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Chapter - 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
“Food security is achieved when all people, at all times, have physical and
economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs
and food preferences for an active life” (Rome Declaration on World Food
Security World Food Summit, 1996).
Hunger is the most deplorable manifestation of poverty. This can manifest
itself in the form of starvation, chronic under nutrition or specific nutrient
deficiencies. A staggering 5 per cent of rural and 2 per cent of urban population of
India do not get adequate food throughout the year. Moreover, the indicators on
nutrition are awesome and classing us quite low in terms of Human Development
Index. India was a famine-ridden country during the British times. The process of
faminization has been discussed by a whole gamut of social scientists, political
leaders and social workers. Even the British government took the task of knowing
the reasons behind famines. The early debate surrendering the measures to combat
famines was construction of railways versus investment in irrigation. After
Independence, the Food Grain Procurement Commission (1950) suggested

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rationing. Food grain Inquiry Committee (1957) suggested maintenance of Buffer
stock to combat sudden frustration in food supply.
During the 60s and 70s, India started importing food grain from USA under
PL-480 agreement, war with Pakistan and growing incidence of crop failures led
India to think about self-sufficiency in food. The second and third year plans
which gave emphasis on industrialization, faced a lot of criticisms. The
government became more aware about shortage in food production. IADP and
IAAP programmes were adopted in the early 1960s to combat the evil of food
shortage green revolution technology was adopted to increase domestic food
production.
In 1965, Food Corporation of India and Agricultural price commission
(later its name was changed to commission of agricultural costs and prices) were
established. Public Distribution System (PDS) became a part of our food policy
whose main objective was to provide food supply at cheaper rates to urban
consumers through ration shops and Fair price shops. Creation of buffer stock
through levy, and offering Minimum Support Price (MSP) to avoid distress sales
by farmers were also the objectives of PDS. The Public Distribution System (PDS)
in India is more than half a century old as rationing was first introduced in 1939 in
Bombay by the British Government as a measure to ensure equitable distribution
of food grains to the urban consumers in the face of rising prices. Thus, rationing
in times of crisis like famine was the historical precursor to the national policy of
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stabilization and management of food grains. Among the number of price central
conferences held during 1940-42, the sixth held in September, 1942 laid down the
basic principle of a Public Distribution System for India.

Targeted Public Distribution System
Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) is a means of distributing food
grain and other basic commodities at subsidized prices through Fair Price Shops.
Every family is supposed to have a ration card. In 1997, the TPDS became
targeted wherein different ration cards were issued to households. Below poverty
line (BPL) and those Above the Poverty Line (APL), and each category has
different entitlements. Today, both BPL and APL households are emitted to 35 kgs
of grain per month, but the issue price is higher for APL households. The BPL
quota for each state is determined by the Planning Commission’s estimates of
poverty in the state, which is in turn calculated on the basis of the National Sample
Survey Organization’s (NSSO) consumption expenditure surveys (CES).
History of public distribution system
Pre-Independence Era
The origin of Public Distribution System in India dates back to the Second World
War period. At the start of the Second World War in 1939 when shortages of
various essential commodities were anticipated and the State had an obligation to
maintain supply lines for the conduct of the war while, at the same time,
supplying essentials to the citizens also, the Government of India decided to

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A plan for the food economy of India called "The Basic Plan" was drawn up and put into operation from of April. However. The food situation in Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 4 . . if necessary. (Kharif and Rabi) the Government of India ordered procurement from surplus States and allocation of food grains to the deficit States. The Committee stressed the need for continuing the rationing in the urban centers and also inclusion of certain rural areas under the scheme. rice and wheat sharply increased by 2. there was no control either on supply or on movement of wheat which resulted in the failure of the wheat price control. Are examining the situation in depth. During 1942 a serious shortage of food grains developed and large sections of people were deprived of any supply at all. On the basis of the anticipated harvest of the two major seasons. Food rationing which was introduced to cover 13 cities in 1943 was extended to 103 cities and towns in 1944 and extended to 771 towns and rural pockets in 1946. The procurement in surplus States did not work out satisfactorily and the main source of supply during the period 1943-47 was imports. the Government of India promulgated Rule 81-D under the Defense of India Rules which empowered the province all Governments to regulate the shops dealing in food grains and even take over their business. 1943.5 times during the war period. 1939 the prices of food grains started rising. The Government tried to control the prices when it fixed the maximum price of wheat in 1941. The committee also asked for a reserve stock to be created as per specific scheme outlined. The price of major food grains namely.impose controls on distribution of certain commodities under the Defense of India Rules 1939. The first Food grain Policy Committee was set up in 1943 to recommend a sound and effective food policy for the country.

In 1952 the Foodgrains (licensing and procurement) Order was passed and fair price shops were opened to prevent undue rise in prices consequent on the relaxation of controls. The Post Independence Period India obtained independence in the year 1947 and the second Food grains Policy Committee was set up in that year. But the zonal system was reintroduced In 1955 for wheat and rice. The year 1955 was an important one since it was during this year that the Essential Commodities Act was enacted.1943 was critical and the Government of India modified the basic plan in such a way as to license more private dealers to encourage them to bring out the hidden stocks. Accordingly. has the objective of holding control over the production. supply and distribution of and trade and commerce in certain essential commodities. This Act which is in force even to-day. The Government started to implement these recommendations seriously. This was first tried in the Eastern region. the recommendation was to scrap the rationing system. liberalization of internal trade in a shortage situation resulted in sharp increase in food grain prices and very soon. the Government reverted to the price control mechanism. In 1953-54 the food zones which were introduced during the war period to restrict the movement of foodg rains were also abolished. to reduce the import of food grains and liberalize internal trade of food grains. A number of Control Orders have been promulgated under this Act to cover various essential commodities Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 5 .. However. The committee recommended to reduce the area of state intervention in the food market.

15.000 FPS. The avowed purpose was to protect the vulnerable auctions of the population against the riding prices. The old fair price shops scheme was re designated as Public Distribution System.000 crore to about 16 crore families. The establishment of the Food Corporation of India in 1965 with the objective of building up buffer stocks of food grains to achieve food security was a major land-mark of the Indian Food Policy. The planning commission’s report says that ‘with a network of more than 4. institutions and government agencies have been conducted on the subject PDS. PDS is said to distribute each year commodities worth Rs. The huge network can play a more meaningful role of only the system is able to translate into micro level and macro level self-sufficiency by ensuring availability of food grains for the poor households. From 1965 onwards the public distribution system became an important element in the planning process. Statement of the Problem Number of research studies by individuals.1956-1965 wheat and rice imported from the U.00.S. Planning Commission in the ‘Mid term appraisal of various areas covered by researchers on PDS. the PDS in India are perhaps the largest distribution machinery of its type in the world.A. under PL 480 was pumped into the Public Distribution System at prices which were lower than the domestic ones. Need for the Study Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 6 .

pulses and other cereals. Food security implies access by all people at all times to sufficient quantities of food to lead an active and healthy life. Even amongst these. As for as the issue of providing purchasing power to the people is concerned. Even we all Indians are thinking that. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 7 . various employment programmes have been introduced from time to time.India is second largest country in the world in the manner of population. the income and purchasing power of the people increases. the government of India relied on the following three food based safety nets. As for as the question of enough purchasing capacity is concerned. Recently. To tackle the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the food security problem. PDS has been focus of most of the attention and debate over the years. We know that the Indian common man is facing lots of problems today. 1. it involves the introduction of employment generation of programmes. most of Indian people are struggling with the bread and butter due to the continuously increasing prices of food grains. So that. vegetables. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and 3. It is most important considerable plus point of the India. Mid-day meals programme (MDM). we will the Indian peoples. Public Distribution System (PDS) 2. because it involve large human capital.

4. Rather. Methodology a. To trace the evolution of the PDS scheme.The poor impact of the scheme in poor states (Bihar and West Bengal) also underlines the need for strengthening PDS in these states. 3. To evaluate performance of the scheme in the recent years. To seek opinion of beneficiaries through a case study. Objectives 1. b. were targeted public distribution scheme was the target group in the proposed study. Area of Study The broad geographical area of the present study was restricted to the shimoga district in Karnataka. 2. the need of the hour is to encourage proper targeting to achieve better results to pursue PDS. the focus was on shikaripura taluk. As long as the development process is not able to reduce poverty continuance of the Public Distribution Scheme in poor states stands justified. Sources of Data The present study has depended on both primary and secondary data Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 8 . However. To identify the problems in the operation of the scheme.

hypothesis. statement of the problem. most backward dry area and most forward irrigated areas of 100 beneficiaries are selected with the help of random sampling technique. Chapter 2 Review of Literature Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 9 . periodicals and reports on the subject. journals.1 : Introduction This chapter provides a brief background. methodology. objectives. Chapterization This study has been planned in Five chapters as follows : Chapter .The primary data has been gathered through personal administration of appropriately prepared open ended interview schedules to the beneficiaries in the study area of shikaripura talluks Secondary data for the study has been gathered from published sources such as various titles. scope and relevance of the study. For the purpose of gathering the latest information on the topic internet sources were also consulted. Introduction. need for the study. Sample size and sampling design From the shikaripura taluks. chapterization and review of literature.

evolution of TPDS in Karnataka. AAY and Fair Price Shops (FPSs). Chapter – 4 : Performance of TPDS Scheme : An Overview This chapter deals with the TPDS scheme performance need and importance for the specially a poor people in briefly discussion and briefly a TPDS scheme performance in recent years. Chapter – 5 : TPDS Scheme in Chitradurga Taluk : An Evaluation This chapter provides a TPDS scheme introduced in this scheme activities. in Chitradurga taluk PDS scheme related APL. scheme activities and discussion. statistics. Statistics in recent years and Chitradurga taluk background briefly introduction and this scheme overall information and Chitradurga taluk an evaluation and PDS scheme evaluation of the study. Chapter -6 : Summary and Conclusion Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 10 .This chapter provides detailed description regarding subject matter form various scholar’s Chapter . BPL.2 : Evolution of TPDS Scheme in India and Karnataka This chapter deals with the PDS scheme in India and brief introduction.

However.8 per cent of rural population and 38 per cent of urban population as target groups. Subba Rao (1980) worked on “The political economy of public distribution system in Tamil Nadu” estimated food requirement for the state of Andhra Pradesh under certain assumptions. The sixth five year plan identified 50.The major Findings and Suggestions are given by the researcher in this chapter prior to a formal conclusion. Gupta basing on certain assumption has projected food grains required for PDS Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 11 . He concluded that ultimately the benefit of public distribution is zero or negligible. While working out these estimates he has assumed a supply level of 12 ozs (340 grams) per consumption unit. Chapter 2 Review of Literature Rajpurohit (1978) studied the “Urban dwellers and rural poor” should be included under target groups. in practice each state has followed its own criteria.

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 12 . The results shows that the system is economically viable. for all India.4% of consumer in rural areas and 65. Further ration rice according to this study. The calorie distribution by expenditure class given NSS data for 1971-72 showed that if 2750 calories is taken as minimum required intake per consumer. accounted for a major share of rice consumption of consumers belonging to low income groups. Nutritional poverty is undoubtedly linked with high inequality that exists in the distribution of purchasing power.5% in the urban areas were not getting adequate nutrition. and ii) cultivators households multiplied by five which is the average size of the family. The study shows that proportion of total expenditure spent on food decreases with increasing consumption expenditure class. Rajkrishna suggested that the beneficiaries of the distribution system could be arrived at by deducting from the total population i) the number of income – tax assess. The criteria of identifying target groups differed across studies. VKRV Rao (1985) his study on “In the study of analysis : National sample survey” in the study analyses the National Sample Survey (NSS) data for 1973-74 on household expenditure and food consumption by per capita expenditure class. P. such projections are assumed to help makers in their procurement effects. 51.S. He estimated the possible impact of rationing on incomes of the consumers using the relationship. George (1984) has analyzed the “Public distribution of food grains and their income distribution of effects in Kerala”.upto 1980.

edible oils. Errors of wrong exclusion (type-I errors) refer to the exclusion of genuinely poor or deserving households from a programme. which is one of the oldest and largest poverty alleviation programmes in the world.Cornia and Stewart (1993) worked on “Two errors of targeting” one of the arguments made by proponents of Targeted PDS is that the scheme will be able to reach the poor or needy more effectively than the universal PDS.8 billion 1993US$). wheat. For most of the last three decades. sugar and kerosene at subsidized prices through a network of retail outlets known as Fair Price Shops. states food subsidization has a very long tradition in India. The programme mainly supplies rice.8 per cent of Gross Domestic Product. Radhakrishna et al. almost 50 per cent of the total expenditure allocated to poverty alleviation programmes and approximately 0. There are two types of errors that occur in any targeted welfare programme due to imperfect measurement. (1997) worked on “India’s public distribution system : A national and international perspective”. The public distribution system (PDS) is one of the most important and costly welfare programmes in India. it has accounted for more than two per cent of total government expenditure and its cost peaked in 1993-94 at 55 billion rupees (roughly 1. which distributed food to rich and poor Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 13 . Jos Mooij (1998) worked on “Dilemmas in Food Policy about institutional contradictions and vested interests”. The bulk of these sums sustained the Public Distribution System (PDS hereafter). Till 1997 the PDS a more or less universal programme.

