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# CHAPTER 2: Partial Derivatives

2.1 Definition of a Partial
Derivative
2.2 Increments and Differential
2.3 Chain Rules
2.4 Local Extrema
2.5 Absolute Extrema

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Chapter 2: Partial Derivatives
2.1 Definition of a Partial
Derivative
 The process of differentiating a function
of several variables with respect to one of
its variables while keeping the other
variables fixed is called partial
differentiation.
 The resulting derivative is a partial
derivative of the function.

See illustration

2

As an illustration, consider the surface area of a
right-circular cylinder with radius r and height h:
r
h

We know that the surface area is given by
S 2pr 2 2prh . This is a function of two
variables r and h.
Suppose r is held fixed while h is allowed to
vary. Then,
dS
2pr
dh r const.
This is the “partial derivative of S with respect
to h”. It describes the rate with which a
cylinder’s surface changes if its height is
increased and its radius is kept constant.
Likewise, suppose h is held fixed while r is
allowed to vary. Then,
3

we can view the partial derivative of z with respect to y in the same way. It represents the rate with which the surface area changes if its radius is increased and its height is kept constant. 4 . In standard notation.y ) with respect to x. We can interpret derivative as a rate of change and the slope of a tangent line. holding y constant. so does a partial derivative.dS dr 4pr 2ph h const. these expressions are indicated by Sh 2pr . the partial derivative of z f (x. is the rate at which z changes in response to changes in x. This is the “partial derivative of S with respect to r”. Sr 4pr 2ph Thus in general. Note Just as the ordinary derivative has different interpretations in different contexts. Similarly.

y ) .Recall: Derivative of a single variable f is defined formally as. y ) f y  lim y y  0 provided the limits exist. Definition 2. y   y )  f ( x. y )  f ( x.1 If z  f ( x. then the (first) partial derivatives of f with respect to x and y are the functions f x and f y respectively defined by f ( x   x. 5 . f ( x   x)  f ( x) f ( x)  lim x x  0 The definition of the partial derivatives with respect to x and y are defined similarly. y ) f x  lim x x  0 f ( x.

f y ( x.  It is not the usual derivative d (dee) or  (delta d). y ) .  x  x x f z  f ( x. f x ( x. . b) are denoted by f x (a. y ). y ) or z y .  y  y y The values of the partial derivatives at the point (a. 6 . curly d or del d. y ) or z x . b) and y  f y ( a. b) (a.1.1 Notation For z  f ( x. y ) .b) Note  The stylized “d” symbol in the notation is called roundback d. .b) f  f x (a.2. the partial derivatives f x and f y are also denoted by the symbols: f z  f ( x.

Illustration  Finding and evaluating partial derivative of a function of two variables  Finding partial derivative of a function of three variables  Finding partial derivative of an implicitly defined function Example 2. 2) o Which variable is y x held constant?  Which variables give the value of a derivative? 7 .7 Prompts/Questions  What do the If notations stand for? f (x . o Which variable is find changing? f f i. iii.y ) x 3y x 2y 2 4x . ii. fy (1.

hold y constant and find the derivative with respect to x: f x x x 3y x 2y 2 3x 2y 2xy 2 4 (b) For f y . hold x constant and find the derivative with respect to y: f y y x 3y x 2y 2 (c) fy (1.Solution (a) For f x . 2) (1)3 2(1)2 ( 2) x3 2x 2y 3 8 .

Likewise. find: (a) f x (b) f y (c) f z Solution (a) f x ( x. z ) of three variables. z )  4 xy  z 3 (c) f z ( x. z )  2 x  2 y 2 (b) f y ( x. f y and f z The partial derivative f x is calculated by holding y and z constant. y.For a function f ( x. y. z )  x 2  2 xy 2  yz 3. for f y and f z .2 Let f ( x. y. there are three partial derivatives: f x . Example 2. z )  3 yz 2 9 . y. y.

y Solution We treat x as a constant and f as a composite function: f  1   [ln( x  y )]  ( x  y) y y x  y y 1  (0  1) x y  1 x y 10 . Example 2.The rules for differentiating functions of a single variable holds in calculating partial derivatives.3 f Find if f ( x. y )  ln( x  y) .

