowerswhenATPCisused.
Channelbandwidth:Thechannelbandwidth.
Capacity:Thecapacitysupportedbytheradio.
Transmissiondesignator:IDdedicatedtoregulatorybodies.Thisfieldisforinformationonly.

Figure 4.11:RadioPropertiesdialogboxGeneraltab

TheSensitivitytab(seeFigure 4.12):

UnderThermalFadeMargin,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Receptionthreshold:Theminimumreceiversignallevel(threshold)ataspecifiedrate(BER)thattheradiocan
successfullydemodulate.Thiswillbeusedtocalculatethethermalfademargin.
YoucandefinereceptionthresholdsfortwovaluesofBER:103and106.InordertochangeaBERvalueorto
addanewreceptionthresholdforanotherBERvalue,clicktheEditbutton(

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Systemgain:Thedifferencebetweenthemaximumpoweroftheradioandthereceptionthreshold,fortwo
valuesofBER,103and106.ThisfieldisautomaticallycalculatedbyAtoll.Thisisaperformanceindicatorfor
theradio.
Saturation threshold: The maximum receiver sensitivity before saturation. It is used to calculate the signal
enhancementmargin.YoucandefinesaturationthresholdsfortwovaluesofBER:103and106.Inordertochange

aBERvalueoriftoaddanewsaturationthresholdforanotherBERvalue,clicktheEditbutton(
UnderCrosspolarisationmargin,thefollowingparametersareavailable:

).

MinC/I:Thecarriertointerferenceratioinnormalconditions,i.e.,whennointerferenceisexperienced.This
isusedtoevaluatetherequiredmarginagainstdepolarisationwhenusingadualpolarisationtransmission
link.AtollautomaticallycalculatesthisparameterfortwovaluesofBER:103and106.
YoucansetAtolltouseMinC/IvaluesdefinedorcalculatedinoldversionsofAtollby
addinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformationonchangingoptionsinthe
Atoll.inifile,seetheAdministratorManual.

XPIF:Themaximumimprovementfactorreservedforcrosspolarisationreduction(XPIF).Thisisusedonly
whenanXPIC(crosspolarisedinterferencecanceller)ispresent.Itisusedtoreducethescatteringofinterfer
encefromtheundesiredpolarisationintothedesiredpolarisationduetorainfadingbyincreasingthecross
polarisationdiscriminationfactor(XPD).XPIFisgenerallywithintherangeof1520 dB.
UnderThermalnoise,thefollowingparametersareavailable:

Noisefigure:Thenoisefigurefortheradio.
MinFKTB(at17C):Thereceiverthermalnoisecalculatedat17Candforthechannelbandwidth.

Figure 4.12:RadioPropertiesdialogboxSensitivitytab

TheLossestab(seeFigure 4.13):

Transmissionfilter:Thelossesduetotheuseoffiltersintransmission.
Receptionfilter:Thelossesduetotheuseoffiltersinreception.
Circulators:Foreachcirculatorpresentonthisradio,youcansetthePortitisattachedto,anddefinethelosses
inTransmissionandReception.

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Figure 4.13:RadioPropertiesdialogboxLossestab

TheMultipathDispersiontab(seeFigure 4.14):

DFM:Thedispersivefademargin,fortwodifferentvaluesofBER:103and106.Thisparameterisusedtopredict
thecompositefademarginwhenusingtheVigantscalculationmethod.

UnderRadioSignature,youcanchoosethemethodandtheparameterstakenintoaccounttopredictfrequency
selectivefadingwhenusingITURP.530recommendations.
Theradiosignatureparametersarenotusedbyalltypesofreceiverradios.

Theradiosignaturechosenwillcharacterisetheabilityofareceivingradiotoperformsuccessfully(i.e.,produce
acceptableerrorsrates)inthepresenceoffrequencyselectivefading.
Thisinformationisavailablefromthemanufacturer.

Standardised:Forastandardisedsignature,selectStandardisedandenteravaluefortheKnParameter.The
Knparameterismostlydependantonthemodulationused.
Modulation

Kn

64QAM

15.4

16QAM

5.5

8PSK

4PSK

Knvalues(withoutadaptiveequalization)

RummlerModel:IfyouwanttousetheRummlermodeltopredictoutagetimes,selectRummlermodel,and
define the frequency shift (Signature width and Signature depth) for both minimum and nonminimum
phasesandtwovaluesofBER,103and106.Formoreinformation,seestudiesbyC.W.LundgrenandW.D.
Rummler1andtheITU P.530recommendation.

1.
C.W. Lundgren and W.D. Rummler, "Digital radio outage due to selective fading observation vs. prediction from
laboratorysimulations,"BellSystemTechnicalJournal,pp.10731100,MayJune1979.
W.D.Rummler,"Characterizingtheeffectsofmultipathdispersionondigitalradios,"IEEEGlobecomProceedings,pp.1727
1732,1988.

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Figure 4.14:RadioPropertiesdialogboxMultipathDispersiontab

TheReliabilitytab(seeFigure 4.15):

Meantimebeforefailure(MTBF):Thisparameterisusedtodefinethereliabilityoftheradioandcorrespondsto
theaveragelengthoftimethattheradiofunctionswithoutfailing.TheMTBFisavailablefromtheradiomanufac
turer.
Hotstandbycommutationdelay:TheHotStandbyCommutationDelayisthemaximumamountoftimeitwould
taketoswitchtobackupequipmentifthemainequipmentfails.TheHotStandbyCommutationDelayisusedonly
ifthesystemconfigurationsupportshotstandby.Furthermore,whenyoudefinethepropertiesforamicrowave
link,youmustindicatewhichchannelwillbeusedasabackupincaseofmainequipmentfailure.Formoreinfor
mationondefiningmicrowavelinkproperties,see"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.

Figure 4.15:RadioPropertiesdialogboxReliabilitytabs

TheTransmitterMasktab(seeFigure 4.16):
YoucandefinethetransmitterspectralmaskeitherbyclickingtheUsedefaultgraphsbutton,toletAtollcreatethe
maskfromstandardvalues,orbydefininganattenuationindB(Att.)foreachfrequencyshiftinMHz(Delta F).This
informationisprovidedbytheradiomanufacturer.
Theresultingtransmittermaskisdisplayedinthegraphwindowontheright.

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Figure 4.16:RadioPropertiesdialogboxTransmitterMasktab

TheReceiverMasktab(seeFigure 4.17):
YoucandefineareceivermaskeitherbyclickingtheUsedefaultgraphsbutton,toletAtollcreatethemaskfrom
standardvalues,orbydefininganattenuationindB(Att.)foreachfrequencyshiftinMHz(Delta F).Thisinformation
isprovidedbytheradiomanufacturer.
Theresultingreceivermaskisdisplayedinthegraphwindowontheright.

Figure 4.17:RadioPropertiesdialogboxReceiverMasktab

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Youcandefineathresholdtointerference(TI)grapheitherbyclickingtheUsedefaultgraphsbutton,toletAtoll
createthegraphfromstandardvalues,orbydefininganattenuationindB(Att.)foreachfrequencyshiftinMHz
(Delta F).Thisinformationisprovidedbytheradiomanufacturer.
Thethresholdtointerference(T/I)ratioisusedtocalculatetheinterferencefademargin(IFM)whichdefinesthe
vulnerabilitytocochannelandadjacentchannelinterference.TheT/Igraphdefinesthecorrespondencebetween
maximuminterferingpowerlevelsanddifferentfrequencyseparationsbetweenthetransmitterandvictimreceivers.
Foreachinterferingtransmitter,thereceivedpowerlevelindBiscomparedtothemaximumpowerleveltodeter
minewhethertheinterferenceisacceptable.ThisisdoneinsteadofcalculatingC/Ivaluesandcomparingthemtothe
objectivesforthatmicrowavelink.
TheresultingTIgraphisdisplayedinthegraphwindowontheright.

4.3.5 CreatingorModifyingaRadio
Youcanmodifyanexistingradiooryoucancreateanewradio.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxdependsonwhether
youarecreatinganewradioormodifyinganexistingradio.
Tocreatearadio:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclicktheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheCreationofaNewRadioEquipmentdialogboxappears.
5. IntheCreationofaNewRadioEquipmentdialogbox,selecttheRadioSeriesthattheradiobelongsto.
Atollliststhecombinationsoffrequencybands,operationmodes,modulationsandchannelbandwidthsthatdonot
existasradioequipment.
Bydefault,theabovecombinationsareallcandidatesforcreation(allcheckboxesare
selectedintheCreatecolumn).Makesurethatonlythecombinationsthatyouwantare
selectedbeforeclickingOKintheCreationofaNewRadioEquipmentdialogbox.
6. Foreachcombinationforwhichyouwanttocreatearadio,definethefollowing:
a. SelectthecorrespondingcheckboxintheCreatecolumn.
TocopythestatusofaCreatecheckbox(selectedorcleared)tothefollowingcandidate
combinations(belowitoraboveit),clickthecorrespondingcellundertheCreatecolumn
(whileholdingthemousebuttondown)anddragthemousetothelastcellofyour
selection.Releasethemousebutton,pressCTRL,andclickinthehighlightedselection.
b. SelectthecorrespondingcapacityintheCapacitycolumn.Bydefault,Atollcalculatesthethroughputforthegiven
modulationandchannelbandwidthandselectsthecapacityassociatedwiththisthroughput.
c. DefinethereceptionthresholdforeachvalueofBERintheSensitivitycolumn.Youcanenterthevalueswiththe
followingformat:Sensitivity1BER1Sensitivity2BER2.
d. ChangethedefaultnameoftheradioequipmentintheNamecolumn.
7. ClickOK.Atollcreatestheradioscorrespondingtotheselectedcombinations.ThenewradiosappearintheRadios
folderoftheExplorerwindow.
Tomodifyanexistingradio:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolderandtheRadiosfolder,rightclicktheradiothat
youwanttoedit,andselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThemicrowaveradiosPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DescriptionofaRadio"onpage 160.
3. ClickOK.

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4.3.6 ImportingMicrowaveRadios
AtollenablesyoutoimportradiofilesthatareinstandardNSMA(NationalSpectrumManagersAssociation)formatdefined
bytherecommendationWG21.99.051orinPathlossformat(versions4.0or5.0).
NSMAformatequipmentfilesareASCIIfileswiththeextensionNSM.PathlossformatradiofilesareASCIIfileswiththeexten
sionRAF.EachradiofilecancontainseveralT/Igraphsfordifferentpairsofmodulationsandcapacities.Inthiscase,theT/I
graphdefinedforidenticalmodulationsandcapacitiesisimportedintotheT/IGraphtabwhiletheothersareimportedinto
thetheoreticalgraphstable.Formoreinformationonthetheoreticalgraphs,see"TheoreticalGraphs"onpage 170.
Therearetwomethods
Importingsingleequipmentfilesiscoveredinthefollowingsection:

"ImportingSingleRadioEquipmentFilesintoAtoll"onpage 166

Importingmultipleequipmentfilesisatwostepprocess:

"PreparingMultipleRadioEquipmentFilesforImporting"onpage 166
"ImportingMultipleRadioEquipmentFilesintoAtoll"onpage 167

ForfurtherinformationabouttheNSMAandPathlossfileformats,seetheAdministratorManual.

4.3.6.1 ImportingSingleRadioEquipmentFilesintoAtoll
Beforeimportingasingleradioequipmentfile,theradioseriesoftheequipmentmustalreadyexist.Theradioseriesrepre
sentsarangeofequipmentanddefinestheavailablefeaturesoftheradiosintheseries,includingfrequencybandsthatthe
radiosintheseriescanuse,aswellasmodulation,channelbandwidth,andbranchingcapabilities.Forinformationabout
creatingaradioseries,see"CreatingaRadioSeries"onpage 155.
Toimportasingleradioequipmentfile:
1. IntheParametersexplorer,expandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder,rightclicktheRadiosfolder,andselectImport
fromthecontextmenu.TheRadioImportdialogboxappears.
2. SelectanexistingradioseriesfromtheRadioserieslist.
3. ClicktheBrowsebuttontolocateandselecttheNSMAorPathlossfilethatyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.
4. ClickImport.Thefileisimported.
Atolldoesnotstoptheimportprocesswhenanerroroccurs.Itcontinuesuntilallthefiles
have been imported and then displays in the Events viewer how many files have been
successfullyandunsuccessfullyimported.

4.3.6.2 PreparingMultipleRadioEquipmentFilesforImporting
Atollusesadatabasestructurethatusesdifferenttablesfortheactualradioequipment,theradioseries,andtheoperation
mode.

Radioseries:Thisgroupsarangeofequipmentanddefinestheavailablefeaturesoftheradiosintheseries,including
frequencybandsthattheradiosintheseriescanuse,aswellasmodulation,channelbandwidth,andbranchingcapa
bilities.
Operation mode: This provides categories that allow you to distinguish radio equipment within a radio series,
dependingonhowtheyareoperated,forexampleforfixedoradaptivemodulationandvariousduplextypes.

Eachradioequipmentisassociatedwitharadioseriesandanoperationmodecategory.
Beforeimportingthefiles,youmustarrangetheNSMAorPathlossfilesinafolderstructurewhereafirstfolderlevelrepre
sentseachradioseries,whichcontainsasecondfolderlevelfortheoperationmodecategories,asshowninFigure 4.18.

Figure 4.18:Folderstructureforradioseriesandoperationmodes.

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Thefoldernamesmatchthenameoftheradioseriesandoperationmodeinthetables:

Toaddtheequipmentfilestoanexistingradioseriesoroperationmodecategory,namethefolderswiththenameof
thecorrespondingradioseriesoroperationmode.Whenthefilesareimported,eachequipmentisassociatedwith
theradioseriesandoperationmodecorrespondingtothefoldernames.
Tocreateanewradioseriesoroperationmodecategory,namethefolderswithnameofthenewradioseriesoroper
ationmode.Whenthefilesareimported,theoperationmodesandradioseriescorrespondingtothefoldernames
areautomaticallycreated.

Ifanoperationmodefolderisnotspecified,theradioequipmentisassociatedwiththedefaultfixedmodulationoperation
mode.
Pathlossv5.0filescancontainmultipleradiosinasinglefile.Therefore,allequipmentina
singlePathlossv5.0filewillsharethesameoperationmode.

4.3.6.3 ImportingMultipleRadioEquipmentFilesintoAtoll
Afteryouhavesetuptheradioseriesandoperationmodefoldersthatcontaintheequipmentfiles,asdescribedin"Preparing
MultipleRadioEquipmentFilesforImporting"onpage 166,youcanimporttheequipmentfilesintoAtoll.
Toimportradiofiles:
1. IntheParametersexplorer,expandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder,rightclicktheRadioSeriesfolder,andselect
Importfromthecontextmenu.TheTreeDefinitiondialogboxappears.
2. ClicktheRootDirectorybutton,selecttherootfolderthatcontainstheradioseriesfoldersandclickOK.TheTreeDef
initiondialogboxdisplaysthetreestructureofthedirectory.
3. Rightclickthefoldersthatyouwanttotagastheradioseriesfortheimportedradiofiles,andselectRadioSeries.The
tag<Series>appearsnexttothefoldername.
Alternatively,youcanrightclickthetoplevelfolderandselectLowerLevel>RadioSeriestotagallfoldersbelowthe
selectedfolderwiththe<Series>tag.
4. Rightclickthefoldersthatyouwanttotagastheoperationmodefortheimportedradiofiles,andselectOperation
Mode.Thetag<Mode>appearsnexttothefoldername.
Alternatively, you can rightclick a folder and select Lower Level > Operation Mode to tag all folders below the
selectedfolderwiththe<Mode>tag.
5. SelectthefilesandfoldersthatyouwanttoimportandclickImport.Allthefilesandfoldersareimported.Errorsand
warningsaredisplayedintheEventsviewer.
Afterimportingtheequipmentfiles,eachnewradioisassociatedtotheradioseriesandoperationmodecategorycorre
sponding to the folders tagged<Series> and <Mode>. If the radio series or operation mode does not exist, anew one is
created.
IftheimportprocessencountersanymodulationsorcapacitiesthatdonotexistintheAtolldatabase,thosenewitemsare
addedtothecorrespondingtablesandanasterisk(*)isappendedtothename.Tocheckfornewitems,intheParameters
explorer,expandMicrowaveSettings>Configurations,rightclickModulationsorCapacities,andclickOpenTable.
Atolldoesnotstoptheimportprocesswhenanerroroccurs.Itcontinuesuntilallthefiles
have been imported and then displays in the Events viewer how many files have been
successfullyandunsuccessfullyimported.

4.3.7 AdvancedConfiguration
Atolloffersseveraladvancedconfigurationoptions:

"InterferenceReductionFactor"onpage 167
"TheoreticalGraphs"onpage 170.
"DefiningEquipmentConfigurations"onpage 171.

4.3.7.1 InterferenceReductionFactor
Theinterferencereductionfactor(IRF)isamethodofreducinginterferenceonthereceivedsignal.TheIRFisafunctionofthe
differencebetweenthecentralfrequenciesoftheinterferedsignalandtheinterferingsignal.Youcandefineaprotectionlevel
foreachvictiminterferermicrowavetransceiverradiopairbydefiningtheprotectionlevels(indB)foreachfrequencydelta
(inMHz).

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The IRF graphs defined in the IRF table are used during the calculation of interference. When studying the interference
betweentransmissionandreceptionradios,AtollfirstverifieswhetheranIRFgraphisdefinedforthetransmissionradio
receptionradiopairintheIRFtable.Ifso,Atollusesit.Otherwise,AtolldeterminestheIRFgraphduringtheprocessofcalcu
latinginterference.Theentireprocessisasfollows:
1. Atollverifiesthatthetransmissionandthereceptionradioshavethesamemanufacturer,capacity,andmodulation.
Ifso,AtollusesTIgraphstodeterminetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosifavailable,
or the theoretical TI graphs if not (for more information on the theoretical graphs, see "Theoretical Graphs" on
page 170).
2. If the radio manufacturer, capacity, or modulation are not the same, Atoll merges the transmitter mask and the
receivermaskoftheradiosinordertodeterminetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosif
available,orthetheoreticalgraphsifnot.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"DefiningIRFGraphsManually"onpage 168
"DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant"onpage 169.

DefiningIRFGraphsManually
YoucandefineIRFgraphsusingtheIRFtable.TheseIRFgraphswillbeusedtoreducetheinterferencebetweenvictimand
interferermicrowaveradioswhencalculatinginterference.
TocreateormodifyanIRFgraph:
1. IntheParametersexplorer,expandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder,rightclicktheRadiosfolder,andselectIRF >
OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheIRFtableappears(seeFigure 4.19).

Figure 4.19:IRFtable
2. SelectthenameoftheVictimradiofromthelist.
3. SelectthenameoftheInterfererradiofromthelist.
IfyouarecreatinganewIRFgraph,usetherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

).

4. DoubleclickintheleftmarginoftherecordtoopenitsPropertiesdialogbox(seeFigure 4.20).

Figure 4.20:IRFrecordPropertiesdialogbox
5. UnderIRFinthePropertiesdialogbox,enteraprotectionlevel(indB)foreachfrequencydelta(inMHz).Theresulting
graphisdisplayedontherightofthePropertiesdialogbox.

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6. ClickOK.
DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant
AtollprovidesanassistanttoenableyoutodefineIRFsbetweentransmissionandreceptiontransceiverradios.Whenyou
selectafrequencybandandtheradiomanufacturerswithradiosthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband,Atolldisplaysthe
entrieswherethetransmissionandreceptionradiospresentthepossibilityofinterference.
TousetheassistanttodefineIRFs:
1. IntheParametersexplorer,expandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder,rightclicktheRadiosfolder,andselectIRF >
EditGridfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFEditiondialogboxappears(seeFigure 4.21).

Figure 4.21:IRFEditiondialogbox
2. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyradiosoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredisplayedinthe
grid.
3. SelecttheTXmanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredisplayedinthe
grid.
4. SelecttheRXmanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredisplayedinthe
grid.
5. YoucannowdefineanIRFgraph,deleteanIRFgraph,orcreateanIRFgraphusingradiographsortheoreticalgraphs
(seeFigure 4.21):

Figure 4.22:IRFEditiondialogbox
TodefineanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradios:
a. RightclickthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentriesandselectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.A
dialogboxappears.
b. UnderEnterthegraphvalues,enteraprotectionlevel(indB)foreachfrequencydelta(inMHz).Theresulting
graphisdisplayedontherightofthedialogbox.
c. ClickOK.
TodeleteanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradios:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.
TocreateanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradiosfromtransmitterandreceivermasks:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectCalculateUsing >TransmitterandReceiverMasksfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFCalculationdialogbox
appears.

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c. FromtheTransmittermasklist,selectatheoreticaltransmissionspectrumgraphcompatiblewiththeoperating
frequencybandofthetransmissionradio.Ifthereisatransmissionspectrumgraphdefinedfortheradio,youcan
select"SameasRadio"touseit.
d. FromtheReceivermasklist,selectatheoreticalreceiverselectivitygraphcompatiblewiththeoperatingfrequen
cybandofthereceptionradio.Ifthereisareceiverselectivitygraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"Same
asRadio"touseit.
e. DefinetheCalculationstepinMHz.
f. ClickCalculatetocalculatetheIRFgraph.
g. ClickOK.
TocreateanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradiosfromT/Igraphs:
a. RightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentriesandselectCalculateUsing >T/IGraphsfromthe
contextmenu.TheIRFCalculationdialogboxappears.
b. FromtheT/Igraph(Tx)list,selectatheoreticalT/Igraphcompatiblewiththeoperatingfrequencybandofthe
transmissionradio.IfthereisaT/Igraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"SameasRadio"touseit.
c. FromtheT/I(Rx)list,selectatheoreticalT/Igraphcompatiblewiththeoperatingfrequencybandofthereception
radio.IfthereisaT/Igraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"SameasRadio"touseit.
d. ClickCalculatetocalculatetheIRFgraph.
e. ClickOK.
6. ClickOKtoclosetheIRFSettingsdialogbox.

4.3.7.2 TheoreticalGraphs
Atollallowsyoutodefinetheoreticalgraphsthatyoucanusewhentheradiodescriptionisnotcomplete(i.e.,wheninforma
tionaboutthetransmittermask,thereceivermask,orT/Igraphismissing).Thesetheoreticalgraphscandescribeeitherthe
transmittermask,orthereceivermask,orT/Igraphforacertainmanufacturer,frequencyband,bandwidth,rate,andmodu
lation.Theycanbeusedtoinitialiseradioproperties(thetransmittermask,thereceivermask,theT/Igraph),andtocalculate
IRFgraphswhennoIRFisdefinedintheIRFtable.Defaulttheoreticalgraphsareavailablefordifferentfrequencybandsand
bandwidths.1
CreatingTheoreticalGraphs
AtheoreticalgraphcontainsinformationonthebehaviourofmicrowavetransceiverradiounderdifferentconditionsofC/I.
Itrepresentsthechangesinthebiterrorrateasafunctionofthelevelofinterference.
Tocreateatheoreticalgraph:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclickontheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectTheoreticalGraphsfromthecontextmenu.TheTheoreticalGraphstableappears.
5. Rightclickthetheoreticalgraphyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThetheoreticalgraphsPropertiesdialogboxappears.
Youcancreateanewtheoreticalgraphbyenteringanameintherowmarkedwiththe
NewRowicon(
)andpressingENTER.

7. ClicktheGeneraltabanddefinethefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameofthetheoreticalgraph.
Typeofgraph:Thetypeoftheoreticalgraphyoudefine.Itcanbeeitheratransmittermask,orareceivermask,
oraT/Igraph.
Manufacturer:Themanufacturerforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Frequencyband:Thefrequencybandforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Channelbandwidth:Thebandwidthforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Rawdatarate:Therawdatarateforwhichthegraphisvalid.
Modulation:Themodulationforwhichthegraphisvalid.

1.
T/Igraphswerefoundatthewebaddresshttp://www.radio.gov.ukandtransmitterandreceivermaskswerefoundat
http://www.ero.dk.

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8. ClicktheValuestabanddefinethecorrespondinggraph.

Ifthegraphdescribesthetransmittermask,definetheattenuationofthemaintransmittedsignal(indB)asafunc
tionofthefrequencyspacing(inMHz).
Ifthegraphdescribesthereceivermask,definetheattenuationofthemainreceivedsignal(indB)asafunction
ofthefrequencyspacing(inMHz).
IfthegraphisaT/Igraph,definethevariationoftheT/I(indB)asafunctionofthefrequencyspacing(inMHz).

9. ClickOK.

4.3.7.3 DefiningEquipmentConfigurations
Atollenablesyoutomanagethevariousconfigurationssupportedbyradios.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

4.3.7.3.1

"CreatingorModifyingModulations"onpage 171.
"CreatingorModifyingDigitalTrunks"onpage 172.
"CreatingorModifyingCapacities"onpage 173.
"CreatingorModifyingBranchingTypes"onpage 174.
"CreatingorModifyingOperationModes"onpage 175.

CreatingorModifyingModulations
Atollenablesyoutodefinethedifferentmodulationschemesusedbyradiosforthemodulationanddemodulationofthe
signalstobetransmitted.
Atollhasasetofdefaultmodulationdefinitionsavailable,butyoucancreatenewmodulationsandsettheirparameters.
Tocreateormodifyamodulation:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheModulationsfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheModulationstableappears.
6. Doubleclickintheleftmarginthemodulationyouwanttomodify.ThemodulationsPropertiesdialogboxappears
(seeFigure 4.23).

Figure 4.23:ModulationsPropertiesdialogbox
7. InthePropertiesdialogbox,definethefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameofthemodulation.
Numberofstates:Enterthenumberofstatesforthismodulation(e.g.,128for128QAMmodulation).
UnderEb/No,youcandefinetheEb/NoasafunctionofBER.ForagivenBER,Eb/Norepresentsthequalitytarget
tobereachedinorderforthemodulationtobeused.YoucaneitherselectUserdefinedanddefinetheEb/No
valuesforBERof103and106,orselectCalculatedandletAtollentercalculatedvalues.
YoucanclicktheEditbutton(

)toaddnewEb/NovaluesforotherBERvaluesorchangetheBERvalues.

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Comments:Anyadditionalinformationonthemodulation.

8. ClickOK.

4.3.7.3.2

CreatingorModifyingDigitalTrunks
Atollenablesyoutomodelthedifferenttechnologiesusedtotransportlargequantitiesofdataoverdigitaltransportequip
mentsuchasfibreopticandmicrowaveradio.PDH,SDH/SONETaswellasIPcanbemodelled.
Theplesiochronousdigitalhierarchy(PDH)isatechnologyusedtotransportlargequantitiesofdataoverdigitaltransport
equipmentsuchasfibreopticandmicrowaveradio.PDHnetworkshavedatastreamswiththesamenominalfrequencybut
arenotsynchronisedwitheachother;inotherwords,therisingandfallingedgesofthepulsesineachdatastreamsdonot
coincide.
TheEuropeanandAmericanversionsofPDHsystemsdifferslightlyintheirdatarates,butthebasicprinciplesofmultiplexing
arethesame.
Thesynchronousdigitalhierarchy(SDH)referstothegrouporlayersoftransmissionratesorstandardsthatcantransport
digitaldataofdifferentcapacitiesthroughhighbandwidthmediumssuchasopticalfibresorradiowaves.Duetothesynchro
nousnatureoftheSDH,theaveragefrequencyofallslaveclocksinthesystemisthesame.
TheEuropean(SDH)andAmerican(SONET)versionsofSDHsystemsdifferslightly.Theframeformatsandthusthedatarates
ofbothsystemsarenotthesamebutarecompatibleduetotheirsynchronousnature.
Atollhasasetofdefaultdigitaltrunkdefinitionsavailable,butyoucancreatenewtrunktypesandsettheirparameters.
Tocreateormodifyamicrowavedigitaltrunk:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheDigitalTrunksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheDigitalTrunkstableappears(seeFigure 4.24).

Figure 4.24:DigitalTrunkstable
6. Foreachdigitaltrunkyoudefine,addthefollowingdata:

Name:Thenameofthetrunktype.
Digitalhierarchy:SelectPDH,SDH/SONET,orIP.
Rawdatarate(Mbit/s):Thenumberofbitspersecond,includingusefuldataaswellascodingandoverheadbits.
ThisparameterisconsideredwhenusingthecalculatortoevaluatetheTDMcapacityofaspecificconfiguration.
Payloaddatarate(Mbit/s):Therateoftheusefulbits(i.e.thedataratewithoutconsideringthecodingandover
headbits).Thisfieldisforinformationonly.
Bits/block:Thenumberofbitsperblockcorrespondstothenumberofbitsperframe(i.e.,theusefulbitsplusthe
overheadandthecodingbits).
BERses:BERsescorrespondstoBitErrorRate(BER)asdocumentedinAnnex 2,Table 2oftheITURP.5308rec
ommendation.

YoucanalsodefinethepropertiesofadigitaltrunkinitsPropertiesdialogbox.

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ToopenadigitaltrunksPropertiesdialogbox:

DoubleclickthedigitaltrunkintheleftmarginoftheDigitalTrunkstable.ThedigitaltrunksPropertiesdialogbox
appears(seeFigure 4.25).

Figure 4.25:DigitalTrunkPropertiesdialogbox

4.3.7.3.3

CreatingorModifyingCapacities
Atollenablesyoutodefinethecapacitiessupportedbythedifferentmicrowaveradios.Eachdefineddigitaltrunksupportsa
certainrawdatarate.Therefore,thecapacityofamicrowaveradiodependsonthetypeandthenumberoftrunktypesused.
Atollhasasetofdefaultcapacitiesavailable,butyoucancreatenewcapacitiesandsettheirparameters.
Tocreateormodifyacapacity:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheCapacitiesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheCapacitiestableappears(seeFigure 4.26).

Figure 4.26:Capacitiestable
6. Foreachcapacityyoudefine,enterthefollowing:

Name:Thenameofthecapacity.
Ethernet+TDMcapacity:Thetotalcapacitythattheradiocansupport.
TDMcapacity:ThecapacitythatcanbeusedforTDMtraffic.
Technology:Thetypeoftrafficsupportedbytheradio.YoucanchoosebetweenPacket,HybridandTDMonly.If
youselectTDMonly,theTDMcapacityandtheEthernet+TDMcapacityvaluesmustbethesame.

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YoucanalsodefinethepropertiesofacapacityinitsPropertiesdialogbox.
ToopenacapacitysPropertiesdialogbox:

DoubleclickthecapacityintheleftmarginoftheCapacitiestable.ThecapacitysPropertiesdialogboxappears(see
Figure 4.27).

Figure 4.27:CapacitysPropertiesdialogbox

4.3.7.3.4

CreatingorModifyingBranchingTypes
Atollenablesyoutodefinethebranchingtypessupportedbyradios.Thebranchingtypeisdefinedintheformof"n+m"
where"n"isthenumberofactivechannelsand"m"isthenumberofstandbychannels.Inaddition,youcandefineifthe
systemsupportshotstandby,frequencydiversity,spacediversity,XPIC,andMIMO.
Standbychannelsareinactiveandusedonlywhenactivechannelsfail.Switchingtothestandbychannelincaseoffailurecan
beautomatic;suchasystemiscalleda"hot"standbysystem.Ifthesystemmustbemanuallyswitchedtothestandbychannel,
thesystemiscalleda"cold"standbysystem.
Standbychannelfrequencycanbedifferentfromactivechannels.Frequenciesallocatedto
activeandstandbychannelsaredefinedinthemicrowavelinkpropertiesdialogbox.

Tocreateormodifyabranchingtype:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheBranchingTypesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheBranchingTypestableappears(seeFigure 4.28).

Figure 4.28:BranchingTypestable

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6. Foreachbranchingtypeyoudefine,addthefollowingdata.

N:Thenumberofactivechannels.
M:Thenumberofstandbychannels.
HotStandby:Selectthisoptionifahotstandbysystemisavailable.Standbychannelsareinactiveandusedonly
whenactivechannelsfail.Switchingtothestandbychannelincaseoffailurecanbeautomatic;suchasystemis
calleda"hot"standbysystem.Ifthesystemmustbemanuallyswitchedtothestandbychannel,thesystemis
calleda"cold"standbysystem.
SpaceDiversity:Selectthisoptionifthesystemsupportsspacediversity.
FrequencyDiversity:Selectthisoptionifthesystemsupportsfrequencydiversity.
XPIC:Selectthisoptionwhenacrosspolarisedinterferencecanceller(XPIC)ispresent.
MIMO:SelectthisoptionifMIMOisenabled.
NumberofMIMOtransmissionantennasandNumberofMIMOreceptionantennas:Specifythesamenumber
ofantennasfortransmissionandreceptionwhenMIMOisenabled.InaMIMOconfiguration,youmustspecify
either2,3,or4antennasforbothtransmissionandreception.

ToopenabranchingtypesPropertiesdialogbox:

DoubleclickthebranchingtypeintheleftmarginoftheBranchingTypestable.ThebranchingtypesPropertiesdialog
boxappears(seeFigure 4.29).

Figure 4.29:BranchingTypePropertiesdialogbox

4.3.7.3.5

CreatingorModifyingOperationModes
Atollenablesyoutodefinetheoperationmodessupportedbytheradios.
Atollhasadefaultlistofoperationmodesavailable,butyoucancreatenewones.
Tocreateormodifyanoperationmode:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheOperationModesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheOperationModestableappears(seeFigure 4.30).

Figure 4.30:OperationModestable
6. Foreachoperationmodeyoudefine,addthefollowingdata:

Name:Thenameoftheoperationmode.
ShortName:Entertheshortnameoftheoperationmodethatyouwanttodisplayinsomeanalysisreports.
WithACM:SelectTrueiftheoperationmodesupportsadaptivemodulation.Otherwise,chooseFalse.

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ToopenanoperationmodesPropertiesdialogbox:

DoubleclicktheoperationmodeintheleftmarginoftheOperationModestable.TheoperationmodesProperties
dialogboxappears(seeFigure 4.31).

Figure 4.31:OperationModePropertiesdialogbox

4.4 MicrowaveFeeders
FeedersareusedtotransfertheRFsignalfromthetransmissionmoduleofthemicrowaveradiotothemicrowaveantenna.
Atollenablesyoutomanagedifferenttypesoffeeders(cables,etc.).
Microwaveenergycanbeguidedinametallictube,calledawaveguide,withverylowattenuation.Thewaveguideisdesigned
foraspecificwavelength.Hence,theoperatingfrequencyisaveryimportantcharacteristicforawaveguide.Theelectricand
magneticfieldsarecontainedwithintheguide,andthereforethereisnoradiationloss.Sincethedielectricisair,thedielectric
lossesarealsonegligible.Awaveguideoperatesbetweentwolimitingfrequencies,calledthecutofffrequencies.
Cables,ontheotherhand,haveametallicinnercorewithadielectricmaterialseparatingtheoutermetallicconductor.The
cableiscoveredwithaplasticjacketforprotection.Thedielectricmaterialisusuallyairorfoam.Thesearequiterobustand
thereforeeasytoinstall.Cablelossisafunctionofcrosssectionalarea;thethickerthecable,thelowertheloss.Cablelossis
measuredintermsofdecibelsper100m.
Thefollowingsectionsdescribefeedermodelling:

"DefinitionofFeeders"onpage 176
"CreatingorModifyingFeeders"onpage 177.

4.4.1 DefinitionofFeeders
InAtoll,microwavefeedersarecharacterisedbythelossasignalundergoesper100 moftheirlength.Onceamicrowave
feederhasbeendefined,youcanassignittoamicrowavelinkforbothtransmissionandreception.
TheparametersoffeederscanbefoundinthefeederPropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhasonetab:

TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 4.32)

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Name:Thenameofthefeeder.
Frequency:Selectthefrequencybandfromthelist.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogbox
oftheselectedfrequencyband.
Manufacturer:Selectthemanufacturerfromthelist.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogbox
oftheselectedmanufacturer.
Lossperlength:EnterthesignallossindBper100 m.
Type:Selectthetypeoffeeder.YoucanselectfromCable,Elliptic,Rectangular,Circular,Flex/TwistorOther.

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Figure 4.32:FeederPropertiesdialogbox

4.4.2 CreatingorModifyingFeeders
Youcanmodifyexistingfeedersoryoucancreatenewfeeders.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxdependsonwhether
yourecreatingnewfeedersormodifyingexistingfeeders.
Tocreatenewfeeders:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheFeedersfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheFeeders:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofFeeders"onpage 176.
6. ClickOK.
Ifyouarecreatingalargenumberoffeedersbasedonmanufacturersdata,itcantakea
longtime.However,ifyouhavethedataavailableintabularformat,youcancopyitfrom
thespreadsheetorwordprocessorandpastethedataintotheFeederstable.
Tomodifyexistingfeeders:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheMicrowaveEquipmentfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )totheleftoftheFeedersfoldertoexpandthefolder.
4. Rightclickthefeederwhosepropertiesyouwanttoedit.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThefeederPropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofFeeders"onpage 176.
7. ClickOK.

4.5 MicrowaveAntenna/Radio/FeederCompatibility
Atoll allows you to define compatibility between antennas, radios, and feeders. The defined compatible antenna/radio/
feedersetscanbethenselectedwhenyoudefinethepropertiesofamicrowavelink.Youcandefinecompatibilitydirectlyin
theAntennaRadioCompatibilityandAntennaFeederCompatibilitytablesoryoucanusetheassistantsavailableinAtollto
definecompatibility.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"DefiningCompatibilityManually"onpage 177
"UsingAssistantstoDefineCompatibility"onpage 178.

4.5.1 DefiningCompatibilityManually
YoucanusetheAntennaRadioCompatibilityandAntennaFeederCompatibilitytablestodefinewhichmicrowaveantennas
arecompatiblewithwhichfeedersandwhichmicrowaveantennasarecompatiblewithwhichradios.

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Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

"UsingtheMicrowaveAntenna/FeederCompatibilityTable"onpage 178
"UsingtheMicrowaveAntennaRadioCompatibilityTable"onpage 178

4.5.1.1 UsingtheMicrowaveAntenna/FeederCompatibilityTable
YoucanusetheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytabletolistcompatiblemicrowaveantennasandfeeders.Whenyoudefine
theproperties(i.e.,antennas,radios,andfeeders)ofamicrowavelink,thesecompatibilitydefinitionscanbeusedtodisplay
onlycompatibleantennas,radios,andfeedersasoptionsinlists.
Todefineantenna/feedercompatibilityusingtheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytable:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaFeederCompatibilities.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytableappears.
6. Createanewantenna/feedercompatibilitypairbyselectinganAntennaandaFeederfromthelistsintherowmarked
withtheNewRowicon(
).ThevaluesintheAntennaandFeederlistsaretakenfromtheAntennastableandthe
Feederstable,respectively.Youcanalso,ifdesired,enteraCommentbydoubleclickingtheCommentfieldtoopen
therecordsPropertiesdialogbox.
Ifyouhavealargenumberofantennaorfeedercompatibilitydefinitionstoenter,youcan
importthembyrightclickingonthetableandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu,or
youcanpastethemintotheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytable.

4.5.1.2 UsingtheMicrowaveAntennaRadioCompatibilityTable
YoucanusetheAntennaRadioCompatibilitytabletolistcompatiblemicrowaveantennasandradios.Ifyouhavepreviously
definedcompatibleantennafeederpairs,thesearetakenintoaccountand,bydefault,aradiocompatiblewithanantenna
willbecompatiblewiththefeederscompatiblewiththisantenna.Whenyoudefinetheproperties(i.e.,antennas,radios,and
feeders)ofamicrowavelink,thesecompatibilitydefinitionscanbeusedinordertodisplayonlycompatibleantennas,radios,
andfeedersasoptionsinlists.
TodefineantennaradiocompatibilityusingtheAntenna/RadioCompatibilitytable:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaRadioCompatibility.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheAntennaRadioCompatibilitytableappears.
6. Createanewantenna/radiocompatibilitypairbyselectinganAntennaandRadiofromthelistsintherowmarked
withtheNewRowicon(
).ThevaluesintheAntennaandRadiolistsaretakenfromtheAntennastableandthe
Radiostable,respectively.Youcanalso,ifdesired,enteraCommentbydoubleclickingtheCommentfieldtoopen
therecordsPropertiesdialogbox.
Ifyouhavealargenumberofantennaradiocompatibilitypairstoenter,youcanimport
thembyrightclickingonthetableandselectingImportfromthecontextmenu,oryoucan
pastethemintotheAntennaRadioCompatibilitytable.

4.5.2 UsingAssistantstoDefineCompatibility
Atollprovidesassistantstohelpyoudefinewhichmicrowaveantennasarecompatiblewithwhichfeedersandwhichmicro
waveantennasarecompatiblewithwhichradios.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained:

178

"UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/FeederCompatibility"onpage 179
"UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/RadioCompatibility"onpage 179.

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4.5.2.1 UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/FeederCompatibility
Atollprovidesanassistanttoallowyoutodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandfeeders.Theassistantgivesyouanover
viewofantennasandfeedersthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband.
Tousetheassistanttodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandfeeders:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaFeederCompatibilities.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditGridfromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappears.
6. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyantennasandfeedersoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedfrequencyband.
7. SelecttheAntennamanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyantennasmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedmanufacturer.
8. SelecttheFeedermanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyfeedersmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufacturerisdisplayed
inthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedmanufacturer.
9. Youcannowdefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandafeederordeleteadefinedcompatibleantenna
feederpair:

Figure 4.33:CompatibilityBetweenAntennasandFeedersdialogbox
Todefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandafeeder:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreentoindicatethattheantennaandfeederare
compatible.
Todeleteadefinedcompatibleantennafeederpair:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thecellisnolongermarkedingreen.
10. ClickOK.
YoucanusetheFill(Up,Down,Right,Left)andtheCopyandPastecommandstocreateordeletecompatibleantennafeeder
pairs.

4.5.2.2 UsingtheAssistanttoDefineAntenna/RadioCompatibility
Atollprovidesanassistanttoallowyoutodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandradios.Theassistantgivesyouanoverview
ofantennasandradiosthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband.

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Tousetheassistanttodefinecompatiblepairsofantennasandradios:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheCompatibilityfolder.
4. RightclickAntennaRadioCompatibility.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectEditGridfromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappears.
6. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyantennasandradiosoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedfrequencyband.
7. SelecttheAntennamanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyantennasmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredis
playedinthetable.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedmanufacturer.
8. SelecttheRadiomanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredisplayedin
thetable.ClickingtheBrowsebuttonopensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedmanufacturer.
9. Youcannowdefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandaradio,deleteadefinedcompatibleantennaradio
pair,ordefinecompatibilitywithanantenna,aradio,andfeeders:

Figure 4.34:CompatibilityBetweenAntennasandRadiosdialogbox
Todefinethecompatibilitybetweenanantennaandaradio:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreentoindicatethattheantennaandtheradio
arecompatible.
Todeleteadefinedcompatibleantennaradiopair:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thecellisnolongermarkedingreen.
Todefinecompatibilitywithanantenna,aradio,andfeeders:
a. Rightclickonthecellofthegridthatcoincideswiththeentriesfortheantennaandtheradio.Thecontextmenu
appears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Thecellismarkedingreentoindicatethattheantennaandtheradio
arecompatible.
c. RightclickonthesquareandselectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxopens.
d. InthePropertiesdialogbox,underListoftheCompatibleFeeders,selectthefeedersthatyouwanttomakecom
patiblewiththisantenna/radiopair.Ifyouhavepreviouslydefinedcompatibleantenna/feederpairs,theseare
takenintoaccountand,bydefault,thefeederscompatiblewiththecorrespondingantennaareselected.
e. ClickOKtoclosethePropertiesdialogbox.
10. ClickOK.

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YoucanusetheFill(Up,Down,Right,Left)andtheCopyandPastecommandstocreateordeletecompatibleantennaradio
pairs.

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Chapter5
Calculationsand
PropagationModels
Thischapterprovidestheinformationtoworkwith
calculationsinAtoll.

Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics:

"WorkingwithBackhaulPropagationModels"on
page 185

"DefiningBackhaulCalculationParameters"on
page 191

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5 CalculationsandPropagationModels
Onceyouhavecreatedmicrowavelinks,youneedtodefinetheparametersnecessarytostudythenetwork:

"WorkingwithBackhaulPropagationModels"onpage 185.
"DefiningBackhaulCalculationParameters"onpage 191.

5.1 WorkingwithBackhaulPropagationModels
Ifyouwanttoanalyseamicrowavelink,apropagationmodelmustbeassignedtoit,asexplainedin"MicrowaveLinkParam
eters"onpage 195.Atollcalculatesthepathlossbetweentwopointsusingpropagationmodels.
ThefollowingpropagationmodelsareavailableinAtollforuseinbackhaulprojects:

MicrowavePropagationModelandMicrowaveITURP.452Model:Thesepropagationmodelsaresuitedformicro
wavelinksinthe1.5to55GHzband.WhiletheMicrowavePropagationModelisrecommendedforthecalculationof
theusefulsignal,theMicrowaveITURP.452Modelshouldbeusedtopredictthesignallevelfrominterferingsites.
Formoreinformation,see"WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel"onpage 185and"Workingwiththe
MicrowaveITURP.452Model"onpage 188.

MicrowaveEBandPropagationModel:TheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModelissuitedformicrowavelinksin
the60to90GHzband,inordertocalculatetheusefulsignalaswellastheinterferingsignal.Formoreinformation,
see"WorkingwiththeMicrowaveITURP.452Model"onpage 188.

5.1.1 WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel
TheMicrowavePropagationModelisusedtocalculatethefademarginandtodeterminethemicrowavelinkprofile.When
calculatingattenuation,theMicrowavePropagationModeltakesfreespaceloss,atmosphericlosses,diffractionloss,and
troposphericlossesintoaccount.
Theparametersofthepropagationmodel,includingsomeofitscoefficients,canbemodifiedusingtheMicrowavePropaga
tionModelPropertiesdialogbox.
TodefinetheparametersoftheMicrowavePropagationModel:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePropagationModelsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowavePropagationModel.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. ClicktheParameterstab(seeFigure 5.1).

Figure 5.1:MicrowavePropagationModelPropertiesParameterstab

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UnderHeights,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Cluttertakenintoaccountindiffraction:Select"1 Yes"tohaveAtolltakeclutterheightinformationintoaccount
whencalculatingdiffraction.Otherwise,select"0 No".Ifyouchoosetotakeclutterheightintoaccount,Atoll
usestheclutterheightinformationintheclutterheightsfileifavailable.Otherwise,itusesaverageclutterheight
specifiedforeachclutterclassintheclutterclasses.

UnderProfileExtraction,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Step:Definetheresolutioninmetrestobeusedtoextracttheprofile.Ifyouenter"0"astheresolution,Atollluses
the highest resolution of the geographic maps considered in the profile (i.e., DTM, clutter classes and clutter
heightmaps).

UnderLOSattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

K1,K2,andK3:EntertheK1,K2,andK3valuesthatwillbeusedtocalculatefreespaceloss.

UnderDiffraction,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatediffraction.

Deygout
EpsteinPeterson
Deygoutwithcorrection
Millington
ITU45211
FullDeygout

K4:Enter"1"astheK4valueifyouwantAtolltocalculatediffraction.Entering"0"meansthatnodiffractionwill
becalculated.

UnderTroposphericscatter,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetroposphericscattering:

Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP6171:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtotheITURP6171recommendationsfor50%,90%,
or99.99%ofthetime.
ITURP452:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtotheITURP452recommendations.
SimplifiedMethod:Attenuationwillbeestimatedusingaspecialisedequation.

Ktropo:Enterthevaluefortheweightfactor.Thelossismultipliedbytheselectedmethodtocalculatethetrop
osphericscatterloss.
N0:EnterthevalueforN0,whichisthesurfacerefractivityofthecentreofthepath.

UnderVegetation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculateattenuationduetovegetation:

Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.8334:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.8334recommendations.

A1:EnterthevalueoftheA1coefficient.
Alpha:EnterthevalueoftheAlphacoefficient.A1andAlphacoefficientsareusedtocalculatethemaximum
attenuationexperiencedbyatransmitterorareceiversitelocatedwithinavegetationarea.Themaximumatten
uationistakenintoconsiderationtocalculatetheattenuationduetovegetation.

UnderGaseousattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuation(dB)duetoatmosphericgases:

Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.6761&2:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6761andITURP.6762recommenda
tions.
ITURP.6763:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6763recommendations.
ITURP.6766&7:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6766andITURP.6767recommenda
tions.

UnderRainattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

186

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuationduetotherain.Therainattenuationwill
beconsideredforcalculationsinrainconditionsonly.
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbeconsideredinthetotalpropagationlosses.
Fullpath:Theentirepathwillbeconsideredasattenuatedbytherain.ThismethodisbasedonITURP.53014
recommendations.
Rainfallrate:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtoevaluatetherainfallrate.
Propertyat0.01%ofthelink:Atollwillusetherainfallratesetinthepropertyofthelink.Itistherainfallrate
exceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear.
ITURP.8374:TherainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8374recommendations.

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Crane:TherainfallratewillbebasedonCranemethod.
ITURP.8375,6:TherainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8375andITURP.8376recommendations.
Timepercentageforwhichrainfallrateisexceeded:Thetimepercentageoftheaverageyeartherainfallrateis
exceeded.ThisparameterisconsideredwhenusingITURP.8374andITURP.8375,6recommendationsorCrane
tocalculatetherainfallrate.
Specificrainfallrate:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtodeterminethespecificrainfallrate.
ITURP.8381:ThespecificrainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8381recommendations.
ITURP.8383:ThespecificrainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8383recommendations.

UnderReflections,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthe2raysmodel(ITURP.530)methodifyouwanttoconsidertheattenuationduetoreflections
inthetotalpropagationlosses.Otherwise,selectNoattenuation.
Antennaheightabovethereflectionplan:Selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculateantennaheightsabovethe
reflectionplan.YoucanchoosebetweentheSimplifiedmethodandthemethodwithLinearregressiononthe
area.
Terrainroughness:Selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculatetheterrainroughness.Youcanchoosebetweenthe
Rootmeansquaremethod,theStandarddeviationmethodandtheInterdecilerangemethod.
Attenuationcalculation:Selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculatetheamplitudeofthereflectedsignal.Youcan
choose between the Simplified method and the method with Equivalent reflection coefficient taken into
account.
Whentherearemorethanonereflectionzonealongthecalculatedprofile,Atollconsiders
thehighestattenuationoverthezones.

6. ClicktheCluttertab(seeFigure 5.2).

Figure 5.2:MicrowavePropagationModelPropertiesCluttertab
UnderClutterConsideration,youcansetthefollowingparametersforeachclutterclass:

Clearanceperclutterclass:Defineaclearance(inmetres)aroundeachtransmitterandeachreceiversiteforeach
clutterclass.Theclearanceinformationisusedwhenclutteristakenintoaccountindiffraction.Bothgroundalti
tudeandclutterheightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthetrans
mitterandthereceiversites(i.e.,theclearance),whereAtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
Cluttercategories:Selectacluttercategoryforeachclutterclass.Cluttercategoriesaretakenintoconsideration
whenstudyingreflectionsandmustbedefinedinordertoanalysereflectionsalongtheprofile.Cluttercategories
areITUstandardisedclutterclasses.Forinformationoncluttercategories,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191.

7. ClickOK.
FormoreinformationontheparametersoftheMicrowavePropagationModel,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

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5.1.2 WorkingwiththeMicrowaveITURP.452Model
TheMicrowaveITURP.452Modelisusedtocalculatesignallevelreceivedfrominterferingsites.Itisanempiricalmodel,but
ittakesmorephysicalcharacteristicsintoconsiderationthantheMicrowavePropagationModel,whichiswhyitisrecom
mendedforcalculatinginterference.
AssigningtheMicrowaveITURP.452Modeltoamicrowavelinkisexplainedin"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 195.
Youcanmodifytheparametersofthepropagationmodel,includingsomeofitscoefficients,usingtheMicrowaveITURP.452
ModelPropertiesdialogbox.
TodefinetheparametersoftheMicrowaveITURP.452Model:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePropagationModelsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveITURP.452Model.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. ClicktheParameterstab(seeFigure 5.9).

Figure 5.3:MicrowaveITURP.452ModelPropertiesParameterstab
UnderHeights,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Cluttertakenintoaccountindiffraction:Select"1 Yes"tohaveAtolltakeclutterheightinformationintoaccount
whencalculatingdiffraction.Otherwise,select"0 No".Ifyouchoosetotakeclutterheightintoaccount,Atoll
usestheclutterheightinformationintheclutterheightsfileifavailable.Otherwise,itusesaverageclutterheight
specifiedforeachclutterclassintheclutterclasses.

UnderReferenceattenuationnotexceededduringtheaverageyear,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Requiredtimepercentage:Enterthepercentageoftimeduringwhichtheglobalattenuationisnotexceeded.

UnderRec.ITURP452version,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheglobalattenuation(dB)betweenaninterferingtrans
mitterandaninterfered(victim)receiver:

ITURP.45212
SimplifiedITURP.4528

UnderGaseousattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuation(dB)duetoatmosphericgases:

188

Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.6761&2:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6761andITURP.6762recommenda
tions.
ITURP.6763:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6763recommendations.

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ITURP.6766&7:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6766andITURP.6767recommenda
tions.

UnderRainattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuationduetotherain.Therainattenuationwill
beconsideredforcalculationsinrainconditionsonly.
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbeconsideredinthetotalpropagationlosses.
Fullpath:Theentirepathwillbeconsideredasattenuatedbytherain.ThismethodisbasedonITURP.53014
recommendations.
Rainfallrate:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtoevaluatetherainfallrate.
Propertyat0.01%ofthelink:Atollwillusetherainfallratesetinthepropertyofthelink.Itistherainfallrate
exceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear.
ITURP.8374:TherainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8374recommendations.
Crane:TherainfallratewillbebasedonCranemethod.
ITURP.8375,6:TherainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8375andITURP.8376recommendations.
Timepercentageforwhichrainfallrateisexceeded:Thetimepercentageoftheaverageyeartherainfallrateis
exceeded.ThisparameterisconsideredwhenusingITURP.8374andITURP.8375,6recommendationsorCrane
tocalculatetherainfallrate.
Specificrainfallrate:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtodeterminethespecificrainfallrate.
ITURP.8381:ThespecificrainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8381recommendations.
ITURP.8383:ThespecificrainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8383recommendations.

6. ClicktheCluttertab(seeFigure 5.4).

Figure 5.4:MicrowaveITURP.452ModelPropertiesCluttertab
UnderClutterConsideration,youcansetthefollowingparametersforeachclutterclass:

Clearanceperclutterclass:Defineaclearance(inmetres)aroundeachtransmitterandeachreceiversiteforeach
clutterclass.Theclearanceinformationisusedwhenclutteristakenintoaccountindiffraction.Bothgroundalti
tudeandclutterheightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthetrans
mitterandthereceiversites(i.e.,theclearance),whereAtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
Cluttercategories:Selectacluttercategoryforeachclutterclass.Cluttercategoriesaretakenintoconsideration
whenstudyingreflectionsandmustbedefinedinordertoanalysereflectionsalongtheprofile.Cluttercategories
areITUstandardisedclutterclasses.Forinformationoncluttercategories,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191.

7. ClickOK.
FormoreinformationontheparametersoftheMicrowaveITURP.452Model,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

5.1.3 WorkingwiththeMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel
TheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModelissuitedformicrowavelinksinthe60to90GHzband,inordertocalculatethe
usefulsignalaswellastheinterferingsignal.
Theparametersofthepropagationmodel,includingsomeofitscoefficients,canbemodifiedusingtheMicrowaveEBand
PropagationModelPropertiesdialogbox.

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TodefinetheparametersoftheMicrowavePropagationModel:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePropagationModelsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. ClicktheParameterstab.UnderHeights,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Cluttertakenintoaccountindiffraction:Select"1 Yes"tohaveAtolltakeclutterheightinformationintoaccount
whencalculatingdiffraction.Otherwise,select"0 No".Ifyouchoosetotakeclutterheightintoaccount,Atoll
usestheclutterheightinformationintheclutterheightsfileifavailable.Otherwise,itusesaverageclutterheight
specifiedforeachclutterclassintheclutterclasses.

UnderProfileExtraction,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Step:Definetheresolutioninmetrestobeusedtoextracttheprofile.Ifyouenter"0"astheresolution,Atollluses
the highest resolution of the geographic maps considered in the profile (i.e., DTM, clutter classes and clutter
heightmaps).

UnderDiffraction,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatediffraction.

Deygout
EpsteinPeterson
Deygoutwithcorrection
Millington
ITU45211
FullDeygout

UnderVegetation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculateattenuationduetovegetation:

Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.8334:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.8334recommendations.
CCIReport2362:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoCCIReport2362recommendations.

A1:EnterthevalueoftheA1coefficient.
Alpha:EnterthevalueoftheAlphacoefficient.A1andAlphacoefficientsareonlyusedforthe"ITURP.8334"
method. Theyareused tocalculatethe maximum attenuationexperiencedbyatransmitteror areceiversite
locatedwithinavegetationarea.Themaximumattenuationistakenintoconsiderationtocalculatetheattenua
tionduetovegetation.Formoreinformationonhowthevalueisused,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

UnderGaseousattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuation(dB)duetoatmosphericgases:

Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbecalculated.
ITURP.6761&2:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6761andITURP.6762recommenda
tions.
ITURP.6763:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6763recommendations.
ITURP.6766&7:AttenuationwillbecalculatedaccordingtoITURP.6766andITURP.6767recommenda
tions.

UnderRainattenuation,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

190

Method:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheattenuationduetotherain.Therainattenuationwill
beconsideredforcalculationsinrainconditionsonly.
Noattenuation:Noattenuationwillbeconsideredinthetotalpropagationlosses.
Fullpath:Theentirepathwillbeconsideredasattenuatedbytherain.ThismethodisbasedonITURP.53014
recommendations.
Raincell:Atollwilldeterminearaincellandtheattenuationwilldependonthepathpositionintheraincell.
Thepartofthepathintheraincellwillbeconsideredasfullyattenuatedwhilethepartoutsidewillexperience
alowerattenuation.ThismethodisbasedonITURP.45212recommendations.
Rainfallrate:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtoevaluatetherainfallrate.
Propertyat0.01%ofthelink:Atollwillusetherainfallratesetinthepropertyofthelink.Itistherainfallrate
exceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear.
ITURP.8374:TherainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8374recommendations.
Crane:TherainfallratewillbebasedonCranemethod.
ITURP.8375,6:TherainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8375andITURP.8376recommendations.
Timepercentageforwhichrainfallrateisexceeded:Thetimepercentageoftheaverageyeartherainfallrateis
exceeded.ThisparameterisconsideredwhenusingITURP.8374andITURP.8375,6recommendationsorCrane
tocalculatetherainfallrate.