The implementing of targeting proved however difficult. This recommendation. reveals that there are several ways in which food security can be improved. India’s strategies in this regard comprise economic growth.P. which include wage-employed and self-employed target programmes. poor coordination and low administrative accountability have combined to cripple the delivery machinery. direct anti-poverty programmes. A recommendation of the High Level Committee on Long Term Grain Policy (2000) was that instead of the current distinction between APL. First that if the same price for BPL and APL households was charged. The study was carried among 2250 households across 120 villages found that multiplicities of agencies. BPL and Antyodaya in terms of issue pricing for rice and wheat. Ravi Srivastava (2000) a detailed study on “Food security and Targeted PDS in U. The universal set-up changes in 1997.cardholders alike. this would not be financially viable for the Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 14 . there should be a single issue price for grain issued by the FCI from its warehouses. sometimes identified with the return to universal PDS from TPDS adopted in 1997. public distribution system (PDS) nutrition-based programmes and provision of health facilities.”. when the government of India introduced targeting. his study on “Food security : PDS vs EGS – Tale of two states”. The strategies constitute several policies. has been criticized on a number of grounds. Mahendra Dev (2000).

the original BPL households were excluded from the TPDS. If existing AAY and BPL cardholders were charged a higher price. FAO defined food security as ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food they need. World Food Summit 1996 in world food summit plan of action stated that Food security exists when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient.BPL. Taimini (2001) the World Bank defined “Food security as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life”. Madhura Swaminathan (2002) worked on “Weakening welfare : The public distribution of food in India” has criticised the targeted PDS that is based on the narrow definition of absolute income poverty. On the other hand. She has discussed the major drawbacks of the use of income poverty line as an indicator of the eligibility of a family for access to PDS. safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. She has cited the example of the inefficiency in survey techniques used in a village in Maharashtra to target the BPL households due to which. Third any widening in the effective reach of PDS due to its universalization would put unbearable pressure for the supply for grain into the PDS. However. a low CIP would increase even further the fiscal subsidy. there might be pressure to keep the uniform CIP low as high common price for BPL and APL would have adverse consequences for the poor. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 15 .

The Economic Survey Reports (2012) from West Bengal.2 million tonnes of rice and wheat are allotted by the Central Government Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 16 . held in Rome in 1992. declared “Hunger and malnutrition are unacceptable in a world that has both knowledge and resources to end this human catastrophe and recognized that access to nutritionally adequate and safe food is a right of each individual. Every month over 4. Though number of studies has been conducted on PDS. the effectiveness of PDS has not been studied and measured quantitatively. Jharkhand. despite the apex courts specific order s to provide subsidized food grain regularly to all poor people. Bihar. Assam and Madhya Pradesh reveal that the gigantic scheme a lifetime for India’s hungry millions is in shambles. The joint FAO/WHO conference on nutrition. Orissa. Srinivas and Thaha (2004) analysed the “Food security has also been a recurring theme” raised in specific contexts in various force convened by the United National the conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 emphasized the need to ensure food security at all levels within the framework of sustainable development as defined in Agenda 21.“NIRDs study on leakages in PDS” (2003) found that nor drawing and partial drawing of quota was substantially contributes for leakages. This study shows that how for the rural population have been benefited in PDS in terms of the objectives of PDS.

It would be with while the examine.S. the PDS and Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 17 . the exercise here calculates the proportion of ‘wrongly excluded’ (i. Of the one-third of sample households that were classified as BPL. this article examined the government of India’s 1997 criteria for selection of households for below poverty line ration cards.for distribution through a network of merely half a million Fair price shops spread across all states and union territories. 1) A case for universalisation of the PDS and 2) its implications for procurement and buffer stocks it would be important to examine the issues in the context of the latest available information on the current state of the PDS. Suryanarayana. However. Reethika Khera (2012) worked on “PDS and other sources of household consumption”. Using primary data (collected in 2002) from 400 randomly selected households from eight villages of Rajasthan. one must consider the appropriateness of the selection criteria along with these large selection errors.e. who qualify according to government criteria but did not get a BPL card) and ‘wrongly excluded’ households. The main conceptual problems are that the criteria are static and uniform across the entire country. nearly a quarter have been wrongly includes. 44 per cent of the households which should have been counted as BPL were wrongly excluded. (2012) his work on “Commentary on agflation and public distribution system have been raised”. M. Besides..

Targeting economic assistance to the poor is a central problem in development. G.9. In principle this could reflect either officials use of soft information to improve targeting or corruption. Niehaus Paul (2009) analyzed targeting with agents: Theory and evidence from India’s Targetted Public Distribution System.its profile across socio-economic groups and the likely implications for food security in era of food inflation. It is not surprising that the largest support for PDS comes from regions where pilferage is maximum. Sharad Joshi (2011) worked on “Wrong approach to food security” reveals that coupons would work better than PDS as a food security mechanism. 1. Suryanarayana (2009) undertook “A study on PDS in India with reference to Andhra Pradesh during 1985”. The study has been restricted only towards an Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 18 . The major findings of the study were urban people were getting more benefits through PDS than rural and tribal people. Limitations of the Study The present study has been restricted to Chitradurga taluk of Chitradurga district in Karnataka state. The evidence does not support the former view excessive each payments for BPL cards are widespread and household specific prices respond to household eligibility criteria in a manner consistent with systematic profit maximization by officials. The statutory targeting rules are frequently violated.

F. “Weakening welfare : The public distribution of food in India”. Cornia. Economic and Political Weekly. 5. In: Lipton. Jos Mooij (1998). 3. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 19 . Two errors of targeting.) (1998). 53. Choudhary. Hyderabad. “Dilemmas in Food Policy about institutional contradictions and vested interests”.evaluation of performance of targeted public distribution scheme. 22. Clerendon Press. 144. and J. M. pp. 67-90. (1993). Since the study is a micro one. 8. “Famine prevention in India”. 2. Dreze and Hussain). Theory and evidence from India’s targeted public distribution system. Political Economy of Hunger. NIRD. Mahendra Dev (2000). Madhura Swaminathan (2002). G. 47-54. pp. it assumes relevance in its own way. 12011220. “Some aspects of public distribution of food grains in India”. 7. Oxford.) : Including the poor : World Bank. p. pp. and Stewart. (1984). pp. 1752-1764. 32(20-21). Vander Gaag (ed. George. Leftword Books. p. New Delhi. Washington DC. Economic and Political Weekly. p. Economic and Political Weekly. References 1. P. Food Insecurity Atlas of Rural India. Jean Dreze (1995). R.S. “Five years of rural development in India : Retrospect and Prospect”.A. 31(27). 6. Chennai. Niehauspaul (2009). and Rajkutty (ed. p. “Food security : PDS vs EGS – Tale of two states”. (ed: Sen.C. 180. 4.

30. and Ravi.. 10. The Food Insecurity Atlas of Rural India. (2009).). Suryanarayana. C.. 661-668. Asian Experience. New Delhi. Radhakrishna. Ashish Publishing House. Subba Rao. pp. Subba Rao (1980). pp. Taimini (2001). G. “Wrong approach to food security”. 62. In: Vikram K. New Delhi. Rajpurohit (1978). pp. “The political economy of public distribution system in Tamil Nadu”. “Calories and Things : Reflections on nutritional norms. 16. p. 22-28. VKRV (1985). 11. p. 17. Sage Publications. 7. Indrakanth. p.9. Economic and Political Weekly. Vol. Journal of Indian School of Political Economy. “India’s food policy since independence. 13(2). Chennai. p. Sage Publications. p. “Economic reform versus food security : Kerala’s Gordian Knot”. “Urban dwellers and rural poor”. Chand (ed. New Delhi. 10. 15. Journal of International Development. (1997). Reinventing Public Service Delivery in India. World Bank Discussion. Businessline. poverty lines and consumption behaviour in India”. 12. 8(2). Rao. The Hindu. K. 380. 14. 13. S. 40(43). Srinivas and Thaha (2004). “India’s public distribution system : A national and international perspective”. Sharad Joshi (2011). 239-253. p. R. 5. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 20 . Reethika Khera (2012). Economic and Political Weekly. “In the study of analysis : National sample survey organization”. “Access to the targeted public distribution system : A case study in Rajasthan”.

3 EVOLUTION OF TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SCHEME IN INDIA AND KARNATAKA India Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 21 . 4407. in Economic and Political Weekly. p. Notes. Chapter . Vyas (2005). “Ensuring food security”.18.

the outreach of PDS was extended to tribal blocks and areas of high incidence of poverty in the 1970s and 1980s. The operational responsibility including allocation within state. had emerged from the critical food shortages of 1960. The Central Government. tea. transportation and bulk allocation of food grains to the states. such as cloth. etc. Some States/UTs also distribute additional items of mass consumption. has assumed the responsibility for procurement. had emanated from the critical food shortages of 1960. PDS. the States/Union Territories for distribution. PDS. pulses.PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the Central and the State Governments. As the national agricultural production had grown in the aftermath of Green Revolution. through the PDS outlets. with its focus on distribution of food grains in urban scarcity areas. Public Distribution of essential commodities had been in existence in India during the inter-war period. issue of ration cards and supervision of the functioning of FPS rest with the State Governments. identification of families below the poverty line. Evolution of Public Distribution System in Karnataka Public distribution of essential commodities had keen in existence in India during the inter-war period. through ECI. exercise books. PDS had substantially contributed to the containment of rise in food grains prices and ensured access of food to urban consumers. with its focus on distribution of food grains in urban scarcity areas. storage. salt. PDS Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 22 .

was a general entitlement scheme for all consumers without any specific target.  There were instances of improper documentation. till 1992.034. on the other hand. which Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 23 .. The scale of issue of food grains was also drastically reduced to cater to the increased number of beneficiaries. miss reporting of the scale transactions. This. PDS. As the national agricultural production had grown in the after moth of Green Revolution. Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was launched in June 1992 in 1775 blocks throughout the country. led to inclusion of ineligible beneficiaries in the BPL list and the number of ration cards exceeded the projected households in the state. The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced with effect from June 1997.82 crore to supply food grains at subsidized rates.  The state policy of excluding ineligible BPL families in the state through certain socio-economic criteria did not work effectively due to relaxation of many of these criteria by the State Government and issue of BPL ration cards on self declarations by the applicants without scrutiny. the State Government was saddled with additional financial burden of Rs. 1.  Consequent upon abnormal increase in the number of BPL ration cards. the outreach of PDS was extended to tribal blocks and areas of high incidence of poverty in the 1970s and 1980s.had substantially contributed to the containment of rise in food grains prices and ensured access of food to urban consumers. regularizes in the working of Fair price shops (FPS) etc.

to make it more effective and transparent.could have led to diversion of PDS commodities to black market. Involvement of Panchayat Raj Institutions to Monitor the PDS Distribution Scheme In pursuance of the guidelines issued by GOI. Organizational Setup The Principal Secretary. two ST and one lady member of Grama Panchayat and Panchayat secretary will be the Member Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 24 . the State Government has issued instructions. Food Security Committee has been constituted in every Grama Panchayat under the chairmanship of social justice chairman with one SC. failed to notice these irregularities due to lack of an effective monitoring mechanism. Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs (FC&CA) assisted by the Commissioner (FC&CA) was responsible for implementation of the scheme at the state level. Deputy Directors (FC&CA) and Chief Executive Officers of Zilla Panchayats at the district level and by the Tahsildars and Executive Officers of Taluk Panchayat taluk level. involving Panchayat Raj Institutions in public distribution system. Grama Panchayat is entrusted with monitoring and supervision of PDS at the Panchayat level as well as to create awareness to the consumers about the PDS. The Department. The commissioner was assisted by the Deputy Commissioners. Department of Food. however.