Example 2.3a Determine the partial derivatives of the following functions with respect to each of the independent variables: 2 5 z  ( x  3 y ) (a) 3x 7 y w  ze (b) 11 .

y )  y  cos x 12 .Example 2.3b Determine the partial derivatives of the following functions with respect to each of the independent variables: a) z  x sin(2 x 2  5 y ) 2y b) f ( x.

show that z z x  y 0 y x 13 .Example 2.4 If z  f ( x 2  y 2 ) .

Solution We differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x. y constant x z x  y  1  z  1 z  x  z z   x yz  1 14 .Example 2. holding y constant and treating z as a differentiable function of x:     ( yz )  (ln z )  ( x)  ( y) x x x x z 1 z y   1  0.5 Find z if the equation x yz  ln z  x  y defines z as a function of two independent variables x and y.

Determine expressions for z and z in terms of x.Example 2. y and z.5a If cos( x  2 z )  3 y  2 xyz  0 2 defines z as a function of two independent variables x and y. y x 15 .

16 . the tangent line to the curve C has slope f (x) .1.2 Partial Derivative as a Slope To understand the concept let’s take a look at the one-variable case: Curve C Secant f(x + x) Tangent line f(x) P x x + x At P.2.

The intersection of the plane y surface z f (x. y ). y0 with the 17 .

The intersection of the plane x surface z f (x. y ). x 0 with the 18 .

2) . 3)  1  3  1 9  2 1 3 4 19 . 3) f x ( x. f x (1. Solution Given f ( x.Example 2. y )  ( x  y ) 12  1   x  ( x  y ) 1 2 (1  0)  2 x y x 2 x y Thus the required slope. y )  x x  y WANT: f x (1. 3.6 Find the slope of the line that is parallel to the xz-plane and tangent to the surface z  x x  y at the point P(1.

we can obtain the analogous interpretation for partial derivative.1. the partial derivative x at ( x0 . f  Specifically. 20 . y0 ) gives the rate of change of f with respect to x when y is held fixed at the value y0.3 Partial Derivative as a Rate of Change The derivative of a function of one variable can be interpreted as a rate of change. Likewise.  A partial derivative is the rate of change of a multi-variable function when we allow only one of the variables to change.2.

Example 2.7 The volume of a gas is related to its temperature T and its pressure P by the gas law PV  10T . and T in degrees Celsius. P  10T  V V2 P (10)(200) 4    2 V T  200. V 50 (50) 5 21 . what is the rate of change of pressure with respect to volume at V  50? Solution P WANT: V T  200. P in pounds per square inch. V  50 Given PV  10T . If T is kept constant at 200. where V is measured in cubic inches.

and then take another partial derivative with respect to a different variable 22 . the possible partial derivatives of the second order are:  second partial derivative – taking two consecutive partial derivatives with respect to the same variable  mixed partial derivative .4 Higher Order Partial Derivatives The partial derivative of a function is a function. x and y. so it is possible to take the partial derivative of a partial derivative.1. If z is a function of two independent variables.2.taking partial derivatives with respect to one variable.

Standard Notations Given z  f ( x. y ) Second partial derivatives 2 f   f  =   = ( f x ) x = f xx 2 x  x  x  f   f  = = ( f y ) y = f yy   2 y  y  y 2 Mixed partial derivatives 2 f   f  =   = ( f y ) x = f yx xy x  y   f   f  = = ( f x ) y = f xy   yx y  x  2 23 .

and the notation for them is similar. fy.Remark  The mixed partial derivaties can give the same result whenever f. 24 . fx. fxy and fyx are all continuous.  Partial derivaties of the third and higher orders are defined analogously.  f     f   = = f yyx   2   x  y  y   xy 3 4 f       f    =       = f yyxx 2 2 x  x   y  y    x y The order of differentiation is immaterial as long as the derivatives through the order in question are continuous.

we z 21x 2 10xy . 2 2 differentiation? z z i.8 Prompts/Questions Let z  7x 3  5x 2y  6y 3 .r. obtain x Keeping x fixed and differentiating w.t.1) you differentiate 2 x first? Solution Keeping y fixed and differentiating w.t.r. ii. iv. y. x. we z 5x 2 18y 2 . fxy (2. o With respect to x y y x which variable do 2 z iii.  What do the notations represent? Find the indicated partial  What is the order of derivatives.Example 2. obtain y 2 (i) z x y x z y y z x 2 (ii) z y x 2 (iii) z x2 x z z x ( 5x 2 y x 18y 2 ) 10x (21x 2 10xy ) 10x (21x 2 10xy ) 42x 10y 25 .

z y sin x x cos y ii.1) z y x 10(2) 20 (2. Prompts/Questions  What are the first partial derivatives of f ? o Which derivative rules or techniques do you need?  How many secondorder derivatives are there? 26 . y ) x cos y ye iii. z e xy (2x y ) x f ( x .2 (iv) fxy (2.9 Determine all first and second order partial derivatives of the following functions: i.1) Example 2.

