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Axial Loading

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Uniaxial Loading
MAE 314 – Solid Mechanics
Y. Zhu
Slide 1
Deformations Under Axial Loading
• Conditions
– Solid bars, cables, coil springs, etc.
– Axial tension or compression
– Prismatic
• Recall Hooke’s Law ( σ
= Eε ) and
δ
P
equations for stress ( σ = ) and strain (ε = ).
A
L
P
δ
PL
=E ⇒ δ =
A
L
AE
Slide 2
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Deformations Under Axial Loading - cont’d
•
What about non-prismatic bars?
– Discrete Changes: total change in length
is simply the summation of the change in
length of each portion.
Pi Li
δ =∑
i Ei Ai
– Important: Each time the internal
force area,
force,
area or material changes
you need a new free-body diagram!
P1 L1 P2 L2 P3 L3
δ=
+
+
A1 E A2 E A3 E
Note: Misprint in textbook example 2.01 E = 29x106 psi
Slide 3
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Deformations Under Axial Loading cont’d
•
What about non-prismatic bars?
– Continuous Changes: continuously changing area (as shown) or
continuously changing force (such as a rod hanging under its own
weight)
– Deformation of an element of length
dx can be expressed as:
P( x)dx
dδ =
EA(x
( x)
– Integrating this over the length of the
rod:
• This is an approximation since we
L
P( x)
δ =∫
dx
EA( x)
0
made the assumption earlier that the
stress distribution is constant over the
cross-section.
good
• For small variations this is a g
approximation.
Slide 4
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Example Problem 1
• A single axial load of magnitude P = 58 kN is applied at
end C of the brass rod ABC. Knowing that E = 105 GPa,
d t
determine
i th
the di
diameter
t d off portion
ti BC ffor which
hi h th
the
deflection of point C will be 3 mm.
Slide 5
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Slide 6
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Statically Indeterminate Problems
•
Statically determinate structure – reactions and internal forces can
be determined uniquely from free-body diagram and equations of
equilibrium.
•
Statically indeterminate structure – there are more unknown
reactions than equations of equilibrium.
•
Where do the other equations needed to solve the unknown
reactions come from?
– Equations of compatibility which are based on displacements.
– Here is a easy method to determine how many compatibility equations
you need for any given problem:
• M=R–N
• M = number of compatibility equations needed
• R = number of unknown reactions (or internal stresses)
• N = number of equilibrium equations
Slide 7
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Statically Indeterminate Problems - cont’d
R1
R1
R = 1 : R1
R = 2 : R1, R2
N = 1 : ΣFY = R1 – P = 0
N = 1 : ΣFY = R1 – P – R2 = 0
M=1-1=0
M=2-1=1
R2
Statically indeterminate structure
Slide 8
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Example Problem 2
•
Slide 9
Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=29x106 psi) and AC made
of aluminum (E=10.4x106 psi), are joined at C and restrained by rigid
supports
t att A and
d D.
D Determine
D t
i ((a)) th
the reactions
ti
att A and
dD
D, (b) th
the
defection of point C.
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Slide 10
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Example Problem 3
A rod of length L, cross-sectional area A1, and modulus of elasticity
E1, has been placed inside a tube of the same length L, but of crosssectional area A2 and modulus of elasticity E2. what is the
deformation of the rod and tube when a force P is exerted on a rigid
end plate as shown?
Slide 11
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Slide 12
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Temperature Changes
•
Changes in temperature produce expansion or compression,
which cause strain.
ε T = αΔT
–
–
–
•
α = coefficient of thermal expansion
ΔT = change in temperature
Sign convention: expansion is positive (+), contraction is
negative (-)
For a bar that is completely free to deform (one or both ends
free):
δ T = ε T L = α (ΔT ) L
•
Slide 13
In this case, there is thermal strain but no thermal stress!
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Temperature Changes - cont’d
•
Thermal stresses occur when the bar is constrained such that
it cannot deform freely.
•
•
In this case there is thermal stress but no thermal strain!
Staticallyy Determinate Structures
–
•
Statically Indeterminate Structures
–
Slide 14
Uniform ΔT in the members produces thermal strains but no
thermal stresses.
Uniform Δ T in the members produces thermal strains and/or
thermal stresses.
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Example Problem 4
•
A rod consisting of two cylindrical portions AB and BC is restrained at
both ends. Portion AB is made of steel (Es=29x106 psi, αs=6.5x10-6/oF)
and portion BC is made of brass (Eb=17x106 psi, αb=10.4x10-6/oF).
Knowing that the rod is initially unstressed, determine (a) the normal
stresses induced in portions AB and BC by a temperature rise of 65oF,
(b) the corresponding deflection of point B.
1.25-in
1.25
in diameter
12 in
2.25-in diameter
15 in
Slide 15
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Slide 16
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Example Problem 5
• Knowing that a 0.02-in. gap exists when the temperature is 75 oF, determine
(a) the temperature at which the normal stress in the aluminum bar will be
equal to -11
11 ksi,
ksi (b) the corresponding exact length of the aluminum bar.
bar
Slide 17
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Slide 18
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Example Problem 6
• Example 2.4 in the book
Slide 19
--- Uniaxial Loading ---
Slide 20
--- Uniaxial Loading ---

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