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Specific Gravity

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: ………………………………………… Date : ………………………………………… . I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true. _________________ Student Signature Name : ………………………………………… Matric No.STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY I. hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort.

0 OBJECTIVE : The specific gravity (Gs) of a soil is defined as the ratio between the unit masses of soil particles and water. Gs = mass of soil particles Mass of an equal volume of water and is found from the expression : Gs = m2 – m 1 (m4 .: EDITION: REVIEW NO. Then. 2.0 THEORY: The specific gravity (Gs). m 4 is recorded. the exterior again dried and the mass of bottle.m1) – (m3 – m2) . is determined. Gs is useful for determining weight. m 3.0 INTRODUCTION : The specific gravity of solid Gs is a dimensionless parameter that relates the density of the soil particles s to the density of water w . In the case of a density bottle method : A sample of pre-dried soil is placed in a standard density bottle.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY PAGE NO. The combined mass of soil. of which the mass including the stopper is m1. soil and water. of a material is defined as the ratio of the weight (or mass) of a given volume of the material to the weight (or mass) of an equal volume of water.0 NEED AND SCOPE OF EXPERIMENT: The knowledge of specific gravity is needed in calculation of soil properties like void ratio. The bottle is then emptied. 3.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 3/9 1/1/14 1/1/15 1. 4. De-aired. The density of the soil particles s is defined as the mass in air of dry solids Ms at a stated temperature divided by the volume of the solid Vs at the same stated temperature. stopper. or s = Ms / Vs. stopper and water. distilled water is added and the whole vacuumed to remove air prior to topping up and insertion of the stopper. degree of saturation etc. refilled with de-aired water only. After drying the outside of the bottle.volume relationships. bottle and stopper is m 2. or Gs = s /w .

accurate to 0.m1 is the mass of soil sample. m3 – m2 is the mass of water occupying the volume not occupied by the soil and thus. Thermometer. WFS is the weight of the flask filled with soil and water and WFW is the weight of the flask filled with deaired water only. 4.50 C Drying oven Evaporating dish Figure 1.0 APPARATUS : 1. 5. ranging from 0 to 500 C. Balance accurate to 0. 7. Gs = Ws WS + WFW . 3. (m4 – m1) – (m3 – m2) is the mass of water occupying a volume equal to that of the soil particles. 2. numbered and calibrated Vacuum pump.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO. 6. Hence the specific gravity Gs of a soil is calculated as follows. Volumetric flasks (250 or 500 ml) with stoppers.22 : Apparatus For Determination of Specific Gravity .: TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/1/14 AMENDMENT DATE: 1/1/15 Where : m2 .WFS Where Ws is the weight of the dry soil.01g Distilled deaired water. 5.: EDITION: 4/9 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING REVIEW NO. m4 – m1 is the mass of water contained by the density bottle.

: TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/1/14 AMENDMENT DATE: 1/1/15 6. kemudian disejukkan dalam alat pengering.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO. Lebih kurang 5 -10g sampel tanah diambil daripada sampel yang lulus ayak BS 2 mm dan dimasukkan ke dalam botol. Figure 1. Figure 1.0 PROCEDURE : 1. bottle and stopper . Sampel tanah diambil.23: Soil sample pass sieve BS 2mm 2. dikeringkan dan ditimbang (m1). Botol ketumpatan dengan penutupnya dibersih. daripada sampel yang sudah dikeringkan di dalam ketuhar dengan suhu 105 0 -110 C.25: Placed a soil sample into a bottle and weight the soil. Figure 1.: 5/9 EDITION: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING REVIEW NO.24: Measure the weight of bottle and stopper 3. ditutup dengan penutupnya dan ditimbang (m2).