2 Increments and Differential 2.2.2. the tangent line at P( x0 .1 Functions of One Variable – A Recap Tangent Line approximation f f(x1) T f(x0) y P x0 x1 x If f is differentiable at x  x0 . f ( x0 )) has slope m  f ( x0 ) and equation y = f(x0) + f ( x0 ) (x  x0) 22 .

If x1 is near x0. that is f ( x1 )  f ( x0 )  f ( x0 )( x1  x0 ) This expression is called the linear approximation formula. Then the linear approximation formula can be written as f ( x1 )  f ( x0 )  f ( x0 )x or equivalently  y  f ( x0 ) x 23 . then f(x1) must be close to the point on the tangent line. Incremental Approximation We use the notation x for the difference x1  x0 and the corresponding notation y for f(x1)  f(x0).

2 If f is differentiable and the increment x is sufficiently small. 24 . then the increment y.Definition 2. in y. in x is given by dy y  x dx or f  f ( x)x Note This version of approximation is sometimes called the incremental approximation formula and is used to study propagation of error. due to an increment of x.

we can estimate the change f. dy as dy dy  dx dx or equivalently df  f ( x) dx Thus. we define the corresponding differential of y. in f by the value of the differential df provided dx is the change in x. if f is differentiable at x. Then.The Differential dx is called the differential of x and we define dx to be x. an arbitrary increment of x. f  df 25 .

f f(x0 + x) T y dy f(x0) P x0 + x x0 x = dx  x  dx  y is the rise of f (the change in y) that occurs relative to x  dx  dy is the rise of tangent line relative to x  dx The true change: f  f ( x0  x)  f ( x0 ) The differential estimate: df  f ( x)dx 26 .

y ) .2 Functions of Two Variables Let z  f ( x.2. z z z  x  y x y 27 . for increments (or errors) in both x and y.2. then the corresponding increment of z in z will be z z  y y It can be shown that. if y is subject to a small increment of y. If x is subject to a small increment (or a small error) of x. while x remains constant. where x and y are independent variables. then the corresponding increment of z in z will be z z  x x Similarly. while y remains constant.

3 Let z  f ( x. z ) of three variables. For example. dz is called the total differential of z is defined as dz  df ( x. y )dy Thus.The formula for a function of two variables may be extended to functions of a greater number of independent variables. y )dx  f y ( x. z  dz provided dx is the change in x and dy is the change in y. y )  f x ( x. if w  f ( x. y. The differential of the dependent variable. 28 . then w w w w  x  y  z x y z Definition 2. y ) where f is a differentiable function and let dx and dy be independent variables.

29 .

98) 3 [2(2) 2  2(1)  13 ] = 0.03) 3  (2.03)(0.98). 0. 0.03.98) f(2.02.03 and y = 0. 1) with x = 0.98)  (0.Example 2.9 Let f ( x.03. dz  (25)(0.77 30 . 1) to (2. Solution z = f(2.02)  0. 1)  2(2. y )  2 x 3  xy  y 3. y) changes from (2. y )dx  f y ( x.779062 dz  f x ( x. y )dy  (6 x 2  y )x  ( x  3 y 2 )y At (2.03)  (1)(0. Compute z and dz as (x.

r = 12 in. V KNOW: radius. thick.Example 2. dr  0. Approximate the volume of the interior of the tank assuming that the tank has a top and a bottom that are both also 0. h = 48 in.. thick. The walls of the tank are 0.10 A cylindrical tank is 4 ft high and has a diameter of 2 ft.2 in. Solution WANT: interior volume of tank. V  dV  Vr dr  Vh dh.2 in.2  dh Volume of tank. V   r 2 h  Vr  2rh and Vh  r 2 V  Vr dr  Vh dh  (2rh)dr  (r )dh 2 31 . height.

h = 48 in. V  2 (12)(48)(0. and a height of 5 in.4 in 2 3 Example 2.900. relative and percentage changes in the volume of the can. but that the radius and height are off by the amounts dr = 0. Estimate the resulting absolute.1.3  20.2  dh we have.2)   (12) 2 (0.Since r = 12 in.03 and dh = 0.2)  814..11 Suppose that a cylindrical can is designed to have a radius of 1 in.3 in 3 Thus the interior volume of the tank is V   (12) (48)  814. and dr  0.. 32 .

