MATH 605, HW 4 SOLUTIONS
Follands Real Analysis; Chapter 2:
19.) Suppose fn L1 () and fn f uniformly.R
R
(a) Show that if (X) < , then f L1 () and fn f : f is automatically measurable
since fn f . Given > 0, there exists N so that fn f  < /(X) for all n N (since
fn f uniformly). It follows that for n N
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
f fn = (f fn )
f
f

(/(X)) = .
n
(b) If (X) = , this can fail; e.g., let X = R and fn = 1/n [ 0, n].
20.) Just follow the proof of the DCV but this time apply Fatou to (gn + fn ) and (gn fn ).
21.) Suppose fn , f L1 () and fn f a.e. Show that fn f  0 iff fn 
Both directions follow from the version of DCV in the previous exercise since
R
f :
fn f  2f  + fn  and fn  f  + fn f  .
(i.e., we use the dominating sequences gn = 2f  + fn  or gn = f  + fn f )
22.) Suppose is counting measure on the natural numbers. A function is then just a
sequence a1 , a2 , . . . . The monotone convergence theorem then says that:
for all j, n, then
If (a11 , a12 , . . . , a1n , . . . ), (a21 , a22 , . . . , a2n , . . . ), etc., are sequences with ajn aj+1
n
lim
ajn =
X
n=1
n=1
lim ajn .
The statements for Fatou and the DCV are similar.
x
26). Suppose that f L1 (m) are set F (x) =
f (t) dt. Show that F is continuous:
Fix x R and > 0. The sequence of functions gn = f  [x1/n,x+1/n] converges Rto 0 a.e.
(in fact, everywhere except maybe x) and is dominated by f  L1 . By the DCV, gn 0
so there exists N with
Z x+1/N
f  < .
x1/N
In particular, for any y with x y 1/N we have
Z
F (y) F (x) =
Z
y
f 
x+1/N
f  < .
x1/N
28). These are all similar so I will just do (a). Set fn = (1 + (x/n))n sin(x/n) and
f (x) = 0 for every x 0 (since
gn (x) = (1 + (x/n))n . Note that gn (x) ex and limn
R n
sin(x/n) 0). Since
f

g
and
it
is
easy
to
see
that
g
n
n
n 1, the DCV (as in exercise
R
21) implies that fn 0. (By the way, I think it is even easier just to do this problem
R
R
directly; divide the integral into 0R and R and use that sin(x/n) is small on the first
part while (1 + (x/n))n decays rapidly on the second.)
Professor Minicozzi, Fall 2002.
1
MATH 605, HW 4 SOLUTIONS
34). SupposeR that fn R g L1 and fn f in measure. R
R
R
(a) Show that R f = lim fn : This follows from (b) (since  f fn  f fn ).
(b) Show that f fn  0: (If we knew that fn f a.e., then we could just use the DCV
since fn f  2gR L1 .) Fix > 0. Since g L1 , we can choose E X so (E) < ,
supE g < , and X\E g < /4. Fix > 0. Define bad sets Bn () by
Bn () = {x  fn f (x) } .
Since fn f in measure, lim (Bn ()) = 0. Therefore,
lim
fn f 
Z
X\E
Z
X\E
fn f  + lim
Z
EBn ()
fn f  + lim
Z
E\Bn ()
fn f 
2g + sup 2g lim (Bn ()) + (E) sup fn f  /2 + (E) .
E
E\Bn ()
Now were done (just choose < /(2(E)) and then take 0).
35). Show that fn f in measure iff for every > 0 there exists N so that for all n N
we have
({x  fn f (x) }) < .
Ill leave this to you guys since its pretty much obvious.