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Specificrainfallrate:Selectthemethodthatwillbeusedtodeterminethespecificrainfallrate.
ITURP.8381:ThespecificrainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8381recommendations.
ITURP.8383:ThespecificrainfallratewillbebasedonITURP.8383recommendations.

UnderReflections,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Method:Selectthe2raysmodel(ITURP.530)methodifyouwanttoconsidertheattenuationduetoreflections
inthetotalpropagationlosses.Otherwise,selectNoattenuation.
Antennaheightabovethereflectionplan:Selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculateantennaheightsabovethe
reflectionplan.YoucanchoosebetweentheSimplifiedmethodandthemethodwithLinearregressiononthe
area.
Terrainroughness:Selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculatetheterrainroughness.Youcanchoosebetweenthe
Rootmeansquaremethod,theStandarddeviationmethodandtheInterdecilerangemethod.
Attenuationcalculation:Selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculatetheamplitudeofthereflectedsignal.Youcan
choose between the Simplified method and the method with Equivalent reflection coefficient taken into
account.
Whentherearemorethanonereflectionzonealongthecalculatedprofile,Atollconsiders
thehighestattenuationoverthezones.

6. ClicktheCluttertab.UnderClutterConsideration,youcansetthefollowingparametersforeachclutterclass:

Clearanceperclutterclass:Defineaclearance(inmetres)aroundeachtransmitterandeachreceiversiteforeach
clutterclass.Theclearanceinformationisusedwhenclutteristakenintoaccountindiffraction.Bothgroundalti
tudeandclutterheightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthetrans
mitterandthereceiversites(i.e.,theclearance),whereAtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.
Cluttercategories:Selectacluttercategoryforeachclutterclass.Cluttercategoriesaretakenintoconsideration
whenstudyingreflectionsandmustbedefinedinordertoanalysereflectionsalongtheprofile.Cluttercategories
areITUstandardisedclutterclasses.Forinformationoncluttercategories,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191.

7. ClickOK.
FormoreinformationontheparametersoftheMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

5.2 DefiningBackhaulCalculationParameters
Inabackhaulproject,parametersthataffectcalculationscanbedividedintothefollowingcategories:

Globalparameters:Globalparametersaredefinedforallmicrowavelinksandaffectalllinks.Forinformationonset
tingglobalparameters,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191.
MicrowaveLinkparameters:Microwavelinkparametersaredefinedpermicrowavelinkandaffectindividualmicro
wavelinks.Forinformationonsettingmicrowavelinkparameters,see"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 195.

Aswell,anyparameterssetforthepropagationmodelaffectcalculations:

MicrowavePropagationModel:ForinformationonsettingMicrowavePropagationModelparameters,see"Working
withtheMicrowavePropagationModel"onpage 185.
MicrowaveITURP.452Model:ForinformationonsettingMicrowaveITURP.452Modelparameters,see"Working
withtheMicrowaveITURP.452Model"onpage 188.
MicrowaveEBandPropagationModel:ForinformationonsettingMicrowaveEBandPropagationModelparame
ters,see"WorkingwiththeMicrowaveEBandPropagationModel"onpage 189.

5.2.1 GlobalParameters
TheglobalpropertiesofabackhaulprojectaredefinedforallmicrowavelinksinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder.Theglobal
parametersarethoseusedfor:

Qualityandavailabilityanalysis
Objectiveselection

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Todefinetheglobalparametersforlinkqualityandavailabilityanalysis,andobjectiveselection:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,rightclicktheLinksfolderandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheLinksProperties
dialogboxappears.
2. ClicktheGeneraltab.OntheGeneraltab,theparametersyoudefinearevalidforalltypesofanalyses:qualityand
availabilityanalyses,objectiveselection,andinterferencecalculation.

Figure 5.5:LinksPropertiesGeneraltab
UnderCalculationparameters,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Mediankfactor:Thevalueofthekfactor(theearthcurvaturefactor),observed50%oftime.Selectthevalueto
beusedinlinkanalyses:

Calculatedforeachlink:Atollcalculatesthemedianvalueofthekfactoraccordingtothemicrowavelinkpo
sition.Thenittakesintoaccountthecalculatedvalueforthelinkanalysis.
Samevalueforalllinks:Ifyouselectthisoption,thevalueyouenterwillbeusedasthek factorforalllinksin
linkanalyses.

Effectivekfactor:Thevalueofthekfactor(theearthcurvaturefactor),observed99%oftime.Selectthevalueto
beusedinlinkanalyses:

Calculatedforeachlink:Atollcalculatestheeffectivevalueofthekfactoraccordingtothemicrowavelink
position.Thenittakesintoaccountthecalculatedvalueforthelinkanalysis.
Samevalueforalllinks:Ifyouselectthisoption,thevalueyouenterwillbeusedasthek factorforalllinksin
linkanalyses.

Powercontrolonusefulsignal(Rain):Selecttheoutputpowertobeconsideredintheusefulsignalcalculation
whenATPCisused.YoucanchoosebetweenUsenominalpowerandUsecoordinatedpower.Thisoptiononly
appliestocalculationsinrainconditions.Inclearairconditions,ATPCisnotusedandAtollconsidersthecoordi
natedpowerasoutputpower.

UnderResultsfiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

UnderBitErrorRate(BER),youcandefinethefollowingoptions:

BER1:SelectBER1ifyouwantAtolltoperformlinkanalysisfortheBER1value.

BER2:SelectBER2ifyouwantAtolltoperformlinkanalysisfortheBER2value.
Usedefinedvalueforeachlink:IfyouselectUsedefinedvalueforeachlink,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisusing
thevaluesoftheBER1andBER2definedinthepropertiesofeachmicrowavelink.
Samevalueforalllinks:IfyouselectSamevalueforalllinks,youcandefineavalueforBER 1andBER 2thatAtoll
willuseforallmicrowavelinks.

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3. ClicktheModelstab.OntheModelstab,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedforqualityandavailabilityanalysis.

Figure 5.6:LinksPropertiesModelstab
UnderAvailability,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Method: Select the method to be used to calculate availability. Six availability analysis methods are available
(CraneandthosebasedonimplementedITUrecommendations:ITURP.5308,ITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,
ITURP.53012,ITURP.53013,andITURP.53014).
Attenuationmodelforrain:Selectthemodeltobeusedtocalculaterainattenuation.Twoattenuationmodels
forrain(ITUrecommendations8381and8383)areavailable.

UnderQuality,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Method: Select the method to be used to calculate quality: VigantsBarnett, KQ factor, ITUR P.5308, ITUR
P.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012,ITURP.53013,orITURP.53014.
IfyouselectamethodbasedononeoftheITURP.530recommendations,youcansetfurtherparametersunder
ITURP.530.

Multipathoccurrencemethod:IfyouselectrecommendationITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012,
ITURP.53013,orITURP.53014,youcanuseeitherasimplifiedmethodoramethodtakingroughnessinto
accounttocalculatethegeoclimaticfactor(K).IfyouselectVigantsBarnett,youcaneitherentertheterraincli
matefactor(C)valueoruseasimplifiedmethodoruseamethodtakingroughnessintoaccounttocalculatethe
terrainclimatefactor(C).

Multichannel frequency diversity: Define whether the number of diversitystandby channels should have an
impactonthefrequencyimprovementfactor.Theselectedoptionisonlyconsideredincaseofmultichannelfre
quencydiversitysystemswhentheequivalentfrequencyfactoriscalculated.SelectSharedifyouwanttheequiv
alent frequency factor to be in proportion to the number of diversitystandby channels. Otherwise, select
ContinuousandtheequivalentfrequencyfactorwillbethesameforanyN+Mconfiguration(itwillbeequalto1).
FormoreinformationseetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.

ITUR P.530: If you selected a Method under Quality based on implemented ITU recommendations (ITUR
P.5308,ITURP.53010,ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012,ITURP.53013,orITURP.53014),youcansetthefol
lowingparameters:

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Multipathpropagation:UnderMultipathpropagation,selecttheIgnoreSignalEnhancementscheckboxif
youwantAtolltoignoresignalenhancements.
Selectivefading:UnderSelectivefadingyoucandefinereferencedelayvaluesforthesecondarysignalt(tau)
forminimumandnonminimumphaseconditions.
Erroneous blocks: Under Erroneous blocks you can define the network level consideration values for the
ResidualBitErrorRate(RBER),thenumberoferrorsperburstforBitErrorRatebetween103andBERSESand
forBitErrorRatebetweenBERSESandRBER.

K.Q.method:Ifyouselected"KQfactor"astheMethod,underQuality,youcansetthefollowingparameter:

Frequencyexponent:Definetheexponentofthefrequency.
Distance:Definethedistance.

UnderXPDdegradation(ITURP.530),youcandefinethefollowingparameter:

Ignoreinterruptionsduetothereductionofdiscriminationdecoupling:SelecttheIgnoreinterruptionsdue
tothereductionofdiscriminationdecouplingcheckboxifyouwantAtolltoignoreoutagesduetothereduc
tionoftheXPD.

4. ClicktheObjectivestab.OntheObjectivestab,youcandefineobjectiverelatedparameters.

Figure 5.7:LinksPropertiesObjectivestab

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UnderPerformanceobjectives,youcandefinethetype(s)ofobjective(s)tobeconsideredforqualityandavaila
bility(fromITUTG.821,ITUTG.826,orITUTG.828recommendationsforthequalityobjectivesandITUTG.821
or ITUT G.826 for availability objectives, or a customised objective) and how the objectives are selected. By
default,theobjectivesareselectedaccordingtothemicrowavelinkdatarateanditslength.Then,theycanbe
selectedaccordingtothetypeoftheobjectiveandthedefinedpriority.ClickingtheBrowsebutton(
)beside
theQualityorAvailabilityboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthetype(s)ofobjective(s)tobeusedand
definetheirpriority.
UnderApportionmentofavailabilityobjectives,youcandefinetheratiobetweenthedifferentobjectivescon
sideredintheglobalavailabilityobjective.Microwavelinkunavailabilitycanbedueeithertorain(withitsimpact
onpropagation),toequipmentfailure,oritcanberandom.Therefore,theglobalavailabilityobjectiveconsistsof
threepartialobjectivesforwhichyoucandefineaweight.Theseweightsaretakenintoconsiderationwhencal
culatingtheperformanceobjectivestobeconsideredwhenanalysingthemicrowavelinkunavailabilityduetorain
andtheunavailabilityduetoequipmentfailures.

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5. ClicktheClutterCategoriestab.OntheClutterCategoriestab,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedtoanalyse
reflectionandcalculatevegetationlosses.

Figure 5.8:LinksPropertiesClutterCategoriestab
ThistablistsallcluttercategoriesdefinedinRec.P.10582andtheircharacteristics.Foreachcluttercategory,youcan
definethefollowingparameters:

Reflective:SelecttheReflectivecheckboxifyouwantAtolltoconsiderallclutterclasseswiththiscluttercategory
asreflectionareas.
Vegetation with leaves: Select the Vegetation with leaves check box if you want Atoll to consider all clutter
classeswiththiscluttercategoryasvegetationzoneswithfoliage.
Vegetation without leaves: Select the Vegetation without leaves check box if you want Atoll to consider all
clutterclasseswiththiscluttercategoryasvegetationzoneswithoutfoliage.
Soiltype:SelectthetypeofgroundasdefinedinRec.ITURP.5273.Thetypeofgroundisusedtodetermineper
mittivityandconductivityvaluestakenintoaccountinreflectionanalysis.Thefollowingaretheavailabletypesof
ground:

A:seawater(averagesalinity),20C
B:wetground
C:freshwater,20C
D:mediumdryground
E:verydryground
F:purewater,20C
G:ice(freshwater)

6. ClickOK.

5.2.2 MicrowaveLinkParameters
Themicrowavelinkparameterswhichaffectcalculationsarethefollowing:

Geoclimaticparameters:Thegeoclimaticparametersdefinetheenvironmentandtheclimatezonewherethemicro
wavelinkisoperating,includingterrainclimatefactor,rainintensity(exceeding0.01%oftime),PLpercentage,tem

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perature,watervapourdensity,earthcurvaturefactor(k),effectiveearthcurvaturefactor(ke),andthegeoclimatic
factorK.
Performance parameters: The performance parameters define the quality and availability of the microwave link.
Underidealcircumstancesamicrowavelinkshouldbecompletelyreliable100%ofthetime.Inpractice,thisperfor
mancelevelisneverachievedduetocontinuouslychangingpropagationconditionsandpossibleproblemswiththe
equipment.
Propagationparameters:Propagationmodelscanbedefinedtocalculateusefulandinterferingsignals.Fromthe
usefulsignal,Atollevaluatesthemarginwhichisthenconsideredforcalculatingthequalityandtheavailabilityofthe
microwavelink.
Linkclass:Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperformanceobjectives.Byassigningthelinkclasswiththeappropriate
performanceobjectives,youassigntheperformanceobjectivestothemicrowavelink.Forinformationoncreatinga
linkclass,see"DefiningLinkClasses"onpage 297.

Themicrowavelinkparameterswhichaffectcalculationscanbedefinedforasinglemicrowavelinkandthenappliedtoall
microwavelinksortoagroupofmicrowavelinksthatsharethesamecharacteristics.Definingparametersisexplainedinthe
followingsections:

"DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink"onpage 196
"DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks"onpage 200
"DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowaveLinks"onpage 202
"RecalculatingMicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 206.

5.2.2.1 DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink
YousettheparametersthataffectcalculationsforamicrowavelinkonthreetabsofthemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialog
box:theGeoclimatictab,thePerformancetab,andthePropagationtab.
Todefinetheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkforwhichyouwanttosettheparameters.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
YoucanalsoaccessamicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogboxbyrightclickingthemicro
wavelinkonthemapandselectingPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.

ThemicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxhasseveraltabs:General,Radio,Connections,Geoclimatic,Performance,
Propagation,andDisplay.ThemicrowavelinksettingsthataffectcalculationsareontheGeoclimatic,Performance,
andPropagationtabs andaredescribedhere.Foranexplanationofthe optionsavailableonthe General,Radio,
Connections,andDisplaytabs,see"BackhaulNetworks"onpage 211.
6. ClicktheGeoclimatictab(seeFigure 5.9).

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Figure 5.9:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxGeoclimatictab
7. OntheGeoclimatictab,youcandefineclimaterelatedsettingsaffectingthemicrowavelink:

Currentmethods:UnderCurrentmethods,youcanseethecalculationmethodsusedtoanalysethemicrowave
linkqualityandavailability.ThemethodsdisplayedarethosesetontheModelstaboftheLinksPropertiesdialog
box.Formoreinformation,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191
Thegeoclimaticparametersavailabledependontheselectedqualityandavailabilitymethods.Toaccessallgeo
climaticparametersindependentlyofthemethodsyouhaveselected,clicktheDisplayAllbuttonunderCurrent
methods.

Atmosphericandclimaticconditions:UnderAtmosphericandclimaticconditions,youcandefinetheconditions
underwhichthemicrowaveoperates:

Climatezone(Vigants):Selecttheclimaticzonethatbestdescribestheclimateinwhichthemicrowavelink
operates.ThisinformationisusedonlywhenusingVigantsBarnettasthequalitycalculationmethod.Youcan
choosebetween"WarmandHumid","Temperate","Dry","GreatLakesAreas","GulfCoasts","HawaiiCarib
bean","AlaskaCoasts",and"AlaskaInland".
Rainzone:Selecttherainzoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Youcanselectthefollowingrainzones:
"A:Polar(Dry)","B:Polar(Moderate)","B1:Cold(Dry)","B2:Cold(Moderate)","C:TemperateMaritime",
"D1:TemperateContinental(Dry)","D2:TemperateContinental(Moderate)","D3:TemperateContinental
(Wet)","E:SubtropicalWet","F:SubtropicalArid(Dry)","G:TropicalModerate"and"H:Tropical".
Temperature:Settheaveragetemperatureofthezoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Clickingthe
button(
)besidetheTemperaturetextboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthetemperaturebased
onRec.ITURP.15100,ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthetemperaturesetinthegeoclimaticfile.For
moreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Rec.ITURP.530:TheparametersfoundunderRec.ITURP.530arethoserecommendedbyITURP.530to
calculatethequalityofthemicrowavelink:
WaterVapourDensity:Setthewatervapourdensityingramspercubicmetre.Clickingthebutton(
)be
sidetheWaterVapourDensitytextboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthewatervapourdensity
basedonRec.ITURP.8363(andselectthepercentageoftheaverageyearwherethedefinedwatervapour
densityisexceeded),orbasedonRec.ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthewatervapourdensitysetin
thegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.The

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dialogboxalsodisplaysthewatervapourpressureinhectopascals(hPa)calculatedusingyourdataandbased
onRec.ITURP.4539.
Rainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear:Settherainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear
)besidetheRainfall
(or,inotherwords,anamountofrainfallalmostneverobserved).Clickthebutton(
rateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyeartextboxtospecifywhethertouseavaluebasedonRec.ITUR
P.8374,Rec.ITURP.8375andRec.ITURP.8376,orthevalyesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinforma
tiononthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Atmosphericpressure:Settheatmosphericpressureinhectopascal.Clickthebutton(
)besidetheAtmos
phericpressureboxtospecifywhethertheatmosphericpressureisbasedonRec.ITURP.8353(andselecta
season),orthevaluesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"Geoclimatic
Maps"onpage 133.
Relativehumidity:TheRelativehumiditydisplayediscalculatedusingthedefinedwatervapourdensity.
Rec.ITURP.53012,13:UnderRec.ITURP.53012,13,youcanentertheRainheight(0C/32FIsotherm)
inmetres.Therainheightistheheightofthetopoftheraincolumnabovemeansealevelfromthe0Ciso
therm.Clickthebutton(
)besidetheRainheightboxtospecifywhethertherainheightisbasedonRec.
ITURP.8393,orthevaluesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"Geo
climaticMaps"onpage 133.

Refractivitygradient:UnderRefractivitygradient,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Innormalconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved50%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthebutton
(
)besidetheInnormalconditionstextboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthemethodtoesti
matetherefractivitygradientundernormalconditions.TherefractivitygradientcanbecalculatedfromRec.
ITURP.4539,usingauserdefinedreferencealtitude,ortherefractivitygradientcanbebasedondatagiven
byRec.ITURP.4539forlessthan65 m.andapercentageoftheyearthatNisnotexceeded(50%issetby
default),ortherefractivitygradientcanbesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimatic
file,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Thekfactormedianvalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.

Insubrefractionconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved99%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthe
button(
)besidetheInsubrefractionconditionstextboxautomaticallycalculatestherefractivitygradient
undersubrefractionconditions.
Thekfactoreffectivevalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.

Geoclimaticfactor:TheparametersunderGeoclimaticfactorareusedtocalculatethequalityofthemicrowave
linkandarebrokendownbycalculationmethod.UnderGeoclimaticfactor,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

VigantsBarnett:ParametersavailableunderVigantsBarnettdependontheoptionselectedontheModels
taboftheLinksPropertiesdialogbox.
IfyouselectUserdefinedunderMultipathoccurrencemethod,youcanentertheTerrainclimatefactor C
value,thepropagationconditionfactorfortheVigantsBarnettmethod.
IfyouselecttheSimplifiedmethodortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,youcandefinetheTerraintype
("Flat Terrain", "Average Terrain", "Great Lakes", "Gulf Coasts", "Islands", "Alaska Mountain", or "Tundra
Zones").IfyouareusingtheSimplifiedmethod,AtolldisplaystheTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecorrespond
ingtothedefinedclimatezoneandtheterraintype.FortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,Atolldisplays
theTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecorrespondingtothedefinedclimatezoneandtheterraintype,andlets
youselectwhetheryouwanttoTaketerrainroughnessintoaccount.Atollonlyconsidersthegroundaltitude
toevaluatetheroughness.Youcanconsiderboththegroundaltitudeandtheclutterheightinthecalculation
byeditingtheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministratorManual.

ITURP.5305,8:UnderITURP.5305,8,youcanselecttheEnvironment.Youcanchoosebetween"Open
areas"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicrowavelinkislower
than700 m;"Mountains"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicro
wavelinkishigherthan700 m;"Lakes"formicrowavelinksoveranexpanseofwater;or"Overwater"formi
crowavelinksoveranextendedexpanseofwater.Finally,youcandefinethePLfactor.PListhepercentof
timetherelativerefractivitygradientislessthan100 NKm.ThePLfactorcanbefoundontheITURmaps.

K.Q.method:UnderK.Q.method,youcandefineK.Q.fortheK.Qmethod.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterrain
effectsonclimatewhileQisthefactorforvariablesotherthanthosedependentondistanceandfrequency.
Rec.ITURP.530:UnderITURP.530,youcandefinetheKfactor.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterraineffectson

climate.Clickingthebutton(
)besidetheKboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselecttheKfactorbased
onRec.ITURP.5305orRec.ITURP.5308(andselectaterraintypeandenteravalueforC0andforthe
percentage of time the refractivity gradient (< 100 m.) is less than 100 Nunitskm for the worst average
month)orbasedonRec.ITURP.53010andabove(andselectthesimplifiedmethodwhereyoualsodefine

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the refractivity gradient (< 65 m.) not exceeded during 1% of the average year or select the method with
terrainroughnesstakenintoaccountwhereyoudefinetherefractivitygradientandtheterrainroughness).
Atollonlyconsidersthegroundaltitudetoevaluatetheroughness.Youcanconsiderboththegroundaltitude
andtheclutterheightinthecalculationbyeditingtheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdministra
torManual.
8. ClickthePerformancetab(seeFigure 5.10).

Figure 5.10:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxPerformancetab
9. OnthePerformancetab,youcandefineperformancerelatedparameters:

Linkclass:UnderLinkclass,youcanselecttheTDMlinkclass.Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperformance
objectives.Byassigninglinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youareassigningthetargetparametersandusagelimita
tionsofthelinkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.Forinformationoncreatingalinkclass,see"DefiningLink
Classes"onpage 297.
ClickingtheBrowsebutton(

)opensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedlinkclass.

TheQualityObjectivesandAvailabilityObjectivestabsprovidetableswhereyoucanviewtheselectedperfor
manceobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER,RXLEV,MARG)forthespecifiedlinkclass.ForSESR,ESR,andBBERparameters,
Atolldisplaysthecutoffprobability,theannualandmonthlycutoffdurationaswellasthenoncutoffpercentage.

BER:UnderBER,youcansetthevaluesforBER 1andBER 2.AtolldisplaystheresultingsensitivityforeachBER.


IfthevalueforBERthatyouenterisnotdefinedinthepropertiesoftheequipment,Atollwillinterpolatetode
terminethecorrespondingsensitivity.

Reliability:UnderReliability,youcansettheMeantimetorepair(MTTR)inhour.TheMTTRistakenintoaccount
whencalculatingunavailabilityduetofailuresifthemicrowavelinkisnotequippedwithahotstandbychannel
system.

10. ClickthePropagationtab(seeFigure 5.11).

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Figure 5.11:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxPropagationtab
11. OnthePropagationtab,youcandefinepropagationrelatedparameters:

Usefulsignal:UnderUsefulsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheuseful
signal.Fromthisparameter,Atollevaluatesthemarginwhichisthenconsideredforcalculatingthequalityand
theavailabilityofthemicrowavelink.
Interferingsignal:UnderInterferingsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbeusedtocalculate
signallevelreceivedfrominterferingsites.

12. ClickOK.

5.2.2.2 DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks
Undercertaincircumstances,forexample,inahighlyhomogeneousnetwork,youwillwanttosetthesameparametersfor
allmicrowavelinks.Youcansetthesameparametersforallmicrowavelinksatthesametimebyfirstdefiningtheparameters
forasinglemicrowavelinkandthencopyingthemtoallmicrowavelinks.
Todefinetheparametersforallmicrowavelinks:
1. Definetheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink,asdescribedin"DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink"
onpage 196.
2. Copythedefinedparameterstoallmicrowavelinks.
Tocopythedefinedparameterstoallmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
5. LocatetherowintheMicrowaveLinkstablewiththemicrowavelinkwhoseparametersyoujustupdated.
IntheMicrowaveLinkstable,thecolumnnamescorrespondingtotheparametersthataffectcalculationsonthetabs
ofthemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogboxare:

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Geoclimatictab:
ClimaticZone
RainArea
Temperature(C)
AtmosphericPressure(hPa)
WaterVapour(g/m3)
R001(mm/h)
RainHeight(m)
Refractivity
Refractivity(Subrefraction)
EnvironmentType(Vigants)
FactorC
EnvironmentType
PL(%)
FactorK.Q
GeoclimaticFactor(K)

Performancetab:
LinkClass
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2ndBER
MTTR(h)

Propagationtab:

PropagationModel
InterferenceModel

6. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintoallcellsabovethemod
ifiedcell:
a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragupwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

c. ClicktheFillUpbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar.

Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

7. Repeattheproceduretocopythemodifiedvaluesintotheremainingcellsabovethemodifiedmicrowavelink.
8. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintothecellsbelowthe
modifiedcell:

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a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragdownwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

c. ClicktheFillDownbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar.

Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

9. Repeattheproceduretocopythemodifiedvaluesintotheremainingcellsbelowthemodifiedmicrowavelink.

5.2.2.3 DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowave
Links
Undercertaincircumstances,forexample,inanetworkthatspansagreatdistance,youwillwanttosetthesameparameters
fordefinedgroupsofmicrowavelinksbutnotforallmicrowavelinks.Youcansetthesameparametersfordefinedgroupsof
microwavelinksbyfirstdefiningtheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink,sortingthemicrowavelinksaccordingtotheir
commonattributes,andthencopyingtheparameterstoallmicrowavelinksinthatgroup.
Todefinetheparametersforagroupofmicrowavelinks:
1. Definetheparametersforasinglemicrowavelink,asdescribedin"DefiningParametersforaSingleMicrowaveLink"
onpage 196.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparametersby:

Groupingthemicrowavelinks(see"GroupingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 203)
Sortingthemicrowavelinks(see"SortingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 203)
Filteringthemicrowavelinks(see"FilteringMicrowaveLinks"onpage 205)

3. Copythedefinedparameterstotheselectedgroupofmicrowavelinks.

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GroupingMicrowaveLinks
Toselectthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparametersbygrouping:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. FromtheGroupBysubmenu,selectthepropertybywhichyouwanttogroupthemicrowavelinks.Ensurethatyou
choseapropertythatallthemicrowavelinksyouwanttomodifyandthemicrowavelinkwiththemodifiedparame
tershaveincommon.
Themicrowavelinksinthefolderaregroupedinseparatefoldersbythatproperty.
If the range of properties available in the Group By submenu has been configured as
explainedin"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 73,youcanselectadditional
propertiesbyselectingMoreFieldsfromtheGroupBysubmenu.Forinformationonusing
thedialogboxthatappears,see"ConfiguringtheGroupBySubmenu"onpage 73.
5. Rightclickthefolderwiththegroupedmicrowavelinks.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
7. Copytheparametersfromthemodifiedmicrowavelinktotheothermicrowavelinksinthegroupasexplainedin
"DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks"onpage 200.
Onceyouhavefinishedcopyingtheparameters,youcanungroupthelinksbyrightclickingtheMicrowaveLinksfolderand
selectingGroupBy >Nonefromthecontextmenu.
SortingMicrowaveLinks
Tosortthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparameters:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
5. Rightclickthetablecolumnwiththeparameteryouwanttosorton.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelecteitherSortAscendingorSortDescendingfromthecontextmenu.
7. LocatetherowintheMicrowaveLinkstablewiththemicrowavelinkwhoseparametersyoujustupdated.
IntheMicrowaveLinkstable,thecolumnnamescorrespondingtotheparametersonthetabsofthemicrowavelinks
Propertiesdialogboxare:

Geoclimatictab:
ClimaticZone
RainArea
Temperature(C)
AtmosphericPressure(hPa)
WaterVapour(g/m3)
R001(mm/h)
RainHeight(m)
Refractivity
Refractivity(Subrefraction)
EnvironmentType(Vigants)
FactorC
EnvironmentType
PL(%)
FactorK.Q
GeoclimaticFactor(K)

Performancetab:
LinkClass
BER
2ndBER
MTTR(h)

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Propagationtab:

PropagationModel
InterferenceModel

8. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintoallcellsinthegroup
abovethemodifiedcell:
a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragupwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

Ensurethatyouonlyselectthecellsofthemicrowavelinksyouwanttomodify.

c. ClicktheFillUpbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar.

Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

9. Repeattheproceduretocopythemodifiedvaluesintotheremainingcellsinthegroupabovethemodifiedmicrowave
link.
10. Foreachcellwithacalculationparameterthatyouhavealreadymodified,copythevaluesintothecellsinthegroup
belowthemodifiedcell:

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a. Clickthemodifiedcell.

b. Dragdownwardstoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.

Ensurethatyouonlyselectthecellsofthemicrowavelinksyouwanttomodify.

c. clicktheFillDownbutton(

)intheTabletoolbar.

Thecontentsofthemodifiedcellarecopiedintoallcellsselected.

FilteringMicrowaveLinks
Tofilterthemicrowavelinkstowhichyouwanttocopytheparameters:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
Youcannowfilteronavalueinthetable.Youcaneitheruseavaluethatallmicrowavelinkstowhichyouwantto
copyparametershaveincommonwiththemicrowavelinkyoupreviouslymodified,oryoucanuseavaluethese
microwavelinksdonothave.
5. Selectthevaluetofilteron.Toselectmorethanonevalue,pressCTRLasyouclicktheothervalues.
6. Rightclickthecellandselectoneofthefollowingfromthecontextmenu:

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FilterbySelection:Allmicrowavelinkswiththeselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcannowmodifythese
microwavelinksasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentireMicrowaveLinkstable(seeFigure 5.12onpage 206).

FilterExcludingSelection:Allmicrowavelinkswithouttheselectedvalueorvaluesaredisplayed.Youcannow
modifytheserecordsormakecalculationsonthemasyouwouldnormallydowiththeentireMicrowaveLinks
table(seeFigure 5.13onpage 206).

Figure 5.12:Filteringbyselection(SubBandA>>B:23G_28)

Figure 5.13:Filteringexcludingselection(SubBandA>>B:23G_28)
Youcanuseadvanceddatafilteringtocombineseveralcriteriaindifferentfieldstocreate
complexfilters.Formoreinformationonadvancedfiltering,see"AdvancedDataFiltering"
onpage 79.
7. Copytheparametersfromthemodifiedmicrowavelinktotheothermicrowavelinksinthegroupasexplainedin
"DefiningParametersforAllMicrowaveLinks"onpage 200.

5.2.2.4 RecalculatingMicrowaveLinkParameters
Someofthemicrowavelinkparameters,suchasthegeoclimacticfactorK,arecalculatedbasedondefinedparameters.You
cancalculatetheseparametersforeachmicrowavelink,usingeachmicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogbox,oryoucancalcu
latethemforallorforadefinedgroupofmicrowavelinksusingtheMicrowaveLinkstable.
Torecalculatemicrowavelinkparametersforallmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinkstableappears.
5. Selectthecolumnoftheparameteryouwanttorecalculateorselectasubgroupofmicrowavelinksasexplainedin
"DefiningParametersthatAffectCalculationsforaGroupofMicrowaveLinks"onpage 202.
6. RightclicktheselectionandselectCalculatefromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappearsinwhichyoucansetthe
calculationoptions.Forinformationontheparameters,see"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 195.

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Because the frequency is recalculated to respect the defined frequency band and sub
band,nodialogboxappears.

7. ClickOK.Atollrecalculatesthevaluesoftheselectedentriesaccordingtotheenteredparameters.

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Chapter6
BackhaulNetworks
ThischapterprovidesinformationonusingAtolltodesign,
analyse,andoptimiseamicrowavelinknetwork.

Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics:

"DesigningaBackhaulNetwork"onpage 211

"PlanningandOptimisingMicrowaveSites"onpage 212

"CreatingLinks"onpage 223

"AnalysingthePathProfile"onpage 243

"AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability"onpage 252

"StudyingReflection"onpage 262

"PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels"onpage 269

"AnalysingInterference"onpage 278

"ExportingCustomReports"onpage 292

"AdvancedConfiguration"onpage 293

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6 BackhaulNetworks
Thebackhaulnetworkisthecriticallinkthatcarriesthetrafficbetweentheindividualcellularbasestationsandthecore
network.Aphysicalbackhaulnetworkcomprisesthefollowingassets:

Sites,whicharetheextremitiesoflinksareusuallysharedwithcellularbasestations.
Microwavelinks,whicharedefinedbytheirradioandequipmentcharacteristics.
Othertransmissionlinks,aretypicallyeitherfibreopticlinksorleasedlines.

Backhaullinksmustsatisfythequalityandavailabilityrequirementsthataresetbytheoperator.Eachlinkisassessedinterms
ofrobustness,i.e.,thedatatransmissionshouldundergotheleastpossibleerrors,thelinkshouldsuffertheleastnumberof
failures(usuallymeasuredperyear)andthedurationofthesefailuresshouldalsobeasshortaspossible.Allthesecriteriaare
describedindetailintheITUstandardsandrecommendations.
To help you satisfy these requirements, the Atoll backhaul module enables you to plan, design, and analyse backhaul
networksandtosetindepthqualityandavailabilitytargetsforthenetwork,eitherinstandalonebackhaulprojectsoraspart
oflarger2G,3G,and4Gmobilenetworkprojects.Atollmodelssimple,multihop,andpointtomultipointlinkswithinaback
haul network. It can determine link budgets and carry out endtoend reliability analyses, interference analyses, and
frequencyplanning.
Inadditiontothephysicallayer,Atollprovidesalogicallayer,whichisamodeldesignedspecificallyforbackhaulcapacity
planning.Formoreinformation,seeChapter7:BackhaulCapacityPlanning.

6.1 DesigningaBackhaulNetwork
Figure 6.1depictstheprocessofcreatingandplanningabackhaulnetwork.Thestepsinvolvedinplanningabackhaulnetwork
aredescribedbelow.ThenumbersrefertoFigure 6.1.
1. Openanexistingbackhauldocumentorcreateanewone( 1 ).

YoucanopenanexistingAtolldocumentbyselectingFile >Open.
YoucancreateanewAtolldocumentasexplainedinChapter2:AtollProjects.

2. Addsitesandcarryoutbasicevaluationsofthecandidatesitesandlocatemoresuitablelocationsforcandidatesites
( 2 ).

Youcanaddsitesormodifyexistingones(see"CreatingorModifyingaSite"onpage 213).
Youcanevaluatethelocationofexistingsites(see"SiteSurveyTools"onpage 214)andsearchfornewcandidate
sites(see"ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites"onpage 222).

3. Createbackhaullinksbetweensites( 3 ).

Youcancreateamicrowavelink(see"CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink"onpage 230)basedonamicro
wave link template. If necessary, you can modify the template on which new links are based (see "Managing
MicrowaveLinkTemplates"onpage 233).
Ifnecessary,youcancreaterepeatersalongmicrowavelinksbetweensites.
Youcancreatemultihopmicrowavelinks(see"CreatingMultihops"onpage 260).
You can create optical fibre links or leased lines between sites (see "Creating Other Transmission Links" on
page 235).

Inparalleltothisactivity,youcancreatelogicalsegmentsandnodestothebackhaulcapacityplanningmodule.For
moreinformation,seeChapter7:BackhaulCapacityPlanning.
4. Analysethemicrowavenetwork.

Youcananalysethepathprofile(see"AnalysingthePathProfile"onpage 243),addingpassiverepeatersifneces

sary(see"AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 239)( 4 ).
Youcananalysethequalityandreliabilityofthenetwork(see"AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability"onpage 252)
( 5 ).

Youcanstudyreflectionalongthemicrowavelinkprofile(see"StudyingReflection"onpage 262)( 6 ).

Youcanallocatemicrowavelinkchannels(see"PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels"onpage 269)( 7 ).

Youcanstudyinterferencealongthemicrowavelinkprofile(see"AnalysingInterference"onpage 278)( 8 ).

Optimisationandanalysisareiterativesteps.Thelasttwostepscanberepeatedinordertoachievetheoptimumsolutionfor
thenetwork

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Figure 6.1:Planningabackhaulnetworkworkflow

6.2 PlanningandOptimisingMicrowaveSites
AsdescribedinChapter2:AtollProjects,youcanstartanAtolldocumentfromatemplate,withnosites,orfromadatabase
withasetofsites.AsyouworkonyourAtolldocument,youwillstillneedtocreatesitesandmodifyexistingones.
InAtoll,asiteisdefinedasageographicalpointsupportingoneormoremicrowavelinks.Atollenablesyoutoverifythechar
acteristicsofeachcandidateinordertochosethebestsite.Additionally,Atollhastoolsthatallowyoutosearchfornewloca
tionsforsites.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingSites"onpage 212
"SiteSurveyTools"onpage 214
"ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites"onpage 222.

6.2.1 CreatingSites
Whenyoucreateamicrowavesite,youcreateonlythegeographicalpoint.Thecreatedsitecanthensupportoneormore
microwavelinks.
Inthissection,thefollowingaredescribed:

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6.2.1.1 SiteDescription
TheparametersofasitecanbefoundinthesitesPropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhastwotabs:

TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 6.2):

Figure 6.2:NewSitedialogbox

Name:Atollentersadefaultnameforeachnewsite.Youcanmodifythedefaultname.Ifyouwanttochange
thedefaultnamethatAtollgivestonewsites,seetheAdministratorManual.
Bydefault,Atollplacesthenameofthesiteonthemapinacertainpositionvisvisthe
site.IfyourightclicktheSitestabintheNetworkexplorerandselectCalculatingLabel
Positionsfromthecontextmenu,Atollwilldetermineapositionforthelabelwhereitis
nothiddenbythemicrowavelink.

Position:Bydefault,Atollplacesthenewsiteatthecentreofthemapwindow.Youcanmodifythelocation
ofthesite.
Altitude:Thealtitude,asdefinedbytheDTMforthelocationspecifiedunderPosition,isgivenhere.Youcan
specifytheactualaltitudeunderReal,ifyouwant.Ifanaltitudeisspecifiedhere,Atollwillusethisvaluefor
calculations.
Comments:Youcanentercommentsinthisfieldifyouwant.

TheSupporttab:

Supportheight:Youcandefinetheheightofthestructureonwhichyoucaninstallantennas.Atollcanuse
thisheightinseveralanalyses(siteanalysis,antennaheightoptimisation,etc.).
Supporttype:Youcandescribethenatureofsite.Thisfieldisforinformationonly.

6.2.1.2 CreatingorModifyingaSite
Youcanmodifyanexistingsiteoryoucancreateanewsite.Youcanaccessthepropertiesofasite,describedin"SiteDescrip
tion"onpage 213,throughthesitesPropertiesdialogbox.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxdependsonwhether
youarecreatinganewsiteormodifyinganexistingsite.
Tocreateanewsite:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Sites: New Record Properties dialog box appears (see Figure 6.2 on
page 213).
4. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"SiteDescription"onpage 213.
5. ClickOK.
Tomodifyanexistingsite:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheSitesfolder.
3. Rightclickthesiteyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThesitesPropertiesdialogboxappears.

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5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"SiteDescription"onpage 213.
6. ClickOK.
Ifyouarecreatingseveralsitesatthesametime,ormodifyingseveralexistingsites,you
candoitquicklybyeditingorpastingthedatadirectlyintheSitestable.Youcanopen
theSitestablebyrightclickingtheSitesfolderontheNetworktaboftheexplorer
windowandselectingOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.Forinformationoncopying
andpastingdata,see"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 60.

6.2.2 SiteSurveyTools
Atollprovidesseveraltoolstoenableyoutoevaluatethelineofsightaroundasiteorbetweencandidatesites.
Inthissection,thefollowingareexplained.

"DisplayingtheLineofSightAreaAroundOneSite"onpage 214
"AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 215
"DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 218
"DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites"onpage 218
"Displayinga360ViewAroundOneSite"onpage 220

6.2.2.1 DisplayingtheLineofSightAreaAroundOneSite
Atollallowsyoutodisplaythelineofsightareaaroundasiteinthemapwindow.
Todisplaythelineofsightareaaroundasite:
1. Rightclickthesiteeitheronthemap,orintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >LineofSightAreafromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogboxappears.
TodisplaythelineofsightareaaroundallsitesinyourSitesfolder(orinthecomputation
zone,ifany)youshouldrightclicktheSitesfolderandselectVisibility >OverlappingArea
instead.See"DisplayingtheMutuallyVisibleAreasofMultipleSites"onpage 222.
3. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightwillbedefinedonthetransmittersideofeachmicrowavelink.
4. UnderHeightreceiverside,youcanselecthowreceiverheightwillbedefinedatthefaredgeoftheLOSarea:

Useheightsdefinedperclutterclass:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillusethereceiverheightdefinedperclutter
classontheCluttertaboftheLineofSightParametersdialogbox.
Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheground/Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheclutter:Ifyouselectoneof
theseoptions,AtollwillusethesupportheightyoudefineintheDefaultheightbox.

5. DefinetheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
6. DefinetheResolution.
7. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,definetheFirstkvalueandtheSecondkvalue.
8. UnderPenetrationcondition,definethefollowingparameters:
a. Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:SelecttheTakeclutterintoaccountindiffractioncheckboxifyouwant
touseclutterinformationwhencalculatingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
b. Definethetypeofclearancethatwillbecalculatedbyselectingoneofthefollowing:

Lineofsightclearance:SelectLineofsightclearanceifyouwanttostudythelineofsightbetweenthetrans
mitterandreceiversites.
Ellipsoidclearance:SelectEllipsoidclearanceifyouwanttostudythepercentageofclearanceoftheFresnel
ellipsoid.EnterthepercentageofclearanceofthelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoidintheTargetclearance
boxandselecttheFrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsightfromthelist.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.

9. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsightarea.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetforthe
propagationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:

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Receiverheight(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Thisisthevaluethatwill
betakenintoconsiderationifyouselectedUseheightsdefinedperclutterclassunderHeightreceiversideon
theCalculationParameterstab.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.

10. ClicktheDisplaytab.OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinehowthelineofsightareaswillbedisplayedonthemap.You
canselectoneofthefollowingdisplayoptions:

Oneareapersite:Selectthisoptiontodisplayalineofsightareaforeachsiteandthendefinethecolourtheline
ofsightareaswillbedisplayedin:

Automaticcolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillautomaticallyassignadifferentcolourtoeachlineof
sightarea,andyouwillbeabletodistinguishthelineofsightareasforeachsite.
Uniquecolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwithdisplayalllineofsightareasinthesamecolour,andthe
resultingdisplaywillshowthecumulativelineofsightareas.

Setthetransparencyofthedisplayedlineofsightarea,bymovingtheslider.
11. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckboxtoaddtheoptionsdefinedontheDisplaytabtotheLegend.Forinformationon
theLegendwindow,see"DisplayingtheMapLegend"onpage 41.
12. ClickOK.Atolldisplaysresultsonthemap.
Todeletethelineofsightareaaroundasite:
1. Rightclickthesiteeitheronthemap,orintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >DeleteLineofSightAreafromthecontextmenu.

6.2.2.2 AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidateSites
InAtoll,youcananalysethelineofsight(LOS)betweencandidatesites.Theanalysiscanbedoneforoneparticularsiteifone
extremityofthemicrowavelinkisalreadylockedorforallsites.Intheanalysis,Atollconsiderstheselectedsite(s)andallsites
locatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atollwillusethecomputationzone.Forinformationonthefocus
zone, see "The Focus Zone" on page 43 and for information on the computation zone, see "The Computation Zone" on
page 42.
TocalculateaLOSreportforoneparticularsite:
1. RightclickthesiteeitheronthemaporintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >LineofSightReportfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogboxappears(see
Figure 6.3).

Figure 6.3:Settingthecalculationparametersforalineofsightreport

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3. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
4. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Itshowshowsupportheightisdefinedonthetransmittersideofeachmicrowavelink.
5. SpecifytheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
6. SpecifytheResolution.
7. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,specifytheFirstkvalueandSecondkvalue.
8. UnderPenetrationcondition,specifythefollowingparameters:

Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttouseclutterinformationwhencalcu
latingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsightfromthelist.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.

9. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:

Receiverheight(m):Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingtheline
ofsightbetweenexistingsites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.

10. ClicktheTabletab.OntheTabletabyoucandefinethecontentsofthereport.Atolldisplaysadefaultsetoffields
andletsyouselectotherinformationtobeincludedinthereport.
a. ClickAdd.TheFieldSelectiondialogboxappears.
b. IntheFieldselectiondialogbox,selectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayinthereport.Youcanselectcontiguous
fieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.Youcanselectnoncontiguousfieldsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachfieldseparately.

Toselectafieldtobeincludedinthereport,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick
ittotheSelectedfieldslist.

tomove

ToremoveafieldfromthelistofSelectedfields,selectthefieldintheSelectedfieldslistandclick
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjects
willbedisplayedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.

to

c. ClickOKtoreturntotheTabletab.
11. ClickOK.AtolldisplaystheselectedresultsintheTerrainSectionstableforeachsiteinthefocuszoneifavailableand
computationzoneifthereisnofocuszone.Aswell,Atolldisplaysaterrainsectiononthemapbetweeneachpairof
sites.
TheTerrainSectionstablecontainsthefollowingdefaultinformationforeachpairofsites.Site1isthestudiedsiteandSite2
acandidatesitewithinthefocuszoneifavailableandcomputationzoneifthereisnofocuszone.

216

Site1:Site1isthetransmittingsiteofthepairofsites.
Site2:Site2isthereceivingsiteofthepairofsites.
Frequency(MHz):Themeanfrequencyusedtocalculatethelineofsightbetweenthetransmittingsiteandthe
receivingsite.
Antenna1Height/Ground(m):Theheightofthetransmittingantenna.
Antenna2Height/Ground(m):Theheightofthereceivingantenna.
LineofSight(k1)(%):TheclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelellipsoidinpercentageforthefirstkfactorvalue.
Theresultcanbebetween100and100%.Avaluefrom100to0%correspondstothepercentageofpenetration
oftheupperhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.Avaluefrom0to100%correspondstothepercentageofclearanceof
thelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid(seeFigure 6.4).
LineofSight(k2)(%):TheclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelellipsoidinpercentageforthesecondkfactor
value.
Distance(m):Thedistancebetweenthesites.
Direction():TheanglefromSite1toSite2inthehorizontalplane.
Customheights:ThevalueisFalsewhentheantennaheightsoftheterrainsectionarethosethatwerecalculated
bylineofsightreport.Ifanyoftheantennaheightsismodified,thenitissettoTrue.

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Figure 6.4:Lineofsightclearance
TheresultsprovidedintheTerrainSectionstablearecalculatedinrealtime.Therefore,youcanmodifythefrequencyorthe
antennaheightsandimmediatelyseetheimpactofthemodificationsonthelineofsightresults.
YoucanremovethelineofsightsectionsbyselectingVisibility >DeleteTerrainSectionsfromthesitescontextmenu.
Ifnecessary,youcanalsocalculateaLOSreportforallsitesbyselectingVisibility>LineofSightReportfromthecontextmenu
oftheSitesfolder.Inthiscase,aterrainsectionisdisplayedforeachpairofsiteswithinthefocuszone(ifavailable)orthe
computationzone.YoucanremovetheterrainsectionsbyselectingVisibility >DeleteTerrainSectionsfromthecontext
menuoftheSitesfolder.
AfteryouhavecalculatedtheLOSreport,youcanchangetheterrainsectiondisplayonthemap,analysetheterrainprofile
ofacalculatedterrainsection,orcreatelinkswiththem:

6.2.2.2.1

"DisplayingtheTerrainSectionsontheMap"onpage 217
"DisplayingtheTerrainProfileofanExistingTerrainSection"onpage 217
"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkwithaTerrainSection"onpage 219.

DisplayingtheTerrainSectionsontheMap
Theterrainsectionsdisplayedonthemaparecolouredbydefaultaccordingtothepercentageofclearanceorpenetrationof
theFresnelzone:

Green:Bydefault,aterrainsectionisdisplayedonthemapingreenifitiscompletelyunobstructed(i.e.,ifthevisibility
isover100 m.).
Orange:Iftheterrainsectionispartiallyobstructed(i.e.,ifthevisibilityisbetween0 m.and100 m.),itisdisplayedin
orangeonthemap.
Red:Iftheterrainsectioniscompletelyobstructed,itisdisplayedinred.

Youcanmodifythecoloursandvalueintervalsinordertomaketheirdisplaypropertiesmoremeaningfultoyou.
TocolourterrainsectionsaccordingtothepercentageofclearanceorpenetrationoftheFresnelzone
1. ClicktheGeotaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheTerrainSectionsfolderandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheTerrainSectionProperties
dialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheDisplaytabanddefinethefollowingparameters:

UnderDisplayType,select"ValueIntervals".
UnderField,select"Visibility".
Youcanchangethevalueintervalsandtheirdisplayedcolour.Forinformationonchangingdisplayproperties,see
"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

4. ClickOK.

6.2.2.2.2

DisplayingtheTerrainProfileofanExistingTerrainSection
IfyouhavepreviouslycalculatedaLOSreportonasiteoragroupofsites(see"AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandidate
Sites"onpage 215),youwillalreadyhaveterrainsectionsbetweensitesthatyoucanstudy.
Todisplaytheterrainprofileofanexistingterrainsection:
1. Onthemap,rightclicktheterrainsectionyouwanttoanalyse.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectOpenTerrainSection.AtollopenstheTerrainSectionwindow.
ItdisplaysaFresnelellipsoidbetweenbothsites,andterrainheightandclutteralongtheprofile.Inordertocalculate
theFresnelellipsoid,Atollusesthesiteheights,thekfactorvalueandthefrequencyusedfortheLOSreportcalcula
tion.

6.2.2.2.3

CreatingaMicrowaveLinkwithaTerrainSection
Youcanuseaterrainsectiontocreateamicrowavelink.

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Tocreateamicrowavelinkfromaterrainsection:
1. Onthemap,rightclicktheterrainsectionyouwanttouseforamicrowavelink.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectCreateLinkfromthecontextmenu.AtolladdsthenewmicrowavelinkintheMicrowaveLinksfolder;itsprop
ertiesarebasedonthedefaultmicrowavelinktemplateselectedintheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

6.2.2.3 DisplayingtheTerrainProfileBetweenCandidateSites
InAtoll,youcanchecktheterrainprofileinthefollowingcases:

fromasitetoanothersite
fromasitetoapointonthemap
fromapointonthemaptoasite
fromapointonthemaptoanotherpointonthemap

Tostudytheterrainprofilebetweentwositesorpointsonthemap:
1. Selecthowthesupportheightwillbedefinedonbothsitesofthemicrowavelinkbyclickingthearrownexttothe
TerrainSectionbutton(

)onthetoolbarandselectingoneofthefollowing:

TransmitterHeightsDefinedbySite/ReceiverHeightsDefinedbySite:Ifyouselectoneoftheseoptions,Atoll
willusethecorrespondingsupportheightdefinedoneachsite.

TransmitterHeightsRelativetoGround/ReceiverHeightsRelativetoGround:Ifyouselectoneoftheseoptions,
Atollwillusethecorrespondingsupportheightwithrespecttoground.

TransmitterHeightsRelativetoClutter/ReceiverHeightsRelativetoClutter:Ifyouselecttheseoptions,Atoll
willusethecorrespondingsupportheightwithrespecttoclutter.
ReceiverHeightDefinedperClutterClass:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillusethereceiverheightdefinedper
clutterclassontheCluttertaboftheLineofSightParametersdialogbox.

YoucansetmoreoptionsusingtheLineofSightParametersdialogbox.Youcanopenthe
LineofSightParametersdialogboxbyclickingthearrownexttotheTerrainSectiontool
barbutton(
)andselectingProperties.Foradescriptionoftheoptionsavailablein
theLineofSightParametersdialogbox,see"AnalysingtheLineofSightBetweenCandi
dateSites"onpage 215.
2. ClicktheTerrainSectionbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

3. Movethepointertothesiteonthemap.Whentheframeappearsaroundthesite,indicatingitisselected,clickto
createthefirstanalysispoint.
4. Movethepointertoanothersiteonthemap.Whentheframeappearsaroundthesite,indicatingitisselected,click
tocreatethesecondanalysispoint.
A terrain section is created on the map between the sites. The terrain section is coloured according to its visibility (see
"DisplayingtheTerrainSectionsontheMap"onpage 217).TheprofilebetweenbothsitesappearsontheTerrainSection
window.Theterrainheightisdisplayedalongtheprofileaswellasclutterclassesandclutterheights.Ablueellipsoidindicates
theFresnelzonebetweenbothsites.Bydefault,Atollconsiderstheantennaheightsdefinedfortheselectedsitestodeter
minetheprofile.YoucanmodifythemaswellasthestudiedfrequencyintheTerrainSectionPropertiesdialogbox.
Onceyouhavecreatedtheterrainsections,youcangetdetailedresults:
1. Selecttheterrainsectiononthemap.
2. IntheTerrainSectionwindow,clickthePropertiesbutton(

).TheTerrainSectionPropertiesdialogboxappears.

3. IntheTerrainSectionPropertiesdialogbox,youhavethefollowingparameters:

218

Id:Theterrainsectionreferencenumber.
Site1:ThenameofSite1.
Site2:ThenameofSite2.
Frequency(MHz):Thefrequencytobeconsidered.
Antenna1Height/Ground(m):TheantennaheightonSite1,relativetoground.
Antenna2Height/Ground(m):TheantennaheightonSite2,relativetoground.
LineofSight(k1)(%)andLineofSight(k2)(%):Thepercentageofclearance/penetrationoftheFresnelzone.The
valuecanvarybetween100%and100%.Avaluefrom100%to0%correspondstothepercentageofpenetration
oftheupperhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.Avaluefrom0%to100%correspondstothepercentageofclearanceof
thelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoid.
Distance(m):ThedistancebetweenSite1andSite2.
Direction():TheanglefromSite1toSite2inthehorizontalplane.

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Customheights:ThevalueisFalsewhentheantennaheightsoftheterrainsectionarethosethatweredefined
whentheterrainsectionwascreated.Ifanyoftheantennaheightsismodified,thenitissettoTrue.

4. ClickOKtoclosethedialogbox.
Thelineofsightresultsarecalculatedinrealtime.Therefore,youcanmodifythefrequencyortheantennaheights,click
Apply,andimmediatelyseetheimpactofthemodificationsonthelineofsightresults.Ifyouwant,youcancreateamicro
wavelinkfromaterrainsection(see"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkwithaTerrainSection"onpage 217).

6.2.2.3.1

CreatingaMicrowaveLinkwithaTerrainSection
Youcanuseaterrainsectiontocreateamicrowavelink.
Tocreateamicrowavelinkusingaterrainsection:
1. Onthemap,rightclicktheterrainsectionyouwanttouseforamicrowavelink.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectCreateLinkfromthecontextmenu.AtolladdsthenewmicrowavelinkintheMicrowaveLinksfolder;itsprop
ertiesarebasedonthedefaultmicrowavelinktemplate.

6.2.2.4 FindingtheBestRouteBetweenTwoSites
Atollallowsyoutofindallroutesbetweentwositesfulfillinglineofsightcriteria.Theroutescanconsistofseveralhopsand
havedifferentlengths.Ifnecessary,theroutewiththeleastofhopsortheshortestroutecanbedisplayed.Intheanalysis,
Atollconsiderstheselectedsitesandallsiteslocatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,thecomputationzone
isused.Forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43andforinformationonthecomputationzone,
see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42.
Tofindthebestroutebetweentwosites:
1. Rightclickthetargetsiteeitheronthemap,orintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontext
menuappears.
2. SelectVisibility >DefineRoutingfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogboxappears.
3. OntheRoutingOptionstab,definethefollowingparameters:

Sourcesite:Thestartingsite.Atolllistsallsitesinthefocuszoneifavailableandcomputationzoneifthereisno
focuszone(forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43andforinformationonthecom
putationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42).
Maximumnumberofhops:Themaximumnumberofhopsallowedbetweenstartingandtargetsites.
Minimisethenumberofhopstoreachthetarget:SelectthisoptionifyouwantAtolltodisplaythebestsolution
intermsofnumberofhops,i.e.thepathcontainingtheleastofhops.
Minimisethetotalpathlength:SelectthisoptionifyouwantAtolltodisplaythebestsolutionintermsofdis
tance,i.e.theshortestpath.

4. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
5. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Atollusesthesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
6. Under Height receiver side, the Use the support height defined by site option is set by default and cannot be
changed.Atollusesthesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
7. SpecifytheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
8. SpecifytheResolution.
9. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,specifytheFirstkvalueandSecondkvalue.
10. UnderPenetrationcondition,specifythefollowingparameters:

Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttouseclutterinformationwhencalcu
latingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectfromthelistthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsight.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.

11. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:

Receiverheight:Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingthelineof
sightbetweenexistingsites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.

12. ClickOK.AtolldisplaystheresultsintheRoutingtoSitetable.

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TheRoutingtoSitetablecontainsthefollowinginformationforeachroute.

Node1:ThenameofthesourcesiteselectedontheRoutingOptionstab.
Node#:Thenamesofthesitesthatarepartoftherouteandthenameofthetargetsite.
Distance(m):Thelengthoftheroute.

Thenumberofcolumnsnamed"Node#"displayedintheRoutingtoSitetabledependsonthemaximumnumberof
hopsdefinedintheRoutingOptionstab.
Inaddition,Atolldisplaysterrainsectionsonthemapbetweeneachsiteofroutes(see"DisplayingtheTerrainProfile
BetweenCandidateSites"onpage 218).YoucanremovethelineofsightlinesbyselectingVisibility >DeleteTerrain
SectionsfromthecontextmenuoftheSitesfolderontheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.