Solution WANT: Absolute change. dV  Vr dr  Vh dh  2rhdr  r 2 dh  2 (1)(5)(0.2 0.04 2 V r h  (1) (5) Percentage change. V dV dV V dV  100 Percentage change.2 Relative change.2  2   0. dV  100  0.03)   (1) 2 (0.1)  0.04  100  4% V 33 . V V Relative change. dV 0. V Absolute change.

9% in measuring the volume.Example 2. 120 mm and 200 mm.12 1. Find approximately the greatest error in the surface area of the block and the percentage error in the area caused by the errors in the individual measurements. 2. 34 . The dimensions of a rectangular block of wood were found to be 100 mm.4% in measuring the temperature and an error of  0. with a possible error of 5 mm in each measurement. The pressure P of a confined gas of volume V and temperature T is given by T the formula P  k   where k is a V  constant. the maximum percentage error in P introduced by an error of  0. Find approximately.

Example 2. Use differentials to estimate the maximum percentage error in computing the volume.13 The radius and height of a right circular cone are measured with errors of at most 3% and 2% respectively. 35 .

y)dy is known as an exact differential if it is a total differential of a function f(x. y)dx  N ( x. 36 . M ( x. Definition 2.2. y)dy is an exact differential if f f Mdx  Ndy  dx  dy  df x y Note The function f is found by partial integration.4 The expression M ( x.2. y)dx  N ( x. an expression of the form.3 Exact Differential In general. y).

z )dx  N ( x. y. y.Test for Exactness The differential form Mdx  Ndy is exact if and only if M N  y x By similar reasoning. z )dz is an exact differential when P N  . y. y z M P  . it may be shown that M ( x. z )dy  P( x. z x N M  x y 37 .

Example – see illustration 38 .

3 Chain Rule 2.3.1 Partial Derivatives of Composite Functions Recall: The chain rule for composite functions of one variable If y is a differentiable function of x and x is a differentiable function of a parameter t. 1 . then the chain rule states that dy dy dx   dt dx dt  The corresponding rule for two variables is essentially the same except that it involves both variables.2. Note The rule is used to calculate the rate of increase (positive or negative) of composite functions with respect to t.

y  y (t ) Then z  f ( x(t ). then z is a differentiable function of t and dz z dx z dy     dt x dt y dt 2 . x  x(t ) . dx and dy is given by the dt x y dt following theorem.Assume that z  f ( x. dz Thus we can calculate the derivative dt and its relationship to the derivatives z .1 If z  f ( x. y (t )) is a composition function of a parameter t. z . Theorem 2. y ) is a function of x and y and suppose that x and y are in turn functions of a single variable t. y ) is differentiable and x and y are differentiable functions of t.

Chain Rule – one parameter z  f ( x. y ) Dependent variable z y z x y x dx dt Intermediate variable dy dt t Independent variable dz z dx z dy     dt x dt y dt 3 .

z ) w x w z w y x Dependent variable y dx dt dy dt z Intermediate variable dz dt t Independent variable dw w dx w dy w dz       dt x dt y dt z dt 4 . y.Chain Rule – one parameter w  f ( x.

Chain Rule – two parameters y  f (x) dy dx x x r x s r s y dy x y dy x   .   r dx r s dx s 5 .

y(r . s). y).Theorem 2.2 Let x  x(r . s) and y  y (r . s) have partial derivatives at r and s and let z  f ( x. Then z  f ( x(r . s)) has first derivatives given by z  z  x  z  y     r  x  r  y  r z  z  x  z  y     s  x  s  y  s 6 . y ) be differentiable at (x.