This committee is responsible for monitoring of Fair price shops in the Grama Panchayat jurisdiction. verification and issue of ration cards through the Nemmadi Kendras is under progress. Chapter. It can also check sales register.4 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 25 . book of accounts etc. collecting applications with affidavit. To facilitate nonration card holders to get new ration cards. It has power to inspect with 2/3 rd quorum and check the stock receipts and distribution of food grains to card holder with the food inspector. issue of applications.Secretary of Committee.

Food and Public Distribution in 1997. Targeted Public Distribution Scheme (TPDS) Till 1992. the PDS was a general entitlement scheme for all consumers without specific targets. issued guidelines for the implementation of TPDS. The RPDS was launched in 1992 in 1775 blocks in tribal.PERFORMANCE OF TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SCHEME : AN OVERVIEW . Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 26 . as it stood earlier. who were not to have a fixed entitlement to food grains. The Ministry of Consumer Affairs. Thus. TPDS intends to target to target the subsidized provision of food grains to poor in all areas unlike RPDS which laid stress on all in poor areas. the APL. While BPL population were offered food grains at half the economic cost. hill and drought prone areas. its urban bias. The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced in June 1997. It envisaged that the Below Poverty Line (BPL) population would be identified in every state and every BPL family would be entitled to a certain quantity of food grains at specially subsidized prices. were supplied grains at their economic cost. limited coverage in the states with high concentrates of rural poor and lack of transparent and accountable arrangements for delivery. The salient features are the following. PDS. had been widely criticized for its failure to serve the population Below Poverty Line (BPL).

The provision of subsidy would be conditional on this. for the year 1993-94 by the Expert Group Methodology. The average lifting of food grains by the state in the last 10 years would be the allocation to the state in the first year. 4. 2. 3. Provision of food coupons to the EAS and JRY beneficiaries was made which they can exchange for food grains at the FPSs. would benefit the APL population but at a price that is not subsidized.1. known as transitory allocation. the quantity in excess of BPL entitlement. the Government of India launched the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) with focus on the poor. TPDS proposed to issue 10 kg of food grains per BPL family. 2000) at specially subsidized rates. 5. This should form the macro estimate of BPL population at the state level. Out of this. Under the TPDS states are required to formulate and implement foolproof arrangements for Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 27 . States should design credible financial and administrative arrangements to ensure the physical movement of food grains to the FPSs and subsequent issue to the poor. (revised to 20 kg from April. In June 1997. Specially subsidized food grains to the beneficiaries of EAS and JRY will be issued at the rate of 1 kg per person per day. The BPL population in any state could be seen at the provisional estimates reached by the planning commission.

The allocation of food grains to the states/UTs was made on the basis of average consumption in the past i.e. The scheme when introduced. The transitory allocation was intended for continuation of benefit of subsidized food grains for continuation of benefit of subsidized food grains to the population Above Poverty Line (APL) as any sudden withdrawal of benefits existing under PDS from them was not considered desirable. was intended to benefit about 6 crore families for whom a quantity of about 72 lakh tonnes of food grains was earmarked annually.identification of the poor for delivery of food grains and for its distribution in a transparent and accountable manner at the FPS level. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 28 . The transitory allocation was issued at prices which were subsidized but were higher than the prices for the BPL quota of food grains. average annual off-take of food grains under the PDS during the past ten years at the time of introduction of TPDS. Over and above the TPDS allocation. Lakdawala. 7.. 6. The quantum of food grains in excess of the requirement of BPL families was provided to the state as ‘transitory allocation’ for which a quantum of 103 lakh tonnes of food grains was earmarked annually. The identification of the poor under the scheme is done by the state as per state-wise poverty estimates of the planning commission for 1993-94 based on the methodology of the ‘Expert Group on Estimation of Proportion and Number of Poor’ chaired by Late Prof. additional allocation to states was also given.

4. However. The allocation of APL families was retained at the same level as at the time of introduction nof TPDS but the Central Issue Prices (CIP) for APL were fixed at 100% of economic cost from that date so that the entire consumer subsidy could be directed to the benefit of the BPL population.. 1-12-2000 by shifting the base to the population projections of the Registrar General as on 1-3-2000 instead of the earlier population projections of 1995 with this increase the total number of BPL families is 652. Keeping in view the consensus on increasing the allocation of food grains to BPL families and to better target the food subsidy.03 lakh as against 596. the CIPs fixed in July and December 2000 for BPL and AAY respectively and in July 2002 for APL. Originally estimated when TPDS was introduced in June 1997. Government of India increased the allocation to BPL families from 10 kg to 20 kg of food grains per family per month at 50% of the economic cost and allocation to APL families at economic cost w.f. the states were requested to issue food grains at a Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 29 .. Under the TPDS. local taxes etc.23 lakh families. have not been revised since them even though procurement costs have gone up considerably. 10. 9. 1. The number of BPL families has been increased w.f.e.2000. The end retail priced is fixed by the states/UTs after taking into account margins for wholesalers/retailers. levies.8. transportation charges.e.

Jean Dreze and Amartyasen make a clear distinction between the ‘problems of chronic hunger (involving sustained nutritional deprivation on a persistent basis) and that of famine (involving acute starvation and a sharp increase in mortality). Need for a Programme like Targeted Public Distribution Scheme In India. 2/a kg for wheat and Rs. higher than in some very poor countries of sub-Saharan Africa. From the mid 1960s. 3/a kg for rice. the book discusses the differences in strategies and policies required to dealt with the two sets of problems. The prevalence of malnutrition is one of the highest in the world. Flexibility to states/UTs has been given in the matter of fixing the retail issues prices by removing the restriction of 50 paise per kg over and above the CIP for distribution of food grains under TPDS except with respect to Antyodaya Anna Yojana where the end retail price is to be retained at Rs. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 30 . rationing and subsidy programme. the problems of chronic hunger and malnutrition persist on a massive scale. it has evolved into a price support. Through case studies of several countries.difference of not more than 50 paise per kg over and above the CIP for BPL families. 1. PDS in India is the oldest and one of the most comprehensive anti-poverty programmes in terms of budgetary expenditure of the central and state governments.

PDS System in India Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 31 . droughts and other food crisis in a way that prevents a famine situation. In the case of India. starting from the colonial period. Performance of TPDS a. A network of fair price shops sells the commodities. the last of which the Great Bengal famine occurring under colonial rule in 1943-resulted in an estimated 3 million deaths. In most parts of the country. on the nature of government interventions during famines. 3. upto 1997.2. the PDS was universal and all rural and urban households with a registered residential address were entitled to rations. However. 1 contends that the country has failed to ensure adequate access to food for all its people. Eligible households were given a ration card that entitled them to buy fixed rations of selected commodities. there is plenty of evidence. The Public Distribution System (PDS) in India is a food rationing mechanism that entitles households to specified quantities of selected commodities at government subsidized prices. Dreze and Sen argue convincingly that Post-Independence India has dealt effectively with periods of food shortages.

The operational details of the PDS differ from state to state. Since 1951 public distribution of food grains has been retained as deliberate social policy by India with the objectives of  Providing food grains and other essential items to vulnerable sections of the society at reasonable (subsidized) prices.PDS also has become a corner stone of government development policy and it tied to implementation of most rural development programmes. PDS is also a key driver of public sentiment and is an important and very visible metric of government performance. Though the policy of setting up of Fair Price Shops (FPS) owes its initiation to national food Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 32 .  To attempt socialization in the matter of distribution of essential commodities. Several opportunities to manipulate the system exist with widespread collusion across the supply chain. One of the main problems with this system is the inefficiency in the targeting of beneficiaries and the resulting leakage of subsidies. Objectives of Public Distribution System (PDS) India’s Public Distribution System (PDS) with a network of 4. b.  To put an indirect check on the open market prices of various of various items.78 lakh Fair Price Shops (FPSs) is perhaps the largest retail system of its type in the world.

7% FPS are viable in terms of earning a return of 12% on capital.  The off take by the poor under TPDS was substantially higher than under universal PDS. Kerala. c. In order to operate the PDS effectively. The operational responsibilities including allocation within the state. The food and civil supplies department of the state government is mainly entrusted with the task of monitoring PDS in the state.  The off take per BPL card was high in West Bengal. the central government issues guidelines from time to time to the states regarding the operational details of the PDS.  The off take by APL card holders was negligible except in Himachal Pradesh. supervision and monitoring the functioning of FPS rest with the state governments. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 33 . Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.  There are large errors of exclusion and inclusion and ghost cards are common. issue of ration cards. Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.policy. Performance Evaluation of TPDS  Only 22. identification of families below poverty line. its implementation remains the direct responsibility of the state governments.

32 kg from the central pool. The survey estimated that TPDS covers only 57% BPL families. GOI had to issue 2. 4125 corer did not reach BPL families.  Leakage and diversion raised the cost of delivery. High exclusion errors mean a low coverage of BPL households. Rs.  Leakages vary enormously between states.  During 2003-04. Moreover. 7258 crore under TPDS. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 34 . 2579 crore did not reach any consumer but was shared by agencies involved in the supply chain. Rs. out of an estimated subsidy of Rs.  Leakage and diversion imply a low share of genuine BPL households of the distribution of the subsidized grains. only 6.  Errors of inclusions are high in Andhra Pradesh. In Bihar and Punjab.1 million tonnes reached the BPL families and 8 million tonnes did not reach the target families. the total leakage exceeds 75% while in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. During 2003-04. For every 1 kg that was delivered to the poor. This implies that the APL households receive an unacceptably large proportion of subsidized grains.1 million tonnes of BPL quota from the central pool. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. it is between 50% and 75%. it is estimated that out of 14.

The scale of issue under TPDS for Antyodaya Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 35 . the consumption levels of cereals should not have fallen on average-as it has consistently over the last two decades.89 lakh fair price shops (FPSs) and is supplemental in nature. If it had. the PDS was redesigned as TPDS with effect from June 1997. With a view to improving its efficiency. especially the poor. The PDS operates through a large distribution network of around 4. Under the PDS the central government is responsible for the procurements and transportation of food grains upto the principal distribution centres of the FCI while the state governments are responsible for the identification of families living below the poverty line. PDS seems to have failed in serving the second objective of making food grains available to the poor. Under the TPDS. higher rates of subsidies are being given to the poor and the poorest among the poor.Public Distribution Scheme (PDS) The PDS is a major state intervention in the country aimed at ensuring food security to all the people. The APL families are also being given food grains under TPDS but with lower subsidy. the issue of ration cards and the distribution of food grains to the vulnerable sections through FPSs. The TPDS envisages identifying the poor households and then giving them a fixed entitlement of food grains at subsidized rate prices.

the government may explore the possibility of including more commodities under TPDS. The consumption of pulses is low for the poor. The National Food Security Mission has identified pulses as an area of focus. Operational details of supplying these commodities. the introduction of these commodities may encourage production of these crops especially in dry areas. . Citizens Charter A citizen’s charter has been issued in November 1991 for adoption by the state governments to provide services in a transparent and accountable manner under TPDS instructions have been issued for involvement of PRIs in identifications of BPL families and in vigilance committee. Steps taken to strengthen the TPDS and Plan Schemes The GOI has taken following measures to strengthen TPDS and check diversion of food grains meant for TPDS. However. It is true that presently the country has a shortage of these commodities. a. bajra and also pulses could be introduced in TPDS because of nutritional considerations. Coverage of Commodities Supplied through TPDS If nutrition security is one of the considerations of TPDS. For example.cardholders began with 10 kg per family per month which has been progressively increased to 35 kg per family per month with effect from April 2002. cereals such as Jowar. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 36 . particularly pulses have to be worked out.