6.2.2.5 Displayinga360ViewAroundOneSite
Youcandisplaya360viewaroundeachsite.Displayinga360viewaroundasitehelpsyoudetermineifthesiteisagood
candidateandifitisvisiblefromtheothersites.
Toperforma360viewofasite:
1. RightclickthesiteeitheronthemaporintheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenu
appears.
2. SelectVisibility >360Viewfromthecontextmenu.The360Viewwindowopens(seeFigure 6.5):

Figure 6.5:360ViewTool
The360Viewwindowshowsthepointsofhighestelevationsineverydirectionaroundtheselectedsite.Thehori
zontalaxisshowsthedirection(indegrees).Theheightofthestudiedsiteisindicatedbyabluedottedline.Twopurple
markers on both sides of the 360 View window show the support height (i.e., the maximum height not to be
exceededifyouinstallanantennaonthesite)definedforthestudiedsite.Neighboursitesaroundthestudiedone
aredisplayedaccordingtotheirdirections.Eachneighboursiteisindicatedbyaverticalredlineanditssymbol.The
linepositionontheverticalaxisdependsonthesitealtitudewhichincludesthecurvatureoftheearth.Thelinelengths
andthesymbolpositiononthelinedependonthereceiverheightdefinedinthe360ViewPropertiesdialogbox.If
thesiteisentirelyvisiblefromthestudiedsite,thelineissolid.Ifitisentirelyhiddenbyanobstacle,thelineisdotted.
Ifasiteispartlyvisiblefromthestudiedsite,thevisiblepartisrepresentedbyasolidlinewhereasthehiddenpartis
indicatedbyadottedline.Thisrepresentationhelpsyouselectareceiversiteamongneighboursanddetermineat
whichheightyoushouldinstallanantennaonthereceiversite.Atolldisplaystheterrainheightalongtheprofileas
wellasclutterclassesandclutterheights.
The360Viewwindowdoesnotdisplayanydepthoffield.

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The360Viewwindowprovidesyouwiththefollowingoptions:

Tocentrethereceiversiteinthemapwindow:Clickthesiteinthe360Viewwindow.Thesiteisautomatically
selectedandenteredinthemapwindow.
Togetinformationaboutareceiversite:Placethepointeronthesiteinthe360Viewwindow.Atolldisplaystip
textwiththefollowinginformation:

Thesitecoordinates(inthedisplaycoordinatesystem)
Itsdistancefromthestudiedsite(inmetres)
Thedirection(indegrees)
Thealtitude(inmetres)
ThecurvatureoftheEarth(inmetres)
Thesupportheight(inmetres).

Todisplaytheterrainprofilebetweenthestudiedsiteandthereceiversite:Rightclickthesiteinthe360View
windowandselectSeeTerrainSectionfromthecontextmenu.TheTerrainSectionwindowopens.
ToreturnfromtheTerrainSectionwindowtothe360Viewwindow:Clickthe360ViewtabintheTerrainSec
tionwindow.
Toviewtheexactlocationofahighelevationpointinthemapwindow:Clickapointonthelineindicatingthe
highestelevationpointsinthe360Viewwindow.Aspecialpointer(
)pinpointsthelocationofthecurrent
pointinthemapwindow.
Togetinformationaboutahighelevationpoint:Placethepointeronapointonthelineindicatingthehighest
elevationpointsinthe360Viewwindow.Atolldisplaystiptextwiththefollowinginformation:
Thepointcoordinates(usingthedefineddisplaycoordinatesystem)
Thedistancefromthestudiedsite(inmetres)
Thedirection(indegrees)
Thealtitude(inmetres)
Thecurvatureoftheearth(inmetres)
Theclutterheightatthepoint(inmetres).
Toconfigurethe360viewcalculationparametersanddisplayoptions:Rightclickthe360Viewwindowand
select360ViewPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.Forinformationonparameterswhichcanbechanged,see
"ChangingtheCalculationandDisplayParameters"onpage 221
Tochangetheangleofviewandtheazimuthofthestudiedsite:Clickthefollowingbuttonsavailableonthesides
ofthe360Viewwindow.

:Increasetheangleofviewontheleft

:Decreasetheangleofviewontheleft

:Rotatetheangleofviewontheleft

:Increasetheangleofviewontheright

:Decreasetheangleofviewontheright

:Rotatetheangleofviewontheright.

ChangingtheCalculationandDisplayParameters
Tochangethecalculationanddisplayparameters:
1. Rightclickthe360Viewwindow.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Select360ViewPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogboxappears.
3. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
4. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Atollusesthesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
5. SpecifytheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsite.
6. SpecifytheResolution.
7. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,specifytheFirstkvalueandtheSecondkvalue.
8. UnderPenetrationcondition,specifythefollowingparameters:

Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttouseclutterinformationwhencalcu
latingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
Frequencyband:Selectfromthelistthefrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsight.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.

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9. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsight.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetfortheprop
agationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:

Receiverheight(m):Youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Itisnotusedwhencalculatingtheline
ofsightbetweenexistingsites.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongtheentireprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.

10. OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Supportheight:Whenyouselectthisoption,Atolldisplaystwomarkersonbothsidesofthewindowtorepresent
thesupportheightdefinedforthestudiedsite.Theyaredisplayedinpurplebydefault.
Heightoftheselectedsite:Whenyouselectthisoption,Atolldisplaysahorizontalline(abluedottedlineby
default)toindicatetheheightoftheselectedsite.
Positionoftheothersites:Whenyouselectthisoption,Atolldisplaysthepositionofothersiteswithintheview.
Eachsiteisindicatedbyaverticalline(redbydefault).
Azimuth:Entertheazimuthoftheselectedsite.
Beamwidth:Entertheangleofviewtobeconsidered.Ifyouenteranazimuthof0andabeamwidthof90,Atoll
willdisplaytheviewbetween45and45.

11. ClickOK.

6.2.3 ToolsinAtollforFindingNewSites
Atollprovidesdifferenttoolstofindnewmicrowavesitelocations.Youcanimprovethelocationofasite,intermsofrecep
tionandtransmission,bylettingAtollfindahigherlocationforit,asexplainedin"MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation"on
page 28.YoucanalsoletAtolldisplaythemutuallyvisibleareasofmultiplesitesinordertofindgoodplacestocreatenew
sites:

"DisplayingtheMutuallyVisibleAreasofMultipleSites"onpage 222

DisplayingtheMutuallyVisibleAreasofMultipleSites
AtollallowsyoutocalculatethelineofsightareasaroundallsitesintheSitesfolderanddisplaytheirintersection.Theinter
sectionoflineofsightareaswillbecalculatedforsitesinthecomputationzone(forinformationonthecomputationzone,
see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42).

Todisplaythelineofsightareasaroundmultiplesitesanddisplaytheirintersection:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. RightclicktheSitesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectVisibility >OverlappingAreasfromthecontextmenu.TheLineofSightParametersdialogboxappears.
4. ClicktheCalculationParameterstab.
5. UnderHeighttransmitterside,theUsethesupportheightdefinedbysiteoptionissetbydefaultandcannotbe
changed.Atollusesthesupportheightdefinedbysiteforeachlineofsight.
6. UnderHeightreceiverside,youcanselecthowreceiverheightwillbedefinedatthefaredgeoftheLOSarea:

Useheightsdefinedperclutterclass:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillusethereceiverheightdefinedperclutter
classontheCluttertaboftheLineofSightParametersdialogbox.
Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheground/Usethedefaultheightrelativetotheclutter:Ifyouselectoneof
theseoptions,AtollusesthesupportheightthatwasspecifiedintheDefaultheightbox.

7. SpecifytheMaximumdistancearoundtheselectedsitetobeconsideredinthelineofsightanalysis.
8. SpecifytheResolution.
9. UnderEarthcurvaturefactors,specifytheFirstkvalueandtheSecondkvalue.
10. UnderPenetrationcondition,specifythefollowingparameters:
a. Takeclutterintoaccountindiffraction:SelecttheTakeclutterintoaccountindiffractioncheckboxifyouwant
touseclutterinformationwhencalculatingdiffractioninthelineofsight.
b. Definethetypeofclearancethatwillbecalculatedbyselectingoneofthefollowing:

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Lineofsightclearance:SelectLineofsightclearanceifyouwanttostudythelineofsightbetweenthetrans
mitterandreceiversites.

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Ellipsoidclearance:SelectEllipsoidclearanceifyouwanttostudythepercentageofclearanceoftheFresnel
ellipsoid.EnterthepercentageofclearanceofthelowerhalfoftheFresnelellipsoidintheTargetclearance
boxandselecttheFrequencybandtobeusedwhencalculatingthelineofsightfromthelist.Theaverage
frequencyoftheselectedfrequencybandisdisplayedintheFrequencybox.

11. ClicktheCluttertab.OntheCluttertabyoucansetclutterrelatedparametersthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheline
ofsightarea.ThesettingsontheCluttertabareindependentfromanyclutterparametersyoumighthavesetforthe
propagationmodel.Foreachclutterclass,youcansetthefollowing:

Receiverheight(m):Ifyouwant,youcandefineareceiverheightforeachclutterclass.Thisisthevaluethatwill
betakenintoconsiderationifyouselectedUseheightsdefinedperclutterclassunderHeightreceiversideon
theCalculationParameterstab.
Horizontalclearancearoundtransmitterandreceiver(m):Ifyouwant,youcanspecifyaclearancearoundeach
siteforeachclutterclass.Theclearanceisusedwhencalculatingdiffraction.Bothgroundaltitudeandclutter
heightareconsideredalongthewholeprofileexceptoveraspecificdistancearoundthesites(clearance),where
AtollbasesitscalculationsonlyontheDTM.

12. ClicktheDisplaytab.OntheDisplaytab,youcanspecifyhowthelineofsightareaswillbedisplayedonthemap.You
canselectoneofthefollowingdisplayoptions:

Oneareapersite:Selectthisoptiontodisplayalineofsightareaforeachsiteandthendefinethecolourtheline
ofsightareaswillbedisplayedin:

Automaticcolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,Atollwillautomaticallyassignadifferentcolourtoeachlineof
sightarea,andyouwillbeabletodistinguishthelineofsightareasforeachsite.
Uniquecolour:Ifyouselectthisoption,selectingacolourfromthepalette,Atollwithdisplayalllineofsight
areasinthesamecolour,andtheresultingdisplaywillshowthecumulativelineofsightareas.

Setthetransparencyofthedisplayedlineofsightarea,bymovingtheslider.

Overlapping:Selectthisoptiontodisplaythelineofsightareaswithcoveragefromthedefinednumberofsites:

Areascoveredbyatleast2sites:SelectthischeckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplayallareascoveredbyatleast
2 sitesinthecolourselectedfromthepalette.
Areascoveredbyatleast3sites:SelectthischeckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplayallareascoveredbyatleast
3 sitesinthecolourselectedfromthepalette.
Areascoveredbyallsites:SelectthischeckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplayallareascoveredbyallsitesinthe
colourselectedfromthepalette.

13. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckboxtoaddtheoptionsdefinedontheDisplaytabtotheLegend.Forinformationon
theLegendwindow,see"DisplayingtheMapLegend"onpage 41.
14. ClickOK.TheEventViewerappears.
15. ClickClosewhenTaskLineofsightareaEndisshownintheEventViewer.Atolldisplaystheresultsonthemap.
Todeletethelineofsightareas:
1. RightclicktheSitesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectVisibility >Deletelineofsightareasfromthecontextmenu.

6.3 CreatingLinks
InAtoll,youcanmanagemicrowavelinksaswellasothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoropticalfibres.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 223.
"CreatingOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 235.
"ModifyingSitesandLinksDirectlyontheMap"onpage 238.
"DisplayingTipsforSitesandLinks"onpage 239.
"AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 239
"AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 239.
"SettingtheWorkingAreaofanAtollDocument"onpage 243.

6.3.1 CreatingMicrowaveLinks
Amicrowavelink,inAtoll,isapointtopointfixedradiofrequencylinkoperatingineithersimplexorinduplexmode.Duplex
operationmeansthateachradiofrequencychannelconsistsofapairoffrequencies,onefortransmissionandoneforrecep
tion.Thebasebandsignal,containingtheuserdata,occupiesalimitedbandwidthdependingonthemodulationschemeused.
Thisbasebandsignalismodulatedontoaradiofrequencycarrieratthetransmissionend,andistransmittedovertheairas
anelectromagneticwavefront.Microwaveradiolinksaredesignedtooperatebetween300 MHzand90 GHz.

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Amicrowavelinkcomprisestwotransmission/receptionendswithantennas,transceiverradios,etc.,installedatboth.Atoll
enablesyoutocreatenewmicrowavelinksbybasingthemontemplatesorbysettingalltheparametersforeachnewmicro
wavelink.Inaddition,youcanmanagethemicrowavelinkactivitystatusgloballyorindividually.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.
"CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink"onpage 230.
"DefiningPortParameters"onpage 231.
"PlacingaNewMicrowaveLinkUsingtheMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 232.
"ManagingMicrowaveLinkTemplates"onpage 233.

6.3.1.1 DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink
TheparametersofamicrowavelinkcanbefoundinthemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhas
seventabs:

TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 6.6):

Name:Thenameofthemicrowavelink.
UnderSiteA:youcansetthenameofthesitedefiningoneextremityofthelink.Iftheextremityofthemicrowave
linkisnotlocatedexactlyonthesite,youcanmodifyitspositionunderAntennaposition:

Relativetosite:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoentertheantennapositionasoffsetswithrespecttothesite
location,andthenenterthexaxisandyaxisoffsets,DxandDy,respectively.
Coordinates:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoenterthecoordinatesoftheantenna,andthenenterthexaxis
andyaxiscoordinatesoftheantenna,XandY,respectively.

UnderSiteB:youcansetthenameofthesitedefiningtheotherextremityofthelink.Iftheextremityofthemicro
wavelinkisnotlocatedexactlyonthesite,youcanmodifyitspositionunderAntennaPosition:

RelativetoSite:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoentertheantennapositionsasoffsetswithrespecttothesite
location,andthenenterthexaxisandyaxisoffsets,DxandDy,respectively.
Coordinates:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoenterthecoordinatesoftheantenna,andthenenterthexaxis
andyaxiscoordinatesoftheantenna,XandY,respectively.

InAtoll,"A"isthesiteofdepartureand"B"isthesiteofarrival.

Frequencyband:Theworkingfrequencybandofthemicrowavelink.
Length:Thecalculatedlength.

UnderPassiverepeaters:youcanselectanyrepeatersonthemicrowavelink:

224

RepeaterP:Thenameofapassiverepeateronthemicrowavelink.
RepeaterQ:Thenameofasecondpassiverepeateronthemicrowavelink.

Active:Themicrowavelinkactivitystatus.Onlyactivemicrowavelinksareconsideredinreliabilityandinterfer
enceanalysis.
Comments:Anycommentaboutthemicrowavelink.

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Figure 6.6:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxGeneraltab

TheRadiotab(seeFigure 6.7):

Figure 6.7:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxRadiotab

A>>BandA<<B:Thedirectionofthemicrowavelink(A>>B:transmissionfromSite AtoSite B,A<<B:transmission


fromSite BtoSite A).Selectbothoptionstomakethemicrowavelinkbidirectional(i.e.,toallowcommunication
inbothdirections).

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UnderAntennas,youcandefineantennasandcharacteristicsforthebothsitesofthemicrowavelink

Model:Theantennamodel.Bydefault,Atolllistsantennasthatoperateinthefrequencybanddefinedforthe
microwavelink.Ifyouwant,youcanapplyanadditionalfilterbyclickingthebutton(
)besidetheantenna
modelfield.Whenthefilterisactive,theappearanceofthebuttonchanges(
).Inthiscase,Atollproposes
inthelistantennascompatiblewiththeselectedequipmentasdefinedintheAntenna/EquipmentCompati
bilitytable.
Height/ground:Theantennaheightwithrespecttotheground(inmetres).
Polarisation:Thepolarisationoftheantennatobeused.ThisparameterhelpsAtolldeterminewhichantenna
patterndiagramstouseforcalculations.
Azimuth:Thecalculatedazimuthoftheantennaisdisplayed.
Misalignment(az.):Theazimuthwithrespecttothedirectraybetweenthebothextremities.
Tilt:Thecalculatedtiltoftheantennaisdisplayed.
Misalignment(tilt):Thetiltwithrespecttothedirectraybetweenthebothextremities.
Usearadome:SelecttheUsearadomecheckboxifthereisaradomeprotectingtheantenna.
Losses:IftheUsearadomecheckboxisselected,Atolldisplaystheradomelosses.

UnderRadios,youcandefineradiorelatedparametersforthebothsitesofthemicrowavelink:

Series:Selecttheradioseriesyouwanttouse.Bydefault,Atolllistsradioserieswhoseradioscanoperatein
thefrequencybanddefinedforthemicrowavelink.
Model:Youcanselectareferenceradio.Bydefault,Atolllistsradiosthatoperateinthefrequencybandde
finedforthemicrowavelink.Ifyouwant,youcanapplyanadditionalfilterbyclickingthebutton(
)beside
theantennamodelbox.Whenthefilterisactive,theappearanceofthebuttonchanges(
).Inthiscase,
AtollproposesinthelistradioscompatiblewiththeselectedantennaasdefinedintheAntenna/RadioCom
patibilitytable.
Youcanalsouseanassistanttoselecttheradio.Clickingthewandbutton(
)besidetheModeltextbox
openstheRadioSelectiondialogbox(seeFigure 6.8).Onlyradioseriessupportingthedefinedfrequencyband
areavailableintheRadioserieslist.Inthesameway,onlytheoperationmodessupportedbytheselected
radioseriesareavailableintheOperationmodelist.AccordingtotheselectedRadioseriesandOperation
mode,Atollhighlightsinthetabletheinterchannelspacingmodulationconfigurationssupportedbythera
dioseriesforthisfrequencybandandthedefinedoperationmode.Selectingoneoftheseconfigurationsin
thetableandclickingOKselectsthereferenceradioandfillstheModulationsandtheCapacitytextboxes
fromthepropertiesoftheradio.

Figure 6.8:RadioSelectiondialogbox

226

Modulations:YoucanchangethemodulationfromtheModulationslist.Thelistpresentsallmodulations
compatiblewiththechannelbandwidthoftheselectedreferenceradio(i.e.,128QAM,256QAM,and64QAM
intheexample).Dependingontheoperationmode(constantmodulationoradaptivemodulation)selectedin
thePropertiesoftheLinksfolder,youcandefineoneormoremodulations.Ifthemicrowavelinkdoesnot
supportadaptivemodulation,selectamodulationfromthelist.Ifthemicrowavelinkcanswitchfromone
modulationtoanotherone,thenselectthesupportedmodulations.Changingthemodulationautomatically
changestheselectedreferenceradioandthecapacity.

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Capacity:Selectthecapacityfromthelist.Thelistonlyofferscapacitiesthatcanbeprovidedforthechannel
bandwidthoftheselectedradio(i.e.,100DS1,115DS1and87DS1inthisexample).Changingthecapacityauto
maticallychangestheselectedreferenceradioandthemodulation.
Power:YoucaneitherselecttheODUconfiguration(Lowpower,Standardpower,Highpower)oftheradio,
and Atoll considers the maximum output power defined for the selected configuration in the radio series
properties,oryoucanchooseConstantpower,andentertheoutputpowervalue.Thislastoptionallowsyou
toconsiderthesameoutputpowerforallsupportedmodulationswhenusingadaptivemodulation.
Tuning:ThetuningvalueindBifyoudonotwanttotransmitatmaximumpower.Specifythisparameterif
youhavepreviouslyselectedeitherLowpower,orStandardpower,orHighpower.
Nominalpower:Theoutputpoweraftertuning.
ATPC:Thepowerreserveusedtoincreasethetransmittedsignalwhenitrains.Thisparametercanbedefined
forbidirectionallinksonly.ThevaluecannotexceedtheMaxATPCvaluedefinedfortheequipment.ATPC
valueisconsideredinreliabilityandinterferenceanalysisonlyifpowercontrolison.Forinformationontaking
powercontrolintoconsideration,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191.
CoordinatedPower:TheoutputpowerwhenATPCisconsidered.Thevaluecannotbelowerthanthemini
mumoutputpowersupportedbytheradio.

UnderBranching,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Configuration:Selectabranchingtype.Onlythebranchingtypessupportedbytheradioseriesoftheradio
andthedefinedfrequencybandareavailableinthelist.
Whenyouchangethebranchingtype,theportsettingsareautomaticallyreset.

Diversityantenna:Selectthediversityantennamodelwhentheconfigurationsupportsspacediversity.
Separation:Thedistancebetweenthemainandthediversityantennaswhenspacediversityisusedonthe
site.
Radome:SelecttheRadomecheckboxifthereisaradomeprotectingthediversityantenna.Atolldisplaysthe
radomelossesbesidethecheckbox.

UnderFrequencies,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

SubBand:Thefrequencysubband.Bydefault,Atolllistsallfrequencysubbands,whosethefrequencyspac
ingexceedsthechannelbandwidthoftheselectedradio.Ifyouwant,youcanremovethisfilterbyclickingthe
button(
)besidethefrequencysubbandfield.Theappearanceofthebuttonchanges(
)andAtolldis
playsallfrequencysubbandsavailableforthemicrowavelinkfrequencybandinthelist.
Frequency:Thefrequencyonwhichthesignalistransmitted.Thisvalueisusedwhennosubbandisdefined.
Bydefault,itequalsthecentralfrequencyofthefrequencyband.
Halfband:Definewhichhalfband(eithertheupperorthelowerhalfband)isassignedtothesite.
Channels:Thechannel(s)allocatedtothesite.Thecorrespondingfrequencyisindicatedinbrackets.Chan
nel(s)canbeselectedonlyafterchoosingafrequencysubband.
PortSettings:ClickthePortSettingsbuttontoconfigurechannel(s)indetail.ThePortsDefinitiondialogbox
appears.Youcanconfigurethechannels,transmissionandreceptionportnumbers,valuesfortransmission
andreceptionattenuation,thepolarisationandthechannelportstatus.Thenumberofportsyoucandefine
depends on the selected configuration and cannot exceed n+m (where "n" is the number of channels in
normaluseand"m"isthenumberofchannelsavailableasstandbychannels).
Forfurtherinformationonportsettings,see"DefiningPortParameters"onpage 231.
Portsettingshavetobedefinedifyouusecrosspolarisationinterferencecanceller,hot
standbyorfrequencydiversityconfigurations.Forotherconfigurations,portsettingsisnot
mandatory;youcandefineeitherthefrequencyorthesubbandandchannels.

TheConnectionstab(seeFigure 6.7):

UnderFeeders,youcanselectuptotwofeeders.Foreachofthem,youcandefineifitisusedeitherfortransmis
sionorreceptiononly,orforbothtransmissionandreceptiondirectionsandselectthefeedermodel.Bydefault,
Atolllistsfeedersthatoperateinthefrequencybanddefinedforthemicrowavelink.Ifyouwant,youcanapply
an additional filter by clicking the button (

) beside the antenna model field. When the filter is active, the

appearance of the button changes (


). In this case, Atoll proposes in the list, feeders compatible with the
selectedantennaandradioasdefinedintheAntenna/FeederCompatibilityandAntenna/FeederCompatibility
tables.Youcanalsoenterthelengthofeachfeeder.Atolldisplaystheattenuation.
UnderConnectionLosses,youcandefineadditionallossestobetakenintoaccountontransmission,reception,
oronbothtransmissionandreception.YoucanalsoaddaShieldingFactorthatistakenintoconsiderationwhen

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calculatingtheinterferencereceivedbythesitesofthemicrowavelink.Signallevelsreceivedfrominterferersare
attenuatedbytheshieldingfactor.
YoucanchangethewayAtollconsiderstheshieldingfactorincalculationsbysettingan
optionintheAtoll.inifile.Whenthisoptionisactive,bothtransmittedandreceivedsignals
are attenuated by the shielding factor. For more information, see the Administrator
Manual.

Figure 6.9:MicrowavelinkPropertiesdialogboxConnectionstab

TheGeoclimatictab:

CurrentMethods:UnderCurrentMethods,youcanseethecalculationmethodsusedtoanalysethemicrowave
linkqualityandavailability.ThemethodsdisplayedarethosesetontheModelstaboftheLinksPropertiesdialog
box.Formoreinformation,see"GlobalParameters"onpage 191.
Thegeoclimaticparametersavailabledependontheselectedqualityandavailabilitymethods.Toaccessallgeo
climaticparameterswhateverthemethodsyouhaveselected,clicktheDisplayAllbuttonavailableunderCurrent
Methods.
Thedifferentgeoclimaticparametersaredescribedbelow:

AtmosphericandClimaticConditions:UnderAtmosphericandClimaticConditions,youcandefinetheconditions
underwhichthemicrowaveoperates:

228

Climatezone(Vigants):Selecttheclimaticzonethatbestdescribestheclimateinwhichthemicrowavelink
operates.ThisinformationisusedonlywhenusingVigantsBarnettasthequalitycalculationmethod.Youcan
choosebetween"WarmandHumid","Temperate","Dry","GreatLakesAreas","GulfCoasts","HawaiiCarib
bean","AlaskaCoasts",and"AlaskaInland".
Rainzone:Selecttherainzoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Youcanselectthefollowingrainzones:
"A:Polar(Dry)","B:Polar(Moderate)","B1:Cold(Dry)","B2:Cold(Moderate)","C:TemperateMaritime",
"D1:TemperateContinental(Dry)","D2:TemperateContinental(Moderate)","D3:TemperateContinental
(Wet)","E:SubtropicalWet","F:SubtropicalArid(Dry)","G:TropicalModerate"and"H:Tropical".
Temperature:Settheaveragetemperatureofthezoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.Clickingthe
button(
)besidetheTemperaturetextboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthetemperaturebased
onRec.ITURP.15100,ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthetemperaturesetinthegeoclimaticfile.For
moreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Rec.ITURP.530:TheparametersfoundunderRec.ITURP.530arethoserecommendedbyITURP.530to
calculatethequalityofthemicrowavelink:

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WaterVapourDensity:Setthewatervapourdensityingramspercubicmetre.Clickingthebutton(
)be
sidetheWaterVapourDensitytextboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthewatervapourdensity
basedonRec.ITURP.8363(andselectthepercentageoftheaverageyearwherethedefinedwatervapour
densityisexceeded),orbasedonRec.ITURP.8353(andselectaseason),orthewatervapourdensitysetin
thegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.The
dialogboxalsodisplaysthewatervapourpressureinhectopascals(hPa)calculatedusingyourdataandbased
onRec.ITURP.4539.
Rainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear:Settherainfallrateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyear
(or,inotherwords,anamountofrainfallalmostneverobserved).Clickthebutton(
)besidetheRainfall
rateexceeded0.01%oftheaverageyeartextboxtospecifywhetherthevalueisbasedonRec.ITURP.8374,
Rec.ITURP.8375andRec.ITURP.8376,orthevaluesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthe
geoclimaticfile,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Atmosphericpressure:Settheatmosphericpressureinhectopascal(hPa).Clickthebutton(
)besidethe
AtmosphericpressureboxtospecifywhethertheatmosphericpressureisbasedonRec.ITURP.8353(and
selectaseason),orthevaluesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"Ge
oclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Relativehumidity:TheRelativehumiditydisplayediscalculatedusingthedefinedwatervapourdensity.
Rec.ITURP.53012,13:UnderRec.ITURP.53012,13,youcanentertheRainheight(0C/32FIsotherm)
inmetres.Therainheightistheheightofthetopoftheraincolumnabovemeansealevelfromthe0Ciso
therm.Clickthebutton(
)besidetheRainheightboxtospecifyawhetherthevalueisbasedonRec.ITUR
P.8393,orthevaluesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimaticfile,see"Geoclimatic
Maps"onpage 133.

Refractivitygradient:UnderRefractivitygradient,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Innormalconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved50%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthebutton
(
)besidetheInnormalconditionstextboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselectthemethodtoesti
matetherefractivitygradientundernormalconditions.TherefractivitygradientcanbecalculatedfromRec.
ITURP.4539,usingauserdefinedreferencealtitude,ortherefractivitygradientcanbebasedondatagiven
byRec.ITURP.4539forlessthan65 m.andapercentageoftheyearthatNisnotexceeded(50%issetby
default),ortherefractivitygradientcanbesetinthegeoclimaticfile.Formoreinformationonthegeoclimatic
file,see"GeoclimaticMaps"onpage 133.
Thekfactormedianvalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.

Insubrefractionconditions:Settherefractivitygradientobserved99%oftimeinNunitsperkm.Clickingthe
button(
)besidetheInsubrefractionconditionstextboxautomaticallycalculatestherefractivitygradient
undersubrefractionconditions.
Thekfactoreffectivevalue,calculatedusingthesetparameters,isdisplayed.

Geoclimaticfactor:TheparametersunderGeoclimaticfactorareusedtocalculatethequalityofthemicrowave
linkandarebrokendownbycalculationmethod.UnderGeoclimaticfactor,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

VigantsBarnett:ParametersavailableunderVigantsBarnettdependontheoptionselectedontheModels
taboftheLinksPropertiesdialogbox.
IfyouselectUserdefinedunderMultipathoccurrencemethod,youcanentertheTerrainclimatefactor C
value,thepropagationconditionfactorfortheVigantsBarnettmethod.
IfyouselecttheSimplifiedmethodortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,youcandefinetheTerraintype
("Flat Terrain", "Average Terrain", "Great Lakes", "Gulf Coasts", "Islands", "Alaska Mountain", or "Tundra
Zones").IfyouareusingtheSimplifiedmethod,AtolldisplaystheTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecorrespond
ingtothedefinedclimatezoneandtheterraintype.FortheTerrainbased(roughness)method,Atolldisplays
theTerrainclimatefactor Cvaluecorrespondingtothedefinedclimatezoneandtheterraintype,andlets
youselectwhetheryouwanttoTaketerrainroughnessintoaccount.
Bydefault,onlythegroundaltitudeisusedtoevaluateterrainroughness.Youcanconfig
ureAtolltoconsiderboththegroundaltitudeandtheclutterheightinroughnesscalcula
tion by editing the Atoll.ini configuration file. For more information about editing the
configurationfile,seetheAdministratorManual.

ITURP.5305,8:UnderITURP.5305,8,youcanselecttheEnvironment.Youcanchoosebetween"Open
areas"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicrowavelinkislower
than700 m;"Mountains"forterrestrialmicrowavelinkswheretheheightofthelowestantennainthemicro
wavelinkishigherthan700 m;"Lakes"formicrowavelinksoveranexpanseofwater;or"Overwater"formi

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crowavelinksoveranextendedexpanseofwater.Finally,youcandefinethePLfactor.PListhepercentof
timetherelativerefractivitygradientislessthan100 NKm.ThePLfactorcanbefoundontheITURmaps.

K.Q.method:UnderK.Q.method,youcandefineK.Q.fortheK.Qmethod.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterrain
effectsonclimatewhileQisthefactorforvariablesotherthanthosedependentondistanceandfrequency.
Rec.ITURP.530:UnderITURP.530,youcandefinetheKfactor.Kmodelsgeoclimaticandterraineffectson
)besidetheKboxopensadialogboxwhereyoucanselecttheKfactorbased
climate.Clickingthebutton(
onRec.ITURP.5305orRec.ITURP.5308(andselectaterraintypeandenteravalueforC0andforthe
percentage of time the refractivity gradient (< 100 m.) is less than 100 Nunitskm for the worst average
month)orbasedonRec.ITURP.53010andabove(andselectthesimplifiedmethodwhereyoualsodefine
the refractivity gradient (< 65 m.) not exceeded during 1% of the average year or select the method with
terrainroughnesstakenintoaccountwhereyoudefinetherefractivitygradientandtheterrainroughness).
Bydefault,onlythegroundaltitudeisusedtoevaluateterrainroughness.Youcanconfig
ureAtolltoconsiderboththegroundaltitudeandtheclutterheightinroughnesscalcula
tion by editing the Atoll.ini configuration file. For more information about editing the
configurationfile,seetheAdministratorManual.

ThePerformancetab:

Linkclass:UnderLinkclass,youcanselecttheTDMlinkclass.Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperformance
objectives.Byassigninglinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youareassigningthetargetparametersandusagelimita
tionsofthelinkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.Forinformationoncreatingalinkclass,see"DefiningLink
Classes"onpage 297.
ClickingtheBrowsebutton(

)opensthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedlinkclass.

TheQualityObjectivesandAvailabilityObjectivestabsprovidetableswhereyoucanviewtheselectedperfor
manceobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER,RXLEV,MARG)forthespecifiedlinkclass.ForSESR,ESR,andBBERparameters,
Atolldisplaysthecutoffprobability,theannualandmonthlycutoffdurationaswellasthenoncutoffpercentage.

Biterrorrate:UnderBiterrorrate,youcansetthevaluesforBER 1andBER 2.Atolldisplaystheresultingsensi


tivityforeachBER.
IfthevalueforBERthatyouenterisnotdefinedinthepropertiesoftheequipment,Atollwillinterpolatetode
terminethecorrespondingsensitivity.

ThePropagationtab:OnthePropagationtab,youcandefinepropagationrelatedparameters:

Reliability:UnderReliability,youcansettheMeantimetorepair(MTTR)inhour.TheMTTRistakenintoaccount
whencalculatingunavailabilityduetofailuresifthemicrowavelinkisnotequippedwithahotstandbychannel
system.
Usefulsignal:UnderUsefulsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbeusedtocalculatetheuseful
signal.Fromthisparameter,Atollevaluatesthemarginwhichisthenconsideredforcalculatingthequalityand
theavailabilityofthemicrowavelink.
Interferingsignal:UnderModelusedfortheinterferingsignal,youcanselectthepropagationmodelthatwillbe
usedtocalculatesignallevelreceivedfrominterferingsites.

TheDisplaytab:OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinetheappearanceofthemicrowavelinkanditsextremities.

6.3.1.2 CreatingorModifyingaMicrowaveLink
Youcanaccessthepropertiesofamicrowavelink,describedin"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224,throughthe
microwavelinksPropertiesdialogbox.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxdependsonwhetheryouarecreatinganew
microwavelinkormodifyinganexistingmicrowavelink.
Tocreateamicrowavelink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinks:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.
6. ClickOK.
Tomodifyamicrowavelink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.

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3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkyouwanttomodify.Ifthemicrowavelinksareorganisedinsubfolders,youmustfirst
clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthesubfolderbeforerightclickingthemicrowavelink.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThemicrowavelinksPropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.
7. ClickOK.

6.3.1.3 DefiningPortParameters
InAtoll,portsareusedtoconfigurechannel(s)indetail.Theyhavetobedefinedifyouusecrosspolarisationinterference
canceller,hotstandbyorfrequencydiversityconfigurations.Forotherconfigurations,portsettingsarenotmandatory;you
candefineeitherafrequencyorthechannelsused.Youcanconfigureportparametersforanindividualmicrowavelinkorfor
allmicrowavelinks.
Todefineportparametersforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow,expandtheLinksorMicrowaveRadioLinksfolder,andexpandthe
MicrowaveLinksfolder.
2. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkwhoseportparametersyouwanttodefine.Ifthemicrowavelinksareorganisedinsub
folders,firstexpandthesubfolderbeforerightclickingthemicrowavelink.
3. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
4. SelecttheRadiotab.
5. UnderFrequencies,selectaSubBandfortheSite Aofthemicrowavelink.
6. ClickApply.ThePortParameterSettingsbuttonbecomesactive.
7. FromtheHalfbandlist,selectthehalfbandusedonSite A.
8. ClickthePortParameterSettingsbutton.ThePortsDefinitiondialogboxappears.
9. Definethefollowingparametersforeachchanneltransmittedinonedirection:

Channel:Thechannelname.Thecorrespondingfrequencyisindicatedinbrackets.
Txport:Theportnumberforthetransmittingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
Rxport:Theportnumberforthereceivingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
TransmissionAttenuation:ThetransmissionattenuationindB.
ReceptionAttenuation:ThereceptionattenuationindB.
Polarisation:Thesignalpolarisation.
Status:Eitherselect"Main"ifthechannelisactive(channel"n"),"Standby"forastandbychannel(channel"m"),
"Diversity"ifitisusedforfrequencydiversity,or"DiversityStandby"ifitusedasstandbydiversity.
InAtoll,frequencydiversitycanbemodelledintwodifferentways:

Onechannelcanbeassociatedwithadiversitychannelthatisalwaysactive.Youhavetocreatetwochannels
with"Diversity"asstatus.
Oneorseveralstandbychannelscanbeusedtoprotect"n"diversitychannels.Inthiscase,youhavetodefine
nchannelswith"Diversity"asstatusandoneorseveralstandbychannelswith"DiversityStandby"asstatus.
Thisisreferredtoasmultichannelfrequencydiversity.

Notethatthenumberofportsyoucandefinedependsonthesystemconfigurationselectedinthemicrowavelink
propertiesandcannotexceedn+m.
After defining the configuration for one direction, you can define the opposite direction by clicking the Initialise
Symmetricallybutton.
Ininterferencecalculations,anychannel,whetheritsstatusismain,standby,diversityordiversitystandby,isconsid
eredasapotentiallyinterferedchannelandapotentiallyinterferingchannel.
YoucanchangethewayAtolltakesstandbyanddiversitystandbychannelsintoconsider
ation when calculating interference by setting an option in the Atoll.ini file. When this
option is active, standby and diversitystandby channels are considered as potentially
interferedchannelsbuttheyarenotinterferingotherchannels.Formoreinformation,see
theAdministratorManual.
10. ClickOK.ThePortsDefinitiondialogboxcloses.
11. ClickOK.

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Todefineportparametersforallmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow,expandtheLinksorMicrowaveRadioLinksfolder,rightclickthe
MicrowaveLinksfolder,andselectPorts >Opentablefromthecontextmenu.Thetableopens.
Definethefollowingparameters:

Link:Thenameofthemicrowavelink.
Way:Thelinkdirection(ABorBA).
Channel:Thechannelname.Thecorrespondingfrequencyisindicatedinbrackets.
Txport:Theportnumberforthetransmittingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
Rxport:Theportnumberforthereceivingequipment.Thenumbermustbe1orgreater.
TransmissionAttenuation:ThetransmissionattenuationindB.
ReceptionAttenuation:ThereceptionlossesattenuationindB.
Polarisation:Thesignalpolarisation.
Status:Eitherselect"Main"ifthechannelisactive(channel"n"),"Standby"forastandbychannel(channel"m"),
"Diversity"ifitisusedforfrequencydiversityor"DiversityStandby"ifitusedasstandbydiversity.
InAtoll,frequencydiversitycanbemodelledintwodifferentways:

Onechannelcanbeassociatedwithadiversitychannelthatisalwaysactive.Youhavetocreatetwochannels
with"Diversity"asstatus.
Oneorseveralstandbychannelscanbeusedtoprotect"n"diversitychannels.Inthiscase,youhavetodefine
nchannelswith"Diversity"asstatusandoneorseveralstandbychannelswith"DiversityStandby"asstatus.
Thisisreferredtoasmultichannelfrequencydiversity.

Ininterferencecalculations,anychannel,whetheritsstatusismain,standby,diversityordiversitystandby,isconsid
eredasapotentiallyinterferedchannelandapotentiallyinterferingchannel.
YoucanchangethewayAtolltakesstandbyanddiversitystandbychannelsintoconsider
ation when calculating interference by setting an option in the Atoll.ini file. When this
option is active, standby and diversitystandby channels are considered as potentially
interferedchannelsbuttheyarenotinterferingotherchannels.Formoreinformation,see
theAdministratorManual.

6.3.1.4 PlacingaNewMicrowaveLinkUsingtheMicrowaveLinkTemplate
WithAtoll,youcancreatemicrowavelinksbasedonmicrowavelinktemplates.Thisallowsyoutobuildyournetworkquickly
withconsistentparameters,insteadofbuildingthenetworkbyfirstcreatingthemicrowavelinkandthendefiningallofthe
relevantparameters.
Youcancreateamicrowavelinkinthefollowingways:

Directlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate
Betweentwoexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate.

Tocreateamicrowavelinkdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar,selectamicrowavelinktemplatefromthe
list.

2. ClickthearrownexttoNewLinkbutton(
toolbar.

)ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanning

3. SelectMWUsingTheMouseOnTheMapfromthemenu.Thepointerchanges
(

).

Thesitesthatdefinetheextremitiesofamicrowavelinkcanbealreadyexisting
sitesorAtollcancreatenewsitesautomaticallyatthelocationyouclickonthe
map.EachsiteinAtollcansupportseveraltransmissionlinks,transmitters,and
passiverepeaters.
4. Inthemapwindow,movethepointeroverthemaptowhereyouwouldliketo
place one end of the new microwave link and click. The pointer now changes
(

).

Ifyouclickonanexistingsite,Atollwillusethesiteasoneextremity;otherwise,
Atoll will create a site where you click. The exact coordinates of the pointers
currentlocationarevisibleintheStatusbar.

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5. Move the pointer over the map to where you would like to place the other
extremityofthemicrowavelinkandclicktoplaceit.

Toplacethemicrowavelinkmoreaccurately,youcanzoominonthemapbefore
you click the New Link button. For information on using the zooming tools, see
"ChangingtheMapScale"onpage 36.
Ifyouletthepointerrestovertheextremityyouhaveplaced,Atolldisplaysitstip
textwithitsexactcoordinates,allowingyoutoverifythatthelocationiscorrect.

Tocreateamicrowavelinkontwoexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar,selectamicrowavelinktemplatefromthelist.
2. ClickthearrownexttoNewLinkbutton(

)ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

3. SelectMWBetweenSitesfromthemenu.TheLinkCreationdialogboxappears.
4. IntheLinkCreationdialogbox,definethefollowingparameters:

Model:themicrowavelinktemplateyouwanttouseinordertocreatethemicrowavelink.
SiteA:thenameofthesitedefiningoneextremityofthemicrowavelink.
SiteB:thenameofthesitedefiningtheotherextremityofthemicrowavelink.

5. ClickOK.
Bydefault,Atollnamesthenewlycreatedmicrowavelinksinthefollowingmanner:SiteXSiteY,whereSiteXisthenameof
thestartsite(existingornewlycreated)andSiteYisthenameoftheendsite(existingornewlycreated).

6.3.1.5 ManagingMicrowaveLinkTemplates
Atollcomeswithmicrowavelinktemplates,butyoucanalsocreateandmodifymicrowavelinktemplates.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

6.3.1.5.1

"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 233
"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 234
"ModifyingaFieldonaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 234
"DeletingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 235.

CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
Youcancreateamicrowavelinktemplatebybasingitonanexistingmicrowavelinkorbybasingitonanexistingmicrowave
linktemplate.Thenewmicrowavelinktemplatehasthesameparametersasthemicrowavelinkormicrowavelinktemplate
onwhichitwasbased.Therefore,byselectingamicrowavelinkormicrowavelinktemplatewithparameterssimilartothe
microwavelinktemplateyouwanttocreate,youonlyneedtomodifytheparametersthataredifferent.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonaMicrowaveLink"onpage 233
"CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonAnotherMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 233.

CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonaMicrowaveLink
Tocreateamicrowavelinktemplatebasedonanexistingmicrowavelink:
1. In the map window, rightclick the microwave link on which you want to base your template. The context menu
appears.
2. SelectSaveasTemplatefromthecontextmenu.
Thenewmicrowavelinktemplate,calledSameaslink<original_link>,hasthesameparametersasthemicrowave
linkitisbasedon.ItisavailableinthelistoftheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.
CreatingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateBasedonAnotherMicrowaveLinkTemplate
You can also create a microwave link template based on an existing microwave link template. The new microwave link
templatehasthesameparametersastheoneitisbasedon.
Tocreateamicrowavelinktemplatebasedonanexistingmicrowavelinktemplate:
1. SelecttheParametersexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMWLinkTemplatefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectManagementfromthecontextmenu.TheLinkPropertiesdialogboxappears.

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5. InthelistofAvailableTemplates,selectthemicrowavelinktemplatethatmostresemblesthemicrowavelinktem
plateyouwanttocreate.YoucanverifythepropertiesbyselectingthemicrowavelinktemplateandclickingtheProp
ertiesbutton.
6. ClicktheAddbutton.AtollautomaticallycreatesanewmicrowavelinktemplatecalledCopyof<original_link>Prop
erties.TheCopyof<original_link>Propertiesdialogboxappears.
Youcannothavetwomicrowavelinktemplateswiththesamename.Ifthereisalready
atemplatecalledCopyof<original_link>,youwillhavetomodifythenameofthat
templateasexplainedin"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate"onpage 234.
7. Edittheparametersofthenewmicrowavelinktemplateasexplainedin"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateUsing
Its Properties dialog box" on page 234. For information on the fields, see "Definition of a Microwave Link" on
page 224.
8. ClickOKtoclosetheCopyof<original_link>Propertiesdialogbox.Thenewmicrowavelinktemplateisdisplayedin
thelistofAvailableTemplates.
9. ClickOKtoclosetheLinkPropertiesdialogbox.ThenewmicrowavelinktemplateisavailableinthelistoftheMicro
waveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

6.3.1.5.2

ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
YoucanmodifyamicrowavelinktemplatedirectlyintheMWLinkTemplatestable,oryoucanopenthePropertiesdialog
boxforthatmicrowavelinktemplateandmodifytheparametersinthedialogbox.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateintheMWLinkTemplatesTable"onpage 234
"ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateUsingItsPropertiesdialogbox"onpage 234.

ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateintheMWLinkTemplatesTable
TomodifyamicrowavelinktemplatefromtheMWLinkTemplatestable:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMWLinkTemplatefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheMWLinkTemplatestableappears.
5. Edittheparametersofthemicrowavelinktemplateinthecorrespondingtablerow.
ModifyingaMicrowaveLinkTemplateUsingItsPropertiesdialogbox
TomodifyamicrowavelinktemplateusingitsPropertiesdialogbox:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMWLinkTemplatesfolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinktemplateyouwanttomodify.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheMWLinkTemplatePropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. EdittheparametersofthelinktemplateandclickOKtoclosethedialogbox.

6.3.1.5.3

ModifyingaFieldonaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
Youcanaddafieldtoamicrowavelinktemplate,modifyanexistingfield,ordeleteafieldfromamicrowavelinktemplate.
Youcanonlymodifyordeleteafieldthatyouhaveaddedyourselftoamicrowavelink
template.

Toadd,modifyordeleteafieldonamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. RightclicktheMWLinkTemplatefolder.Thecontextmenuappears.

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4. SelectManagementfromthecontextmenu.TheLinkPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. UnderAvailableTemplates,selectthemicrowavelinktemplatewiththefieldyouwanttomodify.
Toaddafieldtoamicrowavelinktemplate:
a. ClicktheFieldsbutton.TheTabledialogboxappears.
b. IntheTabledialogbox,clicktheAddbuttontoaddafield.TheFieldDefinitiondialogboxappears.
c. IntheFieldDefinitiondialogbox,edittheparametersofthenewfieldandclickOK.
Ifyouaddafieldtothemicrowavelinktemplates,youmustaddanequivalentfieldtothe
Sitestableorthefieldwillnotbetakenintoaccount.

Tomodifyafieldonamicrowavelinktemplate:
a. ClicktheFieldsbutton.TheTabledialogboxappears.
b. IntheTabledialogbox,selectthefieldyouwanttomodifyandclickthePropertiesbutton.TheFieldDefinition
dialogboxappears.
c. IntheFieldDefinitiondialogbox,edittheparametersofthefieldandclickOK.
Todeleteafieldonamicrowavelinktemplate:
a. ClicktheFieldsbutton.TheTabledialogboxappears.
b. IntheTabledialogbox,selectthefieldyouwanttodeleteandclicktheDeletebutton.
6. ClickOKtoclosetheTabledialogbox.

6.3.1.5.4

DeletingaMicrowaveLinkTemplate
Todeleteamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMWLinkTemplatefolder.
4. Rightclickthemicrowavelinktemplateyouwanttodelete.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Themicrowavelinktemplateisdeleted.

6.3.2 CreatingOtherTransmissionLinks
Atollenablesyoutomanageothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoropticalfibres.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 235.
"CreatingorModifyingOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 236.
"PlacingOtherTransmissionLinksDirectlyontheMap"onpage 236.
"DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes"onpage 237.

6.3.2.1 DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks
TheparametersofanOtherTransmissionLinkcanbefoundinitsPropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhasthree
tabs:

TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 6.10):

Name:Thenameofthelink.
Supporttype:Thetypeoftransmissionlink(e.g.,aleasedline,anopticalfibre,etc.).Forinformationoncreating
atransmissionlinktype,see"DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes"onpage 237.
SiteA:Thenameofthesitedefiningoneextremityofthelink.
SiteB:Thenameofthesitedefiningtheotherextremityofthelink.
Active:Thelinkactivitystatus.Onlyactivelinksareconsideredinreliabilityanalysis.

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Figure 6.10:OtherTransmissionLinksPropertiesdialogboxGeneraltab

ThePerformancetab:OnthePerformancetab,youcanselecttheTDMlinkclass.Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferent
performanceobjectives.Byassigninglinkclassestoothertransmissionlinks,yousetthetargetparametersandusage
limitations of the link class to the selected other transmission link. For information on creating a link class, see
"DefiningLinkClasses"onpage 297.
ClicktheBrowsebutton(

)toopenthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedlinkclass.

TheQualityObjectivesandAvailabilityObjectivestabsprovidetableswhereyoucanviewtheselectedperformance
objectives(SESR,ESR,BBER,RXLEV,MARG)forthespecifiedlinkclass.ForSESR,ESR,andBBERparameters,Atoll
displaysthecutoffprobability,theannualandmonthlycutoffdurationaswellasthenoncutoffpercentage.

TheDisplaytab:OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinetheappearanceofthelink.

6.3.2.2 CreatingorModifyingOtherTransmissionLinks
The properties of an Other Transmission Link, described in "Definition of Other Transmission Links" on page 235, can be
accessedthroughitsPropertiesdialogbox.HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxdependsonwhetheryouarecreating
anewOtherTransmissionLinkormodifyinganexistingone.
TocreateanewOtherTransmissionLink:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheLinksfolder,rightclicktheOtherTransmissionLinksfolderandselectNewfrom
thecontextmenu.TheOtherTransmissionLink:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. Definetheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 235.
3. ClickOK.
TomodifyanexistingOtherTransmissionLink:
1. IntheNetworkexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheOtherTransmissionLinksfolder.
4. RightclicktheOtherTransmissionLinkyouwanttomodify.IftheOtherTransmissionLinksareorganisedinfolders,
clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthefolderthenrightclickthedesiredOtherTransmissionLink.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheOtherTransmissionLinksPropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 235.
7. ClickOK.

6.3.2.3 PlacingOtherTransmissionLinksDirectlyontheMap
WithAtoll,youcancreateothertransmissionlinksdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsites.
TocreateanOtherTransmissionLinkdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsites:

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1. ClickthearrownexttoNewLinkbutton(
toolbar.Themenuappears.

)ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanning

2. SelectOtherLinkWithMouseOnTheMap.Thepointerchangesto(

).

ThesitesthatdefinetheextremitiesofanOtherTransmissionLinkcanbealready
existingsitesorAtollcancreatenewsitesautomaticallyatthelocationyouclickon
themap.EachsiteinAtollcansupportseveraltransmissionlinks,transmitters,and
passiverepeaters.
3. Inthemapwindow,movethepointeroverthemaptowhereyouwouldliketo
place one end of the new Other Transmission Link and click. The pointer now
changes(

).

Ifyouclickonanexistingsite,Atollwillusethesiteasoneextremity;otherwise,
Atoll will create a site where you click. The exact coordinates of the pointers
currentlocationarevisibleintheStatusbar.
4. Move the pointer over the map to where you would like to place the other
extremityoftheOtherTransmissionLinkandclicktoplaceit.

Toplacethelinkmoreaccurately,youcanzoominonthemapbeforeyouclickthe
NewLinkbutton.Forinformationonusingthezoomingtools,see"Changingthe
MapScale"onpage 36.
Letthemousepointerhoverovertheextremitythatyouhaveplaced,Atolldisplays
tiptextwiththeexactcoordinates,whichallowsyoutoverifythatthelocationis
correct.

Bydefault,Atollnamesthenewlycreatedlinksinthefollowingmanner:SiteXSiteY,whereSiteXisthenameofthestartsite
(existingornewlycreated)andSiteYisthenameoftheendsite(existingornewlycreated).

6.3.2.4 DefiningTransmissionLinkTypes
Inadditiontomicrowavelinks,Atollenablesyoutomanageothertransmissionlinkssuchasleasedlinesoropticalfibrelinks.
Atollenablesyoutodefinethetypesofothertransmissionlinksyoucanmanage.
Atollhasadefaultlistoftransmissionlinktypesavailable,butyoucancreatenewones.
Tocreateormodifyatransmissionlinktype:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheConfigurationsfolder.
4. RightclicktheTransmissionLinkTypesfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheTransmissionLinkTypestableappears(seeFigure 6.11).

Figure 6.11:TransmissionLinkTypestable
6. Foreachtransmissionlinktypeyoudefine,enterthefollowinginformation:

Name:Thenameofthetransmissionlinktype.
Ethernet+TDMcapacity(Mbps):Thetotalcapacitythatthistransmissionlinktypecansupport.
TDMCapacity:Thecapacity(inMbps)usedforTDMtraffic.
Technology:Thetypeoftrafficsupportedbythistransmissionlinktype.YoucanchoosebetweenPacket,Hybrid,
andTDMonly.IfyouselectTDMonly,theTDMCapacityandEthernet+TDMCapacityvaluesmustbethesame.

ToopenatransmissionlinktypesPropertiesdialogbox:

DoubleclickthetransmissionlinktypeintheleftmarginoftheTransmissionLinkTypestable.Thetransmissionlink
typesPropertiesdialogboxappears(seeFigure 6.12).

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Figure 6.12:TransmissionLinkTypePropertiesdialogbox

6.3.3 ModifyingSitesandLinksDirectlyontheMap
InAtoll,youcanaccessthePropertiesdialogboxofasiteorlinkusingthecontextmenuontheNetworktaboftheexplorer
window.However,inacomplexmicrowaveproject,itcanbedifficulttofindthedataobjectontheNetworktab,althoughit
mightbevisibleinthemapwindow.AtollletsyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxofsitesandlinksdirectlyfromthemap.If
thereismorethanonelinkbetweenthesamesitesoriftherearetwositesincloseproximity,clickingtheminthemap
windowopensacontextmenuallowingyoutoselectonelinkorsite.Youcanalsochangethepositionofthesitebydragging
it,orbylettingAtollfindahigherlocationforit.
ModifyingsitesandlinksdirectlyonthemapisexplainedindetailinChapter1:WorkingEnvironment:

"DisplayingthePropertiesofanObject"onpage 26
"SelectingOneoutofSeveralLinks"onpage 28
"MovingaSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 28
"MovingaSitetoaHigherLocation"onpage 28
"ChangingtheAzimuthoftheAntennaUsingtheMouse"onpage 28
"ChangingtheAntennaPositionRelativetotheSiteUsingtheMouse"onpage 29
"SelectingAnotherSitefortheLinkExtremityUsingtheMouse"onpage 29

6.3.4 SettingMicrowaveandOtherTransmissionLinksasActive
Oncemicrowaveorotherlinksaresetupwithinanetwork,youcandecidewhetherornottoactivatethem.Quality,availa
bilityandinterferenceanalysesandassociatedreportsandstatisticsonlytakeintoaccountactivemicrowavelinksthathave
notbeenfilteredout.ActiveandinactivelinksaredisplayedintheNetworkexplorer:

IntheMicrowaveLinksfolder,activemicrowavelinksaredisplayedinred( )andinactivemicrowavelinksaredis
playedingrey( ).
IntheOtherTransmissionLinksfolder,activelinksaredisplayedingreen( )andinactivelinksaredisplayedingrey
( ).

Youcansetanindividuallinkasactivefromitscontextmenuoryoucansetmorethanonelinkasactivebyactivatingthem
fromthecontextmenuoftheMicrowaveLinksortheOtherTransmissionLinksfolder.
Tosetanindividuallinkasactive:
1. IntheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow,expandtheLinksandMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinksfold
ers.
2. RightclickthelinkthatyouwanttoactivateandselectActiveLinkfromthecontextmenu.Thetransmitterisnow
active.
TosetmorethanonelinkasactiveusingtheLinkscontextmenu:
1. IntheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow,expandtheLinksfolder.
2. Selectthelinksthatyouwanttosetasactive:

Tosetalllinksasactive,rightclicktheMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinksfolderandselectActivate
Linksfromthecontextmenu.
Tosetagroupoflinksasactive,expandtheMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinksfolder,rightclickthe
subfolderoflinksyouwanttosetasactive,andselectActivateLinksfromthecontextmenu.

Theselectedlinksaresetasactive.

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TosetmorethanonelinkasactivebyusingtheMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinkstable:
1. IntheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow,expandtheLinksfolder.
2. Selectthelinksthatyouwanttosetasactive:

Tosetalllinksasactive,rightclicktheMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinksfolderandselectOpenTable
fromthecontextmenu.
Tosetagroupoflinksasactive,expandtheMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinksfolder,rightclickthe
subfolderoflinksyouwanttosetasactive,andselectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.

TheMicrowaveLinksorOtherTransmissionLinkstableappearswiththeparametersofeachlinkinasecondrow.
3. Foreachlinkthatyouwanttosetasactive,selectthecheckboxintheActivatecolumn.