Example 2.14
Suppose that z  x 3 y where x  2t and
dz
2
y  t . Find .
dt
Solution

dz z dx z dy
WANT:

dt x dt y dt

z  x3 y 
x  2t

y  t2

z
z
 3x 2 y and
 x3
y
x

dx

2
dt
dy

 2t
dt

dz z dx z dy

Hence,
dt x dt y dt

 (3x 2 y )(2)  ( x 3 )(2t )
 6(2t ) (t )  (2t ) (2t )  40t
2

2

3

4
7

Example 2.15
Suppose that z 

xy  y where
dz
when
x  cos  and y  sin  . Find
d
 
2
Solution
WANT:

dz
d  

2

From the chain rule with  in place of t,

dz
z dx z dy

d
x d y d
we obtain

dz 1
 ( xy  y ) 1 2 ( y )(  sin  )
d
2
1
 ( xy  y ) 1 2 ( x  1)(cos  )
2
8

When  

 , we have
2

x  cos  0 and y  sin  1
2

2

Substituting x = 0, y = 1,  

 in the
2

dz
formula for
yields
dt

dz
d  

2

1
1
1
(1)(1)(1)  (1)(1)(0)  
2
2
2

9

Example 2.16 Let z  4 x  y 2 where x = uv2 and z z 3 y = u v. u v 10 . Find and .

Example 2.16a
Suppose that w  xy  yz where y = sin x
and z  e x . Use an appropriate form of
dw
the chain rule to find
.
dx

10

Example 2.17

w
if w  4 x  y 2  z 3 where
s
rs
rs 2
and z = rst2.
x  e , y  ln
t

Find

11

2.3.2 Partial Derivatives of
Implicit Functions
The chain rule can be applied to implicit
relationships of the form F ( x, y )  0.
Differentiating F ( x, y )  0 with respect
to x gives

F dx F dy

0
x dx y dx
F F dy
In other words,

0
x
y dx
Hence,

dy  F x

dx
F  y

In summary, we have the following results.
Theorem 2.3
If F ( x, y )  0 defines y implicitly as a
differentiable function of x, then
dy  Fx

dx
Fy
12

then z  Fx  and x Fz z  F y  y Fz Example 2. Theorem 2. z )  0 defines z implicitly as a differentiable function of x and y.18 If y is a differentiable function of x such that x 3  4 x 2 y  3xy  y 2  0 dy find .Theorem 2. y. dx 13 . y ) .3 has a natural extension to functions z  f ( x. of two variables.4 If F ( x.

y )  x 3  4 x 2 y  3xy  y 2. differentiating the given function implicitly yields dy  dy   2 dy  3x   8 xy  4 x   3 y  3x   2 y 0  dx   dx  dx  2 dy  (3x  8 xy  3 y )   dx 4 x 2  3x  2 y 2 which agrees with the result obtained by Theorem 2. 14 .3. Then Fx  3x 2  8 xy  3 y and Fy  4 x 2  3 x  2 y dy  Fx  (3x 2  8 xy  3 y )    dx Fy 4 x 2  3x  2 y Alternatively.Solution dy  Fx KNOW:  dx Fy Let F ( x.

Example 2.19a If sin( x  y)  cos( x  y)  y determine dy . dx 15 .

dx dy 16 .19b If z 2 xy  zy 2 x  x 2  y 2  5 determine z z expressions for and .Example 2.

First we will start out by formally defining local maximum and minimum: Definition 2.b). y) is near (a.5 A function of two variables has a local maximum at (a. 1 .y ) f (a. b).b) is a local minimum value. then f (a.b) is called a local maximum value.2.b) when (x. b) if f (x. y) is near (a.5 Local Extrema Focus of Attention  What is the relative extremum of a function of two variables?  What does a saddle point mean?  What is a critical point of a function of two variables?  What derivative tests could be used to determine the nature of critical points? In this section we will see how to use partial derivatives to locate maxima and minima of functions of two variables.y ) f (a. The number f (a.b) when (x. If f (x.

 Collectively. one needs to use a system of equations. This process is given below in the following theorem: Theorem 2.b) 0 . 2 .  Local extremum is also known as relative extremum. However. The process for finding the maxima and minima points is similar to the one variable process.Note  The points (x. then fx (a. using two variables. b).b) 0 and fy (a. local maximum and minimum are called local extremum. just set the derivative equal to zero.5 If f has a local maximum or minimum at (a. b) and the first-order partial derivatives of f exist at this point. y) is in some disk with center (a.

b) 0 or if one or both partial derivatives do not exist at (a.Definition 2. b) is called a critical point of the function z f (x.y ) if fx (a. 3 .b) 0 and fy (a.6 A point (a. b).

