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MATH 605, HW 4 SOLUTIONS

Follands Real Analysis; Chapter 2:


19.) Suppose fn L1 () and fn f uniformly.R
R
(a) Show that if (X) < , then f L1 () and fn f : f is automatically measurable
since fn f . Given  > 0, there exists N so that |fn f | < /(X) for all n N (since
fn f uniformly). It follows that for n N
Z

Z

Z
Z
Z




f fn = (f fn )
|f

f
|

(/(X)) =  .
n



(b) If (X) = , this can fail; e.g., let X = R and fn = 1/n [ 0, n].
20.) Just follow the proof of the DCV but this time apply Fatou to (gn + fn ) and (gn fn ).
21.) Suppose fn , f L1 () and fn f a.e. Show that |fn f | 0 iff |fn |
Both directions follow from the version of DCV in the previous exercise since
R

|f |:

|fn f | 2|f | + |fn | and |fn | |f | + |fn f | .


(i.e., we use the dominating sequences gn = 2|f | + |fn | or gn = |f | + |fn f |)
22.) Suppose is counting measure on the natural numbers. A function is then just a
sequence a1 , a2 , . . . . The monotone convergence theorem then says that:
for all j, n, then
If (a11 , a12 , . . . , a1n , . . . ), (a21 , a22 , . . . , a2n , . . . ), etc., are sequences with ajn aj+1
n
lim

ajn =


X
n=1

n=1

lim ajn .

The statements for Fatou and the DCV are similar.


x
26). Suppose that f L1 (m) are set F (x) =
f (t) dt. Show that F is continuous:
Fix x R and  > 0. The sequence of functions gn = |f | [x1/n,x+1/n] converges Rto 0 a.e.
(in fact, everywhere except maybe x) and is dominated by |f | L1 . By the DCV, gn 0
so there exists N with
Z x+1/N
|f | <  .

x1/N

In particular, for any y with |x y| 1/N we have


Z

|F (y) F (x)| =

Z
y

|f |

x+1/N

|f | <  .

x1/N

28). These are all similar so I will just do (a). Set fn = (1 + (x/n))n sin(x/n) and
f (x) = 0 for every x 0 (since
gn (x) = (1 + (x/n))n . Note that gn (x) ex and limn
R n
sin(x/n) 0). Since
|f
|

g
and
it
is
easy
to
see
that
g
n
n
n 1, the DCV (as in exercise
R
21) implies that fn 0. (By the way, I think it is even easier just to do this problem
R
R
directly; divide the integral into 0R and R and use that sin(x/n) is small on the first
part while (1 + (x/n))n decays rapidly on the second.)
Professor Minicozzi, Fall 2002.
1

MATH 605, HW 4 SOLUTIONS

34). SupposeR that |fn |R g L1 and fn f in measure. R


R
R
(a) Show that R f = lim fn : This follows from (b) (since | f fn | |f fn |).
(b) Show that |f fn | 0: (If we knew that fn f a.e., then we could just use the DCV
since |fn f | 2gR L1 .) Fix  > 0. Since g L1 , we can choose E X so (E) < ,
supE |g| < , and X\E g < /4. Fix > 0. Define bad sets Bn () by
Bn () = {x | |fn f |(x) } .
Since fn f in measure, lim (Bn ()) = 0. Therefore,
lim

|fn f |

Z
X\E

Z
X\E

|fn f | + lim

Z
EBn ()

|fn f | + lim

Z
E\Bn ()

|fn f |

2g + sup 2g lim (Bn ()) + (E) sup |fn f | /2 + (E) .


E

E\Bn ()

Now were done (just choose < /(2(E)) and then take  0).
35). Show that fn f in measure iff for every  > 0 there exists N so that for all n N
we have
({x | |fn f |(x) }) <  .
Ill leave this to you guys since its pretty much obvious.