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A Sweet Lullaby for World

Music
Stel'en ridd

Tl 01ailllg
b~gin~ the music globalization.commonplace~ th.a~ arc n~o~t br~adl y cir~u­
Western Intellectual dt~course a:-. m.: tualtttes or Im mediate predic111

tion~

at the entl or the twentieth century:

I. Music's tleep connection to !->OCial itlentitics h a~ been distinctively
i nte n~ ified by globalita tion. Thi:-. intensification i ~; due to the way!. cultural
:-.cparation and i>Ocial exchange arc mutuall y m:cclcratcd hy transnational
flows of technology, media. and popular cultu re. The re~ul t is that mu-,ical
identities and styles arc more vi:-,ibly tra nsient. more audi bl y in s t ate~ of
constatll fission and fusion than ever before.
2. Our era is increasi ngly dominated by fantasies and n:ali7ations of -;onic
virtuality. Not onl y does comemporary technology make all musical
wo rlds actuall y or potentially tran:-.portablc and bearable in all others, but
thi'i tra nsportability is ~ome th i ng fewer and fewer people take in any way
to be remarkable. As 'onic virtuality i ~ increa<.ingly natura li ted. everyone's
musical world will be fe lt and experienced as both more dclln ite and more
vague. specific yet blurretl. particular but genera l. in place and in motion.
3. lt has taken only one hu ndred years for ~ound recordi ng tec h nologie~ to
amplify sonic exchange to a point that overwhelm' prior and comiguou-, hi'>Than~' 10 A fu n:t ~wu. Deep l·un:,I. and Ja n Garl>ard, for t h~ un~nding mix of cd~hralion nnd
a nxiety in their recording' or Rorog" ..:lu: to Maril Lte. Odd Arc Bcr~aak. ;tnd l l ugo Zcmp lor Ihctr
friendship. cummcnL\. and provi,tun ul do~umcnh: 111 Arjun Appadur;u. Vet! l: rlmann. Li'a llcndcr.,on. AIIM>n Lcitch. D:t\ 1d S:unueb. Tim Ta) Ior. und Public Crllwre's reader' for ' uggc,uon.....tnd Ill
Spring 191J9 cnlloqu1a audience' al Ml Holyokc College. Amhcn.l Collcg<\ Ihe Univcr'll) ut Ma,s-

Ptll>li<· Culrun• 12( I r l-1~ - 171
Cupynghl ~J :woo b} Duke l ruH·r•Hy l'rc''

145

Public Cu lture

lorie~ or trave l. migration. contact, coloni zation, diasrora. and di -.per:-.al. ll is
thererore the reco rded form. m. it c in.:ulate ~ cummen.:iall y, that ddines the
authenticity of mu~ic glohalia Hion. The hero and villain of thi ~ ~ ituation . the
mu:-.ic industry. ha~ triumphed through cominuou'> ,·cn ical and hori tontal
merger and corN)Iidatio n. By alig ning technologie' or recording and reproduction with the di ~'cminati on caraci ti c~ of other entertainment and ruhlication media. the indu'-!ry ha:-. accomplished the key capitali ~t goal or unl.'nding
market place ex pan, ion.
4 . Mu-.ical glo balin llion i-. experienced and narrated"' equall y cclehra tory
and contemi ou ~ hceau-.e ewryone can hear equally o mnipre~e nt '> ign-. o r
augmented and dimini -,hcd mu -.ical diver'> ity. Ten<;ions around the meanings or \Oilie hcterogerwity and ho mogeneity precisely parallel Other tcn, jo n-. that characteriLe global [>f'OC.:Cs<;Cs o r ~Cpa ra t io n and mi xing. with an
emrhac.; i-. on -. tylistic genericitati on. hybridization. and re' italitation.