6.3.5 DisplayingTipsforSitesandLinks
Atollallowsyoutodisplayinformationaboutlinksinanumberofdifferentways.Thisenablesyounotonlytodisplayselected
information,butalsotodistinguishlinksataglance.
Thefollowingtoolscanbeusedtodisplayinformationaboutlinks:

Label:Youcandisplayinformationabouteachobject,suchaseachsiteorlink,intheformofalabelthatisdisplayed
withtheobject.Youcandisplayinformationfromeveryfieldinthatobjecttypesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthat
youadd.Thelabelisalwaysdisplayed,soyoushouldchooseinformationthatyouwouldwanttoalwaysbevisible;
toomuchinformationwillleadtoacluttereddisplay.Whenyoucreatealabelforalink,Atollallowsyoutochange
thepositionofthelabelusingthemouse.Forinformationondefiningthelabel,see"DefiningtheObjectTypeLabel"
onpage 33.
Tiptext:Youcandisplayinformationabouteachobject,suchaseachsiteorlink,intheformoftiptextthatisonly
visiblewhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Youcanchoosetodisplaymoreinformationthaninthelabel,
becausetheinformationisonlydisplayedwhenyoumovethepointerovertheobject.Youcandisplayinformation
fromeveryfieldinthatobjecttypesdatatable,includingfromfieldsthatyouadd.Forinformationondefiningthetip
text,see"DefiningtheObjectTypeTipText"onpage 34.
Linkstyle:Youcanconfigurethelinestyle,colour,andwidthofalinktoemphasizeinformationaboutthelink.For
example,youcansetlinkcoloursbyfrequencyband,linewidthsbybandwidthcapacity,orvariouslinestylestodis
tinguishotherlinktypes.Forinformationondefiningthelinkstyle,see"DefiningtheDisplayType"onpage 31.

6.3.6 AddingaPassiveRepeatertoaMicrowaveLink
Passiverepeatersarenormallyusedtoredirectthemicrowavesignalaroundanobstruction.Passiverepeatersdividethe
radiopathintotwobranches,eachtraversingdifferenttypeterrain,normallyhavingdifferentlengthsanddifferentinclina
tions.Thisimpliesdifferentpropagationconditionsforthesetwobranchesconcerningfading,distortionsandrainetc.Dueto
thispropertyofpassiverepeaterstheyarealsoreferredtoas"beambenders".
Passiverepeatershavethefollowingadvantagesoveractivesites:

Nopowerisrequired
Noregularroadaccessisrequired
Noequipmenthousingisneeded
Theyareenvironmentallyfriendly
Littleornomaintenanceisrequired.

Theseadvantagesmeanthatpassiverepeaterscanbeplacedinrelativelyinaccessibleareas.
Therearetwomaintypesofpassiverepeaters.Thefirsttypeiswheretwoantennasareplacedbacktobackconnectedbya
shortfeedercable;thesearecalledbacktobackantennapassiverepeaters.Thesecondtypeisaplanereflectortypepassive
repeaterwhereaflatmetalreflectorisusedtoredirectthesignal;theseareoftencalledpassivereflectorsorplanereflectors.
Atollcanmodelbothtypesofpassiverepeatersandprovideyouwithaccesstoalltherelevantparameters.Thefollowing
sectionsexplainhowAtollmodelspassiverepeaters.
InAtoll,a"repeater"isalwaysa"passiverepeater."
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 240.
"OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable"onpage 240
"CreatingorModifyingaPassiveRepeater"onpage 241
"PlacingaPassiveMicrowaveRepeaterontheMapUsingtheMouse"onpage 241
"CreatingSeveralPassiveRepeaters"onpage 242

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6.3.6.1 DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater
TheparametersofapassiverepeatercanbefoundintherepeatersPropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhastwo
tabs:

TheGeneraltab:

Name:Thenameofthepassiverepeater.Bydefault,passiverepeatersarenamed"PassiveRepeaterN"where"N"
isanumberassignedasthepassiverepeateriscreated.
YoucanchangetheSitethepassiverepeaterislocatedonbyselectingitfromtheSitelist.ClickingtheBrowse

button(
)opensthePropertiesdialogboxofthesite.
UnderAntennaPosition,youcandefinethepositionofthepassiverepeater,ifitisnotlocatedonthesiteitself:

RelativetoSite:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoentertheantennapositionsasoffsetswithrespecttothesite
location,andthenenterthexaxisandyaxisoffsets,DxandDy,respectively.
Coordinates:Selectthisoptionifyouwanttoenterthecoordinatesoftheantenna,andthenenterthexaxis
andyaxiscoordinatesoftheantenna,XandY,respectively.

FrequencyBand:Theoperatingfrequencybandofthepassiverepeater.ClickingtheBrowsebutton(
thePropertiesdialogboxofthefrequencyband.
TheSettingstab.

)opens

Type: From the Typelist,youcanselect whetherthe passive repeater isa"Panel Reflector" or"BacktoBack
Antennas".

Fora"PanelReflector",definetheseparameters:

Surface:Thesurfaceareaoftherepeater.

and,underAntenna 1:

Height:Thereflectorheight.
Azimuth:Theazimuthtowardsthesiteoftransmission.
Tilt:Thetiltangletowardsthesiteoftransmission.
TheGainat45iscalculatedanddisplayedforpanelreflectors.
YoucanclicktheCalculatebutton(

)toautomaticallycalculateazimuthandtiltangles.

For"BacktoBackAntennas",definetheseparametersforAntenna 1andAntenna 2:

Model:Themodeloftheantenna.ClickingtheBrowsebutton(
model.
Height:Theantennaheight.
Azimuth:Theazimuthtowardsthesiteoftransmission.
Tilt:Thetiltangletowardsthesiteoftransmission.

ForAntenna 2,selecttheCrosspolarisationcheckboxforantennaswithcrossedpolarisation.
YoucanclicktheCalculatebutton(

)opensthePropertiesdialogboxofthe

)toautomaticallycalculateazimuthandtiltangles.

UnderFeeder,youcanchoosetheFeederanddefinetheLengthfor"BacktoBackAntennas",.Bydefault,
Atolllistsfeedersthatoperateinthefrequencybanddefinedforthepassiverepeater.Ifyouwant,youcan
applyanadditionalfilterbyclickingthebutton(

)besidethemodelfield.Whenthefilterisactive,the

appearanceofthebuttonchanges(
).Atollnowlistsfeederscompatiblewiththeselectedantennasas
definedintheAntennaFeederCompatibilitytable.

ClickingtheBrowsebutton(

)besidetheFeederlistopensthePropertiesdialogboxofthemodel.

TheAttenuationiscalculatedanddisplayed.

6.3.6.2 OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable
PassiverepeatersandtheirdefiningparametersarestoredinthePassiveRepeaterstable.
ToopenthePassiveRepeaterstable:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )oftheLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPassiveRepeaters >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.ThePassiveRepeaterstableappears.

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6.3.6.3 CreatingorModifyingaPassiveRepeater
Youcanmodifyanexistingpassiverepeaterorcreateanewpassiverepeater.Youcanaccessthepropertiesofapassive
repeater,describedin"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 240,throughthepassiverepeatersPropertiesdialogbox.
HowyouaccessthePropertiesdialogboxdependsonwhetheryouarecreatinganewpassiverepeaterormodifyinganexist
ingpassiverepeater.
Tocreateapassiverepeater:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )oftheLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPassiveRepeaters >Newfromthecontextmenu.TheRepeaters:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 240.
6. ClickOK.
Tomodifyapassiverepeater:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )oftheLinksfoldertoexpandthefolder.
3. RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPassiveRepeaters >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheRepeaterstableappears.
5. RightclickthepassiverepeaterintheRepeaterstable.Thecontextmenuappears.
6. SelectRecordPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThepassiverepeatersPropertiesdialogboxappears
7. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"onpage 240.
8. ClickOK.
Ifyouarecreatingseveralpassiverepeatersatthesametime,ormodifyingseveral
existingpassiverepeaters,youcandoitquicklybyeditingorpastingthedatadirectlyin
theRepeaterstable.YoucanopentheRepeaterstableasexplainedin"Openingthe
PassiveRepeatersTable"onpage 240.Forinformationoncopyingandpastingdata,see
"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 60.

6.3.6.4 PlacingaPassiveMicrowaveRepeaterontheMapUsingtheMouse
InAtoll,youcancreateapassivemicrowaverepeaterandplaceitusingthemouse.Whenyoucreateapassivemicrowave
repeater,youcanaddittoanexistingsite,orhaveAtollautomaticallycreateanewsite.
Atollpermitsamaximumof2passiverepeatersinasinglemicrowavelink.ThefollowingtermsareusedinAtollforpassive
repeatersandrelatedparameters:

Passiverepeaters(maximum2)alongamicrowavelinkarenamedrepeaterPandrepeaterQ.
Apartofthemicrowavelinkiscalleda"Section".Asectioncanbe:

Oneofthedirectionsofabidirectionallink.
Oneofthetrajectoriestowardsarepeater(ifany).
Forexample:

Unidirectionallinkwithoutrepeater:1 section,Site ASite B


Bidirectionallinkwithoutrepeater:2sections,Site ASite BandSite BSite A
Bidirectional link with2 repeaters:6 sections,Site ASite P, Site PSite Q,Site QSite B, Site BSite Q,Site Q
Site P,Site PSite A.

Tocreateapassivemicrowaverepeaterandplaceitusingthemouse:
1. Selectthemicrowavelink.YoucanselectitfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab,
ordirectlyonthemap.
2. ClickthearrownexttoNewRepeaterbutton(

)ontheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar.

3. SelectPanelReflectororBacktoBackAntennasfromthemenuaccordingtothetypeofpassiverepeateryouwant
tocreate.
4. Clickthemaptoplacetherepeater.Therepeaterisplacedonthemap,representedbythesitesymbol(

).

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AtollautomaticallycreatesanewrepeaterinthePassiveRepeaterstableandanewsiteintheSitestablethatis
assignedtothenewlycreatedrepeater.Theoperatingfrequencybandoftherepeateristhefrequencybandassigned
tothemicrowavelinkandazimuth(s)fortherepeaterantenna(s)arecalculatedaccordingtothedirectionsofthetwo
sectionsofthemicrowavelink.
Forinformationonthepropertiesofthenewmicrowavepassiverepeater,see"DefinitionofaPassiveRepeater"on
page 240.
YoucanalsoinsertarepeaterinamicrowavelinkbyselectingInsertRepeaterfromthe
microwavelinkscontextmenuandthenclickingonthemicrowavelinkwhereyouwantto
inserttherepeater.

6.3.6.5 CreatingSeveralPassiveRepeaters
InAtoll,thecharacteristicsofeachrepeaterarestoredinthePassiveRepeaterstable.Ifyouhavedataintableform,either
inanotherAtolldocumentorinaspreadsheet,youcancopythisdataandpasteitintothePassiveRepeaterstableinyour
currentAtolldocument.
TopastetheinformationintothePassiveRepeaterstable:
1. OpenthePassiveRepeaterstableasexplainedin"OpeningthePassiveRepeatersTable"onpage 240.
2. CopythedatafromthesourcedocumentandpasteitintotheRepeaterstable.
Thetableyoucopydatafrommusthavethesamecolumnlayoutasthetableyouare
pastingdatainto.

Forinformationoncopyingandpastingdata,see"CopyingandPastinginTables"onpage 60.

6.3.7 CheckingDataConsistency
Youcanperformanauditofthebackhaulnetwork.Theauditallowsyoutoverifytheconsistencyandvalidityofsomedata.
Toperformanauditofthebackhaulnetwork:
1. SelectDocument >DataAudit >MicrowaveLinkDataCheckfromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveDataCheck
dialogboxappears.
2. IntheMicrowaveDataCheckdialogbox,definetheparametersoftheaudit:

Frequencyconsistency:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttheaudittoverify:

Frequencybanddefinition:Theminimumfrequencymustbelowerthanthemaximumfrequency.
Frequencysubbanddefinition:Thefrequencybandmustbedefined,excludedchannelsmustbelongtothe
listofchannelsandatleastonechannelmustbeavailable.
Microwavelinkdefinition:Atleastonedirectionmustbeselected,thefrequencydefinedmustbewithinthe
frequency band limits, the number of channels must not exceed the number of channels allowed by the
selectedconfiguration,thechannelsmustbelongtotheselectedfrequencysubband,thefrequencybandof
antennas,equipment,feedersandfrequencysubbandmustbethesameasthemicrowavelinkfrequency
bandand,theantennaverticalandhorizontalpatternsmustbecorrectlyalignedattheextremities(antenna
patternsarecorrectlyalignedwhenthehorizontalpatternattenuationat0isthesameastheverticalpattern
attenuationatthepatternelectricaltiltangle,andwhenthehorizontalpatternattenuationat180isthesame
astheverticalpatternattenuationatthe180lessthepatternelectricaltiltangle.Patternattenuationsare
consideredthesameiftheydifferlessthan1dB.)

Undefinedrecords:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttheaudittoverifyifthereareundefinedmultihops(i.e.,
multihopswithnolink),undefinedpointtomultipointsystems(i.e.,pointtomultipointwithnolink),orunused
repeaters.

Other(XPIC,antennaseparation,etc.):Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttheaudittoverifythat:

TheXPIFvalueoftheradioisanonzerovaluewhenXPICsystemisusedonamicrowavelink.
Antennaseparationisanonzerovaluewhenspacediversityisusedonamicrowavelink.

Listallthechecks:Selectthischeckboxifyouwanttodisplayallchecksperformedinadditiontodetectedincon
sistencies.

3. ClickOKtoperformtheaudit.AtolldisplaystheresultsoftheauditintheEventsViewer.

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6.3.8 SettingtheWorkingAreaofanAtollDocument
Whenyouloadprojectdatafromadatabase,youwillprobablyonlymodifythedataintheregionforwhichyouarerespon
sible.Forexample,acomplexmicrowavelinkplanningprojectmaycoveranentireregionorevenanentirecountry.You,
however,mightberesponsiblefortheplanningforonlyonecity.Insuchasituation,doingengineeringandinterference
predictionsthatcalculatetheentirenetworknotonlytakealotoftime,theyarenotnecessary.Consequently,youcanrestrict
engineeringandinterferencepredictionstothesitesandmicrowavelinksthatyouareinterestedinandgenerateonlythe
resultsyouneed.
InAtoll,therearetwowaysofrestrictingthenumberofsitesandmicrowavelinksstudied,eachwithitsownadvantages:

Filteringthedesiredsitesandmicrowavelinks
Youcansimplifytheselectionofsitesandmicrowavelinkstobestudiedbyusingafilter.Youcanfiltersitesandmicro
wavelinksaccordingtooneormorefields,oryoucancreateanadvancedfilterbycombiningseveralcriteriainseveral
fields.Youcancreateagraphicfilterbyeitherusinganexistingvectorpolygonorcreatinganewvectorpolygon.For
informationongraphicfilters,see"FilteringDataUsingaFilteringZone"onpage 88.Thisenablesyoutokeeponlythe
sitesandmicrowavelinkswiththecharacteristicsyouwanttostudy.
Forinformationonfiltering,see"FilteringData"onpage 78.

Settingacomputationzone
Drawingacomputationzonetoencompassthesitesandmicrowavelinkstobestudied,limitsthenumberofsitesand
microwavelinkstobecalculated,whichinturnreducesthetimenecessaryforcalculations.
Forinformationoncomputationzones,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42.

Youcancombineacomputationzoneandafilter,inordertocreateaverypreciseselectionofthesitesandmicrowavelinks
tobestudied.
Inaddition,youcansetafocuszonetofiltertheresultsdisplayedinreports(linkbudgetsorinterference).Forinformationon
focuszones,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43.

6.4 AnalysingthePathProfile
Afterthemicrowavelinkhasbeencreated,itcanbeanalysedintermsoftheterrainandclutterprofilebetweenthetwo
extremitiesinAtoll.Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DisplayingthePathProfile"onpage 243.
"DeterminingMicrowaveLinkAntennaHeights"onpage 251.

6.4.1 DisplayingthePathProfile
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
"StudyingMicrowaveLinkClearance"onpage 244.
"DefiningtheDisplayoftheMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 244.
"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
"ZoomingInontheProfile"onpage 246.
"PrintingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 247.
"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.

6.4.1.1 ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile
InAtoll,youcanmakeaprofileanalysisofamicrowavelink.Beforestudyingamicrowavelink,youmustconfigureitsanten
nas,radios,itsfrequencyband,andthepropagationmodelyouwanttouse.Youcanmakeamicrowavelinkprofileanalysis
usingtheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.
ToopentheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >ProfileAnalysisfromthecontextmenu.TheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow
appears.
3. AtthetopoftheProfileAnalysisview,selectwhetheryouwanttodisplaytheprofilefromsite Atosite Borviceversa,
andonwhichporttheprofileanalysisshouldbeperformed.IfyouselectWorstcase,theprofileanalysisiscalculated
fortheportwiththelowestfrequency.

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TheProfileAnalysisviewprovidesaninteractiverealtimedisplayofthemicrowavelinkprofileintheselecteddirection.It
includesanypassiverepeaterscomposingthemicrowavelink.Thealtitude(inmetres)isreportedontheverticalaxisandthe
distanceonthehorizontalaxis.AblueellipsoidindicatestheFresnelzonebetweenthetransmitterandthereceiversites,with
agreenlineindicatingthelineofsight(LOS).Atolldisplaystheterrainheightalongtheprofileaswellasclutterclassesand
clutterheightswhenthevisibilitycheckboxoftheClutterClassesfolderontheGeotabisselected.Ifyoudonotwantto
displaytheclutteralongtheprofile,youcanclearthevisibilitycheckboxoftheClutterClassesfolderontheGeotab.Along
theprofile,ifthesignalmeetsanobstacle,thiscausesattenuationwithdiffractiondisplayedbyablackverticalline(ifthe
propagationmodelusedtakesdiffractionintoaccount).ThemainpeakistheonethatintersectstheFresnelellipsoidthe
most.Thediffractionattenuationisdisplayedabovethepeak.
Whenarepeaterisinsertedonthemicrowavelink,itisdisplayedintheProfileAnalysisviewbyaverticallineintheprofile.
AtthetopoftheProfileAnalysisview,youcanselectwhichpartoftheprofileyouwanttodisplay:

Site A==>Site P
Site P==>Site B
Site B==>Site P
Site P==>Site A
Site A==>Site B(profile"broken"atSiteP)
Site B==>Site A(profile"broken"atSiteP)

Whenasecondrepeater(Q)isinsertedonthemicrowavelink,theprofiledisplayoptionsincludeSite Qaswell.
YoucanclickthePropertiesbutton(

)ontheProfileAnalysisviewtoopenthemicrowavelinkpropertiesdialogbox.

6.4.1.2 StudyingMicrowaveLinkClearance
TheProfileAnalysisviewallowsyoutodisplaytheclearancealongtheentirelinkprofile.Whendisplayingtheclearance,you
canhideordisplaytheFresnelzonesbetweenthetwoextremitiesofthemicrowavelink.
Tostudythemicrowavelinkclearance
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClicktheParametersbutton(

)inthetoolbar.

You can view the microwave link profile with two different values for the earth curvature factor (k factor). Atoll
displaystheclearance(%)andthepenetration(m)oftheFresnelzoneforeachvalueofk.Bydefault,thekfactor
valuesareinitialisedeitherwithglobalvalues,orwiththevaluescalculatedforeachmicrowavelink;thisdependson
theoptionselectedinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder.Inaddition,itindicatesthetilts/directray,theazimuths,and
theanglesofincidenceforbothantennas.
TohideordisplaytheFresnelzones
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

3. SelectDisplayFresnelEllipsoidsfromthemenu.
ThefirstFresnelellipsoidcorrespondingtothefirstkvalueisshowninblue,whilethesecondrelatedtothesecondkvalueis
showninred.YoucanalsodisplayanotherFresnelellipsoidwhenadiversityantennaisinstalledatthereceiver.Ifthereare
obstructionsinthepathofthemicrowavelinkthatintroducelosses,agreencolouredlineisdrawnfromthetransmitterto
thefirstobstacleshighestpoint.Aperpendicularfromthehorizontalaxisisalsodrawntomarktheobstaclethatintroduces
thehighestlossinthelink,andthelossfromthisobstacleisdisplayedonthetopofthisperpendicular.
YoucandisplaythefirstFresnelzoneat100%andthesecondat60%inordertodepicttheminimumclearancerequirement
directlyontheprofile.YoucandefinehowboththefirstandsecondFresnelellipsoidsaredisplayedusingtheProfileDisplay
Optionsdialogbox.YoucanopentheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogboxbyrightclickingtheFresnelellipsoidsandthenselect
ingDisplayOptionsfromthecontextmenu.
Youcanmodifytheantennaheightsatbothextremitieseithermanuallyorautomatically.Formoreinformation,see"Auto
maticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 252.
When100%oftheFresnelellipsoidisdisplayed,theclearanceisreferredtoasF,F1forthe
firstkfactorvalueandF2forthesecondone.WhenthepercentageoftheFresnelellipsoid
islessthan100%,theclearanceisreferredtoasF,F1forthefirstkfactorvalueandF2
forthesecondone.

6.4.1.3 DefiningtheDisplayoftheMicrowaveLinkProfile
IntheProfileAnalysisview,youcanconfigurehowtodisplaytheprofile.

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ToopentheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogbox:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

3. SelectDisplayOptionsfromthemenu.TheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogboxappears.
4. SelecttheDisplaytab.OntheDisplaytab,youcandefinethefollowing:

Verticalaxis:SettheMin.andMax.valueontheverticalaxisaswellastheIntervalbetweentickmarks.
Horizontalaxis:SettheIntervalbetweentickmarksonthehorizontalaxis.
Drawalongthepath:SelecttheDrawalongthepathcheckboxifyouwantAtolltodisplaygridlinestoindicate
thevaluesontheverticalaxis.
Earthcurvaturedisplay:Selectoneofthefollowing:

Real:SelectRealifyouwantAtolltodisplaytheactualcurvatureoftheearth,withtheradiopathdisplayed
curved.
Optical:SelectOpticalifyouwantAtolltodisplaytheradiopathasstraight,withthecurvatureoftheearth
increasedbythevaluedefinedfork.

5. SelecttheEllipsoidsandAntennaBeamwidthstab.OntheEllipsoidsandAntennaBeamwidthstab,youcandefine
thefollowingunderDiffraction:

Display1stFresnelellipsoid:SelecttheDisplay1stFresnelellipsoidcheckboxtodisplaythefirstFresnelellipsoid
anddefinethefollowing:

k1factor:Thek1factor,definedintheparametersofthemicrowavepropagationmodel,isdisplayed.Forin
formationonsettingthek1factor,see"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 252.
%ofdisplayedellipsoid:Definethepercentageoftheellipsoidtobedisplayed.
Displaythediversityantennaellipsoid:SelecttheDisplaythediversityantennaellipsoidcheckboxifyou
wanttheellipsoidofanydiversityantennatobedisplayed.
DisplaytheevenFresnelzones:SelecttheDisplaytheevenFresnelzonescheckboxifyouwanttheeven
FresnelzonestobedisplayedanddefinetheMaxorder.

Display2ndFresnelellipsoid:SelecttheDisplay2ndFresnelellipsoidcheckboxtodisplaythesecondFresnel
ellipsoidanddefinethefollowing:

k2factor:Thek2factor,definedintheparametersofthemicrowavepropagationmodel,isdisplayed.Forin
formationonsettingthek2factor,see"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 252.
%ofdisplayedellipsoid:Definethepercentageoftheellipsoidtobedisplayed.

6. OntheEllipsoidsandAntennaBeamwidthstab,youcandefinethefollowing:

Displaytreeorfoliagegrowth:Ifyouhaveoutofdatecluttermaps,youcanselecttheDisplaytreeorfoliage
growthcheckbox.Atollwilladdtheprojectedgrowthtotherelatedclutterclasses.Forinformationonsettingthe
projectedgrowth,see"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 252.
Displaythelineofsight:SelecttheDisplaythelineofsightcheckboxtodisplaythelineofsightbetweenthesites
ofthemicrowavelink.

7. SelecttheReflectionstab.OntheReflectionstab,youcandefinehowreflectionsaredisplayed:

UnderForallreflectionzones,youcanselectthefollowingoptions:

Displaythespecularreflectionpoint:SelecttheDisplaythespecularreflectionpointcheckboxifyouwant
todisplayreflectionareasalongthelinkprofileandunobstructedreflectedpaths.Theoptionisautomatically
selectedafteryouhavedisplayedreflectionsaspreviouslyexplained.
Displaythecriticalreflectionzonewhenkfactorvaries:SelecttheDisplaythecriticalreflectionzonewhen
kfactorvariescheckboxifyouwanttodisplaythereflectionzoneregardlessofcluttercategories.Thereflec
tionzoneisdeterminedfromantennaheightsandgroundaltitudeatthetransmitterandreceiversites;itis
notbasedonthedefinedcluttercategories.Whenthisoptionisselected,youhavetocheckifthiszoneisa
reflectionareaand,ifso,ifthereisareflectionpointwithinthereflectionarea.

UnderFortheselectedarea,youcanselectthefollowingoptions:

Displaythereflectionsforthekfactorrange:SelecttheDisplaythereflectionsforthekfactorrangecheck
boxifyouwanttodisplayunobstructedandobstructedreflectedpathscalculatedforthedefinedrangeofk
factorvalues.Forinformationondefiningtherangeofkfactorvalues,see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisPa
rameters"onpage 267.
Displaytheobstructedreflections:SelecttheDisplaytheobstructedreflectionscheckboxifyouwantto
displayobstructedreflectedsignals.Obstructedreflectedsignalsarerepresentedwithorangedashedlines.
Displayallthepaths:SelecttheDisplayallthepathscheckboxifyouwanttodisplayallpossiblereflected
signalswithinthereflectionarea.
Displaythereflectionplan:SelecttheDisplaythereflectionplancheckboxinordertodisplaythereflection
slope.Thisoneisusedtodeterminethereflectionpoint.

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UnderAboveseawater,youcanselecttheDisplaytidelevelscheckboxandsettheheightvariationduetotides
abovetheseawatercluttercategory.
Reflectionpathsandreflectivesurfacescanonlybedisplayedandanalysedoverunbroken
microwavelinkprofiles,i.e.,theprofileshouldnotincluderepeaters.

8. ClickOK.

6.4.1.4 AnalysingaParticularPointAlongtheProfile
Youcananalysetheprofile,andgetsomedetailsonparticularpoints,forexampleaspecificobstacle,usingeitherthetiptext
toolorthecurrentpointinformationfloatingwindow.

Figure 6.13:ProfileAnalysiswindowtooltipandcurrentpointinformationtool
Whenthetiptexttoolisenabled,thepointanalysisinformationisdynamicallydisplayedforthepointoverwhichthemouse
hovers.
Whenthecurrentpointinformationtoolisenabled,afloatingwindowdisplaysthepointanalysisinformationforaselected
pointintheprofile.
Todisplaythedetailsonapointofamicrowavelinkprofile:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"on
page 243.
2. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton(

)onthetoolbarandselectoneofthefollowingoptions:

Toactivatethetiptexttool,selectDisplayInformationinatiptextfromthemenu.Thetooldisplaysthepoint
analysisinformationwhenyouhoverthemousepointerovertheprofile(seeFigure 6.13).
Toactivatethecurrentpointinformationtool,selectDisplayInformationontheCurrentPointfromthemenu.A
floatingwindowdisplaysthepointanalysisinformationforanypointalongtheprofile.Clickapointinthemap
)andablackvertical
windoworintheMWAnalysisviewtospecifyapoint.Themarkerinthemapwindow(
markerintheMWAnalysisviewindicatethelocationoftheselectedpointalongtheprofile.

Bothtoolsdisplaythefollowingpointanalysisinformation:

Coordinates:Thelatitudeandlongitudeofthepoint.
Distance:ThedistancefromthetransmittingsiteA.
DistancetoB:ThedistancetothereceivingsiteB.
TotalHeight:Thealtitudeofthegroundlevelmoretheclutterheight.
Clearance:TheclearanceoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.Thisvalueisrelativetothelineofsight
andcorrespondstothedifferenceofheightbetweenthelineofsightandthecurrentpoint.
Fresnelellipsoidradius:TheradiusoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.
Cursorlocation(z):Thealtitudeofthepoint.

6.4.1.5 ZoomingInontheProfile
Atollenablesyoutozoominontheprofile.

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Tozoominontheprofile:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClicktheZoomonProfilebutton(

)onthetoolbar.Thepointerchanges(

).

3. Clickintheprofileononeofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttozoominon.
4. Dragtotheoppositecorner.Whenyoureleasethemousebutton,Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.
Torestoretheinitialprofile:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClicktheCancelZoombutton(

)onthetoolbar.

6.4.1.6 PrintingaMicrowaveLinkProfile
Youcanprintamicrowavelinkprofile.
ToprintthecontentsoftheProfileAnalysisview:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClickthePrintbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

3. ClickOKtoprint.

6.4.1.7 ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues
InAtoll,youcandisplaythedetailsofthegeographicprofilealongthemicrowavelink,andmodifyitifneeded.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

6.4.1.7.1

"ViewingtheMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247
"EditingProfileValues"onpage 248
"DisplayingReflectionandVegetationZones"onpage 250
"CopyingandPastingProfileValues"onpage 250
"ExportingProfileValues"onpage 250
"ImportingProfileValues"onpage 250
"SavingtheEditedProfileValues"onpage 251
"ResettingtheProfileValues"onpage 251

ViewingtheMicrowaveLinkProfileValues
YoucanusetheProfileValuesviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowtoviewalltheprofileanalysisdataforeachselectedpoint
alongthemicrowavelinkprofile.Atolldisplaysthedetailsinaseparatewindow.
Profile values cannot be computed for links that contains repeater(s). In this case, the
ProfileValuesviewisempty.

TodisplaytheprofiledatausingtheProfileValuesview:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Select Engineering > ProfileValues fromthe context menu. The Profile Valuesview oftheMW Analysis window
appears.
YoucanalsoaccesstheProfileValuesviewbyopeningtheMWAnalysiswindowandselectingtheProfileValues
view.
3. AtthetopoftheProfileValuesview,selectwhetheryouwanttodisplaytheprofilefromsite Atosite Borviceversa.
TheProfileValuesviewdisplaysthefollowingvaluesforeachpointalongtheprofile:

Distance(m):Thedistancefromthetransmittingsite.
Altitude(m):Thealtitudeofthegroundlevel(fromDTMfiles).
Clutter:Theclutterclass.
ClutterHeight(m):Theclutterheightfromclutterheightfilesifavailableorfromclutterclassfile.
Category:Thecluttercategoryassignedtoeachclutterclasswhenconfiguringthepropagationmodel.
FresnelRadius(m):TheradiusoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.
Clearance(m):TheclearanceoftheFresnelellipsoidforthefirstkfactorvalue.Thisvalueisrelativetothelineof
sightandcorrespondstothedifferenceofheightbetweenthelineofsightandthecurrentpoint.

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Ellipsoid Penetration (%): The penetrationof the current pointin thelower half of theFresnel ellipsoid (per
centageoftheellipsoidradiuspenetratedbythecurrentpoint).ThisvalueisrelativetothebottomoftheFresnel
ellipsoidandisgivenforthefirstkfactorvalue.

Figure 6.14:PenetrationandclearancevaluesontheProfileValuesview
ThegeographicdetailsprovidedintheProfileValuesviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowarestoredinatable.Theresolution
oftheinformationgivendependsontheresolutionofthegeographicdata:informationisgiveneveryXmetres,whereXis
thehighestresolutionofclutterclassandDTMmaps.

6.4.1.7.2

EditingProfileValues
Youcanmodifysomeprofilevaluesatanypointalongtheprofileandimmediatelychecktheimpactofthesemodificationsin
theProfileAnalysisview.However,achangemadeonA>>BdirectionisnotreportedtotheB>>Adirection(andviceversa)
untilitissavedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
ChangesmadeontheA>>BdirectioncanbeautomaticallyreportedontheB>>Adirection
(and vice versa) by adding an option in the Atoll.ini file. For more information, see the
AdministratorManual.
Theprofilevalues,i.e.,thealtitude,theclutterclass,theclutterheight,andthecluttercategory,canbeeditedinthetableor
usingthemouse.
Toedittheprofilevaluesinthetable:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. Editthecontentsofthetablebyenteringthevaluedirectlyinthefield.Youcaneditthefollowingcolumns:

Altitude:Thealtitude(DTM)
Clutter:Theclutterclass
ClutterHeight:Theclutterheight
Category:Thecluttercategory.

3. Clickelsewhereinthetablewhenyouhavefinishedupdatingthetable.
Toeditprofilevaluesusingthemouse:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.

Figure 6.15:TheProfileValuesviewwhenediting.
2. Rightclickthepartwheretheprofileisdisplayed.

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3. SelectZoomInfromthecontextmenu.
4. Intheprofile,clickoneofthefourcornersoftheareayouwanttoselect.
5. Dragtotheoppositecornerandreleasethemousebutton.Atollzoomsinontheselectedarea.
6. Selectoneofthefollowingcolumnsinthetable:

Altitude:SelectAltitudeifyouwanttoeditgroundaltitudes(seeFigure 6.16).

Figure 6.16:GroundinEditmode.
Youcanchangethealtitudeofonepointorarangeofpoints.
i.

Clickthepointyouwanttoedit.Thepointerchanges( ).

ii. Ifyouarechangingthealtitudeforarangeofpoints,movethepointertothesecondpointandclickthesecond
point.
iii. Onthemap,dragthepointtoitsnewaltitude.

ClutterHeight:SelectClutterHeightifyouwanttoeditclutterheights(seeFigure 6.17).

Figure 6.17:ClutterheightsinEditmode.
Youcanchangetheclutterheightofonepointorarangeofpoints.
i.

Clickthepointyouwanttoedit.Thepointerchanges( ).

ii. Ifyouarechangingtheclutterheightforarangeofpoints,movethepointertothesecondpointandclickthe
secondpoint.
iii. Dragthepointtoitsnewclutterheight.

Clutter:SelectClutterifyouwanttoeditclutterclasses(seeFigure 6.18).Theclutterclassesaredisplayedwith
linesseparatingtheclutterclassesifclutterheightsaredefinedorwithpointsifclutterheightsarenotdefined.

Figure 6.18:ClutterclassesinEditmode.
i.

Clickthelineorpoint.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. Dragthelineorpointtochangetheareawiththecorrespondingclutterclass.

Category:SelectCategoryifyouwanttoeditcluttercategories(seeFigure 6.19).Youcanseelinesseparatingthe
cluttercategories.

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Figure 6.19:CluttercategoriesinEditmode.
i.

Clicktheline.Thepointerchanges(

).

ii. Dragthelinetochangetheareawiththecorrespondingcluttercategory.

6.4.1.7.3

DisplayingReflectionandVegetationZones
Whenyouareeditingtheprofileasexplainedin"EditingProfileValues"onpage 248,youcanviewreflectionareasandvege
tationzones.
Todisplayreflectionareasandvegetationzones:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. Rightclickthepartwheretheprofileisdisplayedandselectoneofthefollowingoptionsfromthecontextmenu:

6.4.1.7.4

DisplayReflectionAreas:SelectDisplayReflectionAreastoviewreflectionareastakenintoaccountinthereflec
tionanalysisandreflectingpaths.Reflectionareasaredisplayedwithapattern(
).
DisplaySlopes:SelectDisplaySlopestoviewtheslopeoftheselectedreflectionarea.Youmustalreadyhave
selectedDisplayReflectionAreasifyouwanttoDisplaySlopes.
DisplayVegetationZoneswithFoliage:SelectDisplayVegetationZoneswithFoliagetoviewzoneswithfoliage
thatAtolltakesintoaccountwhencalculatingvegetationlosses.Zoneswithfoliagearedisplayedwithwithapat
tern(
).
DisplayVegetationZoneswithoutFoliage:SelectDisplayVegetationZoneswithoutFoliagetoviewvegetation
zoneswithoutfoliagethatAtolltakesintoaccountwhencalculatingvegetationlosses.Vegetationzoneswithout
foliagearedisplayedwithapattern(
).
HidePeculiarityZones:SelectHidePeculiarityZonestohidereflectionareasandvegetationzones.

CopyingandPastingProfileValues
Youcancopyandpastesomeprofilevaluessuchasaltitude,clutterclasses,clutterheights,andcluttercategoriesinthetable.
Tocopyandpasteprofilevaluesinthetable:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. ClickthecellwiththedatayouwanttocopyandpressCTRL+Ctocopyitscontents.
3. Clickanddragtoselectthecellsintowhichyouwanttocopythedata.
4. Copyintotheselectedcells:

6.4.1.7.5

Tocopythecontentsoftheclipboardintotheselectedcells,pressCTRL+V.
Tocopythecontentsofthetopcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,pressCTRL+D.
Tocopythecontentsofthebottomcelloftheselectionintotheothercells,pressCTRL+U.

ImportingProfileValues
YoucanimportdataintheformofASCIItextfiles(inTXTandCSVformats)intothetableoftheProfileValuesview.Only
editablevalues(i.e.,altitude,clutterclasses,clutterheights,andcluttercategories)canbeimported.
Toimportdataintothetable:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. ClicktheImportbutton(

)inthetoolbar.TheOpendialogboxappears.

3. SelectthetextfileyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.TheImportdialogboxappears.
4. Defineimportsettingsasexplainedin"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 65.

6.4.1.7.6

ExportingProfileValues
YoucanexporttheentiretableorselectedcolumnstoASCIItextfiles(inTXTorCSVformats)andMSExcelfiles.
Toexportprofilevalues:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. ClicktheExportbutton(

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)inthetoolbar.TheExportdialogboxappears.

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3. Defineexportsettingsasexplainedin"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 63.

6.4.1.7.7

SavingtheEditedProfileValues
Thedata(altitudes,clutterheights,clutterclasses,cluttercategories)youhavechangedarenotautomaticallysavedandwill
belostifyouselectanotherlinkorifyouclosetheMWAnalysiswindow.Ifyouwant,youcansavetheminthemicrowave
linkproperties.
Tosavetheeditedprofilevalues:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. ClicktheSavebutton(

6.4.1.7.8

)inthetoolbar.

ResettingtheProfileValues
Ifyouhaveeditedtheprofilevalues,youcanresetthemtotheiroriginalvaluesfromthegeographicdatafiles.
Torestoretheoriginallinkprofilevalues:
1. OpentheProfileValuesviewasexplainedin"ModifyingMicrowaveLinkProfileValues"onpage 247.
2. ClicktheResetbutton(

)inthetoolbaroftheMWAnalysiswindow.

6.4.2 DeterminingMicrowaveLinkAntennaHeights
Whendesigningamicrowavelink,youshouldsettheantennaheighttoavoidanyobstructionofthelineofsightsignaland
reflections.
InAtoll,youcanmodifyoroptimisemicrowavelinksantennaheights.UsingtheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMWAnalysis
window,youcanmodifyantennaheightsusingthemouseorenternewvaluesandseetheclearanceandpenetrationparam
etersdisplayed.
Atollallowsyoutocalculateandadjustthemicrowavelinkantennaheightsattheextremitiestotheiroptimalvalues.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"AdjustingMicrowaveAntennaHeightsUsingtheMouse"onpage 251
"DefiningMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 251
"AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights"onpage 252.

6.4.2.1 AdjustingMicrowaveAntennaHeightsUsingtheMouse
YoucanusethemousetomodifytheantennaheightoftheextremityofamicrowavelinkontheProfileAnalysisviewofthe
MWAnalysiswindow.
Tomodifyantennaheightsusingthemouse:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. Clicktheantennaheightpointer(

)(thepointerchanges

3. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer(

)anddragitupordowntomodifytheantennaheight.

).Thecontextmenuappears.

4. SelectSaveHxandTilt,where"x"iseither"a"or"b"dependingonthesite,fromthecontextmenu.Atollsavesthe
currentantennaheightandtiltinthemicrowavelink.
Youcanspecifyamaximumsupportheightforthereceivingandtransmittingsitesnotto
beexceeded.ThisparametercanbedefinedontheOtherPropertiestaboftheProperties
dialogboxforeachsite.Whendefined,theseheightlimitsaredisplayedontheProfile
Analysisview.

6.4.2.2 DefiningMicrowaveAntennaHeights
YoucanenteranewheightfortheantennaoftheextremityofamicrowavelinkontheProfileAnalysisviewoftheMW
Analysiswindow.
Tomodifytheantennaheight:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClicktheParametersbutton(

)besidethePathlistandentertheexactantennaHeight.

3. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer(

).Thecontextmenuappears.

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4. SelectSaveHxandTilt,where"x"iseither"a"or"b"dependingonthesite,fromthecontextmenu.Atollsavesthe
currentantennaheightandtiltinthemicrowavelink.
Youcanspecifyamaximumsupportheightforthereceivingandtransmittingsitesnotto
beexceeded.ThisparametercanbedefinedontheOtherPropertiestaboftheProperties
dialogboxforeachsite.Whendefined,theseheightlimitsaredisplayedontheProfile
Analysisview.

6.4.2.3 AutomaticallyOptimisingMicrowaveAntennaHeights
Atollenablesyoutoautomaticallycalculateantennaheightsinordertoavoidreflectionsandprofileobstructions.Automat
icallyoptimisingantennaheightsisonlypossibleforsinglemicrowavelinkprofiles,i.e.,youcannotautomaticallyoptimise
antennaheightsformicrowavelinkprofileswithoneormorerepeaters.Youcan,however,calculateoptimalantennaheights
foreachhopofamicrowavelinkprofile(e.g.,forSiteSite BorRepeater PSite B).
Toperformanautomaticoptimisationforanantenna:
1. OpentheProfileAnalysisviewasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer(

).Thecontextmenuappears.

3. SelectOptimisationMethodfromthecontextmenu.TheHeightOptimisationdialogboxappears.
4. UnderClearanceconditions,definethek1factor.Ifdesired,youcanselecttheTakesecondconstraintintoaccount
anddefinethek2factor.
5. Selecttheoptimisationmethod:

Clearanceconditionmethods:ClearanceconditionmethodsarebasedontheclearanceoftheFresnelellipsoid.
YoucanenteraTargetclearanceforthek1factorandforthek2factor,ifyouchosetotakeitintoconsideration.
Ifyouhaveoutofdateclutterclassmaps,youcanestimatethegrowthofvegetation(Projectedtreeorfoliage
growth).Atolltakesthisvalueintoaccountforcluttercategoriesfrom6to14andaddsittotheclutterheight.

MinimumDiffractionLossMethod:Atolldeterminesantennaheightstominimisediffractionlossesduetothe
mainobstacle(i.e.,itcalculatesantennaheightstogetaclearanceof60%ofthefirstFresnelzone).

6. UnderReflectionconditions,selecttheTakeintoaccountthereflectionareascheckboxanddefinetherangeofk
factorvalues(kminfactorandkmaxfactor)tobeusedduringtheantennaheightoptimisationifyouwanttotake
reflectionintoconsideration.
7. ClickOK.
8. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer(
appears.

)forthesitewhoseantennaheightyouwanttooptimise.Thecontextmenu

9. ChooseOptimisetocalculatetheoptimumantennaheightsforbothextremities.
YoucanlocktheantennaheightbyselectingLockfromthecontextmenu.Thiswillprevent
theantennaheightfrombeingmodifiedduringtheoptimisationprocess.Onlytheheight
of the other antenna (if it is not locked as well) will be calculated to optimise the link.
Furthermore,youcanalwaysrestorethelastantennaheightvaluebyselectingRestore
fromthecontextmenu.
10. Rightclicktheantennaheightpointer(

).Thecontextmenuappears.

11. SelectSaveHa,HbandTiltsfromthecontextmenutosavethecurrentantennaheightsandtiltsinthemicrowavelink.
Youcanspecifyamaximumsupportheightforthereceivingandtransmittingsitesnotto
be exceeded. This parameter can be defined in each site properties dialog box (Other
Properties tab). If defined, these height limits are represented on the Profile Analysis
view.

6.5 AnalysingMicrowaveLinkReliability
Reliabilityisthegeneraltermusedtorefertothequalityandavailabilityofamicrowavelinkobtainedthroughassessingits
performanceaccordingtothecriteriadefinedintherelevantperformanceobjectives.Ideally,amicrowavelinkshouldbe
completelyreliable100%ofthetime.Inpractice,thisperformancelevelisneverachievedoveranymicrowavelinkduethe
continuouslychangingpropagationconditionsandpossibleproblemswiththeradio.

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Theobjectiveofcarryingoutreliabilityanalysesistoestimatetheunavailabilityoroutageofamicrowavelinkonanannual
basisandtodeterminethequalityoftheconnectionoverworstcaseoraveragemonthlyscenarios.Reliabilityanalysistakes
intoconsiderationthefademargin,diffractionloss,averageannualtemperature,terrainroughnesscalculations,radioparam
eters,antennaparameters,transmissionandreceptionparameters,andothermiscellaneouslosses.
Amicrowavelinkreliabilityanalysisdetermineswhetheradesignedsystemwilloperatesuccessfully.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"AnalysingaSingleMicrowaveLink"onpage 253.
"AnalysingMicrowaveLinks"onpage 258.
"PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis"onpage 260.

6.5.1 AnalysingaSingleMicrowaveLink
Whenyoucreateamicrowavelink,youcanstudyittotesttheeffectivenessofthesetparameters.
Beforeanalysingthemicrowavelinkreliability,youmustassignapropagationmodel,definethemicrowavelinkclassand
relatedperformanceobjectivesandsetthecalculationparameters.
Thepropagationmodeltakestheradioandgeographicdataintoaccountandcomputeslossesalongthemicrowavelinkpath.
Thisallowsyoutopredictthereceivedsignallevelandtocalculatethethermalfademargin.Youcanassignapropagation
modeltoallmicrowavelinksatonce,toagroupofmicrowavelinks,ortoasinglemicrowavelink.Assigningapropagation
modelisexplainedin"WorkingwithBackhaulPropagationModels"onpage 185.
Microwavelinkclassesareusedtodifferentiatemicrowavelinktypesandgivetargetperformanceobjectivestomicrowave
links.Youcanassignalinkclasstoallmicrowavelinksatonce,toagroupofmicrowavelinks,ortoasinglemicrowavelink.
Assigningalinkclassisexplainedin"DefiningLinkClasses"onpage 297.
Calculationparametersincludeglobalparametersappliedtoallmicrowavelinksandlinkparameterssuchasgeoclimaticand
reliability parameters defined per microwave link. Defining global parameters is explained in "Global Parameters" on
page 191.Settingmicrowavelinkparametersisexplainedin"MicrowaveLinkParameters"onpage 195.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CalculatingMicrowaveLinkRequiredMargins"onpage 253
"CalculatingaMicrowaveAnalysisReport"onpage 254
"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"onpage 256
"PrintingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 257
"ExportingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 257

6.5.1.1 CalculatingMicrowaveLinkRequiredMargins
Atollallowsyoutodeterminethemarginsrequiredbythemicrowavelinktoreachtheperformanceobjectivesdefinedinthe
linkclass.TherequiredmarginsareindicatedintheRequiredMarginviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.
Tocalculatethemicrowavelinkrequiredmargins:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Select Engineering > Required Margin from the context menu. The Required Margin view of the MW Analysis
windowappears.
3. AtthetopoftheRequiredMarginview,selecttheportonwhichtheanalysisshouldbeperformed.Whenyouselect
Worstcase,Atollperformstheanalysisforeachchannelanddisplaystheresultsfortheworstchannelintermsof
fademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowestfademargin).
TheRequiredMarginviewcontainsthereportgeneratedafterthecalculationofrequiredmargins.Thisisacomprehensive
reportwhichcanbeconfiguredasdescribedin"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"onpage 256.
MicrowavelinkrequiredmarginresultsontheRequiredMarginviewincludethefollowinginformation:

Linkspecifications:Informationaboutthesitesatthetwoextremitiesofthemicrowavelink(name,location,altitude,
andcoordinatesystem),theradioinstalledateachsite(theradioserieswhichtheradiobelongsto,digitalhierarchy,
modulationused,capacity,payloadrate,capacity),theoperatingfrequencybandofthemicrowavelink,itslengthand
calculationparameters(propagationmodel,modelsforavailabilityandqualitycalculations,andwhetherdiscrimina
tionreductionandenhancementsaretakenintoaccount).
Performanceobjectivestakenintoaccount:Theperformanceobjectivesconsideredinthemargincalculations,i.e.,
qualityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER)andavailabilityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER).
Rxlevel:ThereceptionlevelinformationatthereceiverincludingtheBitErrorRateandtherequiredlevelofreceived
power.
Quality(clearair):Thedatarelatedtothemargincalculationsandresults(thecalculateddispersivefademargin,the
calculatedmarginagainstenhancements,thecalculatedcrosspolardiscriminationreduction,calculatedandrequired
thermalfademarginsandcalculatedandrequiredcompositefademargins)andtherequiredtotalmargin.

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Availability(rain):Theerrorperformanceparametersandthetotalrequiredmargin.
ClearAirRecommendations:Therequiredoutputpowerwhichyoucancomparetothecurrentoutputpowerdis
playedinbrackets,andhowmuchyouhavetodecreaseorincreasethemaximumpowerandtherequiredantenna
diameter.

6.5.1.2 CalculatingaMicrowaveAnalysisReport
Atollenablesyoutocreateadetailedanalysisreportforamicrowavelink.Ifyouwantalessconcisereportinstead,youcan
createadesignsummary,asdescribedin"CalculatingaMicrowaveLinkDesignSummary"onpage 255.Atollcangeneratean
analysisreportordesignsummaryforeachmicrowavelink.
Theresultsprovidedinthisreportarecalculatedinrealtime.Therefore,youcanmodifythepropertiesofthemicrowavelink,
orthecalculationparameters,andimmediatelydisplaytheimpactofthemodificationsintheMWAnalysiswindow(the
ProfileAnalysis,DesignSummary,andAnalysisReportviews).Anymodificationmadetotheprofileofthemicrowavelink
usingtheProfileValuesandtheProfileAnalysisviewsaretakenintoaccountintheAnalysisReportview.However,achange
madeonA>>BdirectionisnotreportedtotheB>>Adirection(andviceversa)untilitissavedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
ChangesmadeontheA>>BdirectioncanbeautomaticallyreportedontheB>>Adirection
(and vice versa) by adding an option in the Atoll.ini file. For more information, see the
AdministratorManual.
Togenerateananalysisreportforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >AnalysisReportfromthecontextmenu.TheAnalysisReportviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow
appears.
3. AtthetopoftheAnalysisReportview,selecttheportonwhichporttheanalysisshouldbeperformed.Whenyou
selectWorstcase,Atollperformstheanalysisforeachchannelanddisplaystheresultsfortheworstchannelinterms
offademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowestfademargin).
TheAnalysisReportviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowcontainstheanalysisreportforthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied.You
candefineexactlywhatinformationwillbedisplayedintheanalysisreport,however,bydefault,themicrowavelinkinforma
tionintheAnalysisReportviewincludesthefollowing:

254

Summary:Showswhetherqualityandavailabilityobjectiveshavebeenreachedforbothdirectionsofthemicrowave
linkandthespecifiedBERvalues,andaglobalestimationofthecutoffdurationoveranaverageyeartakinginto
accountbothlinkqualityandavailability.
Budget:Showsabasiclinkbudgetincludingtheoperatingfrequencyband,thelinklength,thethermalfademargin,
theworstmonthquality(inpercentageoftime),theaverageannualavailabilitytakingintoaccountrain(inpercentage
oftime),andtheaverageannualavailabilitytakingintoaccountbothrainandequipmentfailures(inpercentageof
time), and the worst month nonquality objective and the average annual unavailability objective (duration). The
averageannualavailabilityiscalculatedusingtheCraneortheITUrecommendations:ITURP.5308,ITURP.53010,
ITURP.53011,ITURP.53012,ITURP.53013,andITURP.53014.
LinkSpecifications:Showsinformationaboutthemicrowavelinkdesign,sitenames,locations,andthealtitudesfor
bothextremities,repeaters(ifany),antennasusedatbothsiteswiththeirrespectivemodels,heights,azimuths,tilts,
gains, diameters, near fields, beamwidths and XPD values, diversity antennas and repeater backtoback antenna
detailssuchasthemodels,heights,azimuths,tilts,gainsanddiameters,microwavetransceiverradiosinstalledatboth
siteswithdetailssuchastheradioseries,models,digitalhierarchyemployed,modulationused,payloadrates,min
imal channel bandwidths, capacities and configurations, feeders details and point to multipoint parameters if the
studiedmicrowavelinkisapartofapointtomultipointsystem.
Transmission:Showstransmissionrelatedparametersforbothextremitiesofthemicrowavelinkincludingthetrans
mittedpowersinclearairandrainconditions,whetherthisisthemaximumpowerorthestandardpower,EIRP,ATPC
effects, passive repeater gains (if any), total losses and the details (filter losses, connection losses, shared losses,
shieldinglosses,portconnectionlosses,andfeederlosses),thesystemconfiguration,channelandfrequencyparam
eterssuchastheportandthechannelforwhichthecalculationshavebeenperformed,polarisationandthediversity
frequency,anddetailsontheportconfigurationforbothdirections(thechannel,thecorrespondingfrequency,the
polarisation,ifitisamainchannelorastandbychannelorachannelforfrequencydiversityoradiversitystandby
channel,thetransmissionandreceptionportnumbers,theACUlosses,theportcirculatorandattenuatorlosses.
Reception:Showsreceptionrelatedparametersforbothendsofthemicrowavelinkincludingthebiterrorratiosand
sensitivitiesatthereceivers,overflowthresholds,thermalnoise,therequiredC/IminustheXPIFandtotallossesat
reception comprising filter losses, connection losses, shared losses, shielding losses, port connection losses, and
feederlosses.
GeoclimaticParameters:Informationaboutthetypeofenvironment,typeofterrain,rainareaandtheclimaticzone
inwhichthemicrowavelinkisoperating,climaticfactor,rainintensity(exceeding0.01%oftime),rainheight,atmos
pheric pressure, relative humidity, PL percentage, temperature, water vapour density, the global earth curvature

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factorsetinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder,themeanearthcurvaturefactor(k)andtheeffectiveearthcurvature
factor(ke)calculatedforthemicrowavelinkandthegeoclimaticfactorK.
CalculationParameters:Parametersusedtocalculatetheanalysisreportsuchasthecalculationmethods(propaga
tionmodel,qualitymodel,availabilitymodel,interference,ifenhancementsanddiscriminationreductionareignored,
spacediversityandfrequencydiversity),qualityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER),andavailabilityobjectives(SESR,ESR,
BBER).
Propagation:Thenominalreceivedsignallevelsinclearairandrainconditionsatthemainantenna,thenominal
receivedsignallevelsinclearairandrainconditionsatthediversityantenna,propagationresultsforbothdirections
ofthemicrowavelinkincludingtotalattenuation,freespaceloss,lossesduetodryair,lossesduetowatervapour,
attenuationduetotherain,diffractionlosses,vegetationattenuation,attenuationduetoreflections,antennalosses
and tropospheric scattering, epsilon and the type of path (LOS or NLOS). If relevant, propagation results are also
detailedforthediversityantenna.
Nonqualityduetomultipath(clearair):Resultsdepictingthequalityofthemicrowavelinkintheselecteddirec
tions,forspecifiedBERvaluesandwheninterferenceisnottakenintoaccount.Theseresultsincludetheoutageprob
ability,thenonoutageprobabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheworstmonth,theoutageprobability,thenonoutage
probabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheaverageyear,performanceobjectives(probabilitiesofSESR(required),ESR
(required),BBER(required)),detailsfortheworstmonth(dispersivefading,selectivefading,fadingduetodiscrimina
tionreduction,enhancementforecast),improvementfactorswhenspaceandfrequencydiversitiesareused.
Unavailabilityduetorain:Resultsdepictingtheunavailabilityofthemicrowavelinkduetorainintheselecteddirec
tions,forspecifiedBERvaluesandwheninterferenceisnottakenintoaccount.Theseresultsincludetheoutageprob
ability,thenonoutageprobabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheworstmonth,theoutageprobability,thenonoutage
probabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheaverageyear,performanceobjectives(probabilitiesofSESR(required),ESR
(required),BBER(required)),detailsfortheaverageyear(rainfading,attenuationduetotherain,attenuationdueto
thefog,fadingduetodiscriminationreduction).
Whencalculatingunavailabilityduetorain,anextrapolationmethodisusedtoobtainan
outageprobabilitylowerthantheminimumdefinedbythecalculationmethod(i.e,0.01%
forCrane,and0.001%forITUrecommendations).

Unavailabilityduetofailures:Resultsdepictingtheunavailabilityofthemicrowavelinkduetoradiofailure.These
results include availability of hot standby, the probability of outages due to failures for the average year and the
outageperiodfortheaverageyearandtheperformanceobjective.
AdaptiveModulation:IfyouhaveselectedAdaptivemodulation(ACM)asoperationmodeinthePropertiesofthe
Linksfolderandifthemicrowavelinksupportsseveralmodulations,Atolldetailstheanalysisforeachdefinedmod
ulation.Thedisplayedresultsinclude:

Globalcutoffestimatesandthepercentageofnoncutofftimeforthelinkoveranaverageyear.
Thermalfademargins,receivedsignallevelsinclearairconditions,payloadrates,systemgains.
Resultsdepictingthenonqualityofthelinkduetomultipath(outageandnonoutageprobabilityovertheworst
monthandtheaverageyear,outagedurationovertheworstmonthandtheaverageyear,outagedetailsoverthe
worstmonth).
Resultsdepictingthelinkunavailabilityduetotherain(outageandnonoutageprobabilityovertheworstmonth
and the average year, outage duration over the worst month and the average year, outage details over the
averageyear,availabilityrateovertheaverageyearandtheaverageunavailabilitydurationwithfailuresoverthe
averageyear).

Forinformationondefiningthecontentsoftheanalysisreport,see"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"on
page 256.

6.5.1.3 CalculatingaMicrowaveLinkDesignSummary
Atollenablesyoutocreateaconcisedesignsummaryofamicrowavelink.Ifyouwantacomprehensivereport,youcancreate
an analysis report, as described in "Calculating a Microwave Analysis Report" on page 254, instead. Atoll can generate a
concisedesignsummaryoranalysisreportforeachmicrowavelink.
Theresultsprovidedinthedesignsummaryarecalculatedinrealtime.Therefore,youcanmodifythepropertiesofthemicro
wavelink,orthecalculationparameters,andimmediatelydisplaytheimpactofthemodificationsintheMWAnalysiswindow
(theProfileAnalysis,DesignSummary,andAnalysisReportviews).Anymodificationmadetotheprofileofthemicrowave
link using the Profile Values and the Profile Analysis views are taken into account in the analysis report in the Design
Summaryview.However,achangemadeonA>>BdirectionisnotreportedtotheB>>Adirection(andviceversa)untilitis
savedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
ChangesmadeontheA>>BdirectioncanbeautomaticallyreportedontheB>>Adirection
(and vice versa) by adding an option in the Atoll.ini file. For more information, see the
AdministratorManual.