b. b. b )) is a local minimum Saddle Point 4 . Point (a. b )) is a local maximum Relative Min. f (a.Relative Max Point (a. f (a.

f (x . f (a. y ) occur? following surfaces: o What are critical i.33 Prompts/Questions Discuss the nature of the  Where can relative extreme values of critical point for the f (x. z x 2 y 2 points? ii. b )) is a saddle point Remark The values of z at the local maxima and local minima of the function z f (x. z y nature of critical points? 5 . z x 2 y 2 1  How do you decide the 2 2 x iii.y ) may also be called the extreme values of the function.y ). Example 2. b.Point (a.

so the largest value z occurs at (0. h is minimum on the y-axis (where x = 0) and a maximum on the x-axis (where y = 0). 0) because z 1 x 2 y 2 and x 2 and y 2 are both nonnegative. 0) because x 2 and y 2 are both nonnegative. 0).y ) 2x .Solution Let f (x. yielding x 2 y 2 0 . We find the critical points: a) fx (x. The function f has a local minimum at (0. Such point is called a saddle point.y ) 2x . 6 . fy (x. The function h has neither a local maximum nor a local minimum at (0.y ) 2x .y ) 1 x 2 y 2 and h(x. hy (x.y ) 2y Thus the critical point is (0. g(x. b) gx (x. c) hx (x.y ) y 2 x 2 . gy (x.y ) 2y Thus the critical point is (0. 0). 0). The function g has a local maximum at (0.y ) x 2 y 2 . 0).y ) 2y Thus the critical point is (0. 0).

11 Second-Partials Test Let f (x . b) and assume that f has continuous second-order partial derivatives in a disk centered at (a.b) 0 and fy (a. b). a surface z f (x.b)fyy (a.20 (c) illustrates the fact that fx (a. b) if there are two distinct vertical planes through this point such that the trace of the surface in one of the planes has a local maximum at (a.y ) has a saddle point at (a.b) 0 does not guarantee that there is a local extremum at (a. b).Note  In general. Theorem 2. b). Let D fxx (a. The next theorem gives a criterion for deciding what is happening at a critical point. b) and the trace in the other has a local minimum at (a.b) [ fxy (a.b)]2 7 .y ) have a critical point at (a.  Example 2. This theorem is analogous to the Second Derivative Test for functions of one variable.

b). (iii) If D < 0. b). 8 . then f has a local maximum at (a. b).(i) If D > 0 and fxx (a. then f has a local minimum at (a. then f has a saddle point at (a. (iv) If D = 0. then no conclusion can be drawn.b) 0 .b) 0 . (ii) If D > 0 and fxx (a.

fxx fyy fxy 2 fxx fxy fxy fyy If the discriminant is positive at the point (a. b). It is sometimes easier to remember it in the determinant form. Illustration Finding relative extrema  using first partial derivative  using second partial derivative 9 . then the surface curves the same way in all directions:  downwards if fxx maximum 0.b) 0 . giving rise to a local  upwards if fxx (a. b). giving a local minimum. If the discriminant is negative at (a. then the surface curves up in some directions and down in others. so we have a saddle point.Remark The expression fxx fyy fxy 2 is called the discriminant or Hessian of f.

Solution  First determine fx and fy: fx (x.0) 2.y ) 2 . fxx (x. solve the equations. fx = 0 and fy = 0 for x and y: 2x 0 and 2y 0 So the only critical point is at (0.0) 0 and 2  Compute D: 10 .  Thirdly.  Secondly. 0). 0). fxy (x. evaluate fxx . fyy and fxy at the critical point. fxy (0.y ) 0 and fyy (x. fxx (0.y ) 2y .34 Locate all local extrema and saddle points of f (x.Example 2.y ) 1 x 2 y 2 .0) fyy (0.y ) 2 At the point (0.y ) 2x and fy (x.