So. like everything el'>e called globalitation the!>e day:-.. thi:-. ver,ion i-. clear!)
about increasingly complin llcd rluralities, uneven cxreriencc-,. and consolidated
power... But io.; there a nyth ing di c.; tinctivc about how thi~ i~ happening in the
wo rld o r mu -,i<:'? One way to an -;wcr i ~ hy denaturali t ing the now ubi4uitouo.;
phra~c 1\'0fld 1/l ll .liC. today\ dominalll .. ig nilier o r a triurn pha lll industriali ta tilln
orglobal so nic rcprescnlaliou . Until liulc mo re than a dccm.k: a g othi ~ ph ra-.c wa:considcrahl y more obscure. How did it become so thoroughly and ntpidl y nuturalit.cd in public ~ ph c res? flo w ha ~ it participated in ways we have come to imagine. interpret. or co nte ~ t the notion of glohali Lat ion? I IO\\ might a ..;ketch genealogy o r ll'orld llllt s i r help make more critically v i ~ ihl e the w a ) ~ a modernity is
ten ~c l y mirro red in the kind<. of co mm onrlace~ with which I hegan?
World Music

Circulated lir:-.t by academic:- in the earl ) 1960!:. to celebrate and promote the
~ tud y of musical di ve r~ it y, the phra ~e ll'orld 1//lls i c hcgan largely as a benign and
hoperul term . In those da y~. no~talgi call y remembered by many for th eir innocence and ortimism. the phra~e " ·orld 11111.1ic had a clear populist ring. lt \~ a\ a
friendl y phra,c. a Ieo;, cumbcp;ome alternati ve to e thnomu.,icology. the mo re
~ trikin g l y academic term that emerged in the mid 1950.., to refer to the 'lllidy of
a.:hu,cth. i\111hcr. t. and We,lcya n Unl\er,ily. '" I d rafted t hi' ""ay. my g randmot her. Allllil R'"'
Fdd. tlicd h.tllwa) thn)ugh her tO~ru.J )<:ar. I c.kdi.:a tc 1111' to her. n:ml"lltbenng hml , he inui.w: d me
11110 Ill) "'' " nlll,i..: lH>rltl ' ' 11h " R otin~c' m it ~ Llndlc n :· a 'er) "\eel Yiddi' h lull.ahy.

146

by promoting the hiring or non-Wes tern performers and the swdy of non-Wes tern performance practices and repertories. categories loosely conjoining academic and commercial enterpri se. trihal. ethnic . tern or ethnically other continued to be routinely partitioned from tho:-. th e situati on would have been little different hatl world music been more bluntl y termed third world music. and ide ntiti e~ could asscn equal claim ~ to value. Like etlmomusicology.:s. Thi s took place when the phrase third II'Orld made new marketing sense of the diverse set of prcviow. and marginal ized ethnic or racial minorities. Whatever the SUCCC!>:o.Jif"ied considerably later. And outside of the academy. and performance? Interes tingly.C interests anti in what kind of academy mu st et/11111 ant111•or/d remain distinct from a discipline of mu ~ ic. tmditional. where music:-. following the i nvention of th e phonogra ph. the world music idea was mea nt to have a pluraliLing effect on Wes tern con'>ervatori e:o.e of the West. tudy or Wes tern European art musi<.\ic.m that distinguished II'Orld music from music helped reproduce a tense di visi on in the academy. that is exactly what happened. Thi s musicology/ethnomusicology split reproduced the di ~ci pl i na ry di vide '>O common in the academy.: ::.. a discipline where all practices.ics of non-Europea ns. Of th e~e aims. study. fo lk. exotic. in the 1950s and 1960s. world music had an academicaiJy liberal m is ·ion. the termin ological dual io. in th e academy of the 1960s and 1970~. ubjects. or in te mmional. constructed by default as th e cultural amJ contexLUal study of mu-. T he obvious ques ti on remain~: In w ho). Even if little or thi '> w a~ terri bly contenti ou-. centu ry. it is nonetheless re markable that the valorized label'> etlmomusicology and world lltll si£· ~ ur v i ve w ith so little <.non-Wes tern mu!>ics and musics or ethnic mino nue~. For even though commercial recording"> were increasingly made i n every world loca tion from the begi nni ng of th i<. Th e relationship or the colonizing anti the colonized thu s remained generall y intact i n di ~ tin g ui s h i ng 11111. to oppo'>e the dominam tendency of mu<. from cthnomJsicology.:hallcngc at century\ entl. constructed a~ the historical and ana lyti<. understood as non-We:-. 147 lullaby for World Music . the development of a highly vi sible commerci al documentary mu~ ic recording i ndu ~ t ry ~ol ic. The binary reproduced by the world mu ic concept thus participated in reinscrihing tlu: separation or musicology. A nd in practical t e rm ~. hi stories. European peasa nb.1ic from ll'orld 11111. namely recordings variously laheled and sold as primith•e. and "eth no-" li e l d~ were crea ted to accommodate the West's ethnic others. where unmarked "-ologies" announced \ tudi c~ of normati ve Wes tern .ic insti tution~ and publ ics to assume th e synonymy or 11 /lt sic w ith Western European art music. in the world of commerce.