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Togenerateadesignsummaryforasinglemicrowavelink:
1. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectEngineering >DesignSummaryfromthecontextmenu.TheDesignSummaryviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow
appears.
3. AtthetopoftheDesignSummaryview,selecttheportonwhichtheanalysisshouldbeperformed.Whenyouselect
Worstcase,Atollperformstheanalysisforeachchannelanddisplaystheresultsfortheworstchannelintermsof
fademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowestfademargin).
YoucanalsoopentheDesignSummaryviewbyopeningtheMWAnalysiswindowandselectingtheDesignSummaryview.
TheDesignSummaryviewoftheMWAnalysiswindowcontainsaconcisereportforthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied.You
candefineexactlywhatinformationwillbedisplayedinthedesignsummary,however,bydefault,themicrowavelinkinfor
mationintheDesignSummaryviewincludesthefollowing:

The preliminary section of the design summary provides a rapid overview of the objectives. Whether or not the
definedqualityandavailabilityobjectivesforeachsitearemetisgiven.Additionally,theglobaldurationofcutoff
overanaverageyearandthepercentageofnoncutoffforanaverageyear.Moredetailedinformationisgiveninthe
followingsections.

LinkBudget:UnderLinkBudget,youcanreadthebasicinformationontransmission,suchasthetransmittedpower,
theantennagain,thetotallosses(transmissionandreception),thereceivedsignallevelinclearairconditions,the
totalattenuation,theattenuationdetails(freespaceloss,diffractionlosses,attenuationduetorain,etc.),thereceiver
sensitivity,andtheuniformmargin.

LinkSpecifications:UnderLinkSpecifications,youcanreadtheinformationonthemicrowavelink,suchasthecoor
dinates,thealtitudesofbothendsofthemicrowavelink,theheight,azimuth,andtiltoftheantennasatbothendsof
themicrowavelink,aswellastheradioseries,modulation,capacity,calculatedchannelandpolarisation.

Performance(WorstMonth):Inthissection,youcanreadtheperformancemeasurementsforeachsitefortheworst
monthinayear.Includedaretheoutagedurationduetothemultipath,thedurationofthequalityobjective,the
outagedurationduetorain,thedurationoftherequiredavailabilityobjective,thetotaldurationofavailability,and
thetotaldurationofrequiredavailability.

Performance(AverageYear):Inthissection,youcanreadtheperformancemeasurementsforeachsiteaveraged
overayear.Includedinthissectionarethedurationofoutage(inclearairandinrain),thedurationofthequality
objective,thedurationoftherequiredrainobjective,thedurationofcutoffduetoequipmentfailures,andthedura
tionoftherequiredobjectiveduetofailures.

Forinformationondefiningthecontentsofthedesignsummary,see"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"
onpage 256.

6.5.1.4 ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports
YoucanconfigureboththeappearanceandthecontentsofthereportgeneratedontheAnalysisReport,DesignSummary,
andRequiredMarginviews.
Toconfiguretheappearanceandcontentsofthereport:
1. OntheAnalysisReport,DesignSummary,orRequiredMarginview,clicktheConfigureReportbutton(
ReportConfigurationdialogboxappears.

).The

2. ClicktheContentstab.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandaresultcategory.
Youcandefinewhichresultswillbedisplayed:

Todisplayresults,selectthecheckboxcorrespondingtothoseresults.
Tohideresults,clearthecheckboxcorrespondingtothoseresults.
Torestoretheselectedresultstotheirdefaultsettings,ortorefreshthelistofresultsavailable,clicktheReset
button.

4. ClicktheStyletab.
Youcandefinetheappearanceofthetextstylesusedinthereport.
a. Clickthestyleyouwanttodefineinthepreviewwindow.
b. ClicktheAaBbYyZzbuttontosetthefont.
c. DefinethealignmentoftheparagraphbyselectingLeft,Centre,Right,orJustified.
YoucanrestorethestyletoitsdefaultappearancebyclickingtheResetbutton.
5. OntheStyletabyoucanalsodefinethecontentsoftheheaderandfooter.Youcanincludekeywordssuchasthedoc
umentauthor,thedocumenttitle,thecurrentdate,etc.Youcanalsoenteryouowntextintheheaderorfooter.

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a. Clickthe"Header"or"Footer"entryinthepreviewwindow.
b. ClickoneoftheKeywordsbuttonstoselectthekeywordsyouwanttoappear.TheAvailableKeywordsdialogbox
appears.
WherethekeywordsappearintheheaderorfooterdependsonwhichKeywordsbuttonyouselect:theKeywords
buttonacrossfromLeftdefineswhatappearsintheleftoftheheaderorfooter,theKeywordsbuttonacrossfrom
Centredefineswhatappearsinthecentre,andtheKeywordsbuttonacrossfromRightdefineswhatappearsin
theright.MostofthekeywordstaketheircontentfromtheentriesmadeontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdi
alogbox(forinformation,see"DefiningaProjectDescription"onpage 103).
Thefollowingkeywordsareavailable:

Version:TheversionofAtollusedtolasteditthedocument.
UntilyousaveyourAtolldocument,thereturnedvalueforVersionwillbe"undefined".

File:Thefilenameincludingthefullpathname.
Date:ThedatedefinedastheTimestampontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
Owner:TheownerofthedocumentdefinedontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogbox
Title:ThenameofthedocumentdefinedontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
Comments:AnycommentsenteredontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
Logo:ThelogodefinedontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
Status:TheprojectstatusdefinedontheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogbox.

YoucanchangethesettingsoftheProjecttabofthePropertiesdialogboxbyclickingtheEditbutton.
c. ClickOKtoclosetheAvailableKeywordsdialogboxandsaveyourchanges.
d. Ifdesired,youcanentertextintotheKeywordsboxeseitheralongwiththekeywordsoralone.

Ifyouencounteranalignmentissueinthegeneratedreport,youcanmodifythe
tabvaluebyaddinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seethe
AdministratorManual.

Youcandefineadefaultconfigurationfileforeachlinkbudgetreportbyspecifying
anabsoluteorUNCpathintheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seetheAdmin
istratorManual.

YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheReportConfigurationdialogboxas
amodelforfuturereportsbyclickingtheSaveAsbuttonatthetopofthedialog
boxandenteringanameforthefileintheSaveAsdialogboxthatappears.The
nexttimeyouconfigureareport,youcanclickOpenintheReportConfiguration
dialogboxtoopenthemodelwiththesavedsettings.

6. Onceyouhavedefinedthecontentsandappearanceofthereport,clickOKtosaveyourchangesandclosethedialog
box.YoucanrestorethestyletoitsdefaultappearancebyclickingtheResetbutton.

6.5.1.5 PrintingaMicrowaveReport
AfteryouhaveconfiguredthereportdisplayedintheAnalysisReport,DesignSummary,orRequiredMarginview,youcan
printit.
Toprintthereport:
1. In the Analysis Report, Design Summary, or Required Margin, click the Print button (
appears.

). The Print dialog box

2. DefinethesettingsandclickOKtoprintyourreport.

6.5.1.6 ExportingaMicrowaveReport
AfteryouhaveconfiguredthereportdisplayedintheAnalysisReport,DesignSummary,orRequiredMarginview,youcan
exportitinRTFformat.

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ToexportthereportinRTFformat:
1. IntheAnalysisReport,DesignSummary,orRequiredMargin,clicktheSaveReportbutton(
boxappears.

).TheSaveAsdialog

2. IntheSaveAsdialogbox,entertheFilenameandclickSave.

6.5.2 AnalysingMicrowaveLinks
Atollenablesyoutocalculatemultiplemicrowavelinkbudgetsforagroupofmicrowavelinkssimultaneously.Microwave
linksinAtollcanbegroupedinviewsaccordingtodifferentpropertyparameters(e.g.,byfrequencyband).Youcanlaunch
simultaneouslinkbudgetcalculationsforthemicrowavelinksgroupedinaview.Theresultsaredisplayedintheformofa
report.Beforecalculatingoneormorelinkbudgets,youcancreateacomputationzone.Thecomputationzoneisusedto
definetheareawhereAtollcarriesoutcalculations.Whenyoucreateacomputationzone,Atollcarriesoutthecalculation
forallmicrowavelinksintheselectedviewthatareactive,filtered(i.e.,thatareselectedbythecurrentfilterparameters),
andthatintersectthecomputationzone.
Thecomputationzoneistakenintoaccountwhetherornotitisvisible.Inotherwords,ifyouhavedrawnacomputationzone,
itwillbetakenintoaccountwhetherornotitsvisibilitycheckboxintheZonesfolderoftheGeotabintheexplorerwindow
isselected.Youwillhavetodeletethecomputationzoneifyounolongerwanttodefineanareaforcalculations.
Whenworkingwithalargenetwork,thecomputationzoneallowsyoutorestrictyourpredictionstothepartofthenetwork
youarecurrentlyworkingon.Byallowingyoutoreducethenumberofmicrowavelinksstudied,Atollreducesboththetime
andcomputerresourcesnecessaryforcalculations.
Ifthereisnocomputationzonedefined,Atollmakesitscalculationsonallmicrowavelinksintheselectedviewthatareactive
andfilteredandfortheentireextentofthegeographicaldataavailable.
Forinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42.
Tosetthemicrowavelinksasactive,see"SettingMicrowaveandOtherTransmissionLinksasActive"onpage 238
Afteryouhaveensuredthatalllinksareactiveandproperlyfiltered,youcansetthepropagationmodelandothercalculation
parameters.Forinformationonchoosingandconfiguringapropagationmodelandcalculationparameters,seeChapter5:
CalculationsandPropagationModels.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningLinkBudgetAnalysisParameters"onpage 258
"CalculatingMultipleMicrowaveLinkBudgets"onpage 259
"LinkBudgetCalculationValidity"onpage 259

6.5.2.1 DefiningLinkBudgetAnalysisParameters
Beforecalculatingalinkbudget,youcanselectonwhichchannelsshouldbedisplayedtheresultsoftheanalysis,anddefine
thecontentsofthelinkbudgetreport.
Todefinethelinkbudgetanalysisparameters:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheLinksfolderandselectthemicrowavelinksforwhichyouwanttodefinethe
contentsofthelinkbudgetreport:

Todefinethecontentsofthelinkbudgetreportforallmicrowavelinks,rightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
Thecontextmenuappears.
Todefinethecontentsofthelinkbudgetreportforagroupofmicrowavelinks,clicktheExpandbutton( )to
expandtheMicrowaveLinksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksforwhichyouwanttodefine
thecontentsofthelinkbudgetreport.Thecontextmenuappears.

2. SelectLinkBudgets >Propertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. ClicktheGeneraltab.Youcanselectonwhichchannelshouldbedisplayedtheresultsoftheanalysis.

All:IfyouselectAll,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisforeachchannelanddisplaystheresultsforallchannels.
Worstchannel:IfyouselectWorstchannel,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisforeachchannelanddisplaysthe
resultsfortheworstchannelintermsoffademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowestfademargin).
Specificport:IfyouselectSpecificport,Atollperformsthelinkanalysisanddisplaystheresultsforthechannel
specifiedindividuallyforSiteAandSiteB.

4. ClicktheFieldSelectiontab.AtolldisplaysadefaultsetoffieldsintheSelectedfieldslistandletsyouselectother
informationtobeincludedinthereport.
5. Definethecontentsofthereport:
a. IntheFieldSelectiondialogbox,selectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayinthereport.Youcanselectcontiguous
fieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.Youcanselectnoncontiguousfieldsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachfieldseparately.

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Toselectafieldtobeincludedinthereport,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick
ittotheSelectedfieldslist.

tomove

ToremoveafieldfromthelistofSelectedfields,selectthefieldintheSelectedfieldslistandclick
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjects
willbedisplayedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedfieldslist,fromtoptobottom.

to

YoucanviewmoredetailedinformationoneachselectedfieldbyclickingtheTablebutton.

YoucanrestoretheSelectedfieldslisttoitsdefaultappearancebyclickingthe
Resetbutton.

YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheFieldSelectiondialogboxasacon
figuration file by clicking the Save As button at the top of the dialog box and
enteringanameforthefileintheSaveAsdialogboxthatappears.Thenexttime
youconfigureareport,youcanclickOpeninthePropertiesdialogboxtoopen
yourconfigurationfilewiththesavedsettings.

b. ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandclosethedialogbox.

6.5.2.2 CalculatingMultipleMicrowaveLinkBudgets
Youcancalculatealinkbudgetforallmicrowavelinksorforagroupofmicrowavelinks.
Toperformlinkbudgetcalculationsonagroupofmicrowavelinks:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheLinksorMicrowaveRadioLinksfolder,rightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder,
andselectLinkBudgets >Calculatefromthecontextmenu.
Anewdirectoryiscreated(C:\<path_to_doc>\<doc_name>.profiles),whichcontainstheexternalfiles(includingall
thecalculatedpathprofiles)thatwillbeusednexttimeyourecalculatelinkbudgetsorinterferences.Youcanusethe
Profiles>DeleteAllFilescommandtodeletethe<doc_name>.profilesdirectory.Youcanalsodisablethisfeatureby
settinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.

KeeptheATLfileonyourmachineinsteadofaservertosignificantlydecreasethe
calculationtimeofpathprofiles.
ThisfeatureismoreefficientwhentheDTMresolutionislow,providedthatthe
calculationresolutionisgreaterthanorequaltothegeodataresolution.
Profilefilesarenotcreatedforlinkswithatleastoneremoteantenna.Theywill
notbeusedeitheriftheywerecreatedbeforeanantennahasbecomeremote.

Atoll displays the link budget report. The report content depends on the analysis parameters (see "Defining Link
BudgetAnalysisParameters"onpage 258).
Atollindicatesthenameofthelink,itsdirection,itslength,thefrequencyband,thefrequencysubband,thechannel
number,thenameofthechannel,thetransmissionandreceptionports,thefrequency,thecharacteristicsofthe
microwavelink(sites,antennas,polarisation,andradiosinstalled),thesignallevelreceivedinclearairandraincondi
tions,thefademargin,anditsqualityandavailability.Itdisplaysthetransmissionparameters(EIRP,variouslosses,
etc.),receptionparameters(sensitivity,variouslosses,etc.),calculationoptions,andgeoclimaticparameters.Italso
detailsthepropagationcalculation(totalattenuationandattenuationdetails)andthecalculationsrelatedtolinkengi
neering(quality(clearair),unavailabilityduetorain,unavailabilityduetofailures).Alltheresultsareprovidedinboth
thedirectionsofthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied.

YoucanstopanycalculationsinprogressbyclickingtheStopCalculationsbutton

(
)inthetoolbar.
You can access each microwave links properties by doubleclicking the corre
spondingrecordinthereport.

6.5.2.3 LinkBudgetCalculationValidity
Linkbudgetcalculationsperformedforagroupofmicrowavelinks(i.e.,intermediateresultssuchaspropagation,outage
probabilities)aresavedintheAtolldocument.So,oncecalculationshavebeenperformedforallmicrowavelinks,youcan
quicklyperformalinkbudgetforagroupofmicrowavelinks.Atollonlyrecalculatesnewandinvalidmicrowavelinks.Calcu
lationscanbecomeinvalidfordifferentreasons:

Ifacalculationmethodoroptionhasbeenchanged

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Ifmicrowavelinkpropertieshavebeenmodified
Ifgeographicdatamapshavebeenupdated.

Forthefirsttworeasons,Atollautomaticallydetectsinvalidityofthecalculationwhenstartingcalculationsandrecalculates.
Inthelastcase(e.g.,ifyouaddanewclutterclassmap),youmustforceAtolltorecalculate.
Toforcelinkbudgetrecalculation:
1. In the Network explorer, expand the Links folder and rightclick the Microwave Links folder. The context menu
appears.
IfyouwanttorecalculatethelinkbudgetforagivenviewofmicrowavelinksintheMicro
waveLinksfolder,youcanclicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinks
folderbeforerightclickingtoaccessthecontextmenu.
2. SelectLinkBudgets >ForceCalculationsfromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinksPropertiesdialogboxopens.
Youcandefinetheanalysisparametersasexplainedin"DefiningLinkBudgetAnalysisParameters"onpage 258.
Anewdirectoryiscreated(C:\<path_to_doc>\<doc_name>.profiles),whichcontainingtheexternalfiles(includingall
thecalculatedpathprofiles)thatwillbeusednexttimeyourecalculatelinkbudgetsorinterferences.Youcanusethe
Profiles>DeleteAllFilescommandtodeletethe<doc_name>.profilesdirectory.Youcanalsodisablethisfeatureby
settinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.

KeeptheATLfileonyourmachineinsteadofaservertosignificantlydecreasethe
calculationtimeofpathprofiles.
ThisfeatureismoreefficientwhentheDTMresolutionislow,providedthatthe
calculationresolutionisgreaterthanorequaltothegeodataresolution.
Profilefilesarenotcreatedforlinkswithatleastoneremoteantenna.Theywill
notbeusedeitheriftheywerecreatedbeforeanantennahasbecomeremote.

3. ClickOK.Atollremovesexistingcalculations,includingvalidones,andrecalculatesthelinkbudget.Theprogressof
thecalculationsisdisplayedintheEventViewerwindow.
YoucanalsoresetexistingcalculationswithoutrecalculatingthelinkbudgetafterwardsbyselectingtheLinkBudgets >Reset
command.Atollremovesexistingcalculations,includingvalidones.

6.5.3 PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis
Multihoplinks,ormultihops,aresetsoftwoormorelinks(microwavelinksorothertransmissionlinks)thatareconnected
tocreatealongerlink.Ingeneralpractice,multihopsareusedfortwopurposes;toconstructaconnectionoverareasthat
donotprovidelineofsightandtotransfersignalsthroughlinksoverlongdistances.Atollenablesyoutoperformendtoend
reliabilityanalysisovermultihops.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingMultihops"onpage 260
"PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis"onpage 262

6.5.3.1 CreatingMultihops
InAtoll,amultihopismanagedasagroupoflinks.Alinkcanbecommontomorethanonemultihopaswell.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

6.5.3.1.1

"CreatingaMultihop"onpage 260.
"AddingaLinktoaMultihopUsingtheMouse"onpage 261.
"MappingMultipleMultihopsandLinksGlobally"onpage 261.
"MappingMultipleMultihopsandLinksGlobally"onpage 261.
"SettingallLinksofaMultiHopasActive"onpage 261.

CreatingaMultihop
TocreateanewmultihopintheMultihopsfolder:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheLinksfolder,rightclicktheMultiHopsfolder,andselectNewfromthecontext
menu.TheMultiHops:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. EnterormodifythefollowingfieldsontheGeneraltab:

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Name:TheNamefieldisfilledautomaticallybyAtoll,butcanbemodified.
Comments:Enteranycommentsforthisnewmultihop.

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3. ClickthePerformancetabandselecttheTDMlinkclassfromthelist.Eachlinkclasscanhavedifferentperformance
objectives.Byassigninglinkclassestomultihops,youareassigningthetargetparametersandusagelimitationsof
the link class to the selected multihop. For information on creating a link class, see "Defining Link Classes" on
page 297.
ClicktheBrowsebutton(

)toopenthePropertiesdialogboxoftheselectedlinkclass.

TheQualityObjectivesandAvailabilityObjectivestabsprovidetableswhereyoucanviewtheselectedperformance
objectives(SESR,ESR,BBER,RXLEV,MARG)forthespecifiedlinkclass.ForSESR,ESR,andBBERparameters,Atoll
displaysthecutoffprobability,theannualandmonthlycutoffdurationaswellasthenoncutoffpercentage.
4. ClickOK.AnemptymultihopiscreatedintheMultihopsfolder.
Bydefault,newlycreatedmultihopsarenamedas"Multihops<X>",where"<X>"incrementswitheachinstanceofa
multihop.
5. Tomanuallyassignlinkstothemultihop:
a. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheMultihopsfolder,rightclickthenewmultihopandselectPropertiesfrom
thecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
b. SelecttheLinkstab.
c. EnteranumberintheIdcolumntosetthepositionofthelinkinthemultihop.
d. EitherselectamicrowavelinkfromtheLinkcolumn,orchooseanothertransmissionlinkfromtheOthertrans
missionlinkcolumn.
e. ThelinkwiththeId"0"definesthemultihopdirection,i.e.,thestartsiteofthislinkisconsideredtobethestart
siteofthemultihop.Then,thestartsiteofthenextlinksinthemultihopcorrespondtotheendsitesofeach
precedinglink.Theendsiteofthemultihopcorrespondstotheendsiteofthelastlink.
f. ClickOK.
Alternatively,youcanassignlinkstothemultihopwiththemouseasdescribedin"AddingaLinktoaMultihopUsing
theMouse"onpage 261.
TheOtherPropertiestabwillappearifyouhavedefinedadditionalfieldsintheMultihops
table.

6.5.3.1.2

AddingaLinktoaMultihopUsingtheMouse
Youcanaddalinktoamultihopbyusingthemouse.
Toaddalinktoamultihopusingthemouse:
1. RightclickthemultihopeitherintheMultihopsfolderontheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindoworonthemap,
andselectAddaLinkfromthecontextmenu.Thepointershapechanges(

)inthemapwindow.

2. Onthemap,clickthelinkyouwanttoaddtothemultihop.Youcanaddmultiplelinkstothemultihopbypressing
CTRLwhileyouclick.
Thelinkisaddedtothelistoflinksformingthemultihopandisassignedanorderautomatically.

6.5.3.1.3

MappingMultipleMultihopsandLinksGlobally
Atollallowsyoutomapmultiplelinkstothemultihops.
Tomapmultiplelinkstomultihops:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclicktheMultiHopsfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectMultihopLinkMappingfromthecontextmenu.TheMultihopLinkMappingtableappears,containingall
the multihops and their corresponding links (i.e. microwave and other transmission links). In this table, you can
modify,delete,add,andchangetheorderofthelinksthatmakeupamultihop.

6.5.3.1.4

SettingallLinksofaMultiHopasActive
Youcanactivateordeactivatealllinksbelongingtoamultihop.Qualityandavailabilityanalysesonlytakeintoaccountactive
linksandnotinactiveorfilteredlinks.Intheexplorerwindow,activelinksaredisplayedinred( )intheMultiHopsfolder;
inactivelinksaredisplayedingrey(

).

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Tochangetheactivitystatusofalllinksofamultihop:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMultiHopsfolder.
4. Rightclickthemultihopwhoseactivitystatusyouwanttoset.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. Dooneofthefollowing:

SelectActivateLinkstomakealllinksofthemultihopactive.
SelectDeactivateLinkstomakealllinksofthemultihopinactive.

6.5.3.2 PerforminganEndtoEndReliabilityAnalysis
Atollenablesyoutoperformendtoendreliabilityanalysisovermultihops.ThiscalculationisbasedontheITURP.5308and
P.53010recommendations.
Toperformanendtoendreliabilityanalysisoveramultihoplink:
1. ClicktheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMultiHopsfolder.
4. Rightclickthemultihopthatyouwanttoanalyse.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectAnalysisfromthecontextmenu.TheMultiHopBudgetdialogboxappears.Itcontainsthefollowinginforma
tion:

Multihoplinkcharacteristics:thelinksformingthemultihop,totallengthofthemultihop.
Summary:Atollindicatesifqualityandavailabilityobjectiveshavebeenreachedforbothdirectionsofthelink.
Transmissionsitecharacteristics:thefrequencyband,subband,channels,andpolarisationofeachtransmitting
site.
Reception characteristics: received signal levels, margins, quality (percentage of time over the worst month),
availability(percentageoftimeoveranaverageyear)andfailures(percentageoftimeoveranaverageyear).
Multihoplinkbudget(bothdirections):Nonqualityduetomultipathandunavailabilityduetorainincluding
totaloutageratio,monthlyandannualoutageperiods,qualityindicators(probabilitiesofSESR,ESR,BBER)com
paredtotherequiredperformanceobjectivesandunavailabilityduetoradiofailurescomprisingannualoutages
duetofaultsandannualoutageperiod.

6.6 StudyingReflection
Studying reflection is essential to design any microwave link. A reflected signal that can reach the receiver with enough
strengthandwithacertaindelayascomparedtothedirectsignalcangenerateinterference.Theinterferencecangenerate
fading(calledreflectivefading)thatcanlowerdownthereceivedsignal.
InAtoll,youcandisplayreflectionareasalongthelinkprofileandanalysethelocationofthereflectionpointanditsimpact
onthereceivedsignallevel.Atollcalculatesthereflectionpointusinga2raymodel.
Cluttercategoriesaretakenintoaccountinthereflectionstudyandmustbeassignedtoclutterclassesinthemicrowaveprop
agationmodelpropertiesbeforeanalysingreflectionsalongtheprofile.Forinformationonassigningcluttercategoriestoclut
terclassesinthepropagationmodelproperties,see"WorkingwiththeMicrowavePropagationModel"onpage 185
Reflectionpointscanhavedifferentlocationsasthekfactorvariesduringtheday.Therefore,thereflectionanalysishastobe
performedfordifferentkfactorvalues.Forinformationondefiningtherangeofkfactorvalues,see"ModifyingReflection
AnalysisParameters"onpage 267.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DisplayingReflection"onpage 262.
"AnalysingReflections"onpage 264.
"SolutionsforReflectionProblems"onpage 268.

6.6.1 DisplayingReflection
Atolldisplaysreflectionareasalongtheprofileandprovidesinformationabouttheinterferencegeneratedbythereflected
signal.Reflectioncanbedestructivewhenthereflectionpointislocatedwithinthereflectionareaandthereflectedsignalis
receivedatthereceiverside(i.e.,itisnotobstructed).

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Todisplayreflectionareas:
1. OpentheMWAnalysiswindowasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. Selectthemicrowavelinktoanalysefromthelist.
3. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

4. SelectDisplayReflectionsfromthemenu.
AtolldisplaysreflectionareasandunobstructedreflectedsignalscalculatedforthefirstkfactorvalueoftheProfile
Analysisview.Thisvaluecorrespondstothemedianvalueofthekfactor.Bydefault,itisinitialisedeitherwithaglobal
value,orwiththevaluecalculatedforthemicrowavelink;thisdependsontheoptionselectedinthePropertiesof
theLinksfolder.
Reflectionareasarerepresentedwithhashedpatterns,andunobstructedreflectedsignalsbyorangelines.
5. Clickeachreflectionareatogetafirstanalysisofreflections.Atolldisplaysthereflectionareasinacolourindicating
thereflectiongravityandhighlightsthecorrespondingunobstructedreflectedpathifthereisone:

Red:Thereflectionpointiswithinthereflectionareaandthereflectedpathisreceivedatthereceiversideforthe
medianvalueofthekfactor(i.e.thereflectedsignalisnotobstructed)(seeFigure 6.20).Afurtheranalysisis
required.Openthereflectionanddiversityanalysisreporttoverifywhetherthereflectioncreatesadestructive
interference.Forinformationonthereflectionanddiversityanalysisreport,see"DisplayingtheReflectionAnal
ysisReport"onpage 264.

Orange:Thereflectionpointiswithinthereflectionarea.Thereflectedpathisobstructedforthemedianvalueof
the k factor, but it is cleared for another value of the factor (kmin, kmax, or k effective). A further analysis is
required.Openthereflectionanddiversityanalysisreporttoverifywhetherthereflectioncreatesadestructive
interference.Forinformationonthereflectionanddiversityanalysisreport,see"DisplayingtheReflectionAnal
ysisReport"onpage 264.

Green:Eitherthereisnoreflectionpoint,orthereflectionpointisoutofthereflectionarea,orthereflectionpoint
isinsidethereflectionareaandthereflectedpathisobstructedforallvaluesofthekfactor.Thereflectiondoes
notcreatedestructiveinterference.

Ifpresentalongthepath,redandorangereflectionareasaredisplayedbydefault.Incasethereareseveralones,only
thefirstoneisselectedandhighlighted.So,eachofthemhastobeverified.Apathwithnohighlightedreflectionarea
indicatesthatthereflectionsdonotcreatedestructiveinterference(i.e.,onlygreenreflectionareas)andso,youcan
continuetheanalysiswithanotherlink.

Figure 6.20:Reflectionareadisplay
Youcandisplayadditionalinformationregardingreflectedpaths.
Todisplayadditionalinformation:
1. Displaythemicrowavelinkprofileasexplainedin"ViewingaMicrowaveLinkProfile"onpage 243.
2. ClickthearrownexttoDisplayOptionsbutton(

)onthetoolbar.

3. SelectDisplayOptionsfromthecontextmenu.TheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogboxappears.
4. IntheProfileDisplayOptionsdialogbox,selecttheReflectionstab.
5. UnderForallreflectionzones,youcanselectthefollowingoptions:

Displaythespecularreflectionpoint:Selectthisoptiontodisplayreflectionareasalongthelinkprofileandunob
structedreflectedpaths.Theoptionisautomaticallyselectedafteryouhavedisplayedreflectionsaspreviously
explained.
Displaythecriticalreflectionzonewhenkfactorvaries:Selectthisoptiontodisplaythereflectionzoneregard
lessofcluttercategories.Thereflectionzoneisdeterminedfromantennaheightsandgroundaltitudeatthetrans
mitterandreceiversites;itisnotbasedonthedefinedcluttercategories.Whenthisoptionisselected,youhave
tocheckifthiszoneisareflectionareaand,ifso,ifthereisareflectionpointwithinthereflectionarea.

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6. UnderFortheselectedarea,youcanselectthefollowingoptions:

Displaythereflectionsforthekfactorrange:Selectthisoptiontodisplayunobstructedandobstructedreflected
pathscalculatedforthedefinedrangeofkfactorvalues.Forinformationondefiningtherangeofkfactorvalues,
see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters"onpage 267.
Displaytheobstructedreflections:Selectthisoptiontodisplayobstructedreflectedsignals.Obstructedreflected
signalsarerepresentedwithorangedashedlines.
Displayallthepaths:Selectthisoptiontodisplayallpossiblereflectedsignalswithinthereflectionarea.
Displaythereflectionplan:Selectthisoptiontodisplaythereflectionslope.Thisoneisusedtodeterminethe
reflectionpoint.

7. UnderAboveseawater,youcanselecttheDisplaytidelevelscheckboxandsettheheightvariationduetotides.
Atolldisplaystheheightvariationduetotidesabovetheseawatercluttercategory.Forinformationondefiningthe
heightvariation,see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters"onpage 267.
Reflectionpathsandreflectivesurfacescanonlybedisplayedandanalysedoverunbroken
microwavelinkprofiles,i.e.,theprofileshouldnotincluderepeaters.

6.6.2 AnalysingReflections
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport"onpage 264.
"ConfiguringtheReflectionAnalysisReport"onpage 266.
"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters"onpage 267.

6.6.2.1 DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport
Atollprovidesdetailedanalysisofreflectionareasandtheirimpactonmicrowavelinks.
Todisplayadetailedanalysisofreflectionareas:
1. Displayreflectionareasalongthelinkprofileasexplainedin"DisplayingReflection"onpage 262
2. Clickareflectionarea.
3. Rightclickthereflectionarea.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. Select Reflection and Diversity Analysis from the context menu. The Microwave Reflection/Diversity window
appears.
TheReportviewisselectedbydefault.Itcontainsthefollowingsections:

Budget:Thissectionprovidesinformationontheimpactofthereflectiononthedirectsignal.Thedisplayedmes
sagedependsonhowtheselectedreflectionzoneiscoloured.
YoucanalwaysreadOKforareflectionzonewiththegreencolour.Whenitiscolouredinorangeorred,themes
sagemaybeOKorNOK.ItisNOKif,foronevalueofthekfactor,thedirectandreflectedsignalsarrivewithop
posite phases, or if themaximum attenuation experienced by the directsignal exceeds the defined threshold
value(1dBbydefault).Inthiscase,Atolldetailstheresultsandrecommendsoptimalantennaandfrequencysep
arationstobeusedwithdiversitytechniquesforeachvalueofthekfactor(kmin,kmedian,keffandkmax).kme
dian(medianvalueofthekfactor)andkeff(effectivevalueofthekfactor)correspondtothekfactorvalues
displayedintheProfileAnalysisview.Bydefault,theyareinitialisedeitherwithglobalvalues,orwiththevalues
calculatedforthelink;thisdependsontheoptionselectedinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder.kminandkmax
(theminimumandmaximumvaluesofthekfactor)canbedefinedintheParametersforReflectionAnalysisof
theLinkdialogbox.Forinformationondefiningthekminandkmax,see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParame
ters"onpage 267.
Forinformationonchangingtheattenuationthresholdvalue,see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters"on
page 267.

LinkSpecifications:Youwillfinddataonthestudiedmicrowavelink:

264

Names:Thenameofthesites.
Longitude:Thesitepositiononthexaxis.
Latitude:Thesitepositionontheyaxis.
Altitude:Thesitealtitude.
CoordinateSystem:ThedisplaycoordinatesystemsetintheATLdocument.
FrequencyBand:Theoperatingfrequencybandselectedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
Length:Themicrowavelinklength.

GeoclimaticParameters:Youwillfindgeoclimaticparametersdefinedforthestudiedmicrowavelink:

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Temperature:Theaveragetemperature(inC)ofthezoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkoperates.
WaterVapourDensity:Thewatervapourdensityingramspercubicmetre.
RelativeHumidity:Therelativehumidityinpercentage.
EarthCurvatureFactor(k):ThefirstvalueofthekfactorvaluedisplayedintheProfileAnalysisview.
Geoclimaticfactor(K):Thekfactorwhichmodelsgeoclimaticandterraineffectsonclimate.
RainfallRate(exceededduring0.01%oftheaverageyear):Therainfallobserved99.99%oftheaverageyear
inmillimetresperhour.

GroundCharacteristics:TheGroundCharacteristicspartcontainsthefollowinginformation:

GroundType:Thegroundtypecanbescattering,reflecting,orintermediate.Itdependsontheroughness,the
lengthofthemicrowavelinkandthetransmitterantennaheightabovethereflectionarea.Formoreinforma
tiononhowthegroundtypeisdetermined,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
HumidityType:Thehumiditytypedependsonthecluttercategory."Waterorverywet"isconsideredforwet
terrains,freshandseawatercluttercategories."Slightlywetormoderatelydry"isusedforruralopen,tree
coveredandcryospherecluttercategories."Verydry"isconsideredforbuiltupareaanddrygroundclutter
categories.
TerrainRoughnessFactor:Theterrainroughnessfactor.
Bydefault,onlythegroundaltitudeisusedtoevaluateterrainroughness.Youcanconfig
ureAtolltoconsiderboththegroundaltitudeandtheclutterheightinroughnesscalcula
tion by editing the Atoll.ini configuration file. For more information about editing the
configurationfile,seetheAdministratorManual.

Geometryoftheanalysedzone:TheReflectionareageometrypartcontainsthefollowinginformation:

EffectiveReflectionCoefficient:Thereflectioncoefficientofthereflectionarea.
TotalReflectionAreaLength:Thelengthoftheselectedreflectionzoneandthetotallengthincludingallre
flectionzonesintobrackets.
Criticalspecularreflectionpoint:Thisindicatesifthereisareflectionpointfortheselectedreflectionzone.
Grazingangleofreflectedray:Thegrazingangleandtheincidenceangleofthereflectedpathonthereflec
tionslopeplanearecomplementaryangles.
AngleatAbetweendirectandreflectedray:TheanglebetweenthedirectandthereflectedpathsatSite A.
AngleatBbetweendirectandreflectedray:TheanglebetweenthedirectandthereflectedpathsatSite B.

Attenuations:TheAttenuationspartcontainsthefollowingresultscalculatedforthetwovaluesofthekfactor
displayedintheProfileAnalysisview:

MaximumPossibleAttenuation:Thestrongestattenuationexperiencedbythedirectsignalatthereceiver
side.
ReflectedSignalAttenuation:Theattenuationofthereflectedsignalatthereceiverside.Thesignalisatten
uatedbythereceiverantenna(Duetoantennadiscrimination)andbecauseitisreflectedbytheground(Due
togroundreflection).
TotalAttenuation:Thetotalattenuationofthereflectedsignalatthereceiverside.Thisisthesumofthe
attenuationduetoantennadiscriminationandtheattenuationduetogroundreflection.
DirectSignalAttenuation:Theattenuationofthedirectsignalatthereceiverside.Thesignalattenuationis
duetothereceiverantenna(Attenuationduetoantennadiscrimination)andrefractivity(Attenuationdue
torefractivity).

Additionalresultsappearif,whenconfiguringthereportasexplainedin"ConfiguringtheReflectionAnalysisReport"
onpage 266,youselectthecheckboxescorrespondingtothefollowingoptions:

Budget:UnderBudget,youcanselectthefollowinginformation:

LinkSpecifications:UnderLinkSpecifications,youcanselectthefollowinginformation:

DetailedStudy:Accordingtothedisplayedmessage(OKorNOK),youcandetermineifthespecularreflection
pointiswithinthereflectionarea,ifthereflectedsignalisobstructed,ifthereflectedanddirectsignalsarrive
inoppositephases,andifthedirectsignalishighlyattenuatedbythereflectedsignal.
<CustomFields>:ThecustomfieldsavailableinMicrowaveLinkstable.
Sites:Siterelatedparameterssuchasthesupportheight,thesupporttypeandcustomfields.

GeoclimaticParameters:UnderGeoclimaticParameters,youcanselectthefollowinginformation:

EnvironmentType:Theenvironmenttypeasdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
ClimateZone:Theclimatezoneasdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
RainArea:Therainareaasdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
TerrainType:Theterraintypeasdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
ClimaticFactor:Thegeoclimaticfactorasdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.
AtmosphericPressure:Theatmosphericpressure(hPa)asdefinedinthemicrowavelinkproperties.

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CalculationParameters:UnderCalculationParameters,youcanselectthefollowinginformation:

CalculationMethods:Thecalculationmethodsused(propagationmodel,qualitymodel,availabilitymodel,if
enhancementsanddiscriminationreductionareignored,calculationonthediversityantenna,spacediversity,
andfrequencydiversity).
QualityObjectives:Thequalityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER)tobeconsideredforthemicrowavelink.
AvailabilityObjectives:Theavailabilityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER)tobeconsideredforthemicrowavelink.

GroundCharacteristics:TheGroundCharacteristicspartcontainsthefollowinginformation:

MedianValueofthekfactor:thekfactorvalueobserved50%oftime.Thevalueiscalculatedaccordingto
refractivityconditionsdefinedforthemicrowavelink.
EffectiveEarthCurvatureFactor(keat99.9%):thekfactorvalueobserved99.9%oftime.
Percentageoftimewhentherefractivitygradient(<100m)is<100Nunits/km:Thepercentageoftheaver
ageyearwheretherefractivitygradientvalueof100Nunits/kmisnotexceeded.Thevalueisdefinedinthe
microwavelinkproperties.
Refractivity Gradient: The refractivity gradient near the earths surface (in Nunits/km) as defined in the
microwavelinkproperties.
RainHeight(0C/32Fisotherm):Theheightofthetopoftheraincolumnabovemeansealevelfromthe0C
isotherm.
Fog:Thefogintensityinpercentage.Thevalueistakenfromthegeoclimaticparametersfile.

Permittivity:Theterrainpermittivity.
Conductivity:TheterrainconductivityinS/m.
SpecularReflectionFactor:Thespecularreflectionfactor.
TerrainIrregularity:Theterrainirregularity.
<FieldSelection>:Theresultslistedaftercanbecalculatedforfourkfactorvalues(kmin,kmedian,keffand
kmax).kmedian(medianvalueofthekfactor)andkeff(effectivevalueofthekfactor)correspondtothek
factorvaluesdisplayedintheProfileAnalysisview.Bydefault,theyareinitialisedeitherwithglobalvalues,or
withthevaluescalculatedforthemicrowavelink;thisdependsontheoptionselectedinthePropertiesofthe
Linksfolder.kminandkmaxcanbedefinedintheParametersforReflectionAnalysisoftheLinkdialogbox.
Forinformationondefiningthekminandkmax,see"ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters"onpage 267.
SurfaceReflectionCoefficient:Thesurfacereflectionfactor.
DivergenceFactor:Thedivergencefactor.

Geometryoftheanalysedzone:UnderGeometryoftheanalysedzone,youcanselectthefollowinginformation:

ZoneLocation:ThedistancefromSite Aatwhichthereflectionareastartsandends.
Antennaheightsabovethereflectionplan:TheantennaheightsatSite AandSite Babovethereflectionplan.
Tau(kmax)Tau(kmin):ThedifferencebetweenTaucalculatedforkmaxandTaucalculatedforkmin.Tau
correspondstothedifferenceinpathlengthbetweendirectandreflectedsignalsexpressedinwavelength.If
thedifferenceislowerthan1,thenthereisnominimum(destructiveinterferenceatthereceiversidedueto
thereflectedsignal)thatisexperiencedwiththecriticalkfactorrangeanddiversitycanbeavoided.Ifthe
differenceexceedsorequals1,thenthereisatleastoneminimumthatisexperiencedwiththecriticalkfactor
rangeanddiversitymaybeimplementeddependingonhowwellthesignalisreflectedandwhetherthereis
significantdiscriminationagainstsurfacereflectionsfromoneorbothoftheantennas.
<FieldSelection>:Selectthe<FieldSelection>checkboxinorderforAtolltodisplaytheresultslistedafterfor
fourkfactorvalues(kmin,kmedian,keffandkmax).kmedian(medianvalueofthekfactor)andkeff(effective
valueofthekfactor)correspondtothekfactorvaluesdisplayedintheProfileAnalysisview.Bydefault,they
areinitialisedeitherwithglobalvalues,orwiththevaluescalculatedforthemicrowavelink;thisdependson
theoptionselectedinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder.kminandkmaxcanbedefinedintheParametersfor
ReflectionAnalysisoftheLinkdialogbox.Forinformationondefiningthekminandkmax,see"Modifying
ReflectionAnalysisParameters"onpage 267.
Locationofthespecularreflectionpoint:ThedistanceofthespecularreflectionpointfromSiteA.
Pathdifference(direct/reflected)(m):Thedifferenceinpathlengthbetweendirectandreflectedsignals.
Reflectedpathdelay:Thedelayofthereflectedpathinns.

6.6.2.2 ConfiguringtheReflectionAnalysisReport
Youcanconfigurethedisplayparametersofthereflectionanalysisreporttodisplaysomeoralloftheparametersusedinthe
calculationsandresultsofthecalculationswithdifferentstyles.
Toconfiguretheappearanceandcontentsofthereflectionanalysisreport:
1. Displaythereflectionanalysisreportasexplainedin"DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport"onpage 264.
2. ClicktheConfigureReportbutton(

).TheReportConfigurationdialogboxappears.

3. ClicktheContentstab.
4. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandaresultcategory.
Youcandefinewhichresultswillbedisplayed:

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Todisplayresults,selectthecheckboxcorrespondingtothoseresults.
Tohideresults,clearthecheckboxcorrespondingtothoseresults.
Torestoretheselectedresultstotheirdefaultsettings,ortorefreshthelistofresultsavailable,clicktheReset
button.

5. ClicktheStyletab.
Youcandefinetheappearanceofthereport.Todefinetheappearanceofeachelement:
a. Clickthestyleyouwanttodefineinthepreviewwindow.
b. ClicktheAaBbYyZzbuttontosetthefont.
c. DefinethealignmentoftheparagraphbyselectingAlignLeft,CentredorAlignRight.
YoucanrestorethestyletoitsdefaultappearancebyclickingtheResetbutton.

Ifyouencounteranalignmentissueinthegeneratedreport,youcanmodifythe
tabvaluebyaddinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.Formoreinformation,seethe
AdministratorManual.

YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheReportConfigurationdialogboxas
amodelforfuturereportsbyclickingtheSaveAsbuttonatthetopofthedialog
boxandenteringanameforthefileintheSaveAsdialogboxthatappears.The
nexttimeyouconfigureareport,youcanclickOpenintheReportConfiguration
dialogboxtoopenthemodelwiththesavedsettings.

6. Onceyouhavedefinedthecontentsandappearanceofthereport,clickOKtosaveyourchangesandclosethedialog
box.

6.6.2.3 ModifyingReflectionAnalysisParameters
Youcanstudytheinfluenceofsomeparametersonthereflectionanalysis.Inaddition,youcanaccessandmodifytheglobal
calculationparametersandthemicrowavelinkparameters.
Todefinereflectionanalysisparameters:
1. Displaythereflectionanalysisreportasexplainedin"DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport"onpage 264.
1. In the MW Reflection/Diversity dialog box, click the arrow next to the Settings button (
contextmenuappears.

) on the toolbar. The

2. SelectHopAnalysisParameters.TheParametersforreflectionanalysisofthelinkdialogboxappears.
3. UnderAnalysisparameters,youcanspecifythefollowingsettings:

Theattenuationthreshold.Whenthemaximumattenuationexperiencedbythedirectsignalexceedstheattenu
ationthreshold,thereflectionisconsideredtocreatedestructiveinterferenceandthemessagedisplayedinthe
reflectionanalysisisNOK.
Thereflectionareatobeconsideredinthereflectionanalysis.Twooptionsareavailable:

Calculationontheselectedreflectionarea:Ifyouselectthisoption,thereflectionanalysisisperformedon
theselectedreflectionarea.
Globalcalculationonallreflectionareas:Ifyouselectthisoption,allthereflectionareasalongtheprofilein
thereflectionanalysisaretakedintoaccount.

4. UnderAntennaheightsabovethereflectionplan,selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculateantennaheightsabove
thereflectionplan.YoucanchoosebetweentheSimplifiedmethodandtheMethodwithlinearregressiononthe
area.Formoreinformationonthesecalculationmethods,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
5. Under Terrain irregularity, select the method to be used to calculate terrain height irregularity. You can choose
betweentheRootmeansquaremethod,theStandarddeviationmethodandtheInterdecilerangemethod.Formore
informationonthesecalculationmethods,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
6. UnderEffectiveearthradius,selecttherangeofkfactorvalues:

Mink:thelowestkfactorvaluetobeconsideredinthereflectionanalysis.
Maxk:thehighestkfactorvaluetobeconsideredinthereflectionanalysis.

7. UnderEffectduetotidelevelaboveseawater,selecttheTakeintoaccountheightvariationsofcheckboxanddefine
theheightvariationduetotides.Thisheightwillbeconsideredabovetheseawatercluttercategory.
8. UnderAttenuationcalculation,selectthemethodtobeusedtocalculatethereflectedsignalamplitude.Youcan
choosebetweentheSimplifiedmethodandtheMethodwithequivalentreflectioncoefficient.Formoreinformation
onthesecalculationmethods,seetheTechnicalReferenceGuide.
9. ClickOK.

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Toaccessthemicrowavelinkparameters:
1. Displaythereflectionanalysisreportasexplainedin"DisplayingtheReflectionAnalysisReport"onpage 264.
2. ClickthePropertiesbutton(

)onthetoolbar.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.

6.6.3 SolutionsforReflectionProblems
Attheendofthereflectionanalysis,youcanidentifywhethergroundreflectionisaproblemforthemicrowavelink.ifso,the
effectsofreflectionscanbeminimisedbycarefullysettingtheantennaheights,byusingtheantennadiscriminationcapabil
itiesandtiltingthereceiverantenna,orbyusingdiversitytechniqueswiththeantenna/frequencyseparationsrecommended
inthereflectionanalysisreport.
Atollprovidesyouwithatoolyoucanusetocheckwhethertherecommendedantennaheightandfrequencyseparationsare
validoverarangeofkfactorvalues.Youcanalsouseittooptimisetheheightandfrequencyseparations.
Tochecktherecommendedantennaheightandfrequencyseparations:
1. Displaythereflectionareasasexplainedin"DisplayingReflection"onpage 262.
2. Clickareflectionarea.
3. RightclicktheProfileAnalysisview.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectReflectionandDiversityAnalysisfromthecontextmenu.TheMWReflection/Diversitywindowappearswith
theAnalysisReportview.
5. SelecttheAttenuationsvsrefractivityview(seeFigure 6.21).Inthisview,Atolldisplaysthelossesandgainsdueto
reflectionsasafunctionofthekfactorforthemainanddiversityantennaheights,andtransmissionfrequencies.

Figure 6.21:StudyofReflectionandDiversityAttenuationsvsRefractivityview
Youcanalsoselectoneofthefollowingviews:

Attenuationsvstransmittedfrequencyviewtodisplaythelossesandgainsduetoreflectionsasafunctionofthe
transmissionfrequency,fordifferentvaluesofthekfactor(kmin,kmaxandkavg),andreceiverantennaheights.

Figure 6.22:StudyofReflectionandDiversityAttenuationsvsTransmittedFrequencyview

268

Attenuationsvsreceiverheighttodisplaythelossesandgainsduetoreflectionsasafunctionofthereceiver
antennaheight,fordifferentvaluesofthekfactor(kmin,kmaxandkavg),andtransmissionfrequencies.

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Figure 6.23:StudyofReflectionandDiversityAttenuationsvsReceiverHeightview
6. ClicktheDisplayOptionsbutton(

)inthetoolbar.TheGraphParametersdialogboxappears.

7. SelecttheDisplaytab.
8. Under Vertical Axis, either select the Automatic bounds calculation check box in order to let Atoll automatically
determinetheupperandlowervaluesoftheverticalaxis,orcleartheAutomaticboundscalculationcheckboxand
definethesevaluesmanually(MaxattenuationandMinattenuation).
9. UnderHorizontalAxis,youcanselectthefollowing:

Ordinate:Thedisplayedreadonlysettingcorrespondstowhatwillbedisplayedonthehorizontalaxisaccording
totheviewyouselectedinstep 5.
"kFactor"inAttenuationsvsrefractivityview
"TransmissionFrequency"inAttenuationsvstransmittedfrequencyview
"ReceiverAntennaHeight"inAttenuationsvsreceiverheightview
Minbound:Thelowervalueonthehorizontalaxis.
Maxbound:Theuppervalueonthehorizontalaxis.

10. UnderGraphselection,selectthegraphstobedisplayedandthecorrespondingcoloursettings.
11. SelecttheVariableDefinitiontab.
12. UnderkFactorsSelection,definethekfactorvalues,kmin,kavgandkmax,tobeconsideredfortheanalysis.Atoll
displaysthekefffactorat99%(i.e.,thekfactorvaluenotexceeded99%oftheaverageyear)andthekefffactorat
50%(i.e.,themediankfactorvalue).Youcanredotheanalysisusingthesevalues.
13. UnderReceiverAntennaHeightSelection,definetheantennaheightvalues,Diversityantenna,Mainantennaand
Otherheight,tobeconsideredfortheanalysis.Theoptimalseparationsforthedifferentkfactorvaluesaredisplayed.
TheyareautomaticallycalculatedbyAtoll.Thevaluecalculatedforthekavgfactorisusedtoinitialisethediversity
antennaheight(mainantennaheightseparation)andtheotherheight(mainantennaheight+separation)values.
Youcanredotheanalysisbyconsideringotherseparations.
14. UnderTransmissionFrequencySelection,definethetransmissionfrequencyvalues,DiversityFrequency,MainFre
quencyandOtherFrequency,tobeconsideredfortheanalysis.Theoptimalseparationscalculatedforthedifferent
kfactorvaluesaredisplayed.Thevaluecalculatedforthekavgfactorisusedtoinitialisethediversityfrequency(main
frequency+separation)andtheotherfrequencyvalues(mainfrequency+2*separation).Youcanredotheanalysis
byconsideringotherseparations.
15. ClickOK.

6.7 PlanningMicrowaveLinkChannels
Planningbackhaulnetworksinvolvesanumberofareasofanalysis.Foreachnewmicrowavelinkcreatedinanyenvironment,
thereisalistofinterferenceconflictscreatedduetothisnewlyintroducedmicrowavelink.Itisacommonexperiencethat
suchmodificationsinexistingnetworkdesignsintroduceanumberofinterferenceproblemsthatcouldhavebeenavoided
duringtheinitialdesignofthesamenetwork.Thus,frequencyplanninginmicrowavenetworksisofextremeimportancenot
onlytoreduceinterferenceattheinitialstageofthenetworkbutalsotoplanforfuturemodificationsinthenetwork.
Theprocessoffrequencyselectioninmicrowavesystemsisaccomplishedwithinterferenceminimisationbeingthemost
importantobjective.Therearevariouswaystoaccomplishthis.Alogicalapproachistodefineanumberofspecificfrequency
plans,eachcontainingafixednumberofspecificfrequencies,thendivideeachplanintoahighsegmentandalowsegment.
Theideaistobasicallyallowfrequencyassignmentstobemadeinpairs,witheachpairhavingminimumseparations.When
anassignmentismade,thetransmitterandreceivergetassignmentsinoppositesegments.Ifthetransmitterfrequencyisin
thehighblock,thereceiverfrequencywillbeinthelowblockandviceversa.

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Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CheckingMicrowaveLinkSiteParities"onpage 270.
"UsingtheFindonMapTooltoDisplayChannelReuse"onpage 273.
"AllocatingChannelsInteractively"onpage 273.
"WorkingwiththeFrequencySpectrumAnalyser"onpage 275.
"DisplayingThirdorderIntermodulationProducts"onpage 277

6.7.1 CheckingMicrowaveLinkSiteParities
Youcanverifytheparityofsiteseitheronthemaporinareport.Atolltakesintoconsiderationthesitesofmicrowavelinks
whichareactive,filtered(i.e.,thatareselectedbythecurrentfilterparameters),andwhichintersectthecomputationzone.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CheckingSiteParitiesontheMap"onpage 270.
"CreatingaReportonSiteParities"onpage 272.

6.7.1.1 CheckingSiteParitiesontheMap
Atollenablesyoutoviewthesiteparitiesonthemapandtherebytodetectanypossiblehigh/lowconflicts.
Youcanverifythesiteparitiesinthefollowingways:

"DisplayingSiteParitiesontheMap"onpage 270.
"ColouringMicrowaveLinksaccordingtoSiteParities"onpage 271.

Thefollowingisalsoexplained:

6.7.1.1.1

"HidingSiteParities"onpage 271
"DeletingSiteParities"onpage 272.

DisplayingSiteParitiesontheMap
Youcanviewthesiteparitiesdirectlyonthemap.
Toperformasiteparitycheckanddisplaytheresultsonthemap:
1. ClickontheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpand( )buttontoexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. Selectthemicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttoperformasiteparitycheck.
Toperformasiteparitycheckonallmicrowavelinksinaspecificfrequencyband:

RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowave
links(groupedbyFrequencyBand)onwhichyouwanttoperformasiteparitycheck.Thecontextmenuappears.

4. SelectInterference >ChannelArrangementperSite >DisplayonMapfromthecontextmenu.TheChannelArrange


mentdialogboxappears.

IfyoureachedthisstepthroughtheMicrowaveLinksfolder,selectthefrequencybandforwhichyouwantto
checktheparitiesofmicrowavelinkextremities.
If you reached this step through a Microwave Links subfolder, the corresponding frequency band is already
selectedintheChannelArrangementdialogbox.

5. SelecttheDisplayparitiesatsitelevelcheckbox.
6. Chooseaniconforthedifferentcases.

Lower:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromthelowerhalfband.
Upper:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromtheupperhalfband.
Undefined:Nofrequencyisassignedtothesite.
Multiple:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromthelowerandupperhalfbands.

7. Enterthepositionoficonsrelativetothesite(indpi).
8. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckboxtoaddthedisplayediconstothelegend.
9. ClickOKtostartthecalculations.
Whenyouhavealreadydefinedhowchannelsaretobedisplayed,clickingtheChannelArrangementbutton(
)displays
thedefinedchannels;ifyouwanttoredefinehowchannelsaredisplayed,youwillhavetoopentheChannelArrangement
dialogboxusingthecontextmenuoftheMicrowaveLinksfolder(orthecontextmenuofaMicrowaveLinkssubfolderifthe
microwavelinksaregroupedbyFrequencyBand)asexplainedearlier.

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TheChannelArrangementdialogboxalsoallowsyoutosaveandloadadisplayconfigura
tionfile.UnderDisplayConfiguration,selectLoadifyouwanttoimportanexistingdisplay
configurationorselectSaveifyouwanttosavethedisplaysettingsofthecurrentobject
inadisplayconfigurationfile,sothatyoucansharethemwithotherusersorusethemin
otherdocuments.
YoucanalsoconfigureAtolltoloadadefaultconfigurationfilefortheChannelArrange
mentdisplayconfiguration.FormoreinformationaboutsettingoptionsintheAtoll.inifile,
seetheAdministratorManual.

6.7.1.1.2

ColouringMicrowaveLinksaccordingtoSiteParities
Atollcandisplayeachhalfofthemicrowavelinkinacolourassignedtothehalfbandusedonitssite.
Tocolourmicrowavelinksaccordingtositeparities:
1. ClickontheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. Selectthemicrowavelinksyouwantcolouraccordingtositeparities.
Tocolouragroupofmicrowavelinksinaspecificfrequencyband:

RightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
IfthemicrowavelinksaregroupedbyFrequencyBand,clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowave
Linksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksyouwanttocolouraccordingtositeparities.Thecon
textmenuappears.

4. SelectInterference >ChannelArrangementperSite >DisplayonMapfromthecontextmenu.TheChannelArrange


mentdialogboxappears.

IfyoureachedthisstepthroughtheMicrowaveLinksfolder,selectthefrequencybandforwhichyouwantto
colourthemicrowavelinksaccordingtositeparities.
If you reached this step through a Microwave Links subfolder, the corresponding frequency band is already
selectedintheChannelArrangementdialogbox.

5. SelecttheDisplayparitiesonlinkscheckbox.
6. Definethecolourandthelinethicknesstobeappliedtothehalfofthemicrowavelink,forthefollowingcases:

Lower:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromthelowerhalfband.
Upper:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromtheupperhalfband.
Undefined:Nofrequencyisassignedtothesite.