Strengthening of PDS Food Credit Cards / Computerization of PDS Operations A new scheme ‘computerization of PDS operations’ with a token provision of Rs. Contraventions of the provisions of the order are punishable under the Essential Commodities Act. PDS (Control) Order. these do not seem to have had much impact the since the NSSO estimates of 2006 suggest that the extent of leakage and diversion of grain has only increased. The scheme aims at taking effective measures to curb Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 37 . the new system will have personal details of all members of the family including their entitlement and the entire network of PDS from taluk to state level will be linked. 2001 The order. Clearly. 5 crore was introduced in 2006-07. . 1955. The computerization of PDS operations would be an improvement on existing system of ration cards. c. interalia. the objectives of Food Credit Card Scheme of checking diversion of food grains and eliminating the problem of bogus ration cards are expected to be met. With this kind of system in place. covers a range of areas relating to correct identification of BPL families. that an improvement on existing system of making entries etc.b. issue of ration cards. proper distribution and monitoring of PDS related operations. Curbing Leakages / Diversion of Food Grains meant for TPDS This is a new scheme introduced during the Eleventh Five Year Plan to strengthen the PDS.

bill boards. poster printing of annual calendar on the themes of TPDS and audio-visual publicity measures such as short spots/quickies. TV serials/ documentaries. lower cost of financing etc. In this context. In addition. Generating Awareness amongst TPDS Beneficiaries about their entitlement and Redressal Mechanism and Monitoring A mass awareness campaign on the rights and entitlements of TPDS beneficiaries is proposed through newspaper advertisements.diversion and leakages through global positioning system. audio Jingles. The legal remedies are also time consuming and inadequate. Construction of Godowns Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 38 . radio frequency identification device etc. Training and Awareness of Negotiable Warehouse Receipt System This is a new scheme for the Eleventh Five Year Plan. encouragement of scientific warehousing of goods. . a number of plan schemes have been introduced : a. The warehousing receipts at present do not enjoy the fiduciary trust of depositors and banks. as there is fear of not being able to recover the loans in events such as fraud or mismanagement on behalf of the warehouse or insolvency of depositor. it is proposed to develop a negotiable warehouse receipt system will result in increase in the liquidity in the rural areas.

700. b. particularly to the poorer section of the society as well as promoting and protecting the welfare of the Consumers.  The target by GOI and the number of beneficiaries identified-11. families suffering from chronic diseases/ physically handicapped are eligible to get ration cards under this scheme. Integrated Information System for Food Grains Management (IISFM) The main objective of the IISFM project in the FCI. the poorest of the poor. Anthyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) Families of primitive tribes. widows. Food Management The main objective of the Department of Food.The scheme was conceived during the Fifth Five Year Plan to build and increase the storage capacity available with FCI for storage of food grains. Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs is to provide food security and ensure availability of essential commodities at subsidized prices. initiated in 2003-04. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 39 .99. Targeted Public Distribution Scheme (TPDS) a. is to put in place an online MIS that would give the stock position in any depot at any given point of time. individuals of 60 years and above age who do not have families or fixed income and any type of help.

12.  Food grains entitlement to the beneficiaries : 4 kg of rice and 1 kg of wheat per unit with maximum of 25 kg of Rice/Wheat / Ragi @ Rs. Kerosene: Rural areas : 4 litres.000 and above.30 to Rs.13.000/& below in Urban areas. Akshaya (BPL) /EBPL Families of below poverty line.& below in Rural areas. Informal Rationing Areas: 6 to 8 litres.9.l0.3. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 40 . Retail Issue Price: Rs. scheduled castes & scheduled tribes are eligible to get ration cards under this scheme. 6 kg of wheat Rs.  Informal Rationing Area-population of 40.Rs.00 per Kg.3.50 per kg.50 per kg.9. Annual Income Criteria:. Sugar:1-2kg of sugar at Rs. c.00 per kg. agricultural labourers.2.00 per kg. Informal Rationing Areas : 6 to 8 litres. Retail Issue Price: Rs. Urban Areas : 4 to 6 litres.000/.50 per litre. Food grains entitlement to the beneficiaries Food grains : 29 kg of rice at Rs.l0. Sugar :1-2kg at Rs. b. 13. Urban Areas : 4 to 6 litres.17. Kerosene: Rural areas : 4 litres.50 per litre. Rs.30 to Rs.

Thus to this 47. there is a renewed focus on the sustainability and efficacy of India’s biggest intervention in the food market. 70% of the poor use the PDS in Andhra Pradesh. Government of Karnataka has identified 78. rice. Gujarat.37 lakh families through a survey.08 lakh excess Below Poverty Line families. The Public Distribution System (PDS) seeks to ensure availability of essential commodities like wheat. Rs. sugar.000/. Between 50 to 60% of the poor use the PDS in Assam. edible oils and kerosene to the consumers. Participation rates of the poor vary between 6 to 22% in Bihar.& below in Rural areas. PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the central and state governments. Madhya Pradesh.17. through a network of outlets or Fair Price Shops (FPS).Annual Income Criteria: Rs. Working of Public Distribution Scheme (PDS) With the scare of rising food prices and the volatility in food output being seen all around the globe. There is a network of about half a million PDS retail outlets in the country. Maharashtra and Orissa.000/& below in Urban areas. Government of Karnataka purchases food grains at Above Poverty Line price and distributes Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 41 . Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Extra Below Poverty Line Government of India has identified only 3129 lakh families as Below Poverty Line. 12. Karnataka. Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

Availed bank loan of more than Rs. Government employees & persons drawing more than Rs. iii. Land line telephone connection. viii. APMC Traders. ii. Above Poverty Line (APL) Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 42 . Automobile vehicle owners more than 100 c. v. Registered Contractors.l.000/. The present living condition of the families is to be considered while selecting the beneficiaries. vi. Persons having irrigation facilities by owning a borewell.the same to the beneficiaries as per the scheme of Below Poverty Line.salary per month by working in Government/Non-Government/Private establishments. More than 3 hectares of irrigated land and dry land. Families having any one or more of the following are not eligible to get benefits under the above two schemes i. Commission Agents and dealers in Seeds and Fertilizers. Income Tax payee.l.c HP. iv. The additional subsidy is being borne by the State Government. vii.00 lakh.

Under this category Kerosene is issued to non-LPG cards.02.700 - 66. Above Poverty Line (APL) Grand Total 11.37. retailers and fair price shops.32. Below Poverty Line (AAY)- (BPL) Total BPL 3.568 - 54.980 - 1.99. i. Existing Ration Cards as on 3 1-03-2013 1. Wholesale Nominees Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 43 . Anthyodaya Anna Yojana 2.37.548 Allotment of food grains by government of India (per month) (31-03-2013) (in mt) Category Rice Wheat Ragi AAY 34709 7282 0 BPL 55820 10522 1190 APL 54890 5156 0 Kerosene Sugar : : 49416 KL per month 8697 MT per month.The families who are ineligible to get ration cards under AAY and BPL scheme are eligible to get APL ration cards.868 - 78.40. Food grains and Kerosene are being distributed through a network of following wholesalers.

Kote. Nanjangud.D.2.Taluk Agricultural producers Cooperative Marketing Societies (TAPCMS) Kerosene wholesalers : 348 ii. Hilly and remote Periyapatna and Hunsur Dakshina Kannada Belthangadi/Puttur Hilly and remote Kodagu Madikeri and Somwarpet Hilly.Food grains : 165 . remote and farflung areas Raichur Devadurga Lingasgur Farflung and remote areas Gulbarga Gulbarga Farflung and remote areas Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Allotment and Off-take of Commodities Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 44 . inaccessible or mobile Fair Price Depots hilly H.Karnataka Food and Civil Supplies Corporation (KFCSC) 102 . Taluk covered under Mobile Fair Price Depots District Mysore Taluk covered under Whether remote. Number of Fair Price Shops Food grains : Individuals : 11276 KFCSC : 200 Cooperatives : 8896 Total : 20372 Kerosene retailers : 25740 Table 3.

14 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Allotment and off-take of commodities under TPDS for the year 2012-2013 (in mt) (upto October 2012) Sl.13 344202.42 258292. Sugar 92163.04 57723.93 162882.71 4 Kerosene oil (KLS) 599231. In lakhs) Year Budget allotment Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 45 Expenditure . The budget allocation and expenditure figures towards subsidy and transportation charges for the last 3 years are as under. No.74 33224.28 161552.71 2 Wheat 293862. Commodity Allocation Off take 1 Rice 1576501.The allotment and off take of commodities under Targetted Public Distribution System for the years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 (upto October 2012) are as follows : Allotment and off-take of commodities under TPDS for the year 2011-2012 (in mt) Sl.61 3.00 Off take 940183.02 1554679.93 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Budget Allocation. 1 2 3.01 347295. No.14 593740. Expenditure and Food Subsidy Under PDS food grains are distributed at subsidized rates.04 62100. 4 Commodity Rice Wheat Sugar Kerosene oil (KLS) Allocation 954838. Budget allotment and Expenditure (Rs.

00 2.00 3. the State retail issue price and rate of subsidy borne by the State Government per quintal are as follows : .60 2011-2012 65000.2006-07 75000.00 52739.00 64994. Year-wise Distribution of Ration to Ration Card Holders Sl. Stocks and Off-take Food Corporation of India is the sole agency for procurement of coarse grains.00 3.00 2012-2013 (upto Dec. 08) 83000.00 3. Karnataka Food and Civil Supplies Corporation.00 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies . 830 crores for the year 2012-2013 on food subsidy.00 74965. Particulars (Rs/Quintal AAY BPL EBPL Rice Wheat Rice Wheat Rice Wheat 1 Central Issue Price 300 200 565 415 830 610 2 State Subsidy 48 38 314 158 579 353 3 Wholesale Margin 19 15 20 20 20 20 4 Wholesale Issue Price 271 177 271 277 271 277 5 Retail Margin 29 23 29 23 29 23 6 Retail Issue Price (Per Qtl) 300 200 300 300 300 300 7 Retail Issue Price (Per Kg) 3. Karnataka State Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 46 .00 3. The category wise details of central issue price. Procurement.00 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Food Subsidy The State Government is incurring around Rs. No.

 Supervision by Panchayat Raj Institutions. Procurement stocks and off-take food grains (in mts) Sl.077 Nil 3 20122013 48887.  Vigilance committees at Fair Price Shop level.62 816.40 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Monitoring and Public Distribution Scheme The public distribution system in being monitored in the following manner. Year Maize Jowar Bajra Ragi Levy Rice Nil Nil Nil Nil 1461.  Food Security Committee at District level  Aahara Bhadrata Samiti— Grama Panchayat  Aahar adalat  Jana Spandana Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 47 . Procurement for different years is shown below.49 Nil 10703.24 1 2006-07 2 20112012 2431.20 57744. No.40 Nil Nil 1760.Warehousing Corporation and Karnataka State Marketing Federation are the subagents for Food Corporation of India under the Minimum Support Price operations of coarse grains.

Deputy Commissioner and CEO of Zilia Panchayat are the members. Constitution of Vigilance Committee 7 member committee for each FPS. Distribution To deliver the food grains to distribution point the following followed. Member Secretary is Gram Panchayat Secretary. 2 ST.a. it consists of S women members from BPL or AAY cardholders (1 SC. and 1 General) Other 2 members 1 Elected Gram Panchayat member and 1 Representative of local Women’s self help group. In two Stages:  1st Stage-From FCI to Taluk Level wholesale godown  2nd Stage-From wholesale godown to Rural FPS. Members: I SC. 1 ST. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 48 . b. Constitution of Food Security Committee A three member committee consisting of Secretary in-charge of the district as the chairman. I woman Gram Panchayat member. Constitution of Food Security Committee at Grama Panchayat Chairman of committee is the chairman of Social Justice Committee. Members of Food Security Committee with 2/3 rd quorum can inspect the stocks and accounts of FPS along with the Food Inspector. c. 2 BCM.