out of diaspora and hybridity.. ·world mu ~ic.s media. A nd complex ly intcrcu lturalmusics. out of rni grution. and Latin America that l"ueled this marketplace creation or and commercial desire for authentic (a nd orten nos tal gic) musical ebewher e).e international prominence was quick ly marked by the emergence or a professiona l journal (Popular Mu sic in 198 1) ant! society (I AS PM . Ironica ll y it was th e turbul ence of independence m ove me nt ~. Reflecting on t. becoming guarantors of a musica l authentic ity mea nt equally to sign ify authoritative documentary rea lism and cultural uniqucncs:-. A:. cities and multiethnic or trade regions. indexing histories of motion in and through numcrou:-.hadow \'er!>ion::. popular music studies· concern to theoriL. 5) writes: "Perhaps it is not a c. But thi s was in many ways ove rwhelmed in thel 98()s by th e rise of popular music studies. Fri th 1983. packaged. tcd for multiculturalist.c more commercially munled. who). the Internati onal As:-.ic -. an academic orga ni D. Th ey were frequently ckpicti ons or a world where th e audibility of intercu l wral inlluence~ was mi xed down or muted. and middle-class ethnic buyers. particularly rock music. also 1981) and a su cce~sio n or inllucntial theoretica l texts (for example. Even though much or the earl y empha:-is was on ~tudying Wes tern popu lar musical forms.c the gl obal dom inance of media ted mu~ic!> in the twe ntieth century signalcd to ethn omusicol ogy that its uncri ti cal nawralinti on of " authentic traditions" was in troub le. and ~o ld a~ a success ful new rop genre:· 148 . and earl y 1960s in Al"ricu. and ma:-.t ti o nju ~ t a:-. and th e power ru l nationalist ~ tru gg l es or th e late 1950-.hi '> moment in an introduction to a colkcti on o f ea rly I ASPM conference paper~. antico lonial demonstrati ons.: th at l ASPM has grown a~-.. the sou nds or co untries oth er than North A merica or Western Europe.Public Culture If thl:!se reco rding~ had much in com mon it was often th eir rolitics of representati on. Acad~m ics we n: particularl y co mp. as i f waiting for th e label intern(lliono/ to be markette:.ia. McCiary 1991). urbani7ation.oc iation for the Study of Popular Mu sic.licit with co mmerce here. ethnomusicol ogy incorporated insights from popu lar mu sic studies lO c tTect a shift from studying bounded and discrete mu sica l worlds to one:. The 1960:-. ha ~ begun to he recordctl.l logy courses and th eir world mu!. So undprint ~ or tho~e political stru ggles wo uld not be widely hearahle on popu lar recordings or ce lebrated in the commercia l music marke tplace for th ei r own stunningly powerful authentici ty for another dec ade. like the one<.. were li kewi:-.:oincidenec. Simon Frith ( 1989. and 1970s witnessed the ri se o f wken form~ of musica l plurali sm through the academic proliferation or ethn omusicl.crea ted out of contac t histories and co lonial legacies. Chambers 1985: Middleton 1990: Shepherd 199 1. Increasingl y. migrant.