7. SelecttheAddtolegendcheckboxtoaddthedisplayedcolourstothelegend.
8. ClickOKtostartthecalculations.
Whenyouhavealreadydefinedhowchannelsaretobedisplayed,clickingtheChannelArrangementbutton(
)displays
thedefinedchannels;ifyouwanttoredefinehowchannelsaredisplayed,youwillhavetoopentheChannelArrangement
dialogboxusingthecontextmenuoftheMicrowaveLinksfolder(orthecontextmenuofaMicrowaveLinkssubfolderifthe
microwavelinksaregroupedbyFrequencyBand)asexplainedearlier.

6.7.1.1.3

HidingSiteParities
Youcanhideallsiteparities,orhidespecificsiteparitieswhenmicrowavelinksaregroupedbyFrequencyBand.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"HidingAllSiteParities"onpage 271
"HidingSiteParitiesinaSpecificOperatingFrequencyBand"onpage 271.

HidingAllSiteParities
Whensiteparitiesaredisplayedonthemap,youcanhideallsiteparities.
Tohideallsiteparities:

ClicktheChannelArrangementbutton(

YoucandisplaythemagainbyclickingtheChannelArrangementbutton(

)asecondtime.

HidingSiteParitiesinaSpecificOperatingFrequencyBand
YoucanhidesiteparitiesinaspecificfrequencybandusingthecontextmenuofaMicrowaveLinkssubfolder,ifthemicro
wavelinksaregroupedbyFrequencyBand.

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Tohidesiteparitiesinaspecificfrequencybandusingthecontextmenu:
1. ClickontheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolderand,ifthemicrowavelinksaregroupedbyFre
quencyBand,rightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksyouwanttohide.
4. SelectInterference >HideChannelArrangementfromthecontextmenu.
ClickingtheChannelArrangementbutton(
tiesinotheroperatingfrequencybands.

6.7.1.1.4

)willdisplaythehiddensiteparitiesagainaswellasanyotherhiddensitepari

DeletingSiteParities
Youcandeleteallsiteparities,displayedorhidden,orjusttheonesinaspecificfrequencyband.Whenyoudeletesiteparities,
thedisplaypropertiesyouhavedefinedforthosesiteparitiesarealsodeleted.Anynewsiteparitiesyoucreatewillbebased
onthedefaultdisplayproperties.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DeletingAllSiteParities"onpage 272
"DeletingSiteParitiesinOneorMoreSpecificFrequencyBands"onpage 272

DeletingAllSiteParities
Todeleteallsiteparities:
1. ClicktheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. SelectInterference >DeleteChannelArrangement>Allfromthecontextmenu.
DeletingSiteParitiesinOneorMoreSpecificFrequencyBands
YoucandeletesiteparitiesinoneormorespecificfrequencybandsusingthecontextmenuofanyMicrowaveLinkssub
folder(whenthemicrowavelinksaregroupedbyFrequencyBand).
Todeletesiteparitiesinspecificfrequencybandsusingthecontextmenu:
1. ClicktheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. SelectInterference >DeleteChannelArrangement>Selectfromthecontextmenu.TheChannelDistributiondialog
boxappears.
4. UnderFrequencybandstoremove,selectthefrequencybandsforwhichthesiteparitieswillbedeletedandclickOK.
Ifnecessary,youcanclicktheRefreshbutton(

)orpressF5toupdatethedisplay.

6.7.1.2 CreatingaReportonSiteParities
Atollenablesyoutocreateareportdisplayingsiteparities.
Tocreateareportdisplayingsiteparities:
1. ClickontheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. Selectthemicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttocreateareportdisplayingsiteparities:

Tocreateareportdisplayingsiteparitiesforallmicrowavelinks,rightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.Thecon
textmenuappears.
Tocreateareportdisplayingsiteparitiesforagroupofmicrowavelinks,clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpand
theMicrowaveLinksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttocreateareport
displayingsiteparities.Thecontextmenuappears.

4. SelectInterference >ChannelArrangementbySite >GenerateReportfromthecontextmenu.TheChannelDistri


butiondialogboxappears.
5. Selecttheoperatingfrequencybandsforwhichyouwanttochecktheparitiesofthemicrowavelinkextremities.
6. ClickOK.
Atoll checks the site parities of all the microwave links working at the selected frequency bands. Once Atoll has
finishedcheckingsiteparities,resultsaredisplayedintheChannelArrangementtable.
TheChannelArrangementtablecontainsthefollowinginformation.

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FrequencyBand:Theoperatingfrequencyband.
Site:Thenameofthesite.
Parity:Theparityofthesite.

Lower:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromthelowerhalfband.
Upper:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromtheupperhalfband.
Undefined:Nofrequencyisassignedtothesite.
Multiple:Thesiteisassignedfrequenciesfromthelowerandupperhalfbands.

Cause:Informationprovidedformultipleparityonly.Atollgivesthenameofmicrowavelinkswhosethesitehas
amultipleparity.
Longitude:Thelongitudeofthesite.
Latitude:Thelatitudeofthesite.

YoucansortandfilterdataintheChannelDistributiontable.Formoreinformation,see"SortingDatainTables"onpage 76
and"FilteringinDataTablesbySelection"onpage 78.

6.7.1.3 UsingtheFindonMapTooltoDisplayChannelReuse
InAtoll,youcanusetheFindonMaptooltosearchforchannels.TheFindonMaptoolallowsyoutoviewchannelreuseon
themap.
TofindachannelusingtheFindonMaptool:
1. ClicktheFindonMapbutton(

)ontheMaptoolbar.TheFindonMapwindowappears.

2. FromtheFindlist,select"MWChannel."
3. SelectaFrequencyband.
4. SelectaSubband.
5. Defineinwhichhalfband(LowerorUpper)youwanttosearchforthechannel.
6. SelectaChannel.
7. IfyouonlywantthemicrowavelinkswiththeselectedfrequencySubbandtobeconsidered,selecttheSamesub
bandonlycheckbox.
8. IfyouonlywanttheselectedChanneltobedisplayed,selecttheCochannelonlycheckbox.
9. ClickSearch.
Microwavelinksusingtheselectedchannelinthesamesubbandaredisplayedinred.Microwavelinksusinganadja
centchanneltotheselectedchannelinthesamesubbandaredisplayedinblue.Microwavelinksusingachannel
which completely covers the selected channel are displayed in orange. Microwave links using a channel which is
completelycoveredbytheselectedchannelaredisplayedinpurple.Microwavelinksusingachannelwhichoverlaps
theselectedchannel(i.e.,partiallycoverstheselectedchannel)aredisplayedingreen.Allothermicrowavelinksare
displayedingrey.
IfyouselectedtheSamesubbandonlycheckbox,microwavelinksusingtheselectedchannelinthesamesubband
aredisplayedinred;microwavelinksusinganadjacentchanneltotheselectedchannelinthesamesubbandare
displayedinblueandallothersaredisplayedingrey.
IfyouselectedtheCochannelonlycheckbox,microwavelinksusingtheselectedchannelinthesamesubbandare
displayed in red; microwave links using a channel which completely covers the selected channel are displayed in
orange;microwavelinksusingachannelwhichiscompletelycoveredbytheselectedchannelaredisplayedinpurple;
microwavelinksusingachannelwhichoverlapstheselectedchannel(i.e.,partiallycoverstheselectedchannel)are
displayedingreenandallothermicrowavelinksaredisplayedingrey.
TheFindonMapwindowprovidesthefollowingoptions:

Torestoretheinitialmicrowavelinkcolours:ClicktheResetDisplaybuttoninthewindow.
Todisplayallchannelarrangementsavailablefortheselectedfrequencyband:ClicktheFrequencyPlans
buttoninthewindow.

6.7.2 AllocatingChannelsInteractively
TheAtollInteractiveChannelAllocationtoolenablesyoutoverifythechannelallocationofmicrowavelinksonebyone,and
improveanexistingchannelallocationbylettingyouselectthemostappropriatechannelstoassigntoamicrowavelink.The
Interactive Channel Allocation tool ranks the channels according to a definable cost function. This channel search is
performedaccordingtotheinterferencereceivedortransmittedperchannel.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"AllocatingChannelstoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 274

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"DefiningtheAllocationCalculationParameters"onpage 274

6.7.2.1 AllocatingChannelstoaMicrowaveLink
Youcanallocatechannel(s)toamicrowavelinkbyusingtheInteractiveChannelAllocationtool.
Toallocatechannelsinteractively:
1. RightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemaporintheMicrowaveLinksfolderintheLinksfolderofthe
explorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPlanning >InteractiveChannelAllocationfromthecontextmenu.TheInteractiveChannelAllocationwindow
appears.
3. AtthetopoftheInteractiveChannelAllocationwindow,selectthefrequencysubbandfromthelistofavailablefre
quencysubbands(i.e.,allsubbandsdefinedforthefrequencybandofthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied),andchoose
afrequencyhalfbandconfiguration,HighLow(theupperandlowerhalfbandsarerespectivelyassignedtoSiteA
andSiteB),orLowHigh(thelowerandupperhalfbandsarerespectivelyassignedtoSiteAandSiteB).
4. Definetheallocationcalculationparametersasexplainedin"AllocatingChannelstoaMicrowaveLink"onpage 274.
5. ClicktheCalculatebutton(
)tolaunchthecalculations.AfterAtollhasfinishedcalculatingtheallocation,the
followinginformationisdisplayed.

Channel:Thechannelnumber.
Polarisation:Thepolarisationconsideredforthecalculation.
Thresholddegradation(Avictim):ThethresholddegradationexperiencedbySite A.
Thresholddegradation(Bvictim):ThethresholddegradationexperiencedbySite B.
C/I(Avictim):ThesignaltonoiseratioatSite A.
C/I(Bvictim):ThesignaltonoiseratioatSite B.
MaxThresholddegradation(Ainterferer):ThehighestdegradationthresholdcausedbySite A.
MaxThresholddegradation(Binterferer):ThehighestdegradationthresholdcausedbySite B.
Cost:Thecostofthechannel.
LowerHalfbandName:Thenameofthechannelinthelowerhalfband.
UpperHalfbandName:Thenameofthechannelintheupperhalfband.

Thechannelsaresortedinincreasingorderwithrespecttotheircorrespondingcosts.Thismeansthatthebestavail
ablechannels,intermsoftherelatedcosts,aretheonesatthetopofthelist.Thechannel(s)currentlyallocatedto
themicrowavelinkarehighlightedinblue.Youcanusedatatableshortcuts,suchassorting.Forinformationonwork
ingwithdatatables,see"WorkingwithDataTables"onpage 53.
6. SelecttheCommitcheckboxforthechannel(s)youwanttoassigntothemicrowavelinkandclicktheCommitbutton
(
).AllthechannelswhoseCommitcheckboxisselectedareassignedtothemicrowavelink.Ifmorechannels
wereselectedthancanbeassignedtoamicrowavelink,theCommitbuttonbecomesunavailable.
Afteryouhaveassignedthechannel(s)tothemicrowavelink,youcankeeptheInteractiveChannelAllocationwindowopen
andperformaninterferenceanalysistocheckthequalityofnewallocatedchannel(s).Forinformationoninterferenceanal
ysis,see"AnalysingtheInterferenceonaSingleMicrowaveLink"onpage 281.
Ifrequired,youcanallocateanotherchannelorreturntothepreviousallocation.CleartheCommitcheckboxforthecurrent
channel,selecttheCommitcheckboxforthenewchannelyouwanttoassigntothemicrowavelinkandclicktheCommit
button(
).

6.7.2.2 DefiningtheAllocationCalculationParameters
Beforeallocatingchannel(s)usingtheInteractiveChannelAllocationtool,youcandefinethecalculationparameterstobe
consideredduringtheallocation.
Todefinetheallocationcalculationparameters:
1. IntheInteractiveChannelAllocationwindow,clicktheCalculationParametersbutton(

).ThePropertiesdialog

boxappears.
2. OntheConditionstab,definethefollowing:

Frequencysubband:Selectthefrequencysubbandfromthelistofavailablefrequencysubbands(i.e.,allsub
bandsdefinedforthefrequencybandofthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied).

Site Ahalfband:Selectthefrequencyhalfbandtocalculate(lowerorupper)forthetransmissionsite(theoppo
sitehalfbandisassignedtothereceptionsite).

Thechannelstobeanalysed:

274

SelectUseallthechannelsofthesubbandifallchannelscanbeallocated.
Ifonlysomechannelsofthefrequencysubbandcanbeallocated,selectRestrictthelistofpotentialchannels
anddefinethechannelsavailable.Here,youhavetoenterthechannelnumberandnotthechannelname.

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Youcanenterorpastealistofchannels;thevaluesmustbeseparatedwitheitheracomma,orasemicolon,
oraspace.Youcanalsoenterarangeofchannelsavailable,byenteringthefirstandlastchannelnumbersof
therangeseparatedbyahyphen.Forexample,entering2022correspondstoentering2021and22.

Polarisation:Definethemicrowavelinkpolarisationtobeconsideredinthecalculation.Atollcalculatesacostfor
eachchannelandeachdefinedpolarisation(eitherhorizontal,orvertical,orhorizontalandvertical).

UnderChannelweighting,usetheslidertodefinetheweightgiventotheinterfererandvictimchannels.

3. ClicktheParameterstab.OntheParameterstab,youcandefinetheparametersAtollusestocalculateinterference
onthemicrowavelink.
4. SelectUseglobalsettingsorUseuserdefinedsettings.
IfyouselectUseglobalsettings,AtollusestheinterferenceanalysisparametersthataredefinedbytheMicrowave
Linksfolder.Formoreinformationonhowtodefinetheinterferenceanalysisparameters,see"DefiningInterference
AnalysisParameters"onpage 287.IfyouselectUseuserdefinedsettings,youcancontinuewithstep 5.anddefine
yourownsettings.Inthiscontext,interferenceiscalculatedinclearairconditions(i.e.,ATPCisnotusedandAtoll
considersthecoordinatedpowerasoutputpower).
5. Definethek factor,theearthcurvaturefactor.
6. EntertheCalculationsteponinterfererprofiles.TheCalculationsteponinterfererprofilesistheresolutionusedto
calculateinterference.Thedefaultvalueis50 m.Ifyouenter"0",Atollwillusetheminimumresolutionofthegeo
graphicdata.
7. UnderInterfererfiltering,definethefollowingparameters:

Maxdistance:Themaximumdistancearoundthestudiedsitetofindpotentialinterferingsites.
Interferedbandwidth:TheinterferedbandwidthenablesAtolltofiltertheinterferers.Youcanchoosefromthe
followingoptions:

Cochannelonly:Onlycochannelsitesareconsideredasinterferersites.Atollconsiderscochannelinterfer
encewhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequenciesdoesnotexceedtheinterfered
bandwidth.
Userdefinedpercentage:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthepercentageoftheinterferedbandwidth
thatAtollshouldconsiderwhensearchingforinterferers.Therefore,ifyoukeepthedefaultvalueof250%,a
sitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequen
ciesdoesnotexceed2.5timestheinterferedbandwidth.
Fixedguardband:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinter
fered frequencies that Atoll should consider when searching for interferers. For example, if you keep the
defaultvalueof250 MHz,asitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterfer
ingandinterferedfrequenciesislessthan250 MHz.
Nofilter:Thereisnofilterandallsiteswithinthemaximumdistanceareconsideredasinterferers.

Interference via repeaters: Select how interference caused by repeaters is taken into consideration. You can
selectwhether"Alltherepeatersareignored","Linkswithpassiverepeatersmayalsointerfereviatheirrepeater",
or"Anysignalcaninterfereviaarepeater".
Minthresholddegradation:Theminimumthresholddegradation.Thisthresholdisusedtodecidewhetherasite
isinterferedbyanotherone.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredinterferedwhenthethresholddegradationcaused
bytheinterfererlinkexceedsthelocalminimumthresholddegradation(i.e.,ifthelevelofinterference(I)received
fromtheinterfererlinkleadstoadecreaseofthefadingmarginhigherthanthelocalminimumthreshold).

8. UnderAdaptiveModulation,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Interferedequipment:SelectthemodulationAtollshoulduseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:the
defaultmodulation,thelowestmodulation,thehighestmodulation,orallmodulations.Selectingallmodulations
canincreaseconsiderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.
Interferingequipment:SelectthemodulationAtollshoulduseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:the
defaultmodulation,thelowestmodulation,orthehighestmodulation.Selectingallmodulationscanincreasecon
siderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.

9. ClickOk.

6.7.3 WorkingwiththeFrequencySpectrumAnalyser
Atollcandisplayachannelusagehistogramwithinanymicrowavelinksoperatingfrequencybandenablingyoutoallocate
unusedorlessfrequentlyusedchannelswhererequired.Thistoolcalculatesanddrawsagraphrepresentingthechannels
usedalongwiththeinterferencelevelsreceivedoneachchannelofahalfband.Throughthisgraph,youcanfindthechannels
withlowestinterferencelevelsinordertoallocatethemtomicrowavelinks.

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Toopenthespectrumanalyser:
1. RightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemaporintheMicrowaveLinksfolderintheLinksfolderofthe
explorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPlanning >ILevelsontheBandfromthecontextmenu.TheInterferenceLevelsontheBandviewoftheMicro
waveAnalysiswindowopens(seeFigure 6.24):

Figure 6.24:TheMWAnalysiswindowInterferenceLevelsontheBandview
Atollcalculatestheinterferencelevelsoneachchannelofthefrequencyhalfband(lowerorupper)ofthemicrowave
linkandrepresentsthemaspolygonsonthegraph,withthewidthofthepolygonindicatingthebandwidth.Thered
polygondisplaysthetotalnoiselevelreceivedontheinterferedchannelandeachbluepolygonrepresentsthesignal
leveltransmittedoneachinterferingchannel.
Whenyoumovethepointeroveroneofthepolygons,Atolldisplaysthefollowinginformationintiptext:

Forthestudiedmicrowavelink:

Studiedlink:Themicrowavelinkselectedeitherinthetoolbaroronthemap.
Way:Thedirectionofthemicrowavelinkthatisbeinganalysed.
Totalinterferencelevel:Thetotalinterferenceonthegivendirectionofthestudiedmicrowavelink.
FKTBLevel:Thereceiverthermalnoiseforthechannelbandwidthisdisplayedbyahorizontallineonthered
polygonrepresentingthestudiedmicrowavelink.Theexactvalueisdisplayedintiptextwhenyouplacethe
pointerovertheline.

Fortheinterferermicrowavelink:

Interfererlink:Thelinkinterferingwiththestudiedlink.
Way:Thedirectionofthelinkinterferingwiththelinkthatisbeinganalysed.
InterfererRxlevel:Thesignalleveltransmittedontheinterferingchannel.
Frequencygap:Thefrequencydifferencebetweenthestudiedlinkandtheinterferinglink.

Youcanlocatethechannelsonwhichthereistheleastornointerferenceandallocatethese"free"channelswhere
required.

Figure 6.25:ILevelsontheBandviewcompositeviewshowingtooltips

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Eachpolygonrepresentingtheinterferencelevelreceivedonanychanneldepictsthepeak
signalvalue.Ifthereismorethanoneinterferingsignal,onlythepeakvalueisdisplayed
onthegraph.
Youcanchangethefollowingoptions:

Direction:Youcanselectthedirectiontobestudied,i.e.,Site ASite B,orthedirection,i.e.,Site A=>Site Bor


viceversa.
Properties: You can open the Properties dialog box of the selected microwave link by clicking the Properties

button(
)onthetoolbar.
Calculation Parameters: You can define the interference calculation parameters by clicking the Calculation
Parametersbutton(
onpage 287.

)onthetoolbar.Formoreinformation,see"DefiningInterferenceAnalysisParameters"

Print:YoucanprintthecontentoftheInterferenceLevelsontheBandviewbyclickingthePrintbutton(
thetoolbar.

)on

6.7.4 DisplayingThirdorderIntermodulationProducts
Intermodulation is caused by nonlinear behaviour of the signal processing being used. Nonlinear systems generate
harmonics,meaningthatiftheinputofanonlinearsystemisasignalofasinglefrequency(e.g.,f1),thentheoutputisasignal
whichincludesanumberofintegermultiplesoftheinputfrequency(i.e.,2f1,3f1,4f1,5f1,etc.).Intermodulationoccurswhen
theinputtoanonlinearsystemiscomposedoftwoormorefrequencies.Thesignalsofdifferentfrequenciesaremixed
together,formingadditionalsignalsatfrequenciesthatarenot,ingeneral,atharmonicfrequenciesofeither.Thesenew
frequenciesarecalledintermodulationproducts(IMPs).
Atoll can calculate thirdorder intermodulation products. They are important because they fall within the vicinity of the
originalfrequencycomponents,andcanthereforeinterferewiththedesiredbehaviour.
Tocalculatethirdorderintermodulationproducts:
1. RightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemaporintheMicrowaveLinksfolderintheLinksfolderofthe
explorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. Select Planning > Intermodulation Products from the context menu. The Intermodulation Products view of the
MicrowaveAnalysiswindowopens(seeFigure 6.26):

Figure 6.26:TheMWAnalysiswindowIntermodulationsProductsview
Atollshowsthetransmissionandreceptionfrequenciesusedbythesite(i.e.,Site AifyouselectedSite A=>Site Bor
Site BifyouselectedSite B=>Site A)andcalculatesthethirdorderintermodulationproductsforeachtransmission
channelofthefrequencyhalfbandofthemicrowavelink.Frequenciesarerepresentedbyverticallinesandreported
onthehorizontalaxis.Onlyfrequencieswithinthefrequencybandofthestudiedmicrowavelinkarerepresented.The
bluelinesindicatethefrequenciesusedfortransmission;greenlinesshowthefrequenciesusedforreceptionandred
linesrepresentthethirdorderintermodulationproducts.Atolldisplaystiptextwhenyouplacethepointeroneach
verticalline.
Youcanchangethefollowingoptions:

Direction:Youcanselectthedirectiontobestudied,i.e.,Site ASite B,orthedirection,i.e.,Site A=>Site Bor


viceversa.

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PortNumber:Youcanselecttodisplayeithertheportnumbertobeanalysedortheworstcase.
Properties: You can open the Properties dialog box of the selected microwave link by clicking the Properties

button(
)onthetoolbar.
Calculation Parameters: You can define the interference calculation parameters by clicking the Calculation
Parametersbutton(
onpage 287.

)onthetoolbar.Formoreinformation,see"DefiningInterferenceAnalysisParameters"

Report: You can generate a report on intermodulation products by clicking the Report button (
toolbar.Thereportcontainsthefollowinginformation:
Theselectedhopofthemicrowavelink.
Theselectedsite,i.e.,Site AifyouselectedSite A=>Site BorSite BifyouselectedSite B=>Site A.
Thetransmissionfrequenciesusedbythesite.
Thereceptionfrequenciesusedbythesite.
Thethirdorderintermodulationproductsofthefrequencyband.
AgraphicoftheIntermodulationProductstab.

) on the

6.8 AnalysingInterference
AtollenablesyoutoanalyseinterferencewithtoolsthatrespecttheITURP.45211recommendations.Interferencecalcula
tionbetweenmicrowavelinksandoverthenetworkcanbeperformedforasinglemicrowavelinkaswellasforanyuser
defined group of microwave links. Atoll calculates all microwave links in the group that are active, filtered (i.e., that are
selectedbythecurrentfilterparameters),andintersectthefocuszone.
Whencalculatinginterferencelevelsreceivedforanymicrowavelink,Atollsearchesforpotentialinterferersoperatinginthe
samefrequencyband.Potentialinterferers,amongallmicrowavelinksinthenetwork,aretheactiveandfilteredmicrowave
linkswhosetransmitterreceivertrajectoryintersectsorpassesthroughthecomputationzoneandwhoseinterferingtrans
mitterinterferedreceiverdistanceislessthanagivenvalue.Atollalsoconsiderstheadjacencyoffrequencybands,i.e.,micro
wavelinkswithradiosoperatingfrequencybandsthatoverlaptheoperatingfrequencybandofthemicrowavelinkbeing
studied.
Forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43.Forinformationonthecomputationzone,see"The
ComputationZone"onpage 42.
Bydefault,interferenceinAtolliscalculatedaccordingtotheITURP.45211recommendations.However,youcanchange
theinterferencecalculationmethodandbaseitonanyofthepropagationmodelsavailableontheParameterstab.
Thefollowingparametersaretakenintoaccountwhencalculatingtheinterferenceanalysis:

Interferenceanalysisparameters
IRFsdefinedontheIRFtableifavailable.
T/Icurve,transmittermask,andreceivermaskgraphsdefinedattheradiolevelortheoreticalgraphs.

Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"InterferenceReductionFactor"onpage 278.
"UsingIRFinInterferenceCalculations"onpage 281.
"AnalysingtheInterferenceonaSingleMicrowaveLink"onpage 281.
"PerforminganInterferenceAnalysisonMultipleMicrowaveLinks"onpage 290.

6.8.1 InterferenceReductionFactor
Theinterferencereductionfactor(IRF)isamethodofreducinginterferenceonthereceivedsignal.TheIRFisafunctionofthe
differencebetweenthecentralfrequenciesoftheinterferedsignalandtheinterferingsignal.Youcandefineaprotectionlevel
foreachvictiminterferermicrowavetransceiverradiopairbydefiningtheprotectionlevels(indB)foreachfrequencydelta
(inMHz).
The IRF graphs defined in the IRF table are used during the calculation of interference. When studying the interference
betweentransmissionradioandreceptionradio,AtollfirstverifieswhetheranIRFgraphisdefinedforthetransmissionradio
receptionradiopairintheIRFtable.Ifso,Atollusesit.Otherwise,AtolldeterminestheIRFgraphduringtheprocessofcalcu
latinginterference.Theentireprocessisasfollows:
1. Atollverifiesthatthetransmissionandthereceptionradioshavethesamemanufacturer,capacity,andmodulation.
Ifso,AtollusesTIgraphstodeterminetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosifavailable,
or the theoretical TI graphs if not (for more information on the theoretical graphs, see "Theoretical Graphs" on
page 170).
2. If the radio manufacturer, capacity, or modulation are not the same, Atoll merges the transmitter mask and the
receivermaskoftheradiosinordertodeterminetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosif
available,orthetheoreticalgraphsifnot.

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Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningIRFGraphsManually"onpage 279
"DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant"onpage 279.

6.8.1.1 DefiningIRFGraphsManually
YoucandefineIRFgraphsusingtheIRFtable.TheseIRFgraphswillbeusedtoreducetheinterferencebetweenvictimand
interferermicrowaveradioswhencalculatinginterference.
TocreateormodifyanIRFgraph:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclicktheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectIRF >OpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheIRFtableappears(seeFigure 6.27).

Figure 6.27:IRFtable
5. SelectthenameoftheVictimradiofromthelist.
6. SelectthenameoftheInterfererradiofromthelist.

If you are creating a new IRF graph, use the row marked with the New Row icon (

).

7. DoubleclickintheleftmarginoftherecordtoopenitsPropertiesdialogbox(seeFigure 6.28).

Figure 6.28:IRFrecordPropertiesdialogbox
8. UnderProtectionvaluesinthePropertiesdialogbox,enteraprotectionlevel(indB)foreachfrequencydelta(in
MHz).TheresultinggraphisdisplayedontherightofthePropertiesdialogbox.
9. ClickOK.

6.8.1.2 DefiningIRFGraphswiththeAssistant
AtollprovidesanassistanttoenableyoutodefineIRFsbetweentransmissionandreceptiontransceiverradios.Whenyou
selectafrequencybandandtheradiomanufacturerswithradiosthatoperateinthesamefrequencyband,Atolldisplaysthe
entrieswherethetransmissionandreceptionradiospresentthepossibilityofinterference.

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TousetheassistanttodefineIRFs:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveEquipmentfolder.
3. RightclicktheRadiosfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectIRF >EditGridfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFSettingsdialogboxappears(seeFigure 6.29).

Figure 6.29:IRFSettingdialogbox
5. SelecttheFrequencybandfromthelist.Onlyradiosoperatingintheselectedfrequencybandaredisplayedinthe
grid.
6. SelecttheTXequipmentmanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredis
playedinthegrid.
7. SelecttheRXequipmentmanufacturerfromthelist.Onlyradiosmanufacturedbytheselectedmanufactureraredis
playedinthegrid.
Atoll liststheentrieswherethetransmissionandreceptionradiospresentthepossibilityofinterference.Thecells
colouredingreenindicatethatanIRFgraphexists.
8. YoucannowdefineanIRFgraph,deleteanIRFgraph,orcreateanIRFgraphusingradiographsortheoreticalgraphs:

Figure 6.30:IRFcontextmenu
TodefineanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradios:
a. Rightclickthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectAddRecordfromthecontextmenu.Adialogboxappears.
c. UnderEnterthegraphvalues,enteraprotectionlevel(indB)foreachfrequencydelta(inMHz).Theresulting
graphisdisplayedontherightofthedialogbox.
d. ClickOK.

TodeleteanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradios:
a. Rightclickthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.

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TocreateanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradiosusingtransmitterandreceivermasks:
a. Rightclickthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectCalculateUsing >TransmitterandReceiverMasksfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFCalculationdialogbox
appears.
c. FromtheTransmitterMasklist,selectatheoreticaltransmissionspectrumgraph.Ifthereisatransmissionspec
trumgraphdefinedfortheradio,youcanselect"SameasRadio"touseit.
d. FromtheReceptionMasklist,selectatheoreticalreceiverselectivitygraph.Ifthereisareceiverselectivitygraph
definedfortheradio,youcanselect"SameasRadio"touseit.
e. DefinetheCalculationstepinMHz.
f. ClickCalculatetocalculatetheIRFgraph.
g. ClickOK.
TocreateanIRFgraphbetweenthetransmissionandreceptionradiosusingT/Igraphs:
a. Rightclickthecellofthegridthatcoincideswithbothentries.Thecontextmenuappears.
b. SelectCalculateUsing >T/Igraphsfromthecontextmenu.TheIRFCalculationdialogboxappears.
c. FromtheT/IGraphlist,selectatheoreticalT/Igraph.
d. ClickCalculatetocalculatetheIRFgraph.
e. ClickOK.
9. ClickOKtoclosetheIRFEditiondialogbox.

6.8.2 UsingIRFinInterferenceCalculations
Asexplainedin"InterferenceReductionFactor"onpage 278,theIRFgraphsdefinedintheIRFtableareusedduringtheinter
ferencecalculation.Whenstudyinginterferencebetweentransmissionandreceptionradios,AtollfirstchecksifanIRFgraph
isdefinedforthetransmissionradioreceptionradiopairintheIRFtable.Ifdefined,Atollusesit.Otherwise,Atolldetermines
theIRFgraphduringtheinterferencecalculationasfollows:
1. Itchecksthatthetransmissionradioandthereceptionradiohavethesamemanufacturer,capacityandmodulation.
Inthiscase,AtollusesT/IcurvesinordertocalculatetheIRFgraph.Ituseseitherthegraphsdefinedforradioifavail
able,orthetheoreticalT/Igraphsifnot.
2. If the radio manufacturer, capacity or modulation are not the same, Atoll merges the transmitter mask and the
receivermaskoftheradiosinordertocalculatetheIRFgraph.Atolluseseitherthegraphsdefinedfortheradiosif
available,orthetheoreticalgraphsifnot.

6.8.3 AnalysingtheInterferenceonaSingleMicrowaveLink
Atollenablesyoutoanalysetheinterferenceonanymicrowavelinkofthenetwork.Youcandefinetheparametersusedto
analysetheinterference,displaytheresultsintheformofareportandintheformoftableswiththedetailsofsite Aorsite B
aseitherthevictimsofinterferenceorastheinterferers.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DisplayingInterferenceintheFormofaReport"onpage 281
"DisplayingSite A/Site BInterferenceDetails"onpage 283.
"DisplayingInterferenceontheMap"onpage 285.
"DefiningtheInterferenceAnalysisParameters"onpage 283.

6.8.3.1 DisplayingInterferenceintheFormofaReport
Youcananalysetheinterferenceonamicrowavelinkanddisplaytheresultsintheformofareport.
Todisplayaninterferenceanalysisonamicrowavelinkintheformofareport:
1. RightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemaporintheMicrowaveLinksfolderintheLinksfolderofthe
explorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPlanning >InterferenceReportfromthecontextmenu.TheMWAnalysiswindowappearswiththeInterfer
enceReportviewdisplayed.
3. AtthetopoftheInterferenceReportview,selecttheportonwhichtheanalysisshouldbeperformed.Whenyou
selectWorstcase,Atollperformstheanalysisforeachchannelanddisplaystheresultsfortheworstchannelinterms
offademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowestfademargin).

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4. Definetheanalysisparametersasexplained
IntheInterferenceReportview,thefollowinginformationabouttheselectedmicrowavelinkappears:

Summary:Themicrowavelinksoperatingfrequencyband,length,thermalfademargin,worstmonthquality(in
percentage of time), average annual availability (in percentage of time), and whether quality and availability
objectivesarereachedforbothdirectionsofthemicrowavelinkandthespecifiedBERvalues.Agloballinkesti
mationtakingintoaccountbothlinkqualityandavailabilityisprovidedoveranaverageyear.
Linkspecifications:Informationaboutthemicrowavelinkdesign,sitenames,locations,andaltitudesforboth
extremities,repeaters(ifany),antennasusedatbothsiteswiththeirrespectivemodels,heights,azimuths,tilts,
gains,diameters,nearfields,beamwidthsandXPDvalues,diversityantennasandrepeaterbacktobackantenna
detailssuchasthemodels,heights,azimuths,tilts,gainsanddiameters,microwavetransceiverradiosinstalledat
bothsiteswithdetailssuchastheradioseries,models,digitalhierarchyemployed,modulationused,payload
rates,minimalchannelbandwidths,capacitiesandconfigurations,feedersdetailsandpointtomultipointparam
etersifthestudiedmicrowavelinkisapartofapointtomultipointsystem.
Transmission:Transmissionrelatedparametersforbothextremitiesofthemicrowavelinkincludingthetrans
mittedpowersinclearairandrainconditions,whetherthisisthemaximumpowerorthestandardpower,EIRP,
ATPCeffects,passiverepeatergains(ifany),totallossesandthedetails(filterlosses,connectionlosses,shared
losses,shieldinglosses,portconnectionlosses,andfeederlosses), thesystemconfiguration,channelandfre
quencyparameterssuchastheportandthechannelforwhichthecalculationshavebeenperformed,polarisation
andthediversityfrequency,anddetailsonthe portconfigurationforbothdirections (the channel, thecorre
spondingfrequency,thepolarisation,ifitisamainchannelorastandbychannelorachannelforfrequencydiver
sity or a diversitystandby channel, the transmission and reception port numbers, the ACU losses, the port
circulatorandattenuatorlosses.
Reception:Receptionrelatedparametersforbothendsofthemicrowavelinkincludingthebiterrorratiosand
sensitivitiesatthereceivers,overflowthresholds,thermalnoise,therequiredC/IminustheXPIFandtotallosses
atreceptioncomprisingfilterlosses,connectionlosses,sharedlosses,shieldinglosses,portconnectionlosses,and
feederlosses.
Geoclimaticparameters:Informationaboutthetypeofenvironment,typeofterrain,rainareaandtheclimate
zoneinwhichthemicrowavelinkisoperating,climaticfactor,rainintensity(exceeding0.01%oftime),rainheight,
atmosphericpressure,relativehumidity,PLpercentage,temperature,watervapourdensity,theglobalearthcur
vaturefactorsetinthePropertiesoftheLinksfolder,themeanearthcurvaturefactor(k)andtheeffectiveearth
curvaturefactor(ke)calculatedforthemicrowavelinkandthegeoclimaticfactorK.
Calculationparameters:Parametersusedtomakethecalculationsforthelinkbudgetsuchasthecalculation
methodsused(propagationmodel,qualitymodel,availabilitymodel,interference,whetherenhancementsand
discrimination reduction are ignored, space diversity and frequency diversity), quality objectives (SESR, ESR,
BBER),andavailabilityobjectives(SESR,ESR,BBER).
Propagation:Thenominalreceivedsignallevelsinclearairandrainconditionsatthemainantenna,thenominal
receivedsignallevelsinclearairandrainconditionsatthediversityantennas,andpropagationresultsforboth
directionsofthemicrowavelinkincludingtotalattenuation,freespaceloss,lossesduetodryair,lossesdueto
watervapour,attenuationduetorain,diffractionlosses,vegetationattenuation,attenuationduetoreflections,
antennalossesandtroposphericscattering,epsilonandthetypeofpath(LOSorNLOS).Ifrelevant,propagation
resultsarealsodetailedforthediversityantenna.
Interference:Thetotalinterferencereceivedinclearairandrainconditions,thethresholddegradationinclear
airandrainconditions,andtheC/Iinclearairandrainconditions.
Nonqualityduetomultipath(clearair):Detailsaboutthequalityofthemicrowavelinkintheselecteddirec
tions,forthespecifiedBERvaluesandwheninterferenceistakenintoaccount.Theseresultsincludetheoutage
probability,thenonoutageprobabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheworstmonth,theoutageprobability,the
nonoutageprobabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheaverageyear,performanceobjectives(probabilitiesofSESR
(required),ESR(required),BBER(required)),detailsfortheworstmonth(dispersivefading,selectivefading,fading
duetodiscriminationreduction,enhancementforecast),improvementfactorswhenspaceandfrequencydiver
sitiesareused.
Unavailabilityduetorain:Detailsabouttheunavailabilityofthemicrowavelinkduetorainintheselecteddirec
tions, for the specified BER values and whether interference is taken into account. These results include the
outageprobability,thenonoutageprobabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheworstmonth,theoutageprobability,
thenonoutageprobabilityandtheoutageperiodfortheaverageyear,performanceobjectives(probabilitiesof
SESR(required),ESR(required),BBER(required)),detailsfortheaverageyear(rainfading,rainattenuation,atten
uationduetothefog,fadingduetodiscriminationreduction).
Unavailabilityduetofailures:Resultsdepictingtheunavailabilityofthemicrowavelinkduetoradiofailure.These
resultsincludeavailabilityofhotstandby,outageprobabilityduetofaultsfortheaverageyearandtheoutage
periodfortheaverageyearandtheperformanceobjective.
Adaptivemodulation:IfyouselectedAdaptivemodulation(ACM)astheoperationmodeinthePropertiesofthe
Linksfolderandifthemicrowavelinksupportsmultiplemodulations,Atolldetailstheanalysisforeachdefinedmod
ulation.Thedisplayedresultsinclude:

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Plainandeffectivethermalfademarginsinclearairandrainconditions,receivedsignallevelsinclearairandrain
conditions,thresholddegradationinclearairandrainconditions,thetotalinterferenceinclearairandraincon
ditions,theC/Iinclearairandrainconditions,payloadrates,systemgains.
Resultsdepictingthenonqualityofthelinkduetomultipath(outageandnonoutageprobabilityovertheworst
monthandtheaverageyear,outagedurationovertheworstmonthandtheaverageyear,outagedetailsoverthe
worstmonth)
Resultsdepictingthelinkunavailabilityduetotherain(outageandnonoutageprobabilityovertheworstmonth
and the average year, outage duration over the worst month and the average year, outage details over the
averageyear,availabilityrateovertheaverageyearandtheunavailabilitydurationwithfailuresovertheaverage
year).
Interferencedetails:Themicrowavelinksthatinterferetheextremityofthemicrowavelinkbeingstudiedandthe
microwavelinksinterferedbytheextremityofthemicrowavelinkbeingstudied.

Todefinethecontentsoftheinterferencereport,see"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"onpage 256.To
printtheinterferencereport,see"PrintingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 257.Toexporttheinterferencereport,see"Export
ingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 257.

6.8.3.2 DisplayingSite A/Site BInterferenceDetails


Youcananalysetheinterferenceexperiencedbyeitherofthetwositesdefiningamicrowavelink.Atolldisplaystheresultsin
theformofatable,withthedetailsofsite Aorsite Baseitherthevictimsofinterferenceorastheinterferers.
Todisplaytheinterferencedetailsofsite Aorsite B:
1. RightclickthemicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemaporintheMicrowaveLinksfolderintheLinksfolderofthe
explorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPlanning >InterferenceDetailsfromthecontextmenu.TheMWAnalysiswindowappearswiththeInterfer
enceDetailsviewdisplayed.
3. AtthetopoftheInterferenceDetailsview,youcandefinethefollowing:

Theextremitytobeanalysedandwhetheryouprefertodisplaythemicrowavelinksthatinterferewithorare
interferedbytheselectedextremity,
Onwhichporttheanalysisshouldbeperformed.WhenyouselectWorstcase,Atollperformstheanalysisforeach
channelanddisplaystheresultsfortheworstchannelintermsoffademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowest
fademargin).
Themodulationormodulationsoftheselectedextremity.Themodulationsusedforthesiteinterferingwithor
interfered by the studied site are defined in the interference analysis parameters. For more information, see
"DefiningtheInterferenceAnalysisParameters"onpage 283.

TheInterferenceDetailsviewdisplaystheinterferenceinformationasatable.Foreachinterferingorinterferedlink,Atoll
displaystheinterferencedirection,thedistancebetweentheinterferedandinterferingsites,thesubband,thepolarisation,
themodulationandthechanneloftheinterferedandinterferingsites,thedifferencebetweentheinterferedandtheinter
feringfrequencies,theshieldingfactorsattheinterferedandinterferingsites,theappliedinterferencereductionfactor,the
decouplinginclearairandrainconditions,theC/Iinclearairandrainconditions,thetotalinterferenceinclearairandrain
conditions,thethresholddegradationinclearairandrainconditions,andtheattenuationduetotherain.
Forinformationondefiningthecontentsoftheinterferencereport,see"ConfiguringtheContentsoftheMicrowaveReports"
onpage 256.Forinformationonprintingtheinterferencereport,see"PrintingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 257.Forinfor
mationonexportingtheinterferencereport,see"ExportingaMicrowaveReport"onpage 257.

6.8.3.3 DefiningtheInterferenceAnalysisParameters
BeforeanalysinginterferenceintheInterferenceReportviewortheInterferenceDetailsview,youcandefinetheanalysis
parameters.
Todefinetheinterferenceanalysisparameters:
1. IntheInterferenceReportviewortheInterferenceDetailsview,clicktheCalculationParametersbutton(
Propertiesdialogboxappears.

).The

2. InthePropertiesdialogbox,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedtocalculateinterference
UnderInterfererfiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Maximumdistance:EnterthemaximumdistanceinmetresthatAtollwillsearcharoundeachsitetofindpoten
tiallyinterferingsites.
Interferedbandwidth:Definewhichsitesaretobeconsideredasinterferers.Youcanchoosefromthefollowing
options:

Cochannelonly:Onlycochannelsitesareconsideredasinterferersites.Atollconsiderscochannelinterfer
encewhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequenciesdoesnotexceedtheinterfered
bandwidth.WhenyouselectCochannelonly,noIRFgraphistakenintoaccount.

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Userdefinedpercentage:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthepercentageoftheinterferedbandwidth
thatAtollshouldconsiderwhensearchingforinterferers.Therefore,ifyoukeepthedefaultvalueof250%,a
sitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequen
ciesdoesnotexceed2.5timestheinterferedbandwidth.
Fixedguardband:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinter
fered frequencies that Atoll should consider when searching for interferers. For example, if you keep the
defaultvalueof250 MHz,asitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterfer
ingandinterferedfrequenciesislowerthan250 MHz.
Nofilter:Thereisnofilterandallsiteswithinthemaximumdistanceareconsideredasinterferers.

Interferenceviarepeaters:Selecthowinterferencecausedbyrepeatersshouldbetakenintoconsideration.You
can select whether "All the repeaters are ignored", "Links with passive repeaters may also interfere via their
repeater",or"Anysignalcaninterfereviaarepeater".
Ignoreinterferencebetweenchannelsofasamelink:SelecttheIgnoreinterferencebetweenchannelsofasame
linkcheckboxifyouwantAtolltoignoreinterferencegeneratedbychannelsofthesamemicrowavelinkoneach
other.Thisoptionisusefulifyouhavemicrowavelinkswith2+0configuration(i.e.,microwavelinkswithtwochan
nels).Italsoappliestoparallelmicrowavelinks.Inthiscontext,parallelmicrowavelinksarereferredtoaslinks
sharingthesamelinkextremities(e.g.,twolinksbetweenthesametwosites).
Ignoreinterferencefromstandbyports:SelecttheIgnoreinterferencefromstandbychannelsoptionifyouwant
Atolltoignoreinterferencegeneratedbythestandbyanddiversitystandbychannels.
Ignorecositeinterferers:SelecttheIgnorecositeinterferersoptionifyouwantAtolltoignoreinterference
receivedfromcositesources(i.e.,fortwolinksABandBCthatsharesthesiteB,thesignalreceivedbyBfromA
willnotbeconsideredasinterferedbythesignaltransmittedfromBtoC).Thisoptionisusefultoexcludethe
effectofnearfieldinterferencefrominterferencecalculations.

UnderCalculationparameters,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Calculationsteponinterfererprofiles:Entertheresolutiontobeusedtocalculateinterference.Thedefaultvalue
is50 m.Ifyouenter"0",theminimumresolutionofthegeographicdataisused.

Powercontrol(Rain):Selecttheoutputpowerofinterferingsiteswhenmodellingpowercontrol.Thisoptiononly
appliestointerferencecalculationsinrainconditions.YoucanchoosebetweenUsenominalpower,Usecoordi
natedpower,andUsepowerwithminimumATPConcorrelatedpaths.
Usenominalpower:Atollconsidersthenominalpowerasoutputpowerofinterferingsites.
Usecoordinatedpower:Atollconsidersthecoordinatedpowerasoutputpowerofinterferingsites.
UsepowerwithminimumATPConcorrelatedpaths:Forinterferingpathscorrelatedwiththevictimlink,
Atollconsidersacontrolledoutputpower,i.e.,theoutputpoweroftheinterferingsiteiscontrolledsoasto
balancetherainattenuationexperiencedalongtheinterferinglink.ThepowercontrolislimitedbytheATPC
valuewhentherainattenuationexceedstheATPCvalue.Ifnotcorrelated,Atollconsidersthecoordinated
powerasoutputpowerofinterferingsites.
Aninterferingpathisconsideredascorrelatedwhenitsdirectioniswithina3dBbeamwidthoftheantennaof
thevictimsite.
Inclearairconditions,ATPCisnotusedandAtollconsidersthecoordinatedpowerasoutputpower.

UnderAdaptivemodulation,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Interferedequipment:SelectthemodulationAtollshoulduseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:the
defaultmodulation,thelowestmodulation,thehighestmodulation,orallmodulations.Selectingallmodulations
canincreaseconsiderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.
Interferingequipment:SelectthemodulationAtollshoulduseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:the
defaultmodulation,thelowestmodulation,orthehighestmodulation.Selectingallmodulationscanincreasecon
siderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.
WhendisplayingtheInterferenceDetailsviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow,youcanselect
themodulation(ormodulations)forthestudiedsite.Themodulationsusedforthesite
interferingwithorinterferedbythestudiedsitearethosedefinedinthissection.

UnderResultsfiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

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Min.thresholddegradationperinterferer:Enterthelocalminimumthresholddegradation.Thisthresholdisused
todecidewhetherasiteisinterferedbyanotherone.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredtobeinterferedbyanother
onewhenthethresholddegradationcausedbytheinterfererlinkexceedsthelocalminimumthresholddegrada
tion(i.e.,ifthelevelofinterference(I)receivedfromtheinterfererlinkleadstoadecreaseofthefadingmargin
higherthanthelocalminimumthreshold).
Totalmin.thresholddegradation:Enterthetotalminimumthresholddegradation.Thisthresholdisusedtoindi
catewhenamicrowavelinkisinterfered.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredtobeinterferedwhenthethresholddeg
radationcausedbyallinterferersexceedsthetotalminimumthreshold(i.e.,ifthesumofallinterferenceleadsto
adecreaseofthefadingmarginhigherthanthetotalminimumthreshold).Whenthetotalminimumthreshold

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degradationisexceeded,thesymbol(!)isdisplayedbesidethevalueofthethresholddegradationintheInterfer
enceReportview.
3. ClickOK.

6.8.3.4 DisplayingInterferenceontheMap
Aftercalculatinginterferenceonamicrowavelink,youcandisplaytheinterferenceonthemapusingeithertheInterference
ReportviewortheInterferenceDetailsviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.IfyouusetheInterferenceReportviewtodisplay
interferenceonthemap,Atollwilldisplayalltheinterferedandinterferingsitesfortheselectedmicrowavelink.Ifyouuse
theInterferenceDetailsviewtodisplayinterference,Atollwilldisplayonlytheinterferedsites(ifthesiteselectedinthetool
barisinterfering)ortheinterferingsites(ifthesiteselectedinthetoolbarisinterfered).
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

6.8.3.4.1

"DisplayingAllInterferenceforaMicrowaveLinkontheMap"onpage 285
"DisplayingInterferenceonorCausedbytheSelectedSiteofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 286
"DefiningHowInterfererandInterferedLinkExtremitiesAreDisplayed"onpage 286.

DisplayingAllInterferenceforaMicrowaveLinkontheMap
Aftercalculatinginterferenceonamicrowavelink,youcandisplayonthemapalltheinterferedandinterferingsitesforthe
selectedmicrowavelinkusingtheInterferenceReportviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.
Todisplayallinterferenceforamicrowavelinkonthemap:
1. Rightclickamicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPlanning >InterferenceReportfromthecontextmenu.TheMWAnalysiswindowappearswiththeInterfer
enceReportviewdisplayed.
Youcanchangethefollowingoptions:

Link:Youcanselectadifferentlinktobestudied,i.e.,Site ASite B.
PortNumber:Youcanselecttodisplayeithertheportnumbertobeanalysedortheworstcase.

3. ClicktheVictimandInterfererLinks( )buttoninthetoolbaroftheMWAnalysiswindow.Atolldisplaysalltheinter
feredandinterferingsitesfortheselectedmicrowavelink(seeFigure 6.1).

Figure 6.1:DisplayingalltheinterferenceonlinkBRU024BRU036
InFigure 6.1,youcanseethattheinterferenceexperiencedbysiteBRU036(site B)isindicatedbyaredline,witharrows
showingthedirection,betweenBRU036andtheinterferer,siteBRU046.BRU036isinterferingwithsiteBRU024(site A,not

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visibleinFigure 6.1)andthisinterferenceisindicatedbyagreenline,witharrowsshowingthedirectionoftheinterference.
Additionally,theinterferencecausedbysiteBRU036(site B)onsiteBRU046isindicatedbyayellowline,andtheinterference
causedbyBRU024(site A)onsiteBRU036(site B)isindicatedbyablueline.Forinformationonmodifyinghowinterferersand
victimsaredisplayed,see"DefiningHowInterfererandInterferedLinkExtremitiesAreDisplayed"onpage 286.
Whentheinterferenceconnectionsaredisplayedonthemap,youcanplacethepointeroneachinterferenceconnectionto
displayadditionalinformationinthetiptext.
YoucanhidetheinterferencebyclickingtheVictimsandInterferersLinksbutton(

6.8.3.4.2

)again.

DisplayingInterferenceonorCausedbytheSelectedSiteofaMicrowaveLink
Aftercalculatinginterferenceonamicrowavelink,youcandisplayonthemapeithertheinterferedsites(ifthesiteselected
inthetoolbarisinterfering)ortheinterferingsites(ifthesiteselectedinthetoolbarisinterfered)usingtheInterference
DetailsviewoftheMWAnalysiswindow.
1. Rightclickamicrowavelinkeitherdirectlyonthemap,orfromtheMicrowaveLinksfolderoftheexplorerwindows
Networktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPlanning >InterferenceDetailsfromthecontextmenu.TheMWAnalysiswindowappearswiththeInterfer
enceDetailsviewdisplayed.
Youcanchangethefollowingoptions:

Link:Youcanselectadifferentlinktobestudied,i.e.,Site ASite B.
PortNumber:Youcanselecttodisplayeithertheportnumbertobeanalysedortheworstcase.
Modulation:Youcanselectthemodulationormodulationsoftheselectedextremity.

3. ClicktheVictimandInterfererLinks( )buttoninthetoolbaroftheMWAnalysiswindow.Atolldisplaystherela
tionshipbetweenthesite(AorB)andthesitethatitisinterferingorthatisinterferingwithit(seeFigure 6.2).

Figure 6.2:DisplayingalltheinterferenceonlinkBRU024BRU036
InFigure 6.2,youcanseethattheinterferencedetailsareforsite B,asvictimofinterference.Site B,inthiscase,isthesite
BRU036ofthelinkBRU024BRU036.TheinterferenceexperiencedbysiteBRU036(site B)isindicatedbyaredline,with
arrowsshowingthedirection,betweenBRU036andtheinterferer,siteBRU046.Forinformationonmodifyinghowinterferers
andvictimsaredisplayed,see"DefiningHowInterfererandInterferedLinkExtremitiesAreDisplayed"onpage 286.
Whentheinterferenceconnectionsaredisplayedonthemap,youcanplacethepointeroneachinterferenceconnectionto
displayadditionalinformationinthetiptext.
YoucanhidetheinterferencebyclickingtheVictimsandInterferersLinksbutton(

6.8.3.4.3

)again.

DefiningHowInterfererandInterferedLinkExtremitiesAreDisplayed
Youcandefinehowinterfererandinterferedlinkextremitieswillbedisplayedonthemap.

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Todefinehowinterfererandinterferedlinkextremitiesaredisplayed:
1. ClicktheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. Selectthemicrowavelinksforwhichyouwanttodefinehowinterfererandinterferedlinkextremitiesaredisplayed:

Todefinehowinterfererandinterferedlinkextremitiesaredisplayedforallmicrowavelinks,rightclicktheMicro
waveLinksfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
Todefinehowinterfererandinterferedlinkextremitiesaredisplayedforagroupofmicrowavelinks,clickthe
Expandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksfor
whichyouwanttodefinehowinterfererandinterferedlinkextremitiesaredisplayed.Thecontextmenuappears.

4. SelectInterference >DisplayOptionsfromthecontextmenu.TheInterferencedialogboxopens.
OntheDirectInterferenceandInterferenceviaRepeaterstabs,youcandefinehowdifferenttypesofinterference
connectionsaredisplayedonthemapbyselectingdifferentlinesandcolours.

6.8.4 AnalysingtheInterferenceonMultipleMicrowaveLinks
Atollenablesyoutocalculateinterferenceforagroupofmicrowavelinkssimultaneouslyorovertheentirenetworkofmicro
wavelinks.Interferenceresultsaredisplayedintheformofareportwhosethecontentyoucandefine.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningInterferenceAnalysisParameters"onpage 287.
"PerforminganInterferenceAnalysisonMultipleMicrowaveLinks"onpage 290.
"ManagingInterferenceCalculationValidity"onpage 291.

6.8.4.1 DefiningInterferenceAnalysisParameters
Beforecalculatinginterferenceonmicrowavelinks,youcanchangetheparametersthatareusedforcalculatinganddisplay
inginterferenceresults.Youcanspecifythefollowingsettings:

General:Thistabprovidesparametersforfilteringchannelsandports.
Interference:Thistabprovidesaccesstotheparametersthatareusedforinterferencecalculation,filteringandadap
tivemodulation.
FieldSelection:Thistaballowsyoutoselectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayintheinterferencereport.Y

Tospecifytheinterferenceparameters:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheLinksorMicrowaveRadioLinksfolderandselectthemicrowavelinksforwhich
youwanttodefinethecontentoftheinterferencereport:

Todefinethecontentoftheinterferencereportforallmicrowavelinks,rightclicktheMicrowaveLinksfolder.
Thecontextmenuappears.
Todefinethecontentoftheinterferencereportforonagroupofmicrowavelinks,clicktheExpandbutton( )
toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderforwhichyouwanttodefinethecontentof
theinterferencereport.Thecontextmenuappears.

2. SelectInterference>Propertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheLinksPropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheGeneraltab.TheGeneraltabcontainschannelandportsettingsfortheinterferencecalculation.

Figure 6.31:InterferenceParametersGeneraltab

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UnderChannelsandports,selectonwhichchannelshouldbedisplayedtheresultsoftheinterferencereport:

All:IfyouselectAll,theinterferenceanalysisiscalculatedanddisplayedforallchannels.
Worstchannel:IfyouselectWorstchannelengineering,thelinkanalysisiscalculatedforeachchannelandthe
resultsaredisplayedfortheworstchannelintermsoffademargin(i.e.,thechannelwiththelowestfademargin).
Specificport:IfyouselectSpecificportengineering,analysisiscalculatedanddisplayedforthespecifiedSite A
andSite B.

4. SelecttheInterferencetab.OntheInterferencetab,theparametersyoudefinewillbeusedtocalculateinterference
.

Figure 6.32:InterferenceParametersInterferencetab
UnderInterfererFiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Maximumdistance:EnterthemaximumdistanceinmetresthatAtollwillsearcharoundeachsitetofindpoten
tiallyinterferingsites.
Interferedbandwidth:Definewhichsitesaretobeconsideredasinterferers.Youcanchoosefromthefollowing
options:

288

Cochannelonly:Onlycochannelsitesareconsideredasinterferersites.Atollconsiderscochannelinterfer
encewhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequenciesdoesnotexceedtheinterfered
bandwidth.WhenyouselectCochannelonly,noIRFgraphistakenintoaccount.
Userdefinedpercentage:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthepercentageoftheinterferedbandwidth
thatAtollshouldconsiderwhensearchingforinterferers.Therefore,ifyoukeepthedefaultvalueof250%,a
sitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinterferedfrequen
ciesdoesnotexceed2.5timestheinterferedbandwidth.
Fixedguardband:Ifyouselectthisoption,youcanenterthedifferencebetweentheinterferingandinter
fered frequencies that should be considered when searching for interferers. For example, if you keep the
defaultvalueof250 MHz,asitewillbeconsideredasaninterfererwhenthedifferencebetweentheinterfer
ingandinterferedfrequenciesislowerthan250 MHz.
Nofilter:Allsiteswithinthemaximumdistanceareconsideredasinterferers.

Interferenceviarepeaters:Selecthowinterferencecausedbyrepeatersshouldbetakenintoconsideration.You
can select whether "All the repeaters are ignored", "Links with passive repeaters may also interfere via their
repeater",or"Anysignalcaninterfereviaarepeater".