 Computerizing the whole process of Public Distribution System.Point of Sale (POS) devise A proposal regarding providing of hand held device to all the Fair Price Shops to monitor the off take information of the beneficiaries precisely with biometric finger print without giving any scope for the FPD owners to indulge in malpractices is under progress. The computerization of the public distribution system has been undertaken as noted below  Creation of a citizen data base  Capturing digital photographs and bio-metrics of the family members above the age of 12 years. Entire cost of transportation of food grains is borne by Government  No door delivery in Urban Areas  Kerosene is also transported to the door steps of FPS.  Issue of permanent computerized ration cards. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 49 . ii. Computerization of Public Distribution System and Points of Sale Devise i. Fair Price Shop .

Districts Fair Price Shops (31-03-2013) (Nos.Nemmadi Kendras Facilitation of non-ration card holders to get new ration cards. No. collecting applications with affidavit. verification and issue of ration cards through the “Nemmadi Kendras” is under progress. issue of applications.) Rural Urban Total 1 Bangalore 468 1754 2222 2 Bangalore(R) 751 167 918 3 Chitradurga 525 53 578 4 Davanagere 609 153 762 5 Kolar 940 263 1203 6 Shimoga 400 176 576 7 Tumkur 874 237 1111 8 Chikmagalur 432 70 502 9 Dakshina Kannada 409 127 536 10 Udupi 242 48 290 11 Hassan 595 212 807 12 Kodagu 275 12 287 13 Mandya 636 87 723 14 Mysore 600 458 1058 15 Chamaraja Nagar 412 57 469 Southern Karnataka 8168 3874 12042 16 Belgaum 1260 310 1570 17 Bijapur 695 105 800 18 Bagalkot 477 124 601 19 Dharwad 273 267 540 20 Gadag 249 114 363 21 Haveri 328 91 419 22 Uttara kannada 342 66 408 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 50 . Fair Price Shops 31-03-2013 Sl.

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Districts Bangalore Bangalore(R) Chitradurga Davanagere Kolar Shimoga Tumkur Chikmagalur Dakshina Kannada Udupi Hassan Kodagu Mandya Mysore Chamaraja Nagar Southern Karnataka Belgaum Bijapur Bagalkot Dharwad Gadag Haveri Uttara kannada Ration card holders (31-03-2013) (Nos.23 Bellary 454 148 602 24 Bidar 462 267 729 25 Gulbarga 1068 253 1321 26 Raichur 594 112 706 27 Koppal 399 53 452 Northern Karnataka 6601 1910 8511 State 14769 5784 20553 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies District-wise Ration Card Holders Sl.) Green Saffron Others Total 470832 144716 805180 1420728 331132 41011 61220 433363 241361 33808 20735 295904 254361 57974 33999 349428 383169 36261 99071 518501 221924 68677 79665 370266 400511 97950 67928 566389 184287 38329 34407 257023 128492 137044 100992 366528 86604 74513 42438 203555 286858 44085 48552 379495 78547 41334 7091 126972 296516 120657 47438 464611 371362 66440 189728 627530 157641 36130 25716 219487 3896691 1038929 1664160 6599780 560359 123065 191719 875143 247033 84965 47316 379314 244663 65841 46244 356748 207399 36158 110007 353564 136629 32319 37509 206457 219283 47733 31580 298596 191400 48065 53142 292607 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 51 .

23 24 25 26 27 Bellary Bidar Gulbarga Raichur Koppal Northern Karnataka State 285829 201444 444058 193585 165536 3097218 6993909 60106 22725 76486 90213 45098 732774 1771703 90906 42472 149777 52161 20090 872923 2537083 436841 266641 670321 335959 230724 4702915 11302695 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies .) Rural Urban Total 468 1400 1868 288 67 355 459 100 559 526 52 578 617 155 772 465 174 639 460 103 563 406 176 582 871 235 1106 435 67 502 416 118 534 240 48 288 638 216 854 256 21 277 634 86 720 614 451 1065 385 58 443 8178 3527 11705 1331 333 1664 692 105 797 509 137 646 273 242 515 249 113 362 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 52 . Fair Price Shops as on 31-03-2013 Sl. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Districts Bangalore Bangalore(R) Ramanagara Chitradurga Davanagere Kolar Chikkaballapura Shimoga Tumkur Chikmagalur Dakshina Kannada Udupi Hassan Kodagu Mandya Mysore Chamaraja Nagar Southern Karnataka Belgaum Bijapur Bagalkot Dharwad Gadag Fair Price Shops (31-03-2013) (Nos. No.

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Haveri Uttara kannada Bellary Bidar Gulbarga Raichur Koppal Northern Karnataka State 336 258 451 471 1117 554 399 6740 14918 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 53 94 68 148 267 253 125 51 1936 5463 430 426 599 738 1370 679 450 8676 20381 .

District-wise Ration Card Holders as on 31-03-2013(Numbers) Sl. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Districts Bangalore Bangalore(R) Ramanagara Chitradurga Davanagere Kolar Chikkaballapura Shimoga Tumkur Chikmagalur Dakshina Kannada Udupi Hassan Kodagu Mandya Mysore Chamaraja Nagar Southern Karnataka Belgaum Bijapur Bagalkot Dharwad Gadag Haveri Uttara kannada Bellary Bidar Gulbarga Raichur Koppal Northern Karnataka State BPL 473417 120841 162112 238202 372894 207760 174240 225888 541457 212147 158633 99611 410706 99799 393057 555978 158331 4605073 666460 347446 316982 349994 184079 286401 183105 414043 297434 609610 316212 229649 4201415 8806488 Antyodaya 34667 15500 20229 47378 53933 33127 32789 41463 56307 23537 15881 17873 25098 6128 37209 51104 36075 548298 96677 56556 47660 32809 31737 50536 16895 66486 45175 104530 60279 42062 651402 1199700 Source : Director of Food and Civil Supplies Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 54 APL 1102951 68253 90368 88639 144410 106390 87431 151743 203584 85114 205412 122100 130127 66232 181559 172978 71897 3079188 585771 174955 184357 174314 95519 103562 132684 186830 194437 309546 156509 98660 2397144 5476332 Total 1611035 204594 272709 374219 571237 347277 294460 419094 801348 320798 379926 239584 565931 172159 611825 780060 266303 8232559 1348908 578957 548999 557117 311335 440499 332684 667359 537046 1023686 533000 370371 7249961 15482520 . No.

3/kg a promise made by the congress before general elections. Its objective is to ensuring food security to the Below Poverty Line (BPL) people in urban and rural areas. Prathibha Patil on June 4. Pawar added. Looking at the popularity of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) which helped the congress to win the 2009 parliamentary elections. the newly constituted government has thought of bringing the Food Security Act.22 lakh tonnes under TPDS and 50 lakh tonnes under other welfare schemes.03 lakh tonnes of rice and 331. 2009 said that a National Food Security Act would be formulated whereby each Below Poverty Line (BPL) family would be entitled by law to get 25 kg of rice or wheat per month at Rs. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 55 . Under the new act. 3/kg. June 2009 onwards by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs. Food and Public Distribution. the stocks of food grains (wheat and rice) in the central pool as on June 1. 40. 2009 were 204.National Food Security Act Available from 4.380 crore. Many would agree that the proposal for a Food Security Bill has come at the right point of time when the world has already witnessed food crisis in 2012 that pushed millions of people to the brink of poverty and under nutrition. the government would provide 251 lakh tonnes of food grains for BPL categories with subsidy amounting to Rs. The scheme purposes to provide BPL families with 25 kgs of grain per month at Rs. 2009.

National Social Assitance Programme including Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme. Mid-Day Meal Scheme. For instance. National Maternity Benefit Scheme/Janani Suraksha Yojana. Antyodaya. The proposed Act demands for continuation of existing food related schemes such as : Integrated Child Development Services. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 56 . A new methodology for the BPL Census is being proposed based on simple. Extensive transparency safeguards will also be introduced in the Public Distribution System (PDS). National Family Benefit Scheme and Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme. Each nuclear family shall be treated as a separate household. in rural areas any household that meets any two simple inclusion criteria (such as landlessness and being SC/ST) shall be entitled to a BPL card.Key Features for the New Act Below Poverty Line (BPL) households: All BPL households shall be entitled to 35 kg of food grains each month at Rs. Public Distribution System. Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme and Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme. transparent and verifiable criteria. 2/kg for wheat under the Public Distribution System. Households meeting any of six exclusion criteria will not be entitled to BPL cards. 3/kg for rice and Rs. All the pensions in various such schemes have been elaborately discussed in the proposed Act.

Additionally. exist in the BPL/AAY categories.  A number of bogus ration cards which do not correspond to real families. PDS Leakages The TPDS currently suffers from a number of issued that make it difficult for it to meet its objective of ensuring that the allotted quota of specified food articles reaches the intended under privileged/needy segments of society. these extra cards inflate the number of BPL and AAY cards in circulation and further reduce the amount of food available to every rightful beneficiary family.  A large number of families living below the poverty line have not been enrolled and therefore do not have access to ration cards. Challenges to PDS There are many systematic challenges that plague the PDS system today : a. Food drawn on the basis of these bogus cards is a significant leakage from the system. It has demanded for severe punishment to those who push for baby food instead of breast milk. The draft right to food act has safe guards against encroachments by corporate lobbies and private contractors in food nutrition related schemes. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 57 .The proposed act has asked for severe penalties against individuals and organizations / companies who are held responsible for violation of food safety norms and standards that affects the public. as it does not reach the intended beneficiaries.

Scale and Quality of Issue The scale of issue and the quality of food grains delivered to the beneficiaries is rarely in conformity with the policy. This shadow ownership is possible due to inefficiencies in ration card issuance and distribution. The FPS also used multiple excuses to both charge higher rates and deliver reduced quantity of food grains.  Errors in categorization of families that lead to BPL families getting APL cards and vice versa. Many FPS are open only for a few days in a month and beneficiaries who do not visit the FPS on these days are denied their right. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 58 . System Transparency and Accountability The most serious flow plaguing the system at present is the lack of transparency and accountability in its functioning. There are significant differences in the manner in which the centre and states arrive at the number of BPL families. The system lacks transparency and accountability at all levels making monitoring the system extremely difficult. This mismatch usually means lower allotments for each family as states arrive at higher number of BPL families. b. c. A number of instances where benefits are being availed in the names of rightfully entitled families without their knowledge.

All the food grains conforming to the Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 59 . anti-hoarding cells constituted to ensure smooth functioning of the PDS system. Their impact is virtually non-existent on the ground and as a result. Grievance Redressal Mechanisms There are numerous entities like vigilance committee. Procurement Policy a.d. coarse grains and wheat through the FCI and State Agencies. Reforming Public Distribution Scheme The UID programme will create a database of all unique residents in the country. Apart from the challenges described. Viability of the FPS is already a major concern and this would get amplified once PDS leakages are brought under control. Existing Policy of Food grains Procurement The Central Government extends price support to paddy. malpractices abound to the great discomfiture of the common man. There are several benefits that will accrue to the PDS system and the VID programme if an alignment and synergy is established. transportation of food grains and appointment of dealers of Fair price Shops have also become difficult issues. The PDS system currently serves the largest number of residents in India and efforts are under way to improve the efficiency of the system.

 To build up buffer stocks of food grains to ensure food grain security.  To service the TPDS and other welfare schemes of the Government so that subsidised food grains are supplied to the poor and needy. Procurement of rice under levy system Rice also procured by the government through statutory levy on rice millers and rice dealers. domestic consumption and marketable surplus. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 60 . Food grains procured by the State Governments and their agencies are ultimately taken over by the FCI for distribution through out the country. c. b.prescribed specifications offered for sale at specified centers are bought by the public procurement agencies at the Minimum Support Price (MSP). Prices of levy rice are fixed by the Government of India before commencement of every Kharif Marketing Season. Objectives of food grains procurement by Government Agencies  To ensure that farmers get remunerative prices for their produce and do not have to resort to distress sale. The producers have the option to sell their produce to FCI/State Agencies at MSP or in the open market as is advantageous to them. The percentage of levy rice is fixed by State Governments with the approval of Central Government taking into account requirements for the Central Pool.