0.35 Prompts/Questions  What are the critical Locate all local extrema points? and saddle points of f (x . the point (0. Example 2. 1) is a local maximum. 0). o How are they calculated?  How do you classify these points? o Can you use the Second Derivative Test? Solution fx 24x 2 24y . with f having a corresponding maximum value of 1. 0)  2 < 0. fy 24x 3y 2  Find the critical points.D 2 0 0 2 4 Since D = 4 > 0 and f xx (0. the second partials test tell us that a local maximum occurs at (0. In other words. solve 11 . y )  8x 3  24xy  y 3 .

fyy and fxy and compute D: fxx (x. (2) to find 2 24x 3(x 2 )2 x 0 0.  Find fxx . (1). D = 576 < 0. y  x . then y = 0 If x = 2.24x 2 24y 24x 3y 2 0 (1) 0 (2) From Eqn.y ) 6y . (2. 0). D fxx fxy fxy 48x fyy 24 24 6y 24 and 288xy 576  Evaluate D at the critical points: At (0.2 If x = 0. At (2. 0).y ) fyy (x.y ) 48x . Substitute this into Eqn. 0). 4). 4). so there is a saddle point at (0. fxy (x. D = 288(2)(4)-576 = 1728 > 0 12 . then y = 4 So the critical points are (0.

y )  x 3  y 3 Prompts/Questions  What are the critical points?  Can you use the second partials test? o What do you do when the test fails?  How does the function behave near the critical points? 13 . Thus f has a saddle point (0.36 Find the local extreme values of the function. Example 2. 0) and local minimum (2. (i) f (x .and fxx(2. 4) = 48(2) = 96 > 0. 4. 64). 0. 4). So there is a local minimum at (2. y )  x 2y 4 (ii) h(x .

Since f (x. Solving fx 0 simultaneously. 2xy 4 . Observed that f (x. So. the critical points are (x.y ) 0 for every critical point (either x 0 or y 0 or both.0) or (0. we 0 and fy note that the critical points occurs whenever x 0 or y 0 . That is every point on the x or y – axis is a critical point. Let’s analyse the function. the second partials test fails. 14 .y0 ).y ).y ) x 2y 4 0 when x 0 and y 0 .o) and (0.Solution (i) The partial derivatives of f are fx fy 4x 2y 3 . Using the Second Derivative Test: D 2y 4 8xy 3 8xy 3 12x 2y 2 24x 2y 6 64x 2y 6 40x 2y 6 For any critical point (x 0. it follows that each critical point must be a local minimum.

y ) x 2y 4 15 . z x y Graph of f (x.The graph of f is shown below.

y ) has neither kind of local extremum nor a saddle point at (0. y ) 3y 2 . 16 . hy (x . Solving the equations hx = 0 and hy = 0 simultaneously. y ) 3x 2 .y ) x 3 y 3 h(x. Why? Let us examine the traces on the coordinate planes… finish it off Graph of h(x. 0) as the only critical point. we obtain (0.(ii) hx (x . The second partials test fails here. 0).

17 .....Reflection  What can you say about the partial derivatives of a differentiable function at a local (relative) maximum or minimum? …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………........  How do you find the points for where a local (relative) maximum or minimum might be located? Saddle point? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………….................  What is the second derivative test? …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………  What do you do if the second partials test is inconclusive? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………….......

y ) occur?  Under what circumstances does a function of two variables have both an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum?  What is the procedure for determining absolute extrema? The only places a function f (x.12 Extreme-Value Theorem If f (x.2. y ) can ever have an absolute extremum value are  interior critical points  boundary points of the function’s domain Theorem 2.6 Absolute Extrema Focus of Attention  Where can absolute extreme values of f (x. 17 . y ) is continuous on a closed bounded region R. then f has an absolute extremum on R.

then this extremum occurs at a critical point. bounded region R: Step 1: Find all critical points of f in the interior of R. y ) at the points obtained in the preceding steps. Finding Absolute Extrema Given a function f that is continuous on a closed.) Step 3: Evaluate f (x.Theorem 2.13 If f ( x. 18 . endpoints. Step 2: Find all boundary points at which the absolute extrema can occur (critical points. y ) has an absolute extremum at an interior point of its domain. Note Absolute extremum is also known as global extremum. etc.

The largest of these values is the absolute maximum and the smallest is the absolute minimum. 19 .

37  Where can absolute Find the absolute extreme occur? extrema of the function o What are the critical points? f (x .Illustration Finding absolute extrema on closed and bounded region  Critical points & boundary points  Absolute extreme values – smallest & largest values Prompts/Questions Example 2. points?  How do you decide there is an absolute minimum? Absolute maximum? Solution Step 1: f x  x . fy  x2  y2 y x2  y2 20 . y ) x 2 y 2 over o What are the boundary 2 2 the disk x  y  1.