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Ignoreinterferencebetweenchannelsofasamelink:SelecttheIgnoreinterferencebetweenchannelsofasame
linkcheckboxifyouwanttoignoreinterferencegeneratedbychannelsofthesamemicrowavelinkoneachother.
Thisoptionisusefulifyouhavemicrowavelinkswith2+0configuration(i.e.,microwavelinkswithtwochannels).
Italsoappliestoparallelmicrowavelinks.Inthiscontext,parallelmicrowavelinksarereferredtoaslinkssharing
thesamelinkextremities(e.g.,twolinksbetweenthesametwosites).
Ignoreinterferencefromstandbyports:SelecttheIgnoreinterferencefromstandbychannelsoptionifyouwant
Atolltoignoreinterferencegeneratedbythestandbyanddiversitystandbychannels.
Ignorecositeinterferers:SelecttheIgnorecositeinterferersoptionifyouwanttoignoreinterferencereceived
fromcositesources(i.e.,fortwolinksABandBCthatsharesthesiteB,thesignalreceivedbyBfromAwillnot
beconsideredasinterferedbythesignaltransmittedfromBtoC).Thisoptionisusefultoexcludetheeffectof
nearfieldinterferencefrominterferencecalculations.

UnderCalculationParameters,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Calculationsteponinterfererprofiles:Entertheresolutiontobeusedtocalculateinterference.Thedefaultvalue
is50 m.Ifyouenter"0",theminimumresolutionofthegeographicdataisused.

Powercontrol(Rain):Selecttheoutputpowerofinterferingsiteswhenmodellingpowercontrol.Thisoptiononly
appliestointerferencecalculationsinrainconditions.YoucanchoosebetweenUsenominalpower,Usecoordi
natedpower,andUsepowerwithminimumATPConcorrelatedpaths.
Usenominalpower:Thenominalpowerisconsideredastheoutputpowerofinterferingsites.
Usecoordinatedpower:Thecoordinatedpowerisconsideredastheoutputpowerofinterferingsites.
UsepowerwithminimumATPConcorrelatedpaths:Forinterferingpathscorrelatedwiththevictimlink,
Atollconsidersacontrolledoutputpower,i.e.,theoutputpoweroftheinterferingsiteiscontrolledsoasto
balancetherainattenuationexperiencedalongtheinterferinglink.ThepowercontrolislimitedbytheATPC
valuewhentherainattenuationexceedstheATPCvalue.Ifnotcorrelated,thecoordinatedpowerisconsid
eredastheoutputpowerofinterferingsites.
Aninterferingpathisconsideredascorrelatedwhenitsdirectioniswithina3dBbeamwidthoftheantennaof
thevictimsite.
Inclearairconditions,ATPCisnotusedandthecoordinatedpowerisconsideredastheoutputpower.

UnderAdaptiveModulation,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Interferedequipment:Selectthemodulation tousefor interferedequipment duringcalculations:thedefault


modulation,thelowest modulation, the highest modulation,or all modulations. Selecting all modulationscan
increaseconsiderablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.
Interferingequipment:Selectthemodulationtouseforinterferedequipmentduringcalculations:thedefault
modulation,thelowestmodulation,orthehighestmodulation.Selectingallmodulationscanincreaseconsider
ablytheamountofmemorynecessaryforcalculations.

UnderResultsFiltering,youcandefinethefollowingparameters:

Min.thresholddegradationperinterferer:Enterthelocalminimumthresholddegradation.Thisthresholdisused
todecidewhetherasiteisinterferedbyanotherone.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredtobeinterferedbyanother
onewhenthethresholddegradationcausedbytheinterfererlinkexceedsthelocalminimumthresholddegrada
tion(i.e.,ifthelevelofinterference(I)receivedfromtheinterfererlinkleadstoadecreaseofthefadingmargin
higherthanthelocalminimumthreshold).
Total min. threshold degradation: Enter the total minimum threshold degradation. This threshold is used to
determineifamicrowavelinkisinterfered.Amicrowavelinkisconsideredtobeinterferedwhenthethreshold
degradationcausedbyallinterferersexceedsthetotalminimumthreshold(i.e.,ifthesumofallinterferenceleads
toadecreaseofthefadingmarginhigherthanthetotalminimumthreshold).Whenthetotalminimumthreshold
degradationisexceeded,thesymbol(!)isdisplayedbesidethevalueofthethresholddegradationintheInterfer
enceReportview.
Hidenoninterferedlinks:Selectthisoptiontoonlydisplayinterferedmicrowavelinksintheinterferenceresults
table. This option considers the Total min. threshold degradation threshold specified above to determine
whetheralinkisinterferedornot.

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5. ClicktheFieldSelectiontab.OntheFieldSelectiontabyoucandefinethecontentsoftheinterferencereport.Atoll
displaysadefaultsetoffieldsandletsyouselectotherinformationtobeincludedinthereport.

Figure 6.33:InterferencePropertiesFieldSelectiontab
OntheFieldselectiontab,selectthefieldsthatyouwanttodisplayintheinterferencereport.Youcanselectcontig
uousfieldsbyclickingthefirstfield,pressingSHIFTandclickingthelastfield.Youcanselectnoncontiguousfieldsby
pressingCTRLandclickingeachfieldseparately.
tomoveit

Toselectafieldtobeincludedinthereport,selectthefieldintheAvailablefieldslistandclick
totheSelectedfieldslist.

ToremoveafieldfromthelistofSelectedfields,selectthefieldintheSelectedfieldslistandclick
removeit.

Tochangetheorderofthefields,selectafieldandclick or tomoveitupordowninthelist.Theobjectswill
bedisplayedintheorderofthefieldsintheSelectedFieldslist,fromtoptobottom.

to

YoucanrestoreallitemstotheSelectedfieldslistbyclickingtheResetbutton.
YoucansavethechoicesyouhavemadeintheFieldSelectiondialogboxasacon
figuration file by clicking the Save As button at the top of the dialog box and
enteringanameforthefileintheSaveAsdialogboxthatappears.Thenexttime
youconfigureareport,youcanclickOpeninthePropertiesdialogboxtoopen
yourconfigurationfilewiththesavedsettings.

6. ClickOK.

6.8.4.2 PerforminganInterferenceAnalysisonMultipleMicrowaveLinks
Youcancalculateinterferenceforagroupofmicrowavelinkssimultaneouslyorovertheentirenetworkofmicrowavelinks.

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Tocalculateinterferenceonmultiplemicrowavelinks:
1. ClicktheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. Selectthemicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttocalculateinterference:

To calculate interference on all microwave links, rightclick the Microwave Links folder. The context menu
appears.
Tocalculateinterferenceonagroupofmicrowavelinks,clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowave
Linksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttocalculateinterference.Thecon
textmenuappears.

4. SelectInterference >Calculatefromthecontextmenu.Atollcalculatestheinterferenceanddisplaystheinterference
report.Thisreportliststheresultsforallstudiedmicrowavelinksintheselecteddirections(site Asite B/site Bsite A)
andforthedefinedBERvalues.
Anewdirectoryiscreated(C:\<path_to_doc>\<doc_name>.profiles),whichcontainstheexternalfiles(includingall
thecalculatedpathprofiles)thatwillbeusednexttimeyourecalculatelinkbudgetsorinterferences.Youcanusethe
Profiles>DeleteAllFilescommandtodeletethe<doc_name>.profilesdirectory.Youcanalsodisablethisfeatureby
settinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.

KeeptheATLfileonyourmachineinsteadofaservertosignificantlydecreasethe
calculationtimeofpathprofiles.
ThisfeatureismoreefficientwhentheDTMresolutionislow,providedthatthe
calculationresolutionisgreaterthanorequaltothegeodataresolution.
Profilefilesarenotcreatedforlinkswithatleastoneremoteantenna.Theywill
notbeusedeitheriftheywerecreatedbeforeanantennahasbecomeremote.

Youcanviewdetailsofeachmicrowavelink,bydoubleclickingtherecordinthereport.Thedetailsaredisplayedin
a detailed interference results window including five tabs as described in "Analysing the Interference on a Single
MicrowaveLink"onpage 281.

YoucanstopanycalculationsinprogressbyclickingtheStopCalculationsbutton

(
)inthetoolbar.
You can access each microwave links properties by doubleclicking the corre
spondingrecordintheVictimandInterferertabs.

6.8.4.3 ManagingInterferenceCalculationValidity
InterferencecalculationsperformedonagroupofmicrowavelinksaresavedintheAtolldocument.So,oncecalculations
havebeenperformedforallthemicrowavelinks,youcanquicklyperforminterferencepredictionsforaparticularmicrowave
linkoragroupofmicrowavelinks.Atollonlyrecalculatesnewandinvalidmicrowavelinks.Calculationscanbecomeinvalid
fordifferentreasons:

Ifacalculationmethodoroptionhasbeenchanged
Ifmicrowavelinkpropertieshavebeenmodified
Ifgeographicdatamapshavebeenupdated.

Forthefirsttworeasons,Atollautomaticallydetectsinvalidityofthecalculationwhenstartingcalculationsandrecalculates.
Inthelastcase(e.g.,ifyouaddanewclutterclassmap),youmustforceAtolltorecalculate.Whenyouforcearecalculaton,
Atollopenstheinterferencecalculationparameterssothatyoucanmodifythecalculationparameters.
ToforceAtolltorecalculateinterference:
1. ClicktheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. Selectthemicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttorecalculateinterference:

To recalculate interference on all microwave links, rightclick the Microwave Links folder. The context menu
appears.
Tocalculateinterferenceonagroupofmicrowavelinks,clicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowave
Linksfolderandrightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksonwhichyouwanttocalculateinterference.Thecon
textmenuappears.

4. SelectInterference >ForceCalculationsfromthecontextmenu.TheMicrowaveLinksPropertieswindowopenswith
the interference parameters. For information on interference calculation parameters, see "Defining Interference
AnalysisParameters"onpage 287.

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5. ClickOK.Atollremovesexistingcalculations,includingvalidones,andrecalculatesinterference.Theprogressofthe
calculationsisdisplayedintheEventViewerwindow.
Anewdirectoryiscreated(C:\<path_to_doc>\<doc_name>.profiles),whichcontainstheexternalfiles(includingall
thecalculatedpathprofiles)thatwillbeusednexttimeyourecalculatelinkbudgetsorinterferences.Youcanusethe
Profiles>DeleteAllFilescommandtodeletethe<doc_name>.profilesdirectory.Youcanalsodisablethisfeatureby
settinganoptionintheAtoll.inifile.

KeeptheATLfileonyourmachineinsteadofaservertosignificantlydecreasethe
calculationtimeofpathprofiles.
ThisfeatureismoreefficientwhentheDTMresolutionislow,providedthatthe
calculationresolutionisgreaterthanorequaltothegeodataresolution.
Profilefilesarenotcreatedforlinkswithatleastoneremoteantenna.Theywill
notbeusedeitheriftheywerecreatedbeforeanantennahasbecomeremote.

YoucanalsoresetexistingcalculationswithoutrecalculatinginterferenceafterwardsbyselectingInterference >Reset.Atoll
removesexistingcalculations,includingvalidones.

6.9 ExportingCustomReports
Atollenablesyoutoexportvariousoutputdata(i.e.,microwavelinkparameters,calculationresults,etc.)withauserdefined
layoutindifferentformats.YoucanexportthesecustomreportsinMicrosoftExcel(XLSX),MicrosoftWord(DOCX),OpenOf
ficeWriter(ODT)andOpenOfficeCalc(ODS).Beforeexportingthereport,youhavetocreateatemplateinthedesiredformat,
withthekeywordsassociatedtooutputsthatyouwanttoexport.Thistemplatemusthavethedesiredlayout.
Eachoutputhasacorrespondingkeyword.ThelistofkeywordsisavailableinthefileMWReportKeywords.xlsxlocatedinthe
Atollinstallationfolder,under"reports".Thefilealsocontainsadescriptionandanexampleforeachkeyword.Templatescan
bedownloadedtheForskSupportwebsite.
Youcanexportacustomreportforonemicrowavelinkorseveralmicrowavelinksatthesametime.Inthiscase,Atollgener
atesonefilepermicrowavelink.Inthecustomreport,Atollexportstheresultscalculatedfortheportthatisdefinedinthe
GeneraltaboftheLinksPropertiesdialogbox.IfyouhaveselectedAllorifthedefinedportdoesnotexist,Atollexportsthe
resultscalculatedfortheworstchannel.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"ExportingaCustomReportforOneMicrowaveLink"onpage 292
"ExportingaCustomReportforSeveralMicrowaveLinks"onpage 292

6.9.1 ExportingaCustomReportforOneMicrowaveLink
YoucanuseAtolltoexportacustomreportononemicrowavelink.Beforeexportingthereport,youhavetocreateatemplate
inthedesiredformat.
Toexportacustomreportforonemicrowavelink:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.

3. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkforwhichyouwanttoexportthecustomreport.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectCustomExport fromthecontextmenu.TheCustomExportdialogboxappears.
5. BesideTemplate,browsetothefoldercontainingtheTemplateandselectthetemplate.
6. BesideSaveas,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethecustomreportandenterafilename.
7. ClickOKtoexportthereport.
YouhavetocheckthespellingbeforeusingatemplatewiththeMicrosoftWordformat.

6.9.2 ExportingaCustomReportforSeveralMicrowaveLinks
You can use Atoll to export a custom report several microwave links. Before exporting the report, you have to create a
templateinthedesiredformat.

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Toexportacustomreportforseveralmicrowavelinks:
1. SelecttheNetworkexplorer.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton(

)toexpandtheMicrowaveLinksfolder.

3. Selectthemicrowavelinksforwhichyouwanttoexportcustomreports:

To export custom reports on all microwave links, rightclick the Microwave Links folder. The context menu
appears.
Toexportcustomreportsonallmicrowavelinks,rightclickthesubfolderofmicrowavelinksforwhichyouwant
toexportcustomreports.Thecontextmenuappears.

4. SelectCustomExport fromthecontextmenu.TheCustomExportdialogboxappears.
5. BesideTemplate,browsetothefoldercontainingtheTemplateandselectthetemplate.
6. BesideSaveas,browsetothefolderwhereyouwanttosavethecustomreportandenterafilename.
7. ClickOKtoexportthereport.
YouhavetocheckthespellingbeforeusingatemplatewiththeMicrosoftWordformat.

6.10 AdvancedConfiguration
Inthissection,thefollowingadvancedconfigurationoptionsareexplained:

"DefiningFrequencies"onpage 293.
"DefiningPerformanceParameters"onpage 297.
"ModellingPointtoMultipointSystems"onpage 301.

6.10.1 DefiningFrequencies
InAtoll,youcandefinefrequencybandsandseveralfrequencysubbandsforeachfrequencyband.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands"onpage 293.
"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands"onpage 294.

6.10.1.1 DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencyBands
MicrowavefrequencybandsareimplementedinAtoll.Theremustbeatleastonefrequencybandthatcanbeassignedto
microwavelinksthatarecreated.Microwavelinksoperatewithinahighfrequencyrange(290 GHz).Thelengthofamicro
wave link is dependent upon the frequency: as the frequency increases, the length of the microwave link decreases. By
default,AtollincludesseveralpredefinedfrequencybandsbasedontheFseriesITURrecommendations.
Tocreateormodifyafrequencyband:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheFrequenciesfolder.
4. IntheFrequenciesfolder,rightclickBands.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheFrequencyBandstableappears(seeFigure 6.34).

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Figure 6.34:TheFrequencyBandstable
6. Tocreateafrequencyband,enterthefollowingintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

):

Name:Thenameofthefrequencyband.
Min.Frequency(MHz):Theminimumfrequencyofthefrequencyband(inMHz).
Max.Frequency(MHz):Themaximumfrequencyofthefrequencyband(inMHz).
Comments:Anycomments.
TheinformationnecessarytodefineafrequencybandcanbefoundintheFseriesITUR
recommendations.

7. Tomodifyafrequencyband,modifyanyoftheentriesinthecorrespondingrow.

6.10.1.2 DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands
Afrequencybandcanbedividedintofrequencysubbands.Frequencysubbandsarestandardised,ITUcompliantdivisions
ofafrequencyband,breakingitintochannels.ITUcompliantdivisionscanhavemorethanonefrequencysubbanddefined
forasinglefrequencyband.
Afrequencysubbandhastwohalfbands.Aduplexmicrowavelinkusuallyusesoneofthesehalfbandsinonedirectionand
theotherhalfbandintheotherdirection.Thesehalfbandsarereferredtoasupperandlowerhalfbands.
Youcandefineachannelisationplanforthelowerandupperhalfbandofeachsubband.
Tocreateormodifyafrequencysubband:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheFrequenciesfolder.
4. IntheFrequenciesfolder,rightclickSubBands.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheSubBandstableappears(seeFigure 6.35).

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Figure 6.35:TheFrequencySubBandstable
6. EntertheNameofthefrequencysubbandintherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

).

7. OpenthesubbandPropertiesdialogboxasdefinedin"OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesdialogboxfroma
Table"onpage 56.ThesubbandPropertiesdialogboxappears.

Figure 6.36:TheFrequencySubBandPropertiesdialogbox
8. InthesubbandPropertiesdialogbox,definethefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameofthefrequencysubband.
FrequencyBand:Thenameofthefrequencybandtowhichthesubbandbelongs.
Channelbandwidth(MHz):Thewidth(inMHz)ofthechannelusedtotransmitthedata.

9. Ifyouwanttodefinethelistofchannelsandthecorrespondingfrequencies,selectCustomChannels.Otherwise,con
tinuetostep 10.
a. ClicktheChannelsSettingsbutton.TheCustomChannelsdialogboxappears.
b. IntherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

),enterthefollowingparameters:

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Channel:Thechannelnumber.
BaseName:Thechannelnamewithoutaffixes.
LowFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelinthelowerhalfband.
HighFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelintheupperhalfband.

c. ClickOKtoclosetheCustomFrequenciesdialogbox.
d. Continuetostep 12.
10. IfyouwantAtolltoautomaticallycreatechannelnumbersandfrequencieswithauniformspacing,selectStandard
isedChannels.Inthiscase,Atolldefineschannelnumbersandfrequenciesbasedonaformulausingthefollowing
information:

ReferenceFrequency (MHz): Thereferencefrequency(inMHz).Notethatthisfrequencycanbedifferent


fromthecentralfrequency.
LowerHalfBandShift(MHz):Thelowerhalfbandshiftofthesubband(inMHz).Thesignoftheshiftcanbe
negativeorpositive;thisdependsonthehalfbandpositionrelativetothereferencefrequency.
UpperHalfBandShift(MHz):Theupperhalfbandshiftofthesubband(inMHz).Thesignoftheshiftcanbe
negativeorpositive;thisdependsonthehalfbandpositionrelativetothereferencefrequency.
FirstChannel:Thefirstchannelofthesubband.
LastChannel:Thelastchannelofthesubband.
Step:Thestepbetweenchannels.
ExcludedChannelsinUpperHalfBand:Enterthechannelsthatyoudonotwanttouseintheupperhalf
bands.Youcanenterorpastealistofchannels;thevaluesmustbeseparatedwithaspace.Youcanalsoenter
arangeofchannelstobeexcludedfromtheupperhalfband,byenteringthefirstandlastchanneloftherange
separatedbyahyphen.Forexample,entering1015correspondstoexclude101112131415.
ExcludedChannelsinLowerHalfBand:Enterthechannelsthatyoudonotwanttouseinthelowerhalf
bands.Youcanenterorpastealistofchannels;thevaluesmustbeseparatedwithaspace.Youcanalsoenter
arangeofchannelstobeexcludedfromthelowerhalfband,byenteringthefirstandlastchanneloftherange
separatedbyahyphen.Forexample,entering1015correspondstoexclude101112131415.

Thefrequenciesassociatedwithchannelsaredeterminedbythefollowingequations:
Forthelowerhalfband:f=Referencefrequency+Lowerhalfbandshift+Channelnumber*Channelbandwidth
Fortheupperhalfband:f=Referencefrequency+Upperhalfbandshift+Channelnumber*Channelbandwidth
The information required to define a frequency subband can be found in the Fseries
ITURrecommendations.TheexcludedchannelsarenotpartoftheITURrecommenda
tions.
11. UnderChannelNaming,enterthePrefixandSuffixtobeappendedtochannelnames.Prefixesandsuffixescanbe
definedforthelowerandupperhalfbands.
12. ClicktheChannels/FrequencyMappingbuttoninordertodisplaythechannelarrangementforthelowerandupper
halfbands.
13. Ifnecessary,addsomeComments.
14. ClickOKtoclosethesubbandPropertiesdialogbox.

6.10.1.2.1

ExampleofCreatingaFrequencySubband
YoucanfindtheinformationnecessarytocreateafrequencysubbandintheappropriateITURrecommendation.Inthis
example,therecommendationRF.7470(for10 GHz)isused.
The ITUR F.7470 standard recommends to use the frequency band 10 GHz. On page 2, you see the information in
Figure 6.37:

Figure 6.37:SecondpageofRecommendationITURF.747
Theinformationonpage 2ofRecommendationITURF.747givesyouthefollowingvalues:

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6.10.1.2.2

LowerHalfBandShift(MHz):1204 MHz
UpperHalfBandShift(MHz):1113 MHz
ChannelBandwidth(MHz):7 MHz(asindicatedby"+ 7m")
FirstChannel:1(asindicatedby"from1to12")
LastChannel:12(asindicatedby"from1to12")
Step:1(asindicatedby"The12valuesofmfrom1to12)

ImportingCustomChannels
Foreachfrequencysubband,youcanimportthelistofchannelsandthecorrespondingfrequencies.Beforeyoucanimport
customchannels,youmustcreatethefrequencysubbandanddefineitsmainparameters(i.e.,thename,thefrequency
band,thechannelbandwidth)asexplainedin"DefiningMicrowaveLinkFrequencySubbands"onpage 294.Inaddition,the
CustomchannelsoptionmustbeselectedinthesubbandPropertiesdialogbox.
Toimportthecustomchannelsforafrequencysubband:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheMicrowaveSettingsfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheFrequenciesfolder.
4. IntheFrequenciesfolder,rightclickCustomChannels.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheCustomChannelstableappears(seeFigure 6.38).

Figure 6.38:TheCustomChannelstable
6. IntherowmarkedwiththeNewRowicon(

),enterthefollowingparameters:

SubBand:Thefrequencysubband.
Channel:Thechannelnumber.
BaseName:Thechannelnamewithoutaffixes.
LowFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelinthelowerhalfband.
HighFrequency(MHz):Thefrequency(inMHz)ofthechannelintheupperhalfband.

6.10.2 DefiningPerformanceParameters
Atollenablesyoutomanagelinkclassesandperformanceobjectives.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DefiningLinkClasses"onpage 297.
"DefiningPerformanceObjectives"onpage 298.

6.10.2.1 DefiningLinkClasses
Linkclassesareusedtodifferentiateperformanceobjectives.Byassigninglinkclassestomicrowavelinks,youareassigning
thetargetparametersandusagelimitationsofthelinkclasstotheselectedmicrowavelinks.
Tocreateormodifyalinkclass:
1. ClicktheParameterstabintheExplorerwindow,expandMicrowaveSettingsandPerformanceandrightclickLink
Classes.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.TheLinkClassestableappears.
3. Enterormodifythevaluesinthetablecolumnstocreateormodifyalinkclass.
Eachlinkclasshasthefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameofthelinkclass
Portion:Thetypeoflinkclass(I(International)orN(National))
Type:Thesubclass(LH(LongHaul),SH(ShortHaul),A(Access),IC(IntermediateCountry),etc.)
LinkLengthMinandMax(m):Theminimumandmaximumlength(inmetres)forthislinkclass.Thesevaluesare
usedforinformationonly.

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Comments:Additionalinformationdescribingthelinkclass.

TheAtollmicrowavemoduleincludessomepredefinedmicrowavelinksclassesthatarecompliantwithITUG.821,G.826,
andG.828recommendations.

6.10.2.2 DefiningPerformanceObjectives
Performanceobjectivesservetwomaingoals:

Performanceobjectivesgivetheuserofnationalandinternationaldigitalnetworksanindicationoftheexpectedper
formanceunderrealoperatingconditions,therebyfacilitatingserviceplanningandterminalequipmentdesign.
Performanceobjectivesformthebasisuponwhichperformancestandardsaremadefortransmissionequipmentand
systemsinadigitalconnection.

InAtoll,youcanuseeitherradioindicatorsasperformanceobjectives(receivedsignallevel,fademargin),orperformance
parameters(ESR,SESR,BBER)asdefinedintheITUG.821,G.826,andG.828recommendations.Theerrorperformanceparam
etersarebasedonmeasurementsofmicrowaveerrorevents.
Microwaveerroreventsanderrorperformanceparametersarebrieflydescribedinthefollowingsections:

"MicrowaveErrorEvents"onpage 298.
"MicrowaveErrorPerformanceParameters"onpage 298.

MicrowaveErrorEvents
Microwaveerrorparametersarebasedonthefollowingevents:

ErroredBlock(EB):TheEBisablockofdatawithoneormoreerroneousbits.
ErroredSecond(ES):TheESisaonesecondperiodwithoneormoreerroredblocksoratleastonedefect.
SeverelyErroredSecond(SES):TheSESisaonesecondperiodwith30%erroredblocksoratleastonedefect.SESis
asubsetofES.
Consecutive Severely Errored Seconds can result in periods of unavailability, especially
whentherearenobackuporstandbyprocedures.PeriodsofconsecutiveSeverelyErrored
SecondspersistingforTseconds,whereT > 10(sometimesreferredtoas"failures"),can
haveasevereimpactonservice,leadingtothedisconnectionofswitchedservices.The
frequencyoftheseeventscanbelimitedbylimitingtheSESR.

BackgroundBlockError(BBE):TheBBEisanerroredblocknotoccurringaspartofanSES.

MicrowaveErrorPerformanceParameters
Thetotalobservationtime(Stotal)issplitintotwoparts,namely,thetimeforwhichtheconnectionisdeemedtobeavailable
(Savail)andthetimewhenitisunavailable(Sunavail).Errorperformanceshouldonlybeevaluatedwhiletheconnectionisinthe
availablestate.Theparametersare:

6.10.2.2.1

ErroredSecondRatio(ESR):TheESRistheratioofEStototalsecondsinavailabletimeduringafixedmeasurement
interval.
SeverelyErroredSecondRatio(SESR):TheSESRistheratioofSEStototalsecondsinavailabletimeduringafixed
measurementinterval.
BackgroundBlockErrorRatio(BBER):TheBBERistheratioofBackgroundBlockErrors(BBE)tototalblocksinavail
abletimeduringafixedmeasurementinterval.ThecountoftotalblocksexcludesallblocksduringSESs.

DefiningQualityObjectives
AtollincludesbydefaultthequalityobjectivesdefinedintheITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828recommendations.Youcan
alsodefinecustomisedqualityobjectives.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CheckingITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828QualityObjectives"onpage 298.
"CreatingCustomisedQualityObjectives"onpage 299.

CheckingITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828QualityObjectives
ITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828qualityobjectivesarecharacterisedbyaperformanceobjectiveequationthatdefines
thelimitationoftherelevantqualityobjectiveparameter(BBER,ESR,SESR).Theperformanceobjectiveequationsdefinethe
behaviourofthequalityparameterasafunctionofthelength(Linkm)ofthelinkandaconstantasfollows:
EPO=FactorA*L+FactorB

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TocheckthepredefinedITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828qualityobjectives:
1. In the Parameters explorer, expandMicrowave Settings andPerformanceand rightclickQuality Objectives. The
contextmenuappears.
2. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheQualityObjectivesdialogboxappears.
3. Selecttheappropriatetab(ITUG.821,ITUG.826,orITUG.828).Thequalityobjectivesareavailableinatable.Each
objectiveisdefinedbythefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameoftheperformanceobjective.
Parameter:Theparameterusedtodefinetheperformanceobjective.
Linkclass:Thelinkclasstowhichtheperformanceobjectiveapplies.
Mindatarate(Mbps):Theminimumdatarateofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxdatarate(Mbps):Themaximumdatarateofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Minlength(m):Theminimumlengthofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxlength(m):Themaximumlengthofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
FactorA:Themultiplyingfactorofthelengthintheperformanceobjectiveequation.
FactorB:Theconstantintheperformanceobjectiveequation.
Comments:Additionalinformationregardingtheperformanceobjective.
Nonquality%:Thepercentageofcutoffnottobeexceededinclearairconditions.
Monthlyduration:Themaximumcutoffdurationinclearairconditionsoveronemonth.
Annualduration:Themaximumcutoffdurationinclearairconditionsoveroneyear.

Whenyouclickonerecordinthetable,Atolldisplaystheperformanceobjectiveequationatthetopofthedialogbox.
Thenonquality%,themonthlydurationaswellastheannualdurationdisplayedinthetablearederivedfromthe
performanceobjectiveequation.TheyarecalculatedfortheuserdefinedaveragelinklengthwhenthefactorAinthe
equationisnotnull.
4. ClickClosetoclosetheQualityObjectivesdialogbox.
CreatingCustomisedQualityObjectives
InadditiontotheITUG.821,ITUG.826,andITUG.828qualityobjectives,youcandefinecustomisedqualityobjectivesbased
onSESR,ESR,BBER,thereceivedsignallevel,orthethermalfademargin.
Tocreateanewqualityobjective:
1. In the Parameters explorer, expandMicrowave Settings andPerformanceand rightclickQuality Objectives. The
contextmenuappears.
2. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheQualityObjectivesdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheCustomisedtabandentertheNameoftheperformanceobjectiveintherowmarkedwiththeNewRow
icon(
):
4. OpentheperformanceobjectivePropertiesdialogboxasdefinedin"OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesdialog
boxfromaTable"onpage 56.TheperformanceobjectivePropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. ClicktheGeneraltabanddefinethefollowingparametersunderLink:

Class:Thelinkclasstowhichtheperformanceobjectiveapplies.
Minrate:Theminimumdatarate(Mbps)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxrate:Themaximumdatarate(Mbps)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Minlength:Theminimumlength(m)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxlength:Themaximumlength(m)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.

Ifnecessary,addsomeCommentsregardingtheperformanceobjective.
6. ClicktheObjectivestabandselecttheobjectiveparameterthatdefinestheperformanceobjective.Youcanselect
SESR,orESR,orBBER,orRXLEV,orMARG.

IfyouhaveselectedSESR,ESR,orBBERasparameter,youcanchooseoneoftheoptionsunderQuality:

Nonquality(Month):Enterthemaximumcutoffdurationinclearairconditionsoveronemonth.
Nonquality(Year):Enterthemaximumcutoffdurationinclearairconditionsoveroneyear.
Quality:Enterthepercentageofnoncutoffthatmustbeexceededinclearairconditions.
Probability:Enterthecutoffprobabilitynottobeexceededinclearairconditions.Theprobabilityisdefined
asafunctionofthelength(L)ofthelinkandaconstant.Whenthemultiplyingfactorofthelengthisnotnull,
youcandefinetheaveragelinklengthsothatAtollcanestimatethecorrespondingcutoffdurationsoverone
monthandoneyear,aswellasthepercentageofnoncutoff.
IfyouhaveselectedRXLEVasparameter,enterthetargetlevelindBm.Thisistheminimumreceivedsignallevel
tobereached.
IfyouhaveselectedMARG,enterthetargetmarginindB.Thisistheminimumthermalfademargintobereached.

7. ClickOKtoclosetheperformanceobjectivePropertiesdialogbox.

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8. ClickOKtoclosetheQualityObjectivesdialogbox.

6.10.2.2.2

DefiningAvailabilityObjectives
AtollincludesbydefaulttheavailabilityobjectivesdefinedintheITUG.821andITUG.826recommendations.Youcanalso
definecustomisedavailabilityobjectives.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CheckingITUG.821andITUG.826AvailabilityObjectives"onpage 300.
"CreatingCustomisedAvailabilityObjectives"onpage 300.

CheckingITUG.821andITUG.826AvailabilityObjectives
ITUG.821andITUG.826availabilityobjectivesarecharacterisedbyaperformanceobjectiveequationthatdefinesthelimi
tationoftherelevantavailabilityobjectiveparameter(SESR).Theperformanceobjectiveequationsdefinethebehaviourof
theavailabilityparameterasafunctionofthelength(Linkm)ofthelinkandaconstantasfollows:
EPO=FactorA*L+FactorB
TocheckthepredefinedITUG.821andITUG.826availabilityobjectives:
1. IntheParametersexplorer,expandMicrowaveSettingsandPerformanceandrightclickAvailabilityObjectives.The
contextmenuappears.
2. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheAvailabilityObjectivesdialogboxappears.
3. Selecttheappropriatetab(ITUG.821,orITUG.826).Theavailabilityobjectivesareavailableinatable.Eachobjective
isdefinedbythefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameoftheperformanceobjective.
Parameter:Theparameterusedtodefinetheperformanceobjective.
Linkclass:Thelinkclasstowhichtheperformanceobjectiveapplies.
Mindatarate(Mbps):Theminimumdatarateofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxdatarate(Mbps):Themaximumdatarateofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Minlength(m):Theminimumlengthofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxlength(m):Themaximumlengthofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
FactorA:Themultiplyingfactorofthelengthintheperformanceobjectiveequation.
FactorB:Theconstantintheperformanceobjectiveequation.
Comments:Additionalinformationregardingtheperformanceobjective.
Unavailability%(Objectiverelatedtorain):Thepercentageofcutoffnottobeexceededinrainconditions.
Monthlyduration(Objectiverelatedtorain):Themaximumcutoffdurationinrainconditionsoveronemonth.
Annualduration(Objectiverelatedtorain):Themaximumcutoffdurationinrainconditionsoveroneyear.
Unavailability%(Objectiverelatedtofailures):Thepercentageofcutoffduetofailuresnottobeexceeded.
Monthlyduration(Objectiverelatedtofailures):Themaximumcutoffdurationduetofailuresoveronemonth.
Annualduration(Objectiverelatedtofailures):Themaximumcutoffdurationduetofailuresoveroneyear.

Whenyouclickonerecordinthetable,Atolldisplaystheperformanceobjectiveequationatthetopofthedialogbox.
The%,themonthlydurationsaswellastheannualdurationsdisplayedinthetablearederivedfromtheperformance
objectiveequation.TheyarecalculatedfortheuserdefinedaveragelinklengthwhenthefactorAintheequationis
notnull.
4. ClickClosetoclosetheAvailabilityObjectivesdialogbox.
CreatingCustomisedAvailabilityObjectives
InadditiontotheITUG.821,andITUG.826availabilityobjectives,youcandefinecustomisedavailabilityobjectivesbasedon
SESR,ESR,BBER,thereceivedsignallevel,orthethermalfademargin.
Tocreateanewavailabilityobjective:
1. IntheParametersexplorer,expandMicrowaveSettingsandPerformance,andrightclickAvailabilityObjectives.The
contextmenuappears.
2. SelectEditfromthecontextmenu.TheAvailabilityObjectivesdialogboxappears.
3. SelecttheCustomisedtabandentertheNameoftheperformanceobjectiveintherowmarkedwiththeNewRow
icon(
):
4. OpentheperformanceobjectivePropertiesdialogboxasdefinedin"OpeninganObjectsRecordPropertiesdialog
boxfromaTable"onpage 56.TheperformanceobjectivePropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. ClicktheGeneraltabanddefinethefollowingparametersUnderLink:

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Class:Thelinkclasstowhichtheperformanceobjectiveapplies.
Minrate:Theminimumdatarate(Mbps)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxrate:Themaximumdatarate(Mbps)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.

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Minlength:Theminimumlength(m)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.
Maxlength:Themaximumlength(m)ofthemicrowavelinkfortheperformanceobjectivetobeused.

Ifnecessary,addsomeCommentsregardingtheperformanceobjective.
6. ClicktheObjectivestabandselecttheobjectiveparameterthatdefinestheperformanceobjective.Youcanselect
SESR,orESR,orBBER,orRXLEV,orMARGfromthelist.

ForSESR,ESR,orBBER,selectfromtheDistributionmenuiftheperformanceobjectiveistotal,forrainconditions
only,orforfailures,andchooseoneofthefollowingavailabilityoptions:

Unavailability(Month):EnterthemaximumcutoffdurationoveronemonthforthespecifiedDistributionset
ting.
Unavailability(Year):EnterthemaximumcutoffdurationoveroneyearforthespecifiedDistributionsetting.
Availability:EnterthepercentageofnoncutoffthatmustbeexceededforthespecifiedDistributionsetting.
Probability:EnterthecutoffprobabilitynottobeexceededforthespecifiedDistributionsetting.Theproba
bilityisdefinedasafunctionofthelength(L)ofthelinkandaconstant.Whenthemultiplyingfactorofthe
lengthisnotnull,youcandefinetheaveragelinklengthsothatAtollcanestimatethecorrespondingcutoff
durationsoveronemonthandoneyear,aswellasthepercentageofnoncutoff.
IfyouselectedRXLEVasparameter,enterthetargetlevelindBm.Thisistheminimumreceivedsignalleveltobe
reached.
IfyouselectedMARG,enterthetargetmarginindB.Thisistheminimumthermalfademargintobereached.

7. ClickOKtoclosetheperformanceobjectivePropertiesdialogbox.
8. ClickOKtoclosetheQualityObjectivesdialogbox.

6.10.3 ModellingPointtoMultipointSystems
Apointtomultipointsystemisasetofmicrowavelinksconnectedtoahub.Apointtomultipointsystemisusedwhenmicro
wavelinksmustbemadebetweenonesiteandafixednumberofothersites.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystem"onpage 301.
"PointtoMultipointSystemProperties"onpage 303.
"SettingallMicrowaveLinksofaPointtoMultipointSystemasActive"onpage 304.
"AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem"onpage 304.
"AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem"onpage 304.
"DeletingaMicrowaveLinkfromaPointtoMultipointSystem"onpage 305.
"DeletingaPointtoMultipointSystem"onpage 305.
"MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 305.
"AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHub"onpage 306.
"AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHubUsingtheMouse"onpage 306..

6.10.3.1 CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystem
InAtoll,apointtomultipointsystemcanbemanagedasagroupofsinglehopmicrowavelinks(whichcancontainrepeaters)
connectedtoahub.Youcancreateapointtomultipointsysteminseveraldifferentways:

Usingthemouse
UsingthePointtoMultipointfolder
EditingthePointtoMultipointtable.

Thesitesthatdefinethehuborsitesofapointtomultipointsystemcanbealreadyexistingsitesornewsites,createdauto
maticallyatthelocationyouclickonthemap.EachsiteinAtollcansupportseverallinks,transmitters,andpassiverepeaters.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

6.10.3.1.1

"CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingtheMouse"onpage 301
"CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePointtoMultipointFolder"onpage 302
"CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePointtoMultipointTable"onpage 302

CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingtheMouse
Tocreateanewpointtomultipointsystemdirectlyonthemapbetweenneworexistingsitesusingamicrowavelinktemplate:
1. IntheMicrowaveLinkPlanningtoolbar,selectamicrowavelinktemplatefromthe
list.

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2. Click the New PMP button (

) on the Microwave Link Planning toolbar. The

).

pointerchanges(

3. Clickonthemaptocreatethehubofthepointtomultipointsystem.

4. Clickthemapateachpointyouwanttoinsertanewmicrowavelink.Ifyoudonot
clickanexistingsite,Atollcreatesanewsitewhereyouclick.Theexactcoordinates
ofthepointerscurrentlocationarevisibleintheStatusbar.

5. Doubleclickwhenaddingthelastmicrowavelinktocompletethepointtomulti
pointsystem.

6.10.3.1.2

Toplacethemicrowavelinkmoreaccurately,youcanzoominonthemapbefore
youclicktheNewPMPbutton(
).Forinformationonusingthezoomingtools,
see"ChangingtheMapScale"onpage 36.
Ifyouletthepointerrestovertheextremityyouhaveplaced,Atolldisplaysitstip
textwithitsexactcoordinates,allowingyoutoverifythatthelocationiscorrect.

CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePointtoMultipointFolder
TocreateanewpointtomultipointsystemusingthePointtoMultipointfolder:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclickthePointtoMultipointfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectNewfromthecontextmenu.ThePointtoMultipoint:NewRecordPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. EnterormodifythefollowingfieldsontheGeneraltab:

Name:TheNamefieldisfilledautomaticallybyAtoll,butcanbemodified.
Frequencyband:Youmustselectafrequencybandwhenyoucreateapointtomultipointsystem.Onceyouhave

selectedafrequencyband,youcanviewandmodifyitspropertiesbyclickingtheBrowsebutton(
).
NodalSite:Youmustselectthesitethatwillbethehubofthepointtomultipointsystem.Onceyouhaveselected

thehubsite,youcanviewandmodifyitspropertiesbyclickingthebrowsebutton(
Type:Selectthetype:TDMAorFDMA.
Antenna:Selecttheantennaanditsparameters.
Comments:Enteranycommentsforthisnewpointtomultipointsystem.

).

6. ClickOK.AtollcreatesanemptypointtomultipointsystemiteminthePointtoMultipointfolder.
Toaddmicrowavelinkstothecreatedpointtomultipointsystem,see"AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMulti
pointSystem"onpage 304

6.10.3.1.3

CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePointtoMultipointTable
TocreateanewpointtomultipointsystemusingthePointtoMultipointtable:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclickthePointtoMultipointfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectOpenTablefromthecontextmenu.ThePointtoMultipointtableappears.
5. Intherowmarkedwiththenewrowicon( ),enterthedetailsofthenewpointtomultipointsystem.Thefollowing
fieldsmustbefilled:Name,FrequencyBand,andSite.

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6. Toaddmicrowavelinkstothecreatedpointtomultipointsystem,see"AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMulti
pointSystem"onpage 304.
Bydefault,Atollnamesthenewlypointtomultipointsystem"PMPHubX",where"X"incrementswiththecreationofeach
newpointtomultipointsystem.

6.10.3.2 PointtoMultipointSystemProperties
Youcanmodifypointtomultipointsystempropertieseitherindividuallyorglobally.Globalsettingsareappliedtoallthe
filteredpointtomultipointsystems.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

6.10.3.2.1

"ModifyingGlobalProperties"onpage 303
"ModifyingIndividualProperties"onpage 303.

ModifyingGlobalProperties
Tomanagethepointtomultipointsystempropertiesglobally:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclickthePointtoMultipointfolder.Thecontextmenuappears.
4. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePointtoMultipointPropertiesdialogboxappears.
5. EnterormodifythedataonthefollowingtabsofthePointtoMultipointPropertiesdialogbox:

General:TheGeneraltabletsyouorganisefoldersandassignorsaveafolderconfiguration(forinformationon
folderconfigurations,see"FolderConfigurations"onpage 86).Youcanalsoorganisepointtomultipointsystems
byusingAtollgroup,sort,andfiltertools.
Table:TheTabletabhelpsyoutomanagecontents,includinguserdefinedfields,ofthepointtomultipointtable.
Forinformationonworkingwithdatatables,see"Adding,Deleting,andEditingDataTableFields"onpage 54.
Display:The Display taballows youto manage the display of pointto multipoint systems depending on their
attributes,tomanagethelegend,labelsonthemap,andthecontentsoftiptextusingthetiptext
mationonchangingdisplayoptions,see"DisplayPropertiesofObjects"onpage 30.

.Forinfor

6. ClickOK.

6.10.3.2.2

ModifyingIndividualProperties
Toeditthepropertiesofapointtomultipointsystem:
1. Openthecontextmenuofthepointtomultipointsystem:
OntheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow:
a. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
b. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.TheLinksfolderopens.
c. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePointtoMultipointfolder.ThePointtoMultipointfolderopens.Ifthe
pointtomultipointsystemsareorganisedintosubfolders,youwillhavetoexpandthesubfolderaswell.
d. Rightclickthepointtomultipointsystemwhosepropertiesyouwanttoedit.Thecontextmenuappears.
Onthemap:
a. Selecttheantennaiconofthepointtomultipointsystemhubwhosepropertiesyouwishtochange.Thepointto
multipointiconchanges(

).

Besuretoselecttheantennaiconofthepointtomultipointsystemhub.Donotselectthe
siteicon(

).

b. Rightclickthepointtomultipointicon.Thecontextmenuappears.
2. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. EnterormodifythedataonthefollowingtabsofthePointtoMultipointPropertiesdialogbox:

General:TheGeneraltabletsdefinethefollowingparametersofthepointtomultipointsystem:

Name:TheNamefieldisfilledautomaticallybyAtoll,butcanbemodified.

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Frequencyband:Youmustselectafrequencybandwhenyoucreateapointtomultipointsystem.Onceyou

haveselectedafrequencyband,youcanviewandmodifyitspropertiesbyclickingtheBrowsebutton(
).
NodalSite:Youmustselectthesitethatwillbethehubofthepointtomultipointsystem.Onceyouhave

selectedthehubsite,youcanviewandmodifyitspropertiesbyclickingthebrowsebutton(
Type:Selectthetype:TDMAorFDMA.
Antenna:Selecttheantennaanditsparameters.
Comments:Enteranycommentsforthisnewpointtomultipointsystem.

).

Links: The Links tab lets you add, edit, and delete the microwave links that make up this point to multipoint
system.
Display:TheDisplaytabletsyoutoselectandcustomisetheiconsymbolisingthepointtomultipointsystemon
themap.
AnOtherPropertiestabisavailableifyouhaveaddedfieldstothePointtoMultipointtable.

6.10.3.3 SettingallMicrowaveLinksofaPointtoMultipointSystemasActive
Youcanactivateordeactivateallmicrowavelinksbelongingtoapointtomultipointsystem.IntheNetworkexplorer,active
microwavelinksaredisplayedinred(

)intheMultiHopsfolder;inactivelinksaredisplayedingrey(

).

Tochangetheactivitystatusofallmicrowavelinksofapointtomultipointsystem:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePointtoMultipointfolder.Ifthepointtomultipointsystemsareorganised
intosubfolders,youwillhavetoexpandthesubfolderaswell.
4. RightclickthePMPhubwhoseactivitystatusyouwanttoset.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. Selectoneofthefollowing:

ActivateLinks:SelectActivateLinkstomakeallmicrowavelinksofthepointtomultipointsystemactive.
DeactivateLinks:SelectDeactivateLinkstomakeallmicrowavelinksofthepointtomultipointsysteminactive.

6.10.3.4 AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem
Beforeyoucandefineamicrowavelinkaspartofthepointtomultipointsystem,themicrowavelinkmustfirstexistbetween
thesiteofthehubofthepointtomultipointsystemandanothersite.Forinformationoncreatingmicrowavelinks,see"Defi
nitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.
Toaddamicrowavelinktoapointtomultipointsystem:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePointtoMultipointfolder.Ifthepointtomultipointsystemsareorganised
intosubfolders,youwillhavetoexpandthesubfolderaswell.
4. RightclickthenewpointtomultipointsystemandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialog
boxappears.
5. SelecttheLinkstab.
6. Intherowwiththenewrowicon(

),selectamicrowavelink.

7. ClickOK.Themicrowavelinkisaddedtothepointtomultipointsystem.

6.10.3.5 AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystem
Beforeyoucandefineamicrowavelinkaspartofthepointtomultipointsystem,themicrowavelinkmustfirstexistbetween
thesiteofthehubofthepointtomultipointsystemandanothersite.Forinformationoncreatingmicrowavelinks,see"Defi
nitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.
Toaddamicrowavelinktoapointtomultipointsystemusingthemouse:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePointtoMultipointfolder.
4. Rightclickthepointtomultipointsystemtowhichyouwanttoaddamicrowavelink.Thecontextmenuappears.
5. SelectAddaLinkfromthecontextmenu.Thepointershapechanges(

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6. Onthemap,clickthemicrowavelinkyouwanttoaddtothepointtomultipointsystem.Themicrowavelinkisadded
tothelistofmicrowavelinksformingthepointtomultipointsystem.

6.10.3.6 DeletingaMicrowaveLinkfromaPointtoMultipointSystem
Todeleteamicrowavelinkfromapointtomultipointsystem:
1. Onthemap,selectthemicrowavelinkyouwanttodelete.
2. Rightclickthemicrowavelinkyouwanttodeletefromthepointtomultipointsystem.Thecontextmenuappears.
3. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Themicrowavelinkisdeleted.
Deletingamicrowavelinkinthismannerdoesnotdeletethecorrespondingsitesevenif
therearenoothermicrowavelinksrelatedtothatsite.

6.10.3.7 DeletingaPointtoMultipointSystem
Todeleteapointtomultipointsystem:
1. RightclickthepointtomultipointsystemeitherdirectlyonthemaporinthePointtoMultipointfolderintheLinks
folderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.Thecontextmenuappears.
Whenselectingapointtomultipointsystemonthemap,becarefultoselectthelinerepresentingthepointtomulti
pointsystem.Donotselectthesiteicon(

).

2. SelectDeletefromthecontextmenu.Thepointtomultipointsystemisdeleted.
YoucanalsodeleteapointtomultipointsystembydeletingtherowassociatedwithitinthePointtoMultipointtable.Delet
ingapointtomultipointsystemfromthetabledoesnotdeletethecorrespondingsiteseveniftherearenoothermicrowave
linksrelatingtothatsite.

6.10.3.8 MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsingthePMP
LinkMappingTable
AtollenablesyoucreateormodifyallpointtomultipointsystemsusingthePMPLinkMappingtable.
ToopenthePMPLinkMappingtable:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. RightclickthePointtoMultipointfolder.Ifthepointtomultipointsystemsareorganisedintosubfolders,youwill
havetoexpandthesubfolderaswell.
4. SelectPMPLinkMappingfromthecontextmenu.ThePMPLinkMappingtableopens,containingallthepointto
multipointsystemsandthecorrespondingmicrowavelinks.Inthistable,youcanmodify,delete,andaddthemicro
wavelinksthatmakeupapointtomultipointsystem.
Inthissection,thefollowingaredescribed:

6.10.3.8.1

"AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 305
"EditingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 306
"DeletingaMicrowaveLinkfromaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 306

AddingaMicrowaveLinktoaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable
ToaddalinktoapointtomultipointsystemusingthePMPLinkMappingtable:
1. OpenthePMPLinkMappingtableasexplainedin"MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsing
thePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 305.
2. IntherowwiththeNewRowicon(
amicrowavelinkto.

),clickinthecellinthePMPHubcolumnandselectthehubyouwanttoadd

3. Inthesamerow,clickinthecellintheLinkcolumnandselectthemicrowavelinkyouwanttoaddtothePMPhub.
ThePMPhubandmicrowavelinkmustexisttobeselectedinthePMPLinkMappingtable.
ForinformationoncreatingaPMPhub,see"CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystem"on
page 301.Forinformationoncreatingamicrowavelink,see"CreatingMicrowaveLinks"
onpage 223.

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EditingaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePMPLinkMappingTable
ToeditapointtomultipointsystemusingthePMPLinkMappingtable:
1. OpenthePMPLinkMappingtableasexplainedin"MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsing
thePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 305.
2. Intherowwithpointtomultipointsystem,clickinthecellinthePMPHubcolumnorintheLinkcolumnandselect
thehubormicrowavelinkyouwanttochangeto.
ThePMPhubandmicrowavelinkmustexisttobeselectedinthePMPLinkMappingtable.
ForinformationoncreatingaPMPhub,see"CreatingaPointtoMultipointSystem"on
page 301.Forinformationoncreatingamicrowavelink,see"CreatingMicrowaveLinks"
onpage 223.

6.10.3.8.3

DeletingaMicrowaveLinkfromaPointtoMultipointSystemUsingthePMPLinkMapping
Table
TodeleteamicrowavelinkfromapointtomultipointsystemusingthePMPLinkMappingtable:
1. OpenthePMPLinkMappingtableasexplainedin"MappingMicrowaveLinkstoPointtoMultipointSystemsUsing
thePMPLinkMappingTable"onpage 305.
2. Clickintheleftmarginofthetablerowwiththemicrowavelinkyouwanttodelete.
3. PressDELtodeletethemicrowavelink.

6.10.3.9 AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHub
Whenamicrowavelinkconsistsofonlytwosites,theantennaoneachsiteisalignedwiththeotherantenna.Inapointto
multipointsystem,itisimpossiblefortheantennaonthehubtobedirectlyalignedwiththeantennaoneachmicrowavelink.
Consequently,theheight,azimuth,andtiltoftheantennaarecalculatedasaaverageofthatneededforalllinkantennas.
Atoll calculates these settings for the point to multipoint hub antenna when the point to multipoint system is created.
However,afterthepointtomultipointhasbeencreated,otherfactorssuchastheadditionofnewmicrowavelinkscanmean
thatthesettingsofthehubantennaneedtobereadjusted.Atollcanrecalculatethesettingsforthepointtomultipointhub
antenna.
TomakeAtollrecalculatethesettingsforthepointtomultipointhubantenna:
1. SelecttheNetworktaboftheexplorerwindow.
2. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandtheLinksfolder.
3. ClicktheExpandbutton( )toexpandthePointtoMultipointfolder.
4. Rightclickthepointtomultipointsystemofwhichyouwanttorecalculatethehubantennasettings.Thecontext
menuappears.
5. SelectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.ThePropertiesdialogboxappears.
6. SelecttheGeneraltabofthePropertiesdialogbox.
7. UnderAntenna,clicktheCalculatebutton(
)totherightoftheTiltbox.TheCalculationoftheNodalAntenna
Angles dialog box appears with the recalculated height, azimuth, and tilt values for the point to multipoint hub
antenna.
8. Whenthevaluesforthepointtomultipointhubantennaarerecalculated,thepointtomultipointsystemantennas
mightneedtobeadjustedaccordingly.IfyouwantAtollcalculatetheeffectoftherecalculatedvaluesforthehub
antennaonthelinkantennas,selecttheTransferthemisalignmentstolinkscheckboxintheCalculationoftheNodal
AntennaAnglesdialogbox.
9. ClickOKtoupdatethevaluesforthepointtomultipointantennas.

6.10.3.10 AdjustingtheAntennaofthePointtoMultipointHubUsingtheMouse
Tousethemousetoadjusttheazimuthofthepointtomultipointhubantenna:
1. Selecttheantennaiconofthepointtomultipointhub.Thepointtomultipointiconchanges(
rotateitmanually.
2. Clicktheantennaicon(thepointchanges:

306

)androtateittoitsnewazimuth.

)andyoucannow

Chapter7
BackhaulCapacity
Planning
ThischapterexplainshowtousetheAtollbackhaul
capacityplanningmoduletomodelbackhaulnetwork
topologiesandtodimensionbackhaullinksaccordingto
radioaccessnetworktraffic.

Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics:

"CreatingtheLogicalTransportLayer"onpage 310

"CheckingLogicalandPhysicalLayerConsistency"on
page 321

"DimensioningtheBackhaulNetwork"onpage 322

"NetworkFailureSimulation"onpage 328

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7 BackhaulCapacityPlanning
Atollprovidesabackhaulcapacityplanningmodulethatallowsnetworkoperatorstomodelbackhaulnetworktopologiesand
todimensionbackhaullinksaccordingtoradioaccessnetworktraffic.AtollsupportsTDM,packet,aswellashybridmicrowave
andotherwiredandwirelessbackhaullinksaspartofaheterogeneousbackhaulnetwork.
TheAtollbackhaulcapacityplanningmoduleenablesyoutodesignyourbackhaulnetworkbycreatinglogicalnodesandpath
segments between source and destination nodes, by automatically developing backhaul paths and subnetworks, and by
providingyouwithtoolstoanalyseendtoendmobiletrafficrouting,tooptimisebackhaulnetworkcapacity,andtostudy
trafficevolutionscenarios.

Figure 7.1:BackhaulnetworkmapviewinAtoll
Figure 7.2depictstheprocessofplanningandoptimisingabackhaulnetwork.Thestepsinvolvedaredescribedinthefollow
ingsections.
1. Openanexistingbackhauldocumentorcreateanewone( 1 ).

YoucanopenanexistingAtolldocumentbyselectingFile >Open.
YoucancreateanewAtolldocumentwiththe"Backhaul"templateandcreateaphysicalbackhaulnetworkas
explainedinChapter6:BackhaulNetworks.
The backhaulcapacityplanning module reliesonanexistingphysicalbackhaulnetwork
madeofMWlinksandothertransmissionlinkssuchasopticallinksorleasedlines.The
radioequipmentandcapacitymustbeproperlyconfigured.Forinstructionsoncreatinga
physicalbackhaulnetworkinAtoll,see"BackhaulNetworks"onpage 211.

2. Configurethenetworkbycreatingandconfiguringlogicallayerelements( 2 ).
Youcanaddandmodifythefollowingelements:

"CreatingNodes"onpage 312.
"CreatingSegments"onpage 314.

3. Checkthatthelogicallayerisconsistentwiththephysicalnetwork( 3 ).

"CheckingLogicalandPhysicalLayerConsistency"onpage 321.

4. Analyseandimprovenetworkcapacity( 4 ).

"DimensioningtheBackhaulNetwork"onpage 322.

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5. Simulateequipmentorsitefailures( 5 ).

"NetworkFailureSimulation"onpage 328.
1

Figure 7.2:Backhaulplanningandoptimisationworkflow

7.1 CreatingtheLogicalTransportLayer
Thebackhaulnetworkmodelcomprisesaphysicalnetworkandalogicaltransportlayer.Thelogicaltransportlayeristypically
superimposedoveranexistingphysicalbackhaulnetwork,asshowninFigure 7.3.Forinformationoncreatingaphysicalback
haulnetwork,see"DesigningaBackhaulNetwork"onpage 211.

Figure 7.3:Exampleofaphysicalbackhaulnetworkwithsitesandlinks
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"TransportLayerOverview"onpage 310.
"CreatingNodes"onpage 312.
"CreatingSegments"onpage 314.

7.1.1 TransportLayerOverview
InAtoll,thetransportlayerismadeofnodesconnectedbysegments,asshowninFigure 7.4,wherelogicalnodesarelocated
onsitesandlogicalsegmentsrepresenttheconnectionbetweennodes.Thetransportlayerofanetworkorsubnetworktypi
callyformsatreehierarchy,ortopology,frommultiplesourcenodestoasingledestinationnode.

