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Uniaxial Loading MAE 314 – Solid Mechanics Y. Zhu Slide 1 Deformations Under Axial Loading • Conditions – Solid bars, cables, coil springs, etc. – Axial tension or compression – Prismatic • Recall Hooke’s Law ( σ = Eε ) and δ P equations for stress ( σ = ) and strain (ε = ). A L P δ PL =E ⇒ δ = A L AE Slide 2 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Deformations Under Axial Loading - cont’d • What about non-prismatic bars? – Discrete Changes: total change in length is simply the summation of the change in length of each portion. Pi Li δ =∑ i Ei Ai – Important: Each time the internal force area, force, area or material changes you need a new free-body diagram! P1 L1 P2 L2 P3 L3 δ= + + A1 E A2 E A3 E Note: Misprint in textbook example 2.01 E = 29x106 psi Slide 3 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Deformations Under Axial Loading cont’d • What about non-prismatic bars? – Continuous Changes: continuously changing area (as shown) or continuously changing force (such as a rod hanging under its own weight) – Deformation of an element of length dx can be expressed as: P( x)dx dδ = EA(x ( x) – Integrating this over the length of the rod: • This is an approximation since we L P( x) δ =∫ dx EA( x) 0 made the assumption earlier that the stress distribution is constant over the cross-section. good • For small variations this is a g approximation. Slide 4 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Example Problem 1 • A single axial load of magnitude P = 58 kN is applied at end C of the brass rod ABC. Knowing that E = 105 GPa, d t determine i th the di diameter t d off portion ti BC ffor which hi h th the deflection of point C will be 3 mm. Slide 5 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Slide 6 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Statically Indeterminate Problems • Statically determinate structure – reactions and internal forces can be determined uniquely from free-body diagram and equations of equilibrium. • Statically indeterminate structure – there are more unknown reactions than equations of equilibrium. • Where do the other equations needed to solve the unknown reactions come from? – Equations of compatibility which are based on displacements. – Here is a easy method to determine how many compatibility equations you need for any given problem: • M=R–N • M = number of compatibility equations needed • R = number of unknown reactions (or internal stresses) • N = number of equilibrium equations Slide 7 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Statically Indeterminate Problems - cont’d R1 R1 R = 1 : R1 R = 2 : R1, R2 N = 1 : ΣFY = R1 – P = 0 N = 1 : ΣFY = R1 – P – R2 = 0 M=1-1=0 M=2-1=1 R2 Statically indeterminate structure Slide 8 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Example Problem 2 • Slide 9 Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=29x106 psi) and AC made of aluminum (E=10.4x106 psi), are joined at C and restrained by rigid supports t att A and d D. D Determine D t i ((a)) th the reactions ti att A and dD D, (b) th the defection of point C. --- Uniaxial Loading --- Slide 10 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Example Problem 3 A rod of length L, cross-sectional area A1, and modulus of elasticity E1, has been placed inside a tube of the same length L, but of crosssectional area A2 and modulus of elasticity E2. what is the deformation of the rod and tube when a force P is exerted on a rigid end plate as shown? Slide 11 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Slide 12 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Temperature Changes • Changes in temperature produce expansion or compression, which cause strain. ε T = αΔT – – – • α = coefficient of thermal expansion ΔT = change in temperature Sign convention: expansion is positive (+), contraction is negative (-) For a bar that is completely free to deform (one or both ends free): δ T = ε T L = α (ΔT ) L • Slide 13 In this case, there is thermal strain but no thermal stress! --- Uniaxial Loading --- Temperature Changes - cont’d • Thermal stresses occur when the bar is constrained such that it cannot deform freely. • • In this case there is thermal stress but no thermal strain! Staticallyy Determinate Structures – • Statically Indeterminate Structures – Slide 14 Uniform ΔT in the members produces thermal strains but no thermal stresses. Uniform Δ T in the members produces thermal strains and/or thermal stresses. --- Uniaxial Loading --- Example Problem 4 • A rod consisting of two cylindrical portions AB and BC is restrained at both ends. Portion AB is made of steel (Es=29x106 psi, αs=6.5x10-6/oF) and portion BC is made of brass (Eb=17x106 psi, αb=10.4x10-6/oF). Knowing that the rod is initially unstressed, determine (a) the normal stresses induced in portions AB and BC by a temperature rise of 65oF, (b) the corresponding deflection of point B. 1.25-in 1.25 in diameter 12 in 2.25-in diameter 15 in Slide 15 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Slide 16 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Example Problem 5 • Knowing that a 0.02-in. gap exists when the temperature is 75 oF, determine (a) the temperature at which the normal stress in the aluminum bar will be equal to -11 11 ksi, ksi (b) the corresponding exact length of the aluminum bar. bar Slide 17 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Slide 18 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Example Problem 6 • Example 2.4 in the book Slide 19 --- Uniaxial Loading --- Slide 20 --- Uniaxial Loading ---