Legislative Support The legislative support in form of the need for submitting the UID number for several transactions will push residents to acquire a UID. The key ones are explained below : a. c. The PDS system can use this database for authentication of beneficiaries during the off take recording process.. Benefits of PDS The PDS system stands to benefit from the legislative technology and administrative infrastructures that are being created for the implementation of the UID programmes. The most Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 61 . b. Off-take Authentication The UID database will maintain details of the beneficiary that can be updated from multiple sources. Better identification Integration with the UID programme will lead to better identification of individuals and families leading to better targeting and increased transparency and therefore better functioning of the system and increased public approval. A mechanism of verifying the ID of the person at the time of delivery of grains will help in improving the targeting of the grains.

Alternatively. Duplicate and Ghost Detection The IUDAI will provide duplicate detection infrastructure to the PDS programme. It can also assist in the development of special tools to assist in the assessment of eligibility of applicants. With the Mammoth Food Security protect on cards. Domestic LPG Linkage The issue of domestic LPG by oil companies LPG by oil companies can be made conditional to the production of an APL (non-kerosene) ration cards making enrolment a compulsory affair. d. e. This can support the PDS reform by as an example providing the banking account number for a family to affect direct cash transfer. such as Smart Card-routed direct cash transfers to women Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 62 . Support for PDS reform The UID will become an important identifier in banking services and dayto-day needs of the resident. f.convenience mechanism will be for residents to get a ration card and this will create a supporting environment for computerization of ration cards. the delivery system must be considered. there is urgent need to rethink the PDS centrality in the distribution edifice since an estimated two thirds of PDS grain get diverted to the open market.

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 63 . kerosene and the like are the supplied to the people under the PDS at reasonable prices. limiting incentives for pilferage. Essential commodities like rice. sugar.5 TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SCHEME IN CHITRADURGA TALUK : AN EVALUATION Public Distribution System has been existence in India since the inter-war period. Public Distribution System (PDS) is a poverty alleviation programme and contributes towards the social welfare of the people. wheat. PDS is a boon to the people living below poverty line.heads of households in place of food subsidy. Another option is bar coded food coupons as are being piloted in Andhra Pradesh for use in all shops. It had its origin with focus on distribution of food grains in urban scarcity areas when the county passed through critical food shortages. This way. Now PDS is evolved as the important poverty alleviation programme in India. PDS is the primary social welfare and anti-poverty programme of the Government of India. backward and hilly areas. Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) has been initiated by the government of India from the year 1992 in order to serve and provide essential commodities to the people living in remote. food gets sold at market price. Chapter .

No. 2012-2013 In Chitradurga district 2010-11 dates in TPDS scheme ration card holders in APL (Above Poverty Line) 22863 and BPL Card Holders 73357 and also Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 64 .Government introduced Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) in the year 1997. In Chitradurga taluk ration card holders and fair price shops in Chitradurga taluk. Central Government and State Governments have been actively involved in steering the operations for the success of the PDS in India. Table 4.1 Ration card holders as on 31-03-2009 in Chitradurga taluk Sl. Taluks No. of Fair Price Shops till the end of 31-03-2009 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ration card holders as on 31-03-2009 in Chitradurga taluk 1 Challakere 113 (112) 56173 (38092) 15833 (15534) 3799 (3449) 9489 (5464) 1236 (1236) 8681 (8681) 95211 (72456) 2 Chitradurga 138 (141) 50409 (36286) 12678 (12210) 11685 (10956) 26115 (13506) 9152 (3047) 3047 (9152) 113086 (85157) 3 Hiriyuru 88 (88) 46379 (30983) 13303 (12801) 3019 (2808) 8995 (5481) 1734 (1734) 6897 (6897) 80327 (60704) 4 Holalkere 91 (94) 37090 (26489) 10791 (10574) 1235 (1131) 2685 (1512) 486 (486) 5395 (5395) 57682 (45587) 5 Hosadurga 93 (97) 39669 (27751) 10580 (10353) 2255 (1764) 4319 (2988) 524 (524) 5653 (5653) 63000 (49033) 6 Molakalmuru 44 (46) 23167 (15035) 4667 (4438) 1149 (1076) 2878 (1457) 418 (418) 4155 (4155) 36434 (26579) Total 567 (577) 252887 (174636) 67852 (65910) 23142 (21184) 54481 (30408) 13550 (7445) 33828 (39933) 445740 (339511) Source : Chitradurga District at a Glance.

Chitradurga. Thuruvanuru and Koonabevu. programme of standard of living. In that. Data Analysis and TPDS Scheme Evaluation In this chapter. measurement evaluation of implementation of scheme in Chitradurga taluk. 4. the researcher has evaluated in the Targeted Public Distribution Scheme in the Chitradurga taluk. Table 4. In total district fair price shops 576. the researcher has taken a Thuruvanuru and Koonabevu. The researcher has studied the evaluation of performance of targeted public distribution scheme in the Chitradurga taluk. Chitradurga taluk Thuruvanuru hobli. the researcher has taken 2 villages. Source : This data total shows that collected District Food and Civil Supply Department and Taluk Office. Then in Chitradurga Kasaba hobli. The about the APL. In the same Chitradurga Taluk 2009-10 dates in this scheme Antyodaya Anna Yojana beneficiaries (AAY) are 9152 and BPL (Below Poverty Line) beneficiaries 48565 and also APL Card holders are 12969 in Chitradurga taluk. AAY ration card holders.2 Classification of respondents on caste-wise distribution Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 65 . There are total 113 Fair Price Shops in this taluk in the year of 2009-10.Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) card holders 340592. BPL.1. the researcher has taken 2 villages namely Mallapura and Medehalli.

4. Respondent s Turuvanuru Kasaba V1 V2 V1 V2 Total 1 SC 16 25 8 2 51 2 ST 7 Nil Nil 2 9 3 Others 2 Nil 17 21 40 Total 25 25 25 25 100 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Fig.1. Classification of respondents on caste-wise distribution Table 4. Scheduled caste respondents were 51 in number and were Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 66 .2 indicates the classification of respondents on the basis of castewise distribution.Hoblies Sl. No.

A total of 100 caste-wise distribution respondents were selected for the study. Turuvanuru Kasaba Total s V1 V2 V1 V2 1 Male 16 20 17 12 65 2 Female 8 6 8 13 35 Total 24 26 25 25 100 Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 67 . Table 4.selected from the hoblies of Turuvanuru and Kasaba. No.3 Classification of respondents on sex-wise distribution Hoblies Respondent Sl. Other castes were specified under the hoblies of Turuvanuru and Kasaba numbering 40. The ST respondents as the tables shows were 9 in the hoblies selected for the study.

4.2. A total of four villages namely Turuvanuru (V1). Classification of respondents on sex-wise distribution Table 4. Totally two hoblies a total of 100 sex-wise distribution respondents were selected for the study. The female respondents as the tables shows were 35 in the hoblies selected for the study.4 Classification of respondents on the basis of marital status Sl. Table 4.Fig. 1 Marital status Married Hoblies Turuvanuru Kasaba V1 V2 V1 V2 24 24 25 24 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 68 Total 97 .3 indicates the classification of respondents on the basis of sex-wise distribution. No. Koonabevu (V2) and Mallapura kasaba hobli village (V1) and Medehalli in the same (V2). Male category respondents were 65 in number and were selected from the hoblies of Turuvanuru and Kasaba.

2

Unmarried

1

1

Nil

1

3

Total

25

25

25

25

100

Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation

Fig. 4.3. Classification of respondents on the basis of marital status
Table 4.4 indicates the classification of respondents on the basis of marital
status. Married respondents were 97 in number and were selected from the hoblies
of Turuvanuru and Kasaba. The unmarried respondents as the tables shows were 3
in the hoblies selected for the study.
Table 4.5
Classification of respondents on the basis of House condition

Sl. No.

House
condition

Hoblies
Turuvanuru
Kasaba
V1
V2
V1
V2

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura
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Total

1
2

Own
Rented
Total

22
3
25

17
8
25

21
4
25

21
4
25

81
19
100

Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation

Table 4.5 indicates the classification of respondents on the basis of house
condition. Own house respondents were 81 in number and were selected from the
hoblies of Turuvanuru and Kasaba. The rented house respondents as the tables
shows were 19 in the hoblies selected for the study.
Table 4.6
Classification of respondents on house structure

Sl. No.

House
structure

Hoblies
Turuvanuru

Kasaba

V1

V2

V1

V2

Total

1

Hut

Nil

4

1

1

6

2

Tiles

4

8

14

13

39

3

Sheeted house

20

13

7

11

51

4

RCC

2

Nil

2

Nil

4

Total

25

25

25

25

100

Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura
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Fig. 4.4. Classification of respondents on house structure
Table 4.6 indicates the classification of respondents with house structure as
the basis for the study of hoblies selected 6 had hut structure. The number of
respondents with tiled house structure 39. The sheeted house classification of
respondents numbered 51. the RCC classification of respondents was 4 for all the
hoblies.
Table 4.7
Classification of respondents on the basis of educational status
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Educational
status
Illiterate
P.E
SSE
PUE
Degree
P.G.
Total

Hoblies
Turuvanuru
Kasaba
V1
V2
V1
V2
11
10
5
3
8
9
10
10
5
3
5
4
1
2
2
3
Nil
1
2
3
Nil
Nil
1
2
25
25
25
25

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura
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Total
29
37
17
8
6
3
100

Classification of respondents on the basis of educational status Table 4. The secondary school education respondents aggregated 17.5. The degree respondents showed 6 and post graduation respondents numbered 3 in the selected area.Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation Fig. The pre university education respondents totalled 8. The illiterates in the hoblies selected were 29. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 72 . The primary education status of the respondents numbered 37. 4.7 indicates the educational status-wise distribution of respondents on.

Table 4.8
Age-wise distribution of the respondents
Sl.
No.

Age

SC

ST

Others

V1

V2

V3

V4

V1

V2

V3

V4

V1

V2

V3

V4

Total

1

18 to 35

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

3

1

1

2

18

2

35-50

5

8

4

3

5

5

1

2

4

4

2

2

45

3

Above 50

5

4

2

1

8

4

2

2

2

2

2

3

37

Total

11

13

7

5

15

11

5

5

9

7

5

7

100

Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation

Table 4.8 reveals age-wise distribution of respondents. The respondents
from the age group of 18-35 totalled 18. The respondents between 35-50
numbered 45. The above 50 respondents according to the age-wise distribution of
the respondents numbered 37.
Table 4.9
Classification of respondents on income group
Sl. No.

Income group
(Rs.)

No. of Respondents
SC/ST

Others

Percentage
(%)

1

Below 20000

20

15

35

2

20000-50000

15

10

25

3

50000-100000

15

10

25

4

Above 100000

10

5

15

Total

60

40

100

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura
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Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation

Fig. 4.6. Classification of respondents on income group
Among total of 100 surveyed people, 35% of people have income below
Rs. 20000. The 25% of persons hold earning income ranging between 2000050000. 25% of persons have been earning income between 50000-100000 annual
income and only 15% of persons are earning income above 100000. It is clear
from the above table, below 20000 income holders that is mostly lower middle
class people (i.e., 35%) are largely under the Public Distribution System.

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura
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Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura
Page 75

Total of 53 hold on to agricultural occupation 31 are coolies. 1 2 3 4 5 Occupation Agriculture Cooli Business/self employment Govt.7. The business/ self employed are 6 in number. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 76 . No. Those holding govt.10 reveals the occupational-wise distribution of respondents. jobs are 4 and others 6 in numbers.10 Occupation-wise distribution of respondents Sl. Occupation-wise distribution of respondents Table 4. 4.Table 4. job Others Total Hoblies Turuvanuru Kasaba V1 V2 V1 V2 15 14 14 10 5 8 7 11 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 25 25 25 25 Total 53 31 6 4 6 100 Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation Fig.