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Figure 7.4:Exampleofalogicalbackhaulnetworkwithsourceanddestinationnodesandsegments
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"BackhaulNodes"onpage 311
"BackhaulSegments"onpage 311

7.1.1.1 BackhaulNodes
Abackhaulnodeisapointofconcentrationoftraffic.Anodecanbeasourceoftraffictowardsanothernodeoradestination
oftrafficfromothernodes.Inotherwords,anodecanbeasimplenodeorahubnodeatthesametime.Aradiositecanhouse
oneormorenodes.
Nodescanbecreateddirectlyonthemapusingthemouse.Themainparametersofabackhaulnodeare:

Theradiositetowhichitbelongs.
Thebackhaulsubnetwork,ifany,towhichitbelongs.
TheTDM,uplinkanddownlinkIPtrafficconcentratedatthenode.

TheamountofTDMtrafficforeachnodecanbeestimatedfromthenumbersoftrunklines(E1,T1,etc.)andcapacities.The
amountsofTDMandEthernettrafficcanbedirectlyextractedfromanunderlyingradioaccessnetwork.

7.1.1.2 BackhaulSegments
Abackhaulsegmentoutlinesahierarchicalbackhaulnetworktopologybyestablishingalogicalconnectionbetweenasource
andadestinationnode.Segmentsaredirectional,asshowninFigure 7.4,where:

Sourcenodesarethenodesatthelowestlevelinthehierarchicalnetworktopology.Thesenodesaretheclosestto
theendbasestation.
Destinationnodesarethenodesatthehighestlevelinthehierarchicalnetworktopology.Thesenodesaretheclosest
tothecorenetwork.

Segmentsandlinkscanhavemultiplerelationships,asshowninFigure 7.5,where:

Asinglesegmentconnectingtwonodesmayberelayedoverasinglephysicallink;microwaveorother.Thisisthemost
commonsituation.
Asegmentconnectingtwonodesmayberelayedoveronephysicallinktobeginwith,andtwoormorelinksasthe
trafficbetweenthetwonodesincreases.Forexample,twoleasedlinesinsteadofonlyoneasthetrafficincreases.
Oneormoresegmentsconnectingtwoormorenodesmayberelayedoveronephysicallinkpartitionedintotwosep
aratetrafficstreams.Forexample,amicrowavelinkservingdifferentnetworks.

Figure 7.5:Asegmentcomprisingtwophysicallinks(left)andaphysicallinkcarryingtwosegments(right)
Inaddition,segmentscanbeusedtomodelthelogicalconnectionbetweenadestinationnodeandeachsourcenodeofa
physicallink.Forexample,inFigure 7.6onpage 312,aleasedlineconnectsSite0toSite1,Site1toSite2,andsoontoSite5.
Foreachsite,alogicalsegmentexists,whichmodelstheconnectionbetweenthedestinationnodeonSite0andeachindivid
ualnodeonthepathoftheleasedline.

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Figure 7.6Logicalsegmentsconnectingindividualnodesonthepathofaleasedline
Segmentscanbecreateddirectlyonthemapbyusingthemouse.Themainparametersofabackhaulsegmentare:

Thesourceanddestinationnodes.
Thetopologyofthesubnetworktowhichthesegmentbelongs,starorring.
IPoverbookingfactors.
Links,microwaveorother,configuredtobeusedbythesegment,andtheircorrespondingTDMandIPbandwidths

7.1.2 CreatingNodes
Nodesarethelogicalelementsthatrepresentthebasestationequipmenttowhichbackhaullinksareconnected.InAtoll,
nodesarealwayslocatedonasiteandasitecanhostmultiplenodes.
Foreachnode,youdefinethetrafficgeneratedbytheusersthatareconnectedtothesite.Eachnodeisassignedacombina
tionofthefollowingtraffictypes:

TDM:circuittrafficdemandwhereassignedDLtrafficequalsassignedULtraffic.
EthernetUL:packetuploadtrafficdemand.
EthernetDL:packetdownloadtrafficdemand.
IntheAtollmapview,nodesaredisplayedasadditionallayersoversites.Dependingon
whetheryouwanttoworkwiththenodeorthesite,makesurethatthedisplaycheckbox
( )ofeither the Transport Layer>Nodes folder or theSites folder isenabledonthe
Networktaboftheexplorer.
Formoreinformationaboutobjectlayers,see"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMap
UsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 24.

Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"NodeProperties"onpage 312
"CreatingaNodeonaSite"onpage 313.
"CreatingMultipleNodesbyImportingaTextFile"onpage 313.

7.1.2.1 NodeProperties
TheparametersofanodecanbefoundinthenodePropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhastwotabs:

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TheGeneraltab(seeFigure 7.7):Thistabprovidesgeneralinformationaboutthenode.

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Figure 7.7:Nodepropertiesdialogbox

Name:Bydefault,thenameofthenodeisbasedonthesitenameappendedwithanodenumber(forexample,
thefirstnodeonasite"Site401"isnamedas"Site401_N1").Youcanrenamethenodeifnecessary.
Site:Thesiteonwhichthenodeislocated.
Subnetwork:Theoptionalnameofthesubnetworktowhichthenodebelongs.
Active:Thenodeactivitystatus.Onlyactivenodesareconsideredincalculations.
Traffic:Thetrafficdemandassociatedwiththenode.
TDM:TheTDMtrafficdemand(inMbps).
ULEthernet:TheuplinkEthernettrafficdemand(inMbps).
DLEthernet:ThedownlinkEthernettrafficdemand(inMbps).
Comments:Optionaldescriptionsandcommentsrelatedtothenode.
TheDisplaytab:Thistaballowsyoutospecifyaparticulardisplayformatforthecurrentnode.Thissettingoverrides
thegeneraldisplaypropertiesfornodes.

Symbolstyle:Specifiesthesymbolandcolourthatisusedtodisplaythecurrentnode.
Displaynamewithstyle:Specifiesthefontandstylethatisusedtodisplaythenameofthecurrentnode.

7.1.2.2 CreatingaNodeonaSite
Tocreateanewnodeonasite:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthesiteonwhichyouwanttocreatealogicalnodeandselectCreateaNode.Thenodeis
createdwithanamebasedonthesitenameappendedwith"_N1"(oranothernumberifthisisnotthefirstnodeto
becreatedonthesite).
2. RightclickthenodeandselectProperties.
3. Modifytheparametersdescribedin"NodeProperties"onpage 312.
4. ClickOK.
Alternatively,youcanswitchthemousecursortonodecreationmode(Figure 7.8)byright
clickingtheNodes>NewintheNetworkexplorerorclickingtheNewNode( )button
fromtheTransportLayertoolbar.Innodecreationmode,clickasiteorasitelabeltocreate
thenodeonthesite.

Figure 7.8:Mousecursorinnodecreationmode

7.1.2.3 CreatingMultipleNodesbyImportingaTextFile
Togeneratemultiplenodesonaseriesofsitesatonce,youcanimportalistofsitesfromatextfile(in.txtor.csvformat).
Youcanuseaspreadsheetprogramtocreateyourlistofnodesbasedonalistofsitesthat
youhavepreviouslyexportedfromtheAtollsitetable.Formoreinformationaboutexport
ingtables,see"ExportingTablestoTextFilesandSpreadsheets"onpage 63.

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Beforeimportingthelist,ensurethatforeachnodethetextfilecontainsthefollowingcolumns:

Name:Thenameofthenewnode.
Site:Thenameofanexistingsiteonwhichthenodeislocated.
Activity:ThevalueinthiscolumnmustbeTrueifthenodeisactiveorFalseifthenodeisinactive.
TDMTraffic:TheTDMtrafficdemand(inMbps).
ULEthernetTraffic:TheuplinkEthernettrafficdemand(inMbps).
DLEthernetTraffic:ThedownlinkEthernettrafficdemand(inMbps).

Othercolumnsareoptional.
Toimportalistofmultiplenodes:
1. ClicktheNetworktabintheexplorerwindow.
2. ExpandtheTransportLayerfolder.
3. RightclicktheNodesfolderandselectOpenTable.
4. ClicktheImport

buttoninthetabletoolbar.TheOpendialogboxappears.

5. SelectthefileyouwanttoimportandclickOpen.TheImportdialogboxappears.
a. Specifythenumberofthefirstlineofdatainthe1stDataLinebox.Forexample,ifthetextfilestartswithaheader
line,setthe1stDataLineto2.
b. SelectaDecimalSymbolandaFieldSeparatorfromthelist.
c. SelecttheUpdateRecordscheckboxifyouwanttoreplacethedataofrecordsalreadyexistinginthetable.
Atollcomparesthevaluesintheleftmostcolumnofthedatatobeimportedwiththe
valuesinthesamecolumnofthedatatabletoseeifrecordsalreadyexist.Thevaluesof
theserecordsarereplacedwhentheUpdateRecordscheckboxisselected.IftheUpdate
Recordscheckboxisnotselected,theserecordsarenotimported.
d. UnderFieldMapping,alignthecontentofthetextfilewiththecontentofthenodetablebyclickingthecolumn
headerintheDestinationrowandselectingthecorrespondingcolumnfromimportedtextfile.Select<Ignore>
forsourcefilecolumnsthatyoudonotwanttoimport.
e. ClickImport.Thenodesarecreatedinthetablewiththecharacteristicsdefinedinthetextfile.
Formoreinformationonimportingtables,see"ImportingTablesfromTextFiles"onpage 65.

7.1.3 CreatingSegments
Segmentsarethelogicalelementsthatestablishadirectionalconnectionfromasourcenodetoadestinationnode,where
thesourceisthebasestationandthedestinationisthecorenetwork.
Alogicalsegmentrepresentsaconnectionthatcanconsistofmultiplephysicallinks.Physicallinkscanalsobesharedbymulti
plelogicalsegments.Forexample,overasinglephysicallink,onesegmentrepresentsGSMtrafficwhileanothersegment
representsUMTStraffic.
IntheAtollmapview,segmentsaredisplayedasadditionallayersoverlinks.Depending
onwhetheryouwanttoworkwiththesegmentorthelink,makesurethatthedisplay
check box ( ) of either the Transport Layer > Segment folder or the Links folder is
enabledontheNetworktaboftheexplorer.
Formoreinformationaboutobjectlayers,see"DisplayingorHidingObjectsontheMap
UsingtheExplorerWindows"onpage 24.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

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"SegmentProperties"onpage 315
"CreatingaSegmentonanExistingLink"onpage 315.
"CreatingaSegmentoverMultipleLinks"onpage 316.
"CreatingMultipleSegmentsoveraSingleLink"onpage 317.
"ConnectingaNode"onpage 318.
"CreatingaSubnetwork"onpage 318.

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7.1.3.1 SegmentProperties
TheparametersofasegmentcanbefoundinthesegmentPropertiesdialogbox.ThePropertiesdialogboxhasthreetabs:

TheGeneraltab:Thistabprovidesgeneralinformationaboutthesegment.

Figure 7.9:Segmentproperties

Sourcenode:Thesitewherethesourcenodeofthesegmentislocated.
Destinationnode:Thesitewherethedestinationnodeofthesegmentislocated.
Segmentispartofaring:Specifieswhetherthesegmentispartofaringstructure.
BookingFactors:ThepercentageofallowedULEthernetandDLEthernettrafficthatexceedsthesegmentband
width.Specifyvaluesabove100%tosimulateoverbooking.
Comments:Anoptionaldescriptionorcommentrelatedtothesegment.
TheLinkConfigurationtab:Usethistabtospecifyoneorseveralphysicallinksthatthesegmentuses:

Active:Specifieswhetherthelinkwithinthesegmentisactiveorinactive.
TDMbandwidth(Mbps):ThesegmentbandwidthavailableforTDMtraffic.
Ethernetbandwidth(Mbps):ThesegmentbandwidthavailableforEthernettraffic,inbothdirections(uplinkor
downlink).
MicrowaveLinkorOtherTransmissionLink:Thesecolumnsspecifyeithertomicrowavelinkortheothertypeof
linkthatisusedinthesegment.
Comments:Anoptionaldescriptionorcommentrelatedtothelink.
Technology:SpecifieswhetherthelinkusesTDM,packet,orhybridtechnology.
TheDisplaytab:Thistaballowsyoutospecifythecolourandstyleformatforthecurrentsegment.Thissettingover
ridesthegeneraldisplaypropertiesfornodes.
TheBackhaulCapacityPlanningmoduleusestwodatabasetablestodescribesegments.
Dependingonthetablethatyouwanttoaccess,intheNetworkexplorer,expandTrans
portLayerandrightclickSegments:

SelectOpenTabletoaccessthebookingfactorsandtopology.
SelectSegmentLinkConfigurationtoaccesstheTDMandEthernetbandwidth.

7.1.3.2 CreatingaSegmentonanExistingLink
Whenaphysicallinkalreadyexistsbetweentwosites,youcancreatealogicalsegmentoverthatlink.Thebandwidthand
technologyofthenewsegmentarebasedonthecharacteristicsofthephysicallink.

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Tocreateanewsegmentonalink:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthelinkonwhichyouwanttocreatethelogicalsegmentandselectCreateaSegment.If
there are multiple links or existing segments, a selection menu allows you choose a particular link, as shown in
Figure 7.10.

Figure 7.10:Selectionmenuwhenmultiplelinksexist
Alternatively,youcanswitchthemousecursortosegmentcreationmodebyrightclicking
theSegments>NewintheNetworkexplorerorclickingtheNewSegment( )button
fromtheTransportLayertoolbar.Insegmentcreationmode,clickanexistinglinktocreate
asegmentonthatlinkorclicktwositestocreateasegmentbetweenthosesites.
Thesegmentiscreatedwithbandwidthcharacteristicsthatarebasedonthephysicalcapacityofthelink.Ifnodesdo
notalreadyexist,theyarecreatedonthesitesateachendofthesegment.
2. RightclickthenewsegmentandclickProperties.Ifnecessary,modifytheparametersdescribedin"SegmentProper
ties"onpage 315.
3. ClickOK.
Aftercreatingasegment,checkthatthedirectionofthesegmentwasproperlycreatedfromthesourcenode(thenodeclos
est to the end base station) towards the destination (the node closest to the core network). If necessary, rightclick the
segmentandselectSwapSourceandDestinationtoinvertthedirectionofthesegment.

7.1.3.3 CreatingaSegmentoverMultipleLinks
Insomecases,multiplephysicallinksareusedbetweentwositesinordertoincreasethecapacityofthelink.Youcancreate
asinglelogicalsegmenttosimplifythetransportmodelbetweenthetwosites,asshownontheleftinFigure 7.5onpage 311.
Whenasinglesegmentusesmultiplelinks,thesegmentbandwidthshouldcorrespondtothesumofthelinkcapacities.
Tocreateasinglesegmentovermultiplelinks:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthelinksonwhichyouwanttocreatealogicalsegment.
Iftherearemultiplelinksorexistingsegments,aselectionmenuallowsyoutochooseaparticularlink,asshownin
Figure 7.10. If not, then select a location where multiple links exist or create a single segment on a single link as
explainedin"CreatingaSegmentonanExistingLink"onpage 315.Acontextmenuopens.
2. Inthecontextmenu,clickCreateaSegment.Thesegmentiscreatedwithbandwidthcharacteristicsthatarebased
onthephysicalcapacityofthelink.Ifnodesdonotalreadyexist,theyarecreatedonthesitesateachendoftheseg
ment.
3. RightclickthenewsegmentandclickProperties.
4. SelecttheLinkConfigurationtab.Thistabliststhelinksthatareusedbythecurrentsegment.Thefirstlinkislistedin
theMicrowaveLinkorOtherTransmissionLinkscolumnwiththebandwidthsettingscorrespondingtothephysical
link.
5. Toaddanotherlinktothesegment:
a. Dependingonthetypeoflink,clickthebottomcellintheMicrowaveLinkortheOtherTransmissionLinkcolumn.
b. Inthedropdownlist,selectthenameofthelink.Makesurethatthislinkconnectsthetwosamesitesasthefirst
link.
c. ManuallyentertheTDMBandwidth(Mbps)andEthernetBandwidth(Mbps).Thesevaluesmustmatchtheca
pacityofthecorrespondinglink.
d. Toensurethatallthelinksareusedinthecalculationsforthissegment,selectActive.
e. Ifmorethantwolinksarerequired,repeatfromstep 5.
6. ClickOK.
Aftercreatingasegment,checkthatthedirectionofthesegmentwasproperlycreatedfromthesourcenode(thenodeclos
est to the end base station) towards the destination (the node closest to the core network). If necessary, rightclick the
segmentandselectSwapSourceandDestinationtoinvertthedirectionofthesegment.

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7.1.3.4 CreatingMultipleSegmentsoveraSingleLink
Insomecases,itmightbenecessarytodistinguishthetrafficoverasinglephysicallinkbyusingtwologicalsegments,as
shownontherightinFigure 7.5onpage 311.Thiscanoccur,forexample,ifyouneedtomaintainseparatemodelsforcarrying
differenttechnologies.
Twosegmentscannotbeconnectedtothesametwonodes.Therefore,tocreatetwosegmentsbetweenthesametwosites,
youmustfirstcreateasecondnodeononeorbothofthesites.
Tocreatemultiplesegmentsoverasinglelink:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthelinkonwhichyouwanttocreatethelogicalsegmentandselectCreateaSegment.If
therearemultiplelinksorexistingsegments,aselectionmenuallowsyoutochooseaparticularlink,asshownin
Figure 7.10onpage 316.
Thesegmentiscreatedwithbandwidthcharacteristicsthatarebasedonthephysicalcapacityofthelink.Ifnodesdo
notalreadyexist,theyarecreatedonthesitesateachendofthesegment.
2. Becauseyoucannotcreateasegmentbetweentwonodesthatarealreadyconnectedbyasegment,youmustcreate
asecondnodeononeofthesites.
Inthemapview,rightclickthesiteonwhichyouwanttocreateasecondlogicalnodeandselectCreateaNodeor
clicktheNewNode( )buttonontheTransportLayertoolbarandclickthesite.Becausethisisthesecondnodeon
thissite,thenodeiscreatedwithanamebasedonthesitenameappendedwith"_N2".
Formoreinformationoncreatinganode,see"CreatingaNodeonaSite"onpage 313.
3. Createthesecondsegmenttoconnectthenewnode:
a. Rightclickthenewnode.Aselectionmenulistsbothnodes,asshowninFigure 7.11.

Figure 7.11:Selectionmenuwhenmultiplenodesexist
b. Selectthenodethatisappendedwith"_N2").Thecontextmenuforthatnodeopens.
c. Inthecontextmenu,clickConnecttoNodeandselectthenodethatisontheothersitetowhichyouwantto
connectthissecondsegment.TheTransportAnalysisToolwindowdisplaysthesuggestedroute.
d. IntheNewRoutecolumn,clickCreate.TheNewSegmentdialogboxopens.
e. Tocheckthattherearenowtwosegmentsovereachother,rightclickthesegment.Aselectionmenulistsboth
segments,asshowninFigure 7.12.

Figure 7.12:Selectionmenuwhenmultiplesegmentsexist
4. Configurethebandwidthforeachsegment:
a. Rightclickthesegment.Amenulistsbothsegments.
b. SelectthefirstsegmentandclickProperties.
c. SelecttheLinkConfigurationtab.
d. ManuallyentertheTDMBandwidth(Mbps)andEthernetBandwidth(Mbps).Thecombinedvaluesofbothseg
mentsmustmatchthecapacityofthelink.
e. ClickOK.
f. Forthesecondsegment,repeatfromstep 4.

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7.1.3.5 ConnectingaNode
Whenasourcenodeisnotconnectedtothebackhaulnetwork,youcanconnectthenodetoadestinationnodebycreating
boththemissinglogicalsegmentandthephysicallink.Atollconsiderstheexistingactivesegmentsandsuggestsoneorseveral
solutionstoconnectthenodetothedestination,eitherdirectlyorthroughexistingsegments.
Torouteanewsegmentbetweentwonodes:
1. RightclickthesourcenodethatyouwanttoconnecttothenetworkandclickConnecttoNode.Iftherearemultiple
nodesonthesite,aselectionmenuallowsyouchooseanode,asshowninFigure 7.11onpage 317.
2. Clickthedestinationnode.Typically,thisisafocalpointofyoursubnetwork.TheTransportAnalysisToolwindowdis
playsalistofsuggestedroutesfromthesourcenodetothedestinationnode.
Intheanalysis,Atollconsiderstheselectednode(s)andallnodeslocatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneis
defined,Atollwillusethecomputationzone.Forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43and
forinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42.

Figure 7.13:TransportAnalysisToolwindow
Foreachsuggestedroute,theTransportAnalysisTooldisplaysthenamesofthenodesfortherouteandastatusis
displayedforeachsegment:

Status1:Thisindicatesthelineofsightstatusforthenewsegment,whichimpliesasuggestedlinktype:

LOS(orange):Alineofsightexistsbetweenthesourcenodeandthenode1;aMWlinkissuggested.
LOS(red):Alineofsightexistsbetweenthesourcenodeandthenode1,butthedistanceexceedsthelimit
forMWlinksspecifiedintheTransportLayerproperties;anonMWlinkissuggested.
NLOS:Thereisnolineofsightbetweenthesourcenodeandthenode1;anonMWlinkissuggested.
Astatusforeachexistingsegmentintheroute:

OK:Thesegmentbandwidthissufficienttosupportthetrafficgeneratedbythenewnode.
NOK:Thesegmentwillbeoverloadedifthenewnodeisconnectedthroughthisroute.

3. IntheNewRoutecolumn,choosethemostappropriateroutetoconnectthesourcenodeandclickCreate.TheNew
Segmentdialogboxopens.
4. IntheNewSegmentdialogbox,specifythesettingsforthenewsegmentandlink:
a. Linkname:Enteranameforthenewlink.Bydefault,thisisthenameofthetwositesthatareconnectedbythe
link.
b. EthernetbandwidthandTDMbandwidth:Specifythesegmentbandwidth.
c. Specifytheparametersofthenewlink,dependingonthetypeoflinkthatissuggested.
d. ForaMicrowavelink,specifythetypeofMWlinkorclickBrowse( )toeditthelinkmodel.Formoreinforma
tiononmicrowavemodels,see"DefinitionofaMicrowaveLink"onpage 224.
e. ForanOthertransmissiontype,specifythelinktype(suchasopticalfibreorleasedline)andanObjectiveclass.
Formoreinformationonothertransmissiontypes,see"DefinitionofOtherTransmissionLinks"onpage 235.
f. Tocreateamultihoplinkforendtoendanalysisfromthesourcenodetothedestinationnode,selectCreatethe
multihopcorrespondingtotheselectedpath.Formoreinformationonmultihoplinks,see"PerforminganEnd
toEndReliabilityAnalysis"onpage 260.
5. ClickOK.

7.1.3.6 CreatingaSubnetwork
Whenmultiplenodesarenotconnectedbysegments,youcanrouteanentiresubnetworkfromthedestinationnode.Thisis
usefulwhenyouaresettingupyourprojectorifyouareoptimisinganexistingsubnetwork.

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Thebestmethodforcreatingsegmentsonalargenetworkistoproceedsubnetworkby
subnetwork.Youcandothisbyisolatingsubnetworkswithcomputationzonesorfiltering
zones.

Whenasegmentiscreatedoveranexistingphysicallink,thebandwidthandtechnologyofthenewsegmentarebasedonthe
characteristicsofthephysicallink.
Whenalinkdoesnotexist,Atollsuggestseitheranewmicrowavelinkoranothertransmissionlink,dependingontheline
ofsightanddistanceparameters.
Toroutesegmentsforasubnetwork:
1. Locatethedestinationnodeforthenewsubnetwork.Thisisthehighesthierarchicalpointinthetopologyofthenew
subnetwork.
2. Createacomputationzoneorafilteringzonearoundthesubnetworkarea.Formoreinformationoncreatingzones,
see"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 41.
3. RightclickthedestinationnodeandclickBuildaSubnetwork.TheBuildSubnetworkdialogboxopens.

Figure 7.14:TheBuildSubnetworkdialogbox
4. IntheBuildSubnetworkdialogbox,specifytheparametersforroutingnewsegments:
a. UnderSubnetworkradius,specifythefollowingvalues:

Maxnumberofsegments:Themaximumnumberofsegmentsbetweenthedestinationandanynodethatis
tobeconnectedtothenewsubnetwork.
Maxdistancebetweensourceanddestination:Thedistancelimitfromthedestinationnodetowhichanode
canbeconnectedaspartofthenewsubnetwork.

b. UnderSearchconditions,selectthefollowingoptions:

Useexistingsegments:Ifthisoptionisenabled,routesthroughexistingsegmentsaresuggestedinpriority.
Ignoreinactivenodes:Ifthisoptionisenabled,nodesthatarenotmarkedasActiveareavoided.
Ignorealreadyconnectednodes:Ifthisoptionisenabled,segmentscanonlyberoutedthroughnodesthat
arenotconnected.
Prioritytomicrowavelinks(LOS):Ifthisoptionisenabled,microwavelinksaresuggestedwheneverthereis
alineofsightandthedistanceiswithinthelimitspecifiedintheNewsegmentssection.

c. UnderNewSegments,selectthefollowingoptions:

Maxlengthofamicrowavelink(LOS):Specifythemaximumdistanceforwhichamicrowavelinkissuggested.
Ifthereisalineofsightbetweentwonodes,butthedistanceexceedsthisvalue,thenanothertypeoftrans
missionlinkissuggested.
Maxlengthofanothertypeoflink(NLOS):Specifythemaximumdistancetosuggestanothertypeoflink,such
asanopticalfibrelinkoraleasedline.Ifthedistancebetweentwonodesexceedsthisvalue,thenanew
segmentisnotsuggested.

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5. ClickOK.TheNewSubnetworkSegmentsdialogboxdisplaysthelistofsegments(fromsourcenodetodestination
node)thatissuggestedforthenewsubnetworkaswellasthetypeoflinksthatthesuggestedsegmentsuse.
Intheanalysis,Atollconsiderstheselectednode(s)andallnodeslocatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneis
defined,Atollwillusethecomputationzone.Forinformationonthefocuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43and
forinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"onpage 42.
6. ClickCreatetocreatethesubnetworkaslistedorclickCancel.
Tocheckthatthesubnetworkwasproperlycreated,rightclickthedestinationnodeand
selectDimensioning>Tothisnode.

Ifasegmentishighlightedinred,thenitwascreatedbutthebandwidthwasnot
properlyconfigured.RightclickthesegmentandselectPropertiestoconfigurethe
segmentbandwidth.
Ifasegmentisnotdisplayed,thenitwasnotcreatedautomatically.Tocreatethe
missingsegmentmanually,see"ConnectingaNode"onpage 318.

7.1.4 DisplayingtheSubnetworkTopology
TheSubnetworkTopologywindowallowsyoutodisplayahierarchicaltreeviewofthelogicalnodesthatareconnectedtoa
specificdestinationnode,asshowninFigure 7.15.
Youcanexportthetopologydataasatabdelimitedtextfile,whichcanbeimportedintoaspreadsheet.

Figure 7.15:TheSubnetworkTopologywindow
Todisplaythesubnetworktopologyforanode:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthenodeforwhichyouwanttodisplaythesubnetworktopology.Iftherearemultiplesites
ornodes,aselectionmenuallowsyoutochooseaparticularnode,asshowninFigure 7.11onpage 317.Acontext
menuopens.
2. Inthecontextmenu,clickSubnetworkTopology.TheSubnetworkTopologywindowopens.
3. Ifyouwanttoexportthetopologydata,clickExport,selectalocationandfilename,andclickSave.Thetopologylist
issavedasatabdelimitedtextfile.
4. ClickClosetoclosethewindow.

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7.1.5 InsertingaSiteIntoaPhysicalLink
Whenyouaremodellingothertypesoflinks(suchasopticalfibrelinksorleasedlines),youmightneedtoinsertasiteintoan
existinglinkAB.ThiscreatesanewsiteCandsplitstheexistinglinkintotwolinksACandCB.Thisisparticularlyusefulifyou
aremodellingthelogicalconnectionbetweenadestinationnodeandeachsourcenodeofaphysicallink,asdescribedin
Figure 7.6onpage 312.
Toinsertasiteintoaphysicallink:
1. Rightclickanonmicrowavelink(opticalfibrelinksorleasedline).
2. Inthecontextmenu,clickInsertSite.Themousecursorturnstoa"forbidden"icon(
thelink,themouseturnstoan"insertlink"icon(

).Ifyouhoverthemouseover

).

3. Clickapointofthelinkanddragthelinktothelocationofthenewsiteoroveranexistingsite.If
4. Releasethemousebutton.Thelinkisreplacedwithtwolinksthatjointhenewsite.
Ifalogicalsegmentexistedoverthelink,youmustdeleteitandcreateanewsegmenttoreflectthechangeinthenetwork.

7.2 CheckingLogicalandPhysicalLayerConsistency
Toassesstheconsistencybetweenlogicalandphysicalbackhaulelements,Atollprovidesanaudittool.Youperformanaudit
aftercreatingthelogicalnetworkorafterupdatingofthephysicalbackhaulnetwork.Duringtheaudit,Atollchecksthatthe
segmentbandwidthdoesnotexceedtheradiocapacityavailableforthelinkforbothTDMandEthernettraffic.Twocomple
mentaryauditfunctionsareavailable;oneforthelinksandoneforthesegments.Bothareespeciallyusefultostudycomplex
backhaulsituationsasinthefollowingsituations:

Singlesegmentsrelayedovermorethanonelink,
Multiplesegmentsrelayedoverasinglelink.

Formoststandardconfigurations(i.e.,onesegmentrelayedoveronelink),youcanuseeitheroneoftheaudittools.
Youcanusetheaudittoolsontheentirebackhaulnetworkinthedocument,oryoucandefineasubnetworkbyusingafilter
ingzoneoracalculationzone.Forinformationoncreatingzones,see"UsingZonesintheMapWindow"onpage 41.Youcan
alsogetadetailedauditforaselectedsegmentoraselectedlinkusingtheTransportAnalysisTool.
Intheanalysis,Atollconsidersthenodesandsegmentslocatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atolluses
thecomputationzone.Segmentsareconsideredinsideazoneifoneoftheirnodesisinsidethezone.Forinformationonthe
focuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43andforinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"on
page 42.
Toauditthebackhaulnetwork:
1. Runtheauditanalysisonsegments.
a. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolder,rightclicktheDimensioningandAuditfolder,and
selectAudit>Segmentsfromthecontextmenu.TheSegmentAuditdialogboxappears.
b. OntheGeneraltabofthedialogbox,enteraNameandCommentsforthisstudy.
c. ClickCalculatetosavethedefinedauditanalysisandcalculateitimmediately.
Theprogressofthecalculation,aswellasanyerrormessages,isdisplayedintheEventViewer.
TheauditanalysisisavailableintheDimensioningandAuditfolderintheNetworkexplorer.Whentheauditanal
ysisisdone,theresultsaredisplayedinthemapwindow(seeFigure 7.16).

Figure 7.16:Segmentauditresults
Segmentswhereinconsistenciesaredetectedarecolouredinred.Otherwise,theyaredisplayedingreen.

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2. Correctthedetectedinconsistencies.
a. IntheDimensioningandAuditfolder,expandthefolderthatcontainsthesegmentauditanalysis.
b. DoubleclicktheitemdisplayedwithanOverloadedmarker( ).TheOverloadedtableappearswithallsegments
whosebandwidthexceedstheradiocapacityoftheassociatedlinks.
c. Doubleclickeachrecordinthetabletoopenthesegmentproperties,andchangethebandwidthconfigurationso
thatitmatchestheradiocapacityofthelink.
d. Repeatfromstep 1.untilnofurtherinconsistenciesaredetected.
3. Ifthenetworkcontainscomplexbackhaulsituations(e.g.,onesegmentrelayedovertwolinks,twosegmentsrelayed
overasinglelink),runtheauditanalysisonlinks.
a. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolder,rightclicktheDimensioningandAuditfolder,and
selectAudit>Linksfromthecontextmenu.TheLinkAuditdialogboxappears.
b. OntheGeneraltabofthedialogbox,enteraNameandCommentsforthisstudy.
c. ClickCalculatetosavethedefinedauditanalysisandcalculateitimmediately.
Theprogressofthecalculation,aswellasanyerrormessages,aredisplayedintheEventViewer.
TheauditanalysisisavailableintheDimensioningandAuditfolderintheNetworkexplorer.Whentheauditanal
ysisisdone,theresultsaredisplayedinthemapwindow.
Linkswhereinconsistenciesaredetectedarecolouredinred.Otherwise,theyaredisplayedingreen.
4. Correctthedetectedinconsistencies.
a. IntheDimensioningandAuditfolder,clicktheExpandbutton(
analysis.

)toexpandthefoldercontainingthelinkaudit

b. DoubleclicktheitemdisplayedwithanOverloadedmarker( ).TheOverloadedtableappearswithalllinks
whoseassociatedsegmenthasabandwidthexceedingtheradiocapacity.
c. TogetadetailedauditanalysisforeachlinklistedintheOverloadedtable,clicktheTransportAnalysisToolbut
ton(

)intheTransportLayertoolbar.TheTransportAnalysisToolwindowappears(seeFigure 7.17).

Figure 7.17:TransportAnalysisTool
d. AtthetopoftheTransportAnalysisToolwindow,selectLinkAuditandthelinktoanalysefromthelist.
TheTransportAnalysisToolwindowdisplaysthefollowinginformation:

TheTDMandEthernetcapacitiesoftheradioaswellasthetechnologysupportedbytheradiofortheselected
link.
Atablewithinformationforallsegmentsassociatedwiththeselectedlinkandasummary"TOTAL".

e. Doubleclickeachsegmentinthetabletoopenthesegmentproperties,andchangethebandwidthconfiguration
sothatitmatchestheradiocapacityofthelink.
f. Repeatfromstep 3.untilnofurtherinconsistenciesaredetected.

7.3 DimensioningtheBackhaulNetwork
Atollallowsyoutostudyandevaluatethebackhaulnetworkcapacityinordertooptimisethenetworkcapacitytomeetthe
traffic requirements. The dimensioning feature is aimed at identifying backhaul bottlenecks within an entire backhaul
network,asubnetwork,oralongagiventrafficroute.
Dimensioninganalysisisbasedonthetrafficdemandsdefinedfornodes,trafficforecastintermsofincreaseordecreasein
theoveralltraffic,IPoverbookingfactorsdefinedbytheoperatorsguidelinesandthebackhaulnetworkequipment,and
maximumtrafficloadsthatcanbesupportedbythedifferentbackhaulnetworkelementsbeingstudied.

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Intheanalysis,Atollconsidersthenodesandsegmentslocatedwithinthefocuszone;ifnofocuszoneisdefined,Atolluses
thecomputationzone.Segmentsareconsideredinsideazoneifoneoftheirnodesisinsidethezone.Forinformationonthe
focuszone,see"TheFocusZone"onpage 43andforinformationonthecomputationzone,see"TheComputationZone"on
page 42.
Thissectioncoversthefollowingtopics:

"DimensioningaSubnetwork"onpage 323.
"DimensioningaRoute"onpage 324.
"DisplayingtheDimensioningResultsontheMap"onpage 325.
"DisplayingtheResultsoftheDimensioningAnalysis"onpage 326.
"EstimatingTrafficDecreaseandIncrease"onpage 327.
"SettingtheMaximumTrafficLoad"onpage 327.
"OverbookingEthernetTraffic"onpage 328.

7.3.1 DimensioningaSubnetwork
Dimensioninganalysiscanbecalculatedforasubnetwork.
Todimensionasubnetwork:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolder,rightclicktheDimensioningandAuditfolder,andselect
Dimensioning>Subnetworkfromthecontextmenu.TheNetworkdimensioningdialogboxappears.
2. OntheGeneraltabofthedialogbox,youcansetthefollowingparameters:

Name:Thenameoftheanalysis.
Destinationnode:Thenodetowhichthetrafficconverges.Thisisthehighestconcentrationpointinthesubnet
worktopology.
UnderTrafficScalingFactor,youcandetermineadecimalforecastfactorforeachtypeoftraffic:
TDM:ThefactoroftheinitialTDMtraffictobeconsideredinthedimensioninganalysis.
ULEthernet:ThefactoroftheinitialULEthernettraffictobeconsideredinthedimensioninganalysis.
DLEthernet:ThepercentageoftheinitialDLEthernettraffictobeconsideredinthedimensioninganalysis.
Scalingfactorsenableyoutoincreaseordecreasethetrafficforecastwithoutchangingthetrafficparametersof
thelogicalnodes.Forexample,setthescalingfactorto1.25toconsidera25%increaseinthetrafficforecast.A
scalingfactorof1usesthetrafficloadcurrentlydefinedforthenode.

UnderMaxtrafficload,youcandefinetheconstraintsthatAtollmustrespectduringthedimensioninganalysis.
TDM:ThemaximumloadofTDMtrafficnottobeexceeded.
ULEthernet:ThemaximumloadofEthernettrafficintheuplinknottobeexceeded.
DLEthernet:ThemaximumloadofEthernettrafficinthedownlinknottobeexceeded.

Comments:Usethisfieldforoptionaldescriptionsandcommentsrelatedtothedimensioninganalysis.

3. Onceyouhavedefinedthedimensioninganalysis,youcancalculateitimmediatelyoryoucansaveittocalculateit
later:

ClickCalculatetosavethedefineddimensioninganalysisandcalculateitimmediately.
ClickOKtosavethedefineddimensioninganalysiswithoutcalculating.Tocalculateitlater,rightclickthedimen
sioninganalysisintheDimensioningandAuditfolderandselectCalculatefromthecontextmenu.

Theprogressofthecalculation,aswellasanyerrormessages,isdisplayedintheEventViewer.
ThedimensioninganalysisisavailableintheDimensioningandAuditfolderintheNetworkexplorer.OnceAtollhasfinished
calculatingthedimensioninganalysis,theresultsaredisplayedinthemapwindow(seeFigure 7.18).

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Figure 7.18:DimensioningResults
Thesegmentsinthesubnetworkarecolouredtoindicatewhethertheyareoverloaded:

Green:Thecarriedtrafficdoesnotexceedthebandwidthofthesegment.
Red:Thesegmentisoverloaded,i.e.,thebandwidthofthesegmentisinsufficienttocarrythetraffic.
Youcanquicklycalculateadimensioninganalysisofthesubnetworkbyrightclickingthe
destinationnodeonthemap,andselectingDimensioning>Tothisnode.Inthiscase,
theanalysisisbasedonthedefaultparametersdefinedintheTransportLayerfolder
properties.

7.3.2 DimensioningaRoute
Dimensioninganalysiscanbecalculatedalongagiventrafficroute.
Todimensionaroute:
1. Rightclickthesourcenodeeitheronthemap,orintheNodesfolderoftheexplorerwindowsNetworktab.The
contextmenuappears.
2. SelectDimensioning>Fromthisnodetofromthecontextmenu.Thepointernowchanges(

).

3. Inthemapwindow,movethepointertothedestinationnodeandclick.Atollstartsthedimensioninganalysis.Forthe
calculation,AtollconsidersthedefaultparametersdefinedintheTransportLayerfolderproperties.
Theprogressofthecalculation,aswellasanyerrormessages,isdisplayedintheEventViewer.
TheauditanalysisisavailableintheDimensioningandAuditfolderintheNetworkexplorer.Whentheauditanalysisisdone,
theresultsaredisplayedinthemapwindow.
Thesegmentsalongthepatharecolouredtoindicatewhethertheyareoverloaded:

Green:Thecarriedtrafficdoesnotexceedthebandwidthofthesegment.
Red:Thesegmentisoverloaded,i.e.,thebandwidthofthesegmentisinsufficienttocarrythetraffic.
Alternatively,youcancalculateadimensioninganalysisonapathbyrightclickingthe
DimensioningandAuditfolder,andselectingDimensioning>Path.Thisopensthe
RouteDimensioningdialogbox.Youcanselectthesourceanddestinationnodesfrom
thedropdownlistorbyclickingthe and buttonsandclickingthenodeonthemap.

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7.3.3 DisplayingtheDimensioningResultsontheMap
Atollenablesyoutodisplayonthemapthedimensioningresults.Bydefault,Atollcoloursthesegmentsaccordingtotheover
loadingstatussothatyoucanquicklyidentifybackhaulbottleneckswithinasubnetwork,oralongagiventrafficroute(see
Figure 7.18).Youcanalsodisplaythesegmentsaccordingtotrafficload,ortheremainingbandwidth.Inaddition,youcanget
informationondimensioninganalysisusingthetiptext.
Inthissection,thefollowingisexplained:

"DisplayingtheTrafficLoad"onpage 325.
"DisplayingtheRemainingBandwidth"onpage 325.
"DisplayingDimensioningResultsUsingTipText"onpage 326.

7.3.3.1 DisplayingtheTrafficLoad
Foreachtypeoftraffic(TDM,ULEthernet,DLEthernet),youcancolourthesegmentsaccordingtothetrafficload.Thetraffic
loadcorrespondstothepercentageofthesegmentbandwidthusedtotransportthetraffic.
Todisplaythetrafficload:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolderandtheDimensioningandAuditfoldercontainingthe
dimensioninganalysiswhoseresultsyouwanttodisplay.
2. RightclickthedimensioninganalysisandclickProperties.TheNetworkdimensioningpropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. OntheDisplaytabofthedialogbox,definethesettingstodisplaythefollowingresults:

TheTDMtrafficload:Select"Valueintervals"astheDisplayTypeand"TDMTrafficLoad(%)"astheField.
TheULEthernettrafficload:Select"Valueintervals"astheDisplayTypeand"ULEthernetTrafficLoad(%)"asthe
Field.
TheDLEthernettrafficload:Select"Valueintervals"astheDisplayTypeand"DLEthernetTrafficLoad(%)"asthe
Field.

4. ClickOK.Thesegmentsarenowdisplayedaccordingtothetrafficload(seeFigure 7.19).

Figure 7.19:DisplayingtheTDMtrafficload

7.3.3.2 DisplayingtheRemainingBandwidth
Foreachtypeoftraffic(TDM,ULEthernet,DLEthernet),youcancolourthesegmentsaccordingtotheremainingbandwidth.
Todisplaytheremainingbandwidth:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolderandtheDimensioningandAuditfolderthatcontainsthe
dimensioninganalysiswhoseresultsyouwanttodisplay.
2. RightclickthedimensioninganalysisandclickProperties.TheNetworkdimensioningpropertiesdialogboxappears.
3. OntheDisplaytabofthedialogbox,definethesettingstodisplaythefollowingresults:

TheremainingTDMbandwidth:Select"Valueintervals"astheDisplayTypeand"RemainingTDMBandwidth
(Mbps)"astheField.
TheremainingULEthernetbandwidth:Select"Valueintervals"astheDisplayTypeand"RemainingULEthernet
Bandwidth(Mbps)"astheField.
TheremainingDLEthernetbandwidth:Select"Valueintervals"astheDisplayTypeand"RemainingDLEthernet
Bandwidth(Mbps)"astheField.

4. ClickOK.Thesegmentsarenowdisplayedaccordingtotheremainingbandwidth(seeFigure 7.20).

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Figure 7.20:DisplayingtheTDMtrafficload

7.3.3.3 DisplayingDimensioningResultsUsingTipText
Youcangetinformationbyplacingthepointeroverasegmentofthedimensioninganalysistoreadtheinformationdisplayed
inthetiptext.TheinformationdisplayedisdefinedbythesettingsyoumadeontheDisplaytaboftheNetworkdimensioning
properties.
Togetdimensioningresultsintheformoftiptext:

Inthemapwindow,placethepointeroverthesegmentthatyouwantmoreinformationon.Afterabriefpause,the
tip text appears with the information defined in the Display tab of the Network dimensioning properties (see
Figure 7.21).

Figure 7.21:Displayingdimensioningresultsusingthetiptext

7.3.4 DisplayingtheResultsoftheDimensioningAnalysis
Afteryouhaveperformedadimensioninganalysis,asexplainedin"DimensioningaSubnetwork"onpage 323and"Displaying
theResultsoftheDimensioningAnalysis"onpage 326,youcandisplaythenetworkdimensioningresults.Theyareavailable
forallthesegmentsintheselectedsubnetwork,orpath,intheformofatable.
Toaccesstheresultsofadimensioninganalysis:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolderandtheDimensioningandAuditfoldercontainingthe
dimensioninganalysiswhoseresultsyouwanttoaccess.
2. Doubleclickthedimensioninganalysis.Thetablecontainsthefollowinginformationpersegment:

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Sourcenode:Thesourcenodeofthesegment.
Destinationnode:Thedestinationnodeofthesegment.
Status:Theoverloadstatus.ItissettoOKwhentheaggregatetrafficbetweenthesourceanddestinationnodes
doesnotexceedthebandwidthofthesegment.Otherwise,thestatusisNOK.
AggregateTDMtraffic(Mbps):ThecumulatedTDMtrafficfromupstreamsegments.
AggregateULEthernettraffic(Mbps):ThecumulatedULEthernettrafficfromupstreamsegments.
AggregateDLEthernettraffic(Mbps):ThecumulatedDLEthernettrafficfromupstreamsegments.
TDMBandwidth(Mbps):ThesegmentbandwidthavailableforTDMtraffic.
Ethernet Bandwidth (Mbps): The segment bandwidth available for Ethernet traffic, in both directions (up or
down).
ULEthernetBookingFactor(%):ThepercentageofallowedULEthernettrafficthatexceedsthesegmentband
widthincludingtheoverbookingfactor.
DLEthernetBookingFactor(%):ThepercentageofallowedDLEthernettrafficthatexceedsthesegmentband
widthincludingtheoverbookingfactor.
TDMTrafficLoad(%):ThepercentageofthebandwidthusedforTDMtraffic.Itcorrespondstotheratiobetween
theaggregateTDMtrafficandtheTDMbandwidth.
ULEthernetTrafficLoad(%):ThepercentageofthebandwidthusedforULEthernettraffic.Itcorrespondstothe
ratiobetweentheaggregateULEthernettrafficandtheavailableEthernetbandwidthincludingtheoverbooking
factor.
DLEthernetTrafficLoad(%):ThepercentageofthebandwidthusedforDLEthernettraffic.Itcorrespondstothe
ratiobetweentheaggregateDLEthernettrafficandtheavailableEthernetbandwidthincludingtheoverbooking
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ULEthernetTrafficLoad(Plain)(%):ThepercentageoftheplainbandwidthusedforULEthernettraffic.Itcorre
spondstotheratiobetweentheaggregateULEthernettrafficandtheplainEthernetbandwidth(whichdoesnot
includetheoverbookingfactor).
DLEthernetTrafficLoad(Plain)(%):ThepercentageoftheplainbandwidthusedforDLEthernettraffic.Itcorre
spondstotheratiobetweentheaggregateDLEthernettrafficandtheplainEthernetbandwidth(whichdoesnot
includetheoverbookingfactor).
RemainingTDMBandwidth(Mbps):TheavailablebandwidthwhilecarryingtheTDMtraffic.Thisisthedifference
betweentheTDMbandwidthdefinedforthesegmentandtheaggregateTDMtraffic.WhenthemaximumTDM
trafficloadisexceeded,themissingbandwidthisdisplayedwithanegativevalue.
Remaining UL Ethernet Bandwidth (Mbps): The available bandwidth for the segment while carrying the UL
Ethernettraffic,withtheoverbookingfactorconsidered.ThisisthedifferencebetweentheEthernetbandwidth
includingtheoverbookingfactorandtheaggregateULEthernettraffic.WhenthemaximumULEthernettraffic
loadisexceeded,themissingbandwidthisdisplayedwithanegativevalue.
Remaining DL Ethernet Bandwidth (Mbps): The available bandwidth for the segment while carrying the DL
Ethernettraffic,withtheoverbookingfactorconsidered.ThisisthedifferencebetweentheEthernetbandwidth
includingtheoverbookingfactorandtheaggregateDLEthernettraffic.WhenthemaximumDLEthernettraffic
loadisexceeded,themissingbandwidthisdisplayedwithanegativevalue.
RemainingULEthernetBandwidth(Plain):TheavailableplainbandwidthforthesegmentwhilecarryingtheUL
Ethernettraffic.ThisisthedifferencebetweentheplainEthernetbandwidth(whichdoesntincludetheover
bookingfactor)andtheaggregateULEthernettraffic.WhenthemaximumULEthernettrafficloadisexceeded,
themissingbandwidthisdisplayedwithanegativevalue.
RemainingDLEthernetBandwidth(Plain):TheavailableplainbandwidthforthesegmentwhilecarryingtheDL
Ethernettraffic.ThisisthedifferencebetweentheplainEthernetbandwidth(whichdoesntincludetheover
bookingfactor)definedforthesegmentandtheaggregateDLEthernettraffic.WhenthemaximumDLEthernet
trafficloadisexceeded,themissingbandwidthisdisplayedwithanegativevalue.

Youcansortandfilterdatainthetable.Formoreinformation,see"SortingDatainTables"onpage 76and"FilteringinData
TablesbySelection"onpage 78.

7.3.5 EstimatingTrafficDecreaseandIncrease
Whenyouperformadimensioninganalysis,youarebasingitonasetoftrafficconditionsthatrepresentthecurrentnetwork
situation.However,youcanalsodefineatrafficscalingfactortosimulateanincreaseordecreaseofthetrafficforecastwith
outchangingthecurrenttrafficparametersofthelogicalnodesandtoevaluatetheperformanceofthebackhaulnetwork.
Tochangethetrafficscalingfactor:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,rightclicktheTransportLayerfolderandclickPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.TheTrans
portLayerPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. OntheDefaultParameterstabofthedialogbox,underDimensioning,definethescalingfactorforeachtypeoftraffic
(TDM,ULEthernet,DLEthernet).Forexample,setthescalingfactorto1.25toconsidera25%increaseinthetraffic
forecast.Ascalingfactorof1usesthetrafficloadcurrentlydefinedforthenode.
3. ClickOK.
4. Createadimensioninganalysis:

Onthesubnetworkasdescribedin"DimensioningaSubnetwork"onpage 323.
Onapathasdescribedin"DimensioningaRoute"onpage 324.

7.3.6 SettingtheMaximumTrafficLoad
Duringthedimensioninganalysis,Atollchecksthatthetrafficloadsonthesegmentsdonotexceedtheallowedmaximum
loads.Maximumtrafficloadindicatesthepercentageofthesegmentbandwidththatcanbeusedbythetraffic.Ifthetraffic
loadisexceeded,thesegmentisconsideredasoverloaded.
Tosetthemaximumtrafficload:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,rightclicktheTransportLayerfolderandselectPropertiesfromthecontextmenu.The
TransportLayerPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2. OntheDefaultParameterstabofthedialogbox,underDimensioning,specifythemaximumtrafficloadforeachtype
oftraffic(TDM,ULEthernet,DLEthernet).
3. ClickOK.
4. Createadimensioninganalysis:

Onthesubnetworkasdescribedin"DimensioningaSubnetwork"onpage 323.
Onapathasdescribedin"DimensioningaRoute"onpage 324.

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7.3.7 OverbookingEthernetTraffic
SomeequipmentenablesoperatorstosupportanamountofIPtrafficthatexceedstheallowedsegmentbandwidth.Thisis
calledIPoverbooking.AtollmodelsIPoverbookingbyprovidingabookingfactorforeachsegment,whichisconsideredinthe
dimensioninganalysis.
TodefineEthernetoverbooking:
1. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandtheTransportLayerfolderandrightclicktheSegmentsfolderandselectOpenTable
fromthecontextmenu.TheSegmentstableappears.
2. Entervaluesabove100%inthefollowingcolumns:

BookingfactorsforULEthernet
BookingfactorsforDLEthernet

7.4 NetworkFailureSimulation
Atollenablesyoutoanalyseyourbackhaulnetworksresponsetoradioequipmentorlinkfailureforthefollowingtasks:

Anticipationofunforeseeneventsandassessmentofintermediatesolutionstosuchproblems.
Evaluationoftheconsequencesofthefailureofoneelementofyournetworkonothernodesandbranches.
Analysisofalternatetrafficroutesthatmightenableyoutomaintainqualityofserviceincaseofafailure.

Whenafailureissimulated,allthesitesthatrelyonthefailedsiteorlinkaredisplayedwithanOutofOrdermarker(

).

ThefailuresimulationresultsarestoredintheNetworkexplorer,intheTransportLayer>DimensioningandAuditingfolder.
Todisplayorhidethefailuresimulationmarkers,selectorcleartheFailuresimulationdisplaycheckbox( ).

7.4.1 SimulatingaSiteFailure
Youcanuseasitefailuresimulationtosimulateageneralsiteoutage.Whenafailureissimulatedonasite,allthelinksthat
areconnectedtothesiteareconsideredbrokenandanysitesthatrelyonthoselinksaremarkedasOutofOrder( ).
Tosimulateasitefailure:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthesiteforwhichyouwanttosimulateafailureandselectSimulateFailure.Ifthereare
multiplesitesornodes,aselectionmenuallowsyoutochooseaparticularsite,asshowninFigure 7.11onpage 317.
2. Themapviewdisplaysallthesites,fromtheselectedsitetothesourcesite,asOutoforder(

).

3. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandTransportLayer>DimensioningandAuditing,rightclickthefailuresimulationand
selectOpenTable.Thelistofoutofordersitesopens.

7.4.2 SimulatingaLinkFailure
Youcanusealinkfailuresimulationtosimulateabrokentransmissionlinkbetweentwosites.Whenafailureissimulatedon
alink,anysitesthatrelyonthatlinkaremarkedasOutofOrder( ).
Tosimulatealinkfailure:
1. Inthemapview,rightclickthelinkforwhichyouwanttosimulateafailureandselectSimulateFailure.Ifthereare
multiple links or segments, a selection menu allows you to choose a particular link, as shown in Figure 7.12 on
page 317.
Themapviewdisplaysallthesites,fromtheselectedlinktothesourcesite,asOutoforder(

).

2. IntheNetworkexplorer,expandTransportLayer>DimensioningandAuditing,rightclickthefailuresimulationand
selectOpenTable.Thelistofoutofordersitesopens.

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Index

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Index

A
analysisreport
definingcontentsofreport(MW) 256
antenna
antennapatterns,printing(MW) 154
changingrelativepositiononthemap 29
compatibilitywithequipment(MW) 178
heights,adjusting(MW) 251
heights,optimising(MW) 251
microwave 150
microwaveantennaproperties 153
microwave,creating 151
pointtomultipointlink,adjusting 306
pointtomultipointlink,adjustingwiththemouse 306
singleantennapatterns,editing(MW) 153
antennapatterns
printing 72
archiving
allmodificationstothedatabase 109
automaticbackup
configuring 112
recoveringabackup 112

B
backhaulcapacityplanning
template 100
backup
configuring 112
recoveringabackup 112
BERgraphs
creating(MW) 170
budget
definingcontentsofreport(MW) 256

C
cables
creating(MW) 176
microwave 176
channelsearch,semiautomatic(MW) 273
clearance,displayingformicrowavelinks 244
columnheaders
formatting 56
columns
changingwidth 57
displaying 58
freezing 58
hiding 58
moving 59
unfreezing 58
computationzone

drawing 43
FittoMapWindow 43
importing 43
polygon,creatingfrom 43
ConnectionProperties 106
contextmenu
renamingobjects 26
coordinatesystem 101
setting 102
coordinates,searchingby 90
coverageprediction
geographicexportzone,defining 46
report,displayingusingfocuszone 43
report,displayingusinghotspotzone 43
coveragepredictions
restrictingsitesstudied(MW) 243
cursors 52
CWMeasurementAnalysisTool
printingdata 72

D
datatables
addingafield 55
changingcolumnwidth 57
changingrowheight 57
copyingdata 60
deletingafield 56
displayingcolumns 58
editing 59
exportingdata 63
filtering 76
filteringbyselection 78
filteringbyseveralcriteria 79
findtext 62
formattingcolumnheaders 56
formattingtablecolumns 57
freezingcolumns 58
hidingcolumns 58
importingdata 65
movingcolumns 59
opening 54
openingrecordpropertiesfromtable 56
pastingdata 60
printing 67
replacetext 62
restoringafterfiltering 81
sorting 76
sortingbyonecolumn 76
sortingbyseveralcolumns 77
unfreezingcolumns 58

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Index

viewingproperties 54
XMLfiles,exportingto 66
XMLfiles,importingfrom 66
database
archivingallmodifications 109
connectingto 105
ConnectionProperties 106
creatingadocumentfrom 105
refreshingdocument 108
workingwith 103
designsummary
definingcontentsofreport(MW) 256
display
changingproperties 30
definingdisplaytype 31
displaytype,discretevalues 31
displaytype,unique 31
displaytype,valueintervals 31
displaycoordinatesystem 101
DistanceMeasurementtool 39
document
creatingfromdatabase 99, 105
creatingfromtemplate 99, 100
geographicdata 99
informationneededtocreate 99
microwavedata 99
microwaveequipment 99
refreshingfromthedatabase 108
settingbasicparameters 101
documenttemplates,see"templates"
DTMmapsrepresentingdifferentareas 136

E
equipment
compatibilitywithantennas(MW) 178
importing(MW) 166, 167
explorerwindow 21, 22
Geoexplorer 22
layers 25
Networkexplorer 22
Parametersexplorer 22

F
feeders,microwave 176
field
addingtoatable 55
deletingfromatable 56
filter
sitelist,usingfor 86
transmitterlist,usingfor 86
filtering
datatablesbyselection 78
datatablesbyseveralcriteria 79
restoringafterfiltering 81
usingapolygon 41, 88
withviews 88
filteringzone

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deleting 46
drawing 42
FittoMapWindow 42
importing 42
polygon,creatingfrom 42
find
indatatables 62
FindonMap 89
searchingbycoordinates 90
searchingbytextproperty 90
focuszone
creating 44
explanation 43
FittoMapWindow 44
importing 44
polygon,creatingfrom 44
usingtodisplaycoveragepredictionreport 43
folderconfiguration 86
applyingasavedconfiguration 86
creating 86
deleting 87
exporting 87
importing 87
reapplyingcurrentconfiguration 87
frequencybands
microwave 293
frequencyplanning(MW) 269
frequencysubbands
microwave 294

G
Geoexplorer 21, 22
geographicexportzone
creating 46
FittoMapWindow 4