which dresses their curatorial voyages in colonial ~a fari gear. The key example:-. But in each case di ~ tinct modcb of the inspiration and collaboration mi x also emerged. I ). and popular cullure it<.: ul di\C<W<:I') 149 lullaby for World Music . Grace/and ( 1986) with South African mu ~ician~. Meintjes 1990: Lipsi tz 1994).. signa led commcn. Acatkmic~ greeted these productions with critical inquiries into how they mixed pleasure and impcriou sne~s (for example. to finance artistic forays into a world that would quick!) come to be experienced a~ geographically expan~ive and aestheticall y familiar. pop star co lluhorulion and curation became the central world music marketplace ~ ignifier ror the mid1980~ . revealing more of th e political and aes- Figure I 11u~ curator'' <IU\'Cntur. Reprising an earlier trend. as did the di~c ur~ive shift in the term from acutlemic de:-.:ially in the promotional relation ship or the B caLlc~ to Ravi Shankar. This wa~ made po~:-. 1-lamm 1989: Goodwin anti Gore 1990.ician!'. Feld 1988.elf threw an occasional ironic glance at Simon\ and Byrne\ adventures. for example in Drew Friedman's canoon (fig. were Paul Simon'<.This commercial potential of world music begun developing rapidly in the 1980">. ible by the ability of Western pop mu ~ic elite and their record companic:-. and David Byrne\ Rei Mo111o ( 1989) with Latin mu<.ignation to di~­ tinct marketing ca tegory. pop ~ta r curation continued to lead the marketplace expansion or world music. Into and throu gh the 1990s.

one could become the recipient or regular ISO .1990<.ou N. mail-order c:ttalogs.. ex panded into new venues. with tremendo us record industry and fan support . his projects with Tibetan Monks and African and Indian percu~­ sioni. Even ror those seeking somethi ng more pocket-sized.er and David Li nd lcy'-.ts. and hi ~ collaboration with ani:-. The 1 990~ abo brough t a deve lopment o r ~La res. Bill board 's world music pocket guide manages to include the top~e llin g ni ne hundred CO$ by the top selli ng one hundred and fifty artis t ~ (B iumenthal 1998).hundr ed-page 'vVo rld Music: The Rough Guide (B roughton et al. The key examples were Peter Gabriel's WOMAD (World or Music and Dance) rest ivals and Real World label. significa ntl y..eh Ali Khan. and promotions: and Davitl Bridie's Not Drowning. followl. Dour and N u ~r<~ t Fat. Tslandcr.ic Grammy award category out o r its forme r . like Archie Roach. ln 1990 Biffboan/ magazin e reinvented world music <I~ a <. Mic key Hart\ Wo rld Series on the Rykotlisc label. and Melane!>ian mu:-. ts as diverse as You~­ .. one. Mexican American.ic channels. Christine Anu. Additionall y.. Africa n. in ve nted a world mu.ethnic and traditional. 1994): it. like airline world mu:.. World music airp lay prolircrated likewi:. sibilities for promoting both an i~ tic equity and wealth distributi on. and his Endangered Musics Project in collaboration wi th the U. The Vi1.cctions to it.. and.tred in 199 1. Madagascar collaborati on:-.inc Rhythm Music: Glohal Sou 1rd~ and Ideas sta rt ed at th e <:a mc time. building more Oil rapid product expansion and t he promotio nal support or both the reco rding and aligned entertainment indu:-. or world mu:-..Public Culture thetic po.s populari ty led to an expanded two vol ume second edition in 1999 and 2000. the 1990s music industry was no lo nger dependent Oil pop ~tars to sell the wo rld: the marketplace succes.n les tracki ng ca tegory and began charting its commercial impact. in 1999.f{in Directmy of World Music (Swee ney 199 1) appe:.. cmertaillmen t. Songlines..ic wa