No. Table 4.12 Types of land holding distribution of respondents Sl. Dry land respondents totalled 35 and wetland respondents numbered 18.12 shows type of land holding distribution of respondents. Caste/land holding Dry Wet Total 1 SC 8 1 9 2 ST 19 4 23 3 Others 8 13 21 Total 35 18 53 Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation Table 4. Another 47 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 77 . Type of land holding Hoblies Turuvanuru Kasaba V1 V2 V1 V2 Total 1 Dry land 15 12 4 4 35 2 Wet land 2 1 12 3 18 Total 17 13 16 7 53 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Table 4. The total number of 9 belong to SC and 23 belong to ST and 21 belongs to others to land holding.11 Caste and landholding-wise status of the respondents Sl.11 indicates that land holding wise status of the respondents.Table 4. A total of 53 respondents under the land holding distribution of the respondents. No.

8. small business/ self employed and landless people.13 Average education and average income level of the respondents Hoblies Sl.48 131. a total number of 100 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 78 .08 81. Average education and average income level of the respondents Table 4.13 reveals the average education and average income level at 17. No.04 5. Type of land holding 1 Average education 2 Average income level Turuvanuru Kasaba Total V1 V2 V1 V2 3.28 17. allied activities. students. house wives.32. cooli.respondents allied activities.52 4. A total number of 100 respondents education level is average another 83 respondents are students. old age persons others etc.64 4.80 488.08 57.24 136.32 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Fig.48 respondents under average income level remained at 81. Table 4. 4.

students. housewives etc.respondents. old age persons. 19 respondents income level is average. The beneficiaries with the below poverty line BPL ration cardholders numbered Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 79 . in non-income group level. 4. Card SC/ST Others Total 1 APL 7 11 18 2 BPL 46 24 70 3 AAY 7 5 12 Total 60 40 100 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Fig. Table 4. The beneficiaries with the above poverty line APL ration cardholders totalled 18.16 different types ration card-wise beneficiaries were determined. children. No. Different types of ration card-wise beneficiaries Table 4.9.17 Different types of ration card-wise beneficiaries Sl.

A total of 100 ration cardholders beneficiaries in different types of ration cardholders were selected for the research field. Those who get ration card from Taluk office totalled 30 and others Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 80 . those from Fair Price Shops numbered 40. 1 2 3 4 Obtained the ration card Grama Panchayat Fair Price Shop Taluk Office Others Total SC/ST 20 20 10 10 60 Others Nil 20 20 Nil 40 Total 20 40 30 10 100 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Fig. Table 4. No. Ration card holding-wise beneficiaries Table 4.18 shows ration card-wise holding beneficiaries. Those who get ration card from Grama Panchayat. With Antyodaya Anna Yojana AAY the beneficiaries numbered 12. numbered 20. 4.18 Ration card holding-wise beneficiaries Sl.70.10.

totalled 10. A total of 100 ration cardholding beneficiaries were selected for the research. Particulars SC/ST Others Total Yes No Yes No Yes No 1 Mediators 10 Nil Nil Nil 10 Nil 2 Black market 10 Nil Nil Nil 10 Nil 3 Political influence Nil Nil 10 Nil 10 Nil 4 Fair price shops 5 Nil 5 Nil 10 Nil 5 Time problem 20 Nil 15 Nil 10 Nil 6 Less commodities 10 Nil 5 Nil 15 Nil 7 Ration cards 5 Nil 5 Nil 10 Nil Total 60 Nil 40 Nil 100 Nil Source : Data collected through primary investigation Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 81 . No.21 Problem based-wise opinion of ration card scheme beneficiaries Sl. Table 4.

All yes respondents were discovered. Problem based-wise opinion of ration card scheme beneficiaries Table 4. 4. A total of all yes respondents of 100 was selected fore the research.Fig.11. The card holders who faced the problem of less commodities numbered 15.21 shows the list of problems based on opinion of ration card beneficiaries. The problem of ration card for the beneficiaries numbered totalled 10. Those who black market numbered 10. Table 4. Those who political influence numbered totalled 10. Those who faced fair price shops related problems totalled 10.22 Quantity items as per Fair Price shops-wise PDS scheme Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 82 . Those who faced mediators numbered 10. Those who suggested the maximum time problem numbered 35.

50 4-28 100 3. Quantity items SC/ST Others All Qty (kg/ltrs) Benefi ciaries Price Qty (kg/ltrs) Benefi ciaries Price Qty (kg/ltrs) Benefic iaries Price 1 Rice 4-28 60 3-3.50 2-3 40 3. The quality for SC/ST beneficiaries with respect to wheat showed medium of 25. The quantity items under the quality others showed good response for the beneficiaries in the four villages rating it to be good.50 2 Wheat 2-3 60 3-3.Sl. A total of 100 ration card holder beneficiaries quantity items as per fair price –wise PDS scheme were selected for the research field.50 2-3 100 3. A total Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 83 .50 for the quantity of wheat item 2 to 3 kg/ltr the price 3.22 shows food grains quantity items as per fair price –wise PDS scheme.50 3 Sugar /2-3 60 14-16 /2-3 40 14-16 /2-3 100 14-16 4 Kerosene 2 1/2 -5 60 14-15 2 1/2 -5 40 14-15 2 1/2 -5 100 14-15 5 Others Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 1 1 1 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Table 4.23 the quantity items under quality-wise opinion of TPDS scheme beneficiaries in four villages.23 Quantity items FPS food grains quantity wise opinion of TPDS beneficiaries in the four villages Table 4. The quality for SC/ST beneficiaries with respect to all quantity items was good. Total of 60 beneficiaries for SC and ST and others 40 beneficiaries were selected for rice item 4 to 28 kg/ltrs the price was 3. Table 4.50 4-28 40 3.50 for sugar ½ to 3 kg the price was 14 to 16 for 2 ½ to 5 litre kerosene the price was 14 to 15. No.

Table 4.50ps 60 25 3.25 Actual price/paid price-wise FPS quantity items PDS scheme beneficiaries Sl.24 Marriage/special occasion time purchase more items opinion of beneficiaries Sl.50ps 60 15 3.50ps 100 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 84 . All 100 respondents in four villages selected for the field research yes opinion. Table 4. The others also respondents Yes with 40 respondents.of 100 ration card scheme beneficiaries was the quantity items under quality-wise opinion of the TPDS fair price shops of food grains almost all quantity item qualities more number of PDS scheme beneficiaries good opinion were selected for the four villages in the research field. No.50ps 100 2 Wheat 15 3. No .50ps 40 15 3. Quantity items SC/ST Others All Actual price Paid price Benefi ciaries Actual price Paid price Benefi ciaries Actual price Paid price Benefi ciaries 1 Rice 25 3.50ps 40 25 3. The SC respondents Yes 60 numbers. Caste Yes No Total 1 SC/ST 60 Nil 60 2 Others 40 Nil 40 Total 100 Nil 100 Source : Data collected through Primary Investigation Table 4.24 examines marriage/special occasional moment for purchasing more items according to beneficiaries. A total of 100 ration cardholders beneficiaries marriage/special occasion time purchase more items opinion.

In the same others 40 beneficiaries same prices for the condition of all total wheat items. Next item wheat total SC/ST 60 beneficiaries’ actual price 15 paid price is 3.26 TPDS scheme satisfactory in different group of the beneficiaries opinion Sl. Yes b. in the same whole condition of fixed by the kerosene. Others and all groups of the same condition of the sugar items. 1. Table 4. No SC/ST Others Total Percentage (%) 40 20 30 10 70 30 70 30 Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 85 .50ps.25 indicates the actual price/paid price-wise fair price shop quantity items PDS scheme beneficiaries. scheme satisfactory a. All total rice items was same in the same condition in our study. No. And lastly others items was not supplied/available in the study area.3 Sugar 30 14 60 30 14 40 30 14 100 4 Kerosene 30 14 60 30 14 40 30 14 100 5 Others Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Source : Data collected through primary investigation Table 4. Total SC/ST is 60. Sugar item SC/ST group beneficiaries give actual price 30 paid price 14 Rs. Particulars Govt. In the same the total others 40 beneficiaries actual price 25 in rice item paid price give to 3.50ps. Rice item actual price 25 paid price 3.50ps. Kerosene in the quantity item actual price 30 paid price 14 Rs. Another item is kerosene total number of beneficiaries SC/ST 60 and others 40 respondents.

Yes 10 b. how as it caused change a. i. Yes 40 b. Financially 60 c. On the basis of beneficiaries opinion indifferent group with TPDS scheme. Socially Nil b.2 3 4 5 6 All 60 If yes. 30 per cent were found satisfactory. Yes 60 b. Government scheme satisfactory : 100 respondents were selected for the study. A total of 100 ration card holders were selected for the study to obtain opinion of the different group of the recent targeted public distribution scheme. 40 per cent ST and others. Among them 60 respondents were SC and others were 40. No Nil All 60 40 100 100 20 20 Nil 20 80 100 20 80 100 40 Nil 40 Nil Nil Nil 100 Nil 100 10 30 40 50 50 100 50 50 100 10 30 40 20 80 100 20 80 100 40 Nil 40 100 Nil 100 100 Nil 100 Source : Data collected through primary investigation Table 4. Others Nil Satisfactory with PDS card holding a. No 50 All 60 Monthly regularly getting PDS and FPS shops goods a. Remaining 30 per cent of beneficiaries were not satisfied with Government scheme. No 20 All 60 Black market opinion a. Yes 60 b. No Nil All 60 Is ready reach right persons a.26 shows the opinion of the beneficiaries of public distribution scheme satisfactory. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 86 . Total number of SC/ST group 60 and others groups is 40.

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 87 . the respondents were satisfactory with PDS card holding cent percent (100 per cent) of the respondents opines that they have benefited through PDS system to get their provisions. Do you feel that the PDS cards are not going to the deserving : It shows that from the field survey 50 per cent of the respondents opines Yes. The TPDS scheme has been reached right persons. Among the 100 respondents 2 per cent were benefited socially. The fair price shops are selling rations as illegally 50 per cent of the respondents opinion is that the ration is selling through corruption. v. Monthly/regularly getting from Fair Price Shops (FPS) commodities on the basis of justice : It is found that from field survey the respondents were found satisfactory in getting rations through PDS and FPS shops regularly monthly cent percent of the respondents opines that they are getting monthly regularly PDS and FPS shops good. Black market opinion : From the field survey. it has observed that fair price shops will not providing the rations with actual quantity. iii. Satisfactory with PDS card holding : It is found that from the field survey.ii. It has been helped them to get provisions with a low price. 80 per cent were benefited economically with this scheme. Remaining 50 per cent respondents opinion that the TPDS scheme did not reach right the persons among them 20 per cent SC/ST and 30 per cent were others. vi. iv. And 50 per cent of the respondents respond respect to this No. If yes. Among them 20 respondents were SC/ST and 10 per cent respondents belongs to others. how as it caused a change : It is found that respondents were benefited economically from this scheme.

The main purpose of this study is to know the evaluation of performance of Targeted Public Distribution Scheme a study in Chitradurga taluk how they are improving with the new PDS scheme performance and opinion of the beneficiaries about this scheme.5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This chapter is devoted for a brief summary followed by a conclusion.Chapter . Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 88 . collected information through field survey.

1. 3. To evaluate performance of the scheme in the recent years. 2.Targeted Public Distribution Scheme : A Study on Public Distribution Scheme was taken upto address the functioning of the scheme and to know the class of beneficiaries who are being benefited by the scheme. The study reveals that most of the beneficiaries belong to the age group of 35-50 years. 4. 2. The objectives of this is: 1. 4. To seek opinion of beneficiaries through a case study. To identify the problems in the operation of the scheme. 3. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 89 . Majority of respondents in the study were male representing 65 in number of respondents. To trace the evolution of the PDS scheme. Majority of the respondents in the study area were Scheduled Caste people representing 51 in number of respondents. Majority of the respondents in the study area were married status representing 97 in number of respondents. Summary Findings The findings of present study are listed below.