Because y 2  1  x 2 on the boundary curve. the value of f is 1.f x  0 and f y  0 for all (x. 0) = 0 Boundary points: f ( x. 0) is the only critical point of f and it is inside the region. for every point on the boundary circle. we find that f ( x. y). Step 3: Evaluating the value of f at each of the points we have found: Critical point: f(0. 0). Step 2: Examine the values of f on the boundary curve x 2  y 2  1. But f x and f y do not exist at (0. Thus (0. 21 . y )  1 We conclude that the absolute minimum value of f on R is 0 and the absolute maximum value is 1. y )  x  (1  x )  1 2 2 That is.

Example 2. 5 y   x  5. 3 22 . y  0 .y )  3xy  6x  3y  7 o Can you find the points? on the closed triangular  How do you determine region in the first the absolute maximum? quadrant bounded by the Absolute minimum? lines x  0 .38 Prompts/Questions Find the absolute  Where can absolute extreme occur? extrema of the function f (x .

Solution The region is shown in the figure. 2) is the only critical point in the interior of R. f y  3x  3  0 (1. 23 . We take one side at a time. B(0. 0) A(3. 5) R (0. 0) Critical points: f x  3 y  6  0 . Boundary points: The boundary of R consists of three line segments.

Graph of f ( x. y)  3xy  6 x  3 y  7 24 .

0) and (0. y ) simplifies to a function of single variable x u ( x)  f ( x. 0) and (3. Thus the extreme values occur at the endpoints (0. so we look at the interior points of AB.  Segment AB: we already accounted the endpoints of AB. y)  3 y  7. 0  y  5 This function has no critical numbers because v( y )  3 is nonzero for all y. 0)  6 x  7. Thus the extreme values occur at the endpoints (0. v( y)  f (0. 0) of R. x  0. 22 . 5) of R. y  0. The function f ( x. 0  x  3 This function has no critical numbers because u ( x)  6 is nonzero for all x.  On the segment OB. On the segment OA.

8 3) = 9/5 (1. 8 3) . 2) f(1. Evaluating the value of f for the points we have found: (0. 2) = 1 We conclude that the absolute maximum value of f is f(0. 0) = 11 (0. 8 3) f (7 5 . 5) = 8 (7 5 . The critical number is (7 5 . 23 . 5) f(0. 0) = 7 (3. 0  x  3 Setting w( x)  10 x  14 = 0 gives x  7 5. 0) = 11. 0) f(0. we have 3 5 5    w( x)  3x  x  5   6 x  3  x  5   7  3   3   5 x 2  14 x  8. 0) = 7 and the absolute minimum value is f(3.5 With y   x  5. 0) f(3.

y.Example 2. 3. z ) to (0. Solution KNOW: the distance from a point ( x. z ) be a point on the plane x  2 y  z  5. 3. y. We know z  5  x  2y So d  x 2  ( y  3) 2  (5  x  2 y  4) 2 Instead of d. we can minimize the expression d 2  f ( x.39 Find the shortest distance from the point (0. y)  x 2  ( y  3) 2  (1  x  2 y) 2 24 . 4) to the plane x  2 y  z  5. 4) is d  ( x  0) 2  ( y  3) 2  ( z  4) 2 WANT: to minimise d Let ( x.

the determination is made using physical or geometrical considerations. The shortest distance is. f xy  4. Also f xx  4 . 25 . This local minimum must also be the absolute minimum because there must be only one point on the plane that is closest to the given point. so D > 0 which means there is a local minimum at (5/6. In practice. 2 2 2 5 4 5 4  5      d       3  1   2    6  6 3   3   6 Note In general it can be difficult to show that a local extremum is also an absolute extremum.Find the critical values: f x  2 x  2(1  x  2 y)  4 x  4 y  2  0 f y  2( y  3)  4(1  x  2 y)  4 x  10 y  10  0 The only critical point is (5/6. 4/3). f yy  10. 4/3).

What are the dimensions of the least expensive such box? Reflection  Where do absolute extreme values of f (x.40 Suppose we wish to construct a rectangular box with volume 32 ft3. the material for the bottom costs RM3 per square foot. y ) has an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum? ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… 26 . The material for the sides cost RM1 per square foot.Example 2. Three different materials will be used in the construction. y ) occur? ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………  What are the conditions that guarantee a f (x. and the material for the top costs RM5 per square foot.

 How do you find the absolute maximum or minimum value of a function on a closed and bounded domain? On an open or unbounded region? ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… 27 .