Figure 1. Figure 1.: TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/1/14 AMENDMENT DATE: 1/1/15 4. Timbang botol bersama air dan catat beratnya (m4). Botol tersebut kemudiannya digoncang dan air suling ditambah untuk memenuhi botol. Keringkan permukaan botol ketumpatan dan timbang kandungannya (m3).29: Measure the weight of bottle. Kemudian dibiarkan selama 1 jam.27: De-aired. bersihkan botol dan isi air. Jika kelihatan paras air di dalarn botol berkurangan. soil and water 6.: EDITION: 6/9 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING REVIEW NO. botol bersama-sama dengan Figure 1. stopper and water . biarkan selama 1 jam.28: Measure the weight of bottle. Kemudian keluarkan tanah dan air daripada botol. distilled water is added and the whole vacuumed to remove air 5.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO. stopper. tambah ke paras asal. Air suling kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam botol ketumpatan tadi dan diletak dalam alat pengering udara selama lebih kurang 1 jam.

3. 4.212 g The results of a water content test on a sample of the soil were as follows: mass of tin plus wet soil m5 = 24. 2.570 Mg/m .302 g Given that the specific gravity of the soil particles (Gs) Gs = mass of solid particles mass of an equal volume of water = ms / (mw)Vs . Meniscus not level with mark on neck of density bottle.g.: EDITION: 7/9 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING REVIEW NO.600 kg of loose. Moisture on the outside of the density bottle or on the inside of its neck. Imprecise weights of density bottle and its contents (e. using a density bottle yielded the following data: mass of density bottle and stopper m1 = 25.0 EXAMPLE AND QUESTION : Example: An in situ test to determine the unit weight of a soil was carried out using the sand replacement method. 4. common laboratory error for the determination of the specific gravity of solids Gs are as follows: 1.909g mass of density bottle plus stopper plus soil plus distilled water m3= 62.. the flask is not clean). This is often the most serious error and will tend to lower the computed value. Repeat the test to calculate additional values of Gs until the values of Gs are within 2 % of each other. 5.104 g mass of tin plus dry soil m6 = 22.620 kg of soil were extracted from the hole which was then refilled using 3. A specific gravity determination of the soil particles.001 g mass of density bottle plus stopper plus oven dried soil m2 = 36. standard sand.103 g massoftin m7 = 12.0 COMMON ERROR : According to Rollings and Rollings (1996). 8. Use of tap water or other water that is not distilled or demineralized Incomplete removal of entrapped air from soil suspension. the sand having a dry density of 1.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO. 3 dry.587g mass of density bottle plus stopper plus distilled water m4 = 55.: TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/1/14 AMENDMENT DATE: 1/1/15 7. 7.

25. What typical values of the specific gravity for soil? 3.908 / 4.212 = 7.103 ms m6 – m7 22. Define specific gravity of soil.: TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/1/14 AMENDMENT DATE: 1/1/15 Determine : (a) The specific gravity of the soil particles.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.533 g The specific gravity of the particles = ms / (mw)Vs = 11.908 .204 or 20.: EDITION: 8/9 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING REVIEW NO.909 . What is the effect of the water temperature on the determination of the specific gravity of soils? .908g The submerged mass of the solids = m3 .375 g The mass of water displaced by the solids is (ms)Vs = ms – m’s = 11. Why do we use vacuum while determining the specific gravity of soils? 4.4 % Question: 1.302 = 0.587 .104 – 22.001 = 11. 2.533 = 2.55.m4 = m’s = 62. The mass of the solids a = 36.103 – 12.375 = 4.627 (b) The moisture content.7. w = mw = m5 – m6 = 24.

Mass of density bottle and stopper (m1) Mass of density bottle plus stopper plus oven dried soil (m2) Mass of density bottle plus stopper plus soil plus distilled water (m3) Mass of density bottle plus stopper plus distilled water (m4 ) Mass of soil sample (m2 – m1) Mass of water contained by the density bottle (m4 – m1) Mass of water occupying the volume not occupied by the soil and thus (m3 – m2) Mass of water occupying a volume equal to that of the soil particles (m4 – m1) – (m3 – m2) Gs = mass of soil particles Mass of an equal volume of water Gs = m2 – m1 . Sample type : Depth of Sample : Operator : Date Started : Test no. 2 3 4 . (m4 – m1) – (m3 – m2) Average Specific gravity = .: EDITION: 9/9 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING REVIEW NO. No.CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: TEST TITLE : DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY EFFECTIVE DATE: 1/1/14 AMENDMENT DATE: 1/1/15 9. 1 Bottle no.0 DATA SHEET: Location : Loc. : Soil description: Sample No.

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