The study reveals that 23 in number of respondents were highest in SC caste landholding wise status in the study area. Majority of the respondents representing 53 in number of beneficiaries depend on agriculture and allied activities. The majority of the respondents 35 in number of respondents were owning only dry lands. 6. 35% per cent for annual income above Rs. 10. 8 and 6 respondents upto PUC and Degree level and post graduation level only 3 respondents and 29 in number of respondents in illiterate. 100000 15 per cent for annual income. The another majority of the respondents 81. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 90 . The majority of the respondents 17.32 ratio of the average income level in the study area. 8. 12. 17 respondents secondary school level. 11. The study reveals that 35 respondents households had income below 20000 Rs. 37 respondents have studied upto to primary education. Majority of the respondents in the study area were house structure sheeted house living 51 in number of respondents. The study reveals that most of the beneficiaries belong to the 81 in number of respondents living in own/self house. The study reveals that out of 100 respondents.48 ratio of the average education level in the study area. 7. 9.5.

18. The study found that majority of the sample respondents 70 in number of beneficiaries more below poverty line BPL card beneficiaries more in the study area APL cardholders are 18 then Antyodaya Anna Yojana cardholders number in low level of number 12.13. Lack of time problem another problem wise opinion of beneficiaries mediators opinion 10 numbered. A total of 100 ration cardholders selected were the research field. political influence 10. less commodities problem 15. 16. Black market opinion 10. 14. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 91 . The majority of the ration card beneficiaries 65 in number monetary details wise of owning the ration card government fees pay the ration card. Total 100 in number of caste wise distribution of the ration cardholders in the study area. Majority of the respondents 45 in number respondents most loans and saving in the institution of banks. A total of 100 beneficiaries in different problem opinion of Yes in this study area. 17. fair price shops faraway /distance problem 5. The majority of the beneficiaries most opinion were 35 in number. 15. and lastly ration card corrupt problem opinion 10 in numbered. The study reveals that 45 in number of respondents were help obtained by the ration card department officers and list of 5 in number of ration cardholders help obtained by village elite persons. The study found that majority of the respondents 100 in number of beneficiaries SC/ST 60 in number and others is 40.

sugar. Majority of the beneficiaries in the study area were PDS scheme quantity items rice. kerosene. 22. Total SC/ST beneficiaries 60 and 40 in number of others groups.19. sugar distribution of this moment. Total all category group opinion in the same situation. Total all items in the same rate of the different ration card level. Others quantity items cloth soap. 23. Majority of the beneficiaries in the study area were PDS scheme actual price/paid price-wise FPS quantity items paid price is same in all 100 beneficiaries says about the opinion in the study area. But this situation higher price fixed for this items. wheat. wheat. 24. 21. wheat. This type of availabilities distribution in the study area. rice is quality 100% good. PDS scheme satisfactory of the beneficiaries opinion Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 92 . sugar and kerosene is also good opinion of beneficiaries in the study area. sugar and kerosene. 20. wheat. Majority of the same respondents 100 in number of beneficiaries opinion of marriage/special occasion moment for purchasing more items for this moment given by fair price shops. not for available in the four selected villages only main items rice. sugar and kerosene. The study reveals that 100 respondents opinion of fair price shops quantity items quality wise opinion of the beneficiaries rice. wheat is medium level. In the study area only this moments availability of main items rice.

Black market opinion Majority of the respondents opinion of this point 80% ‘No’ answer in the selected for beneficiaries. Monthly regularly getting PDS scheme and fair price shops commodities on the basis of justice The study reveals that out of 100 in number of ration card holders yes answer of good opinion of this point. Is ready reach right eligibility persons ration cards More than 50% of the ration card corrupt in the study area remaining 50% of ration card reach for the poor people or eligibility beneficiary. If Yes. v. how as it caused a change Majority of the respondents opinion of in the study area 80% of the beneficiaries opinion more financially. Majority of the respondents opinion of in the study area 40 suggestion requires beneficiaries towards government providing distribution ration card is quality. Satisfactory with PDS ration card holding Majority of the respondents opinion of in the study area 100 in number of beneficiaries most useful in the ration card opinion is good this PDS ration card. Government Public Distribution Scheme (PDS) satisfactory : Majority of the respondents in the study area 70% of Yes beneficiaries more useful of this scheme and satisfaction. iv. ii. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 93 . iii. vi. 25.i.

64% of agricultural asset holders of the study area and study reveals that non agricultural or consumer durables have 90% of the ration card holders in the study area. the research study suggest as follows: 1. The demand for kerosene is high. Suggestions In the process of an evaluation of performance of targeted public distribution scheme.26. Citizens Vigilance Committee. The fair price shops goods should be regularly available to the targeted people through proper channel. Control over the black market this point alternative suggested by the government rural committee and clean hand committee. 3. 5. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 94 . The beneficiaries are to be properly identified. Majority of the ration card holders socio-economic condition 0. 7. 4. 6. The available goods and services must be reserved for respective cardholders. so they should provide that in large quantities with minimum price. 2. Fraud should be eliminated by strengthening the effective targeting of the public distribution scheme.

Food subsidy should be reach to all the BPL families in rural area. 10. . sugar. wheat. Only 15 per cent of the respondents getting benefits from the TPDS scheme. The government should avoid the non-targeted people through proper way or channel. Regular working of every time in fair price shops (FPS) in rural area. 13. PDS was a boon to the people who have been living in the Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 95 . 11. 9. 12. Essential commodities like rice. But it has to be increased according to the total population level or size. 14.8. The PDS scheme given by the government or disadvantaged so it has to increase in more advantages level of the ratio. Public participation should be there in public distribution scheme. The government should extend the fair price shops (FPS) timings to the availability of targeted people. kerosene are supplied to the people under the PDS at reasonable prices. Conclusion Public Distribution System (PDS) aims at poverty alleviation programme and has contributed towards the total welfare of the people.

The scheme promoted the social and economic status of the rural families socially. quantities reservation of products etc. Government introduced Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) in the year 1997. It has been helpful to people in many respects such as providing goods like kerosene. where enough public participation was involvement. PDS is the primary social welfare and antipoverty programmes of the government of India. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 96 . public distribution systems according to our study reveals that though it has many drawbacks.below poverty line. This Public Distribution System came into existence with the object of providing qualitative products at reasonable rates. Thus. wheat and rice etc. Central Government and State Governments have been actively involved in steering the operations for the success of the PDS it is not possible to neglect the PDS in India because majority of the Indian population are living in rural areas and their standard of living is also poor and they cannot afford to pay the prevailing market prices for the essential commodities. Many rural poor were getting food security and goals of it reached the successful in time. Many people suggest that it should improve the quality.

to meet their basic needs through the scheme like Public Distribution Scheme (PDS).. the performance and evaluation of the scheme is in progress. Targeted Public Distribution System in recent years. Thus public distribution system is a well planned and systematized process with public welfare objectives. Corruption. Programme 2010-11 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR FIELD SURVEY Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 97 .Phil. lack of awareness and undesirable techniques of both organizers and users are playing a crucial role in increasing poverty and failure of various ongoing anti-poverty programmes. But it has to be increased according to the total population level or size. But there is a need for the necessary steps to be taken by the government for the improvement of the scheme in remotest areas who are those living in below poverty line.Targeted public distribution system is a good scheme for the rural and backward areas people. QUESTIONNAIRE AN EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SCHEME : A STUDY IN CHITRADURGA TALUK M. Only 15 per cent of the respondents getting benefits from the TPDS scheme.

Hobli : 6. Student DOS in Economics Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta . Professor DOS in Economics Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta . Village 5. Manjunath Elayaraja.R. Sex : 3. Caste : : SC 9.577 451 M.Guide : Research Student : Dr. Employment Employment . Marital Status: Married / Unmarried 8.. K. Occupation Agriculture General : Own 10. House ST Housing Structure Hut 11. T. Age : 4. Taluk : 7. Ration Card Holders Name : 2. OBC Cooli Rented : Tiled house Sheeted house RCC : Business Caste oriented occupation Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 98 Self Govt.577 451 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR BENEFICIARIES 1.Phil.

1 Agriculture 2 Business 3 Dairy Income Sl.12. Post Graduate : BPL Yes / No AAY From which department have you obtained the ration card? Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 99 Income . 1 2 3 4 17. No. Net operating ratio Leased in Irrigated Dry Sl. No. Land holdings (in acres) : Sl. No. 1 2 16. what kind of card do you have? APL 20. Sl. If yes. Land Own Leased out Loans and savings in the institution Total Institution Banks LIC/PLI Post offices Private : Loans Savings Remarks Income sources : Sl. Do you own any land? : Yes / No 15. Do you have a ration card? 19. No. 4 5 6 Sources Pvt/Govt. Education : Illiterate Primary Secondary 13. Sources No. PUC Degree Details of Family members : Name Sex Age Main Allied Income occupation activities monthly Education 14. employment Self employment Cooli 18.

P.a. Others 21. Others 22. Taluk Office d. Village elite person f. Department officers c. The commodities you obtain from a Fair Price Shop having a APL card? Total Quantity (unit Sl. The Monetary details of you owning the ration card? Sl. Members e. How did you help obtained the ration card? a. No. G. Fair Price Shop (FPS) c. Particulars 1 Government fees 2 Friends / Relatives 3 Middlemen 4 Officials Amount Total 23. Particulars in kg/litres) Quantity Price 1 Rice 2 Wheat 3 Sugar 4 Kerosene Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 100 . No. Own b. Mediators d. Grama Panchayat b.

Total Quality Price If yes. Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 6 25. No. Soap Cloth The commodities you obtain from a Fair Price Shop having a BPL card? Sl. No. Yes / No If yes. Quantity (unit in kg/litres) Rice Wheat Sugar Kerosene Soap Cloth Do you like to spend more on special occasions like marriage and so on? 27. how much would you spend? Sl. how has it caused a change? Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 101 : Yes / No . 28. Quantity (unit in kg/litres) Total Quality Price Rice Wheat Sugar Kerosene Soap Cloth The commodities you obtain from a Fair Price Shop having a AAY card? Sl. No. : 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars Price Rice Wheat Sugar Kerosene Soap Cloth Did the government schemes initiative cause any changes in your life? 29.5 6 24. Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 6 26.

No. 1 2 3 9.a. Others 2. Political influence. Do they provide the commodities in Fair Price Shops on the basis of justice? 6. Give details regarding the total consumption and total commodity ratio? Sl. Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 102 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars Months Rice Wheat Sugar Kerosene Soap Cloth 7. Financially c. Distance of Fair Price Shops d. Can you easily avail more commodities from Fair Price Shops? Yes/No 5. how often they give and what items they give? Sl. Items Rice Wheat Sugar From FPS : Yes / No Total consumption surplus In your PDS and other distribution systems suffer from following problems? a. Socially b. Lack of time b. Do you feel that the PDS cards are not giving to the deserving? Yes / No 4. No. Do they exploit you by any means for giving the items ? 8. Scarcity of goods c. : Yes / No If No. Has PDS helped you a lot? : Yes / No 3.

Control over the block market business e. What is your opinion about PDS and Fair Price Shops? a. Department officers every time visit to the enquiry to the FPS c. Control over the mediators and political influence d.10. Block market c. All of the above. Others Give suggestions regarding to the solving of problems of the new TPDS scheme a.No. Particulars Quantity Agriculture 1 Bullock Cart 2 Plough 3 Bullocks 4 Tractor Tiller 5 Sprayer 6 Tube well 7 Cows 8 Buffalos 9 Sheep/Goat 10 Chickens Non-Agricultural (Consumer durables) 1 Cycle/ Motor bike 2 Radio / TV 3 Wall clock 4 Tailoring Machine 5 Tables / Chairs 6 Mobiles 7 Telephone 8 Show pieces 9 Gas stove Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 103 Value . Socio-economic condition of ration card holders Sl. 11. Required beneficiaries get the use of this scheme b. Political influence d. 12. Middleman b.

Department of PG Studies in Economics Shikaripura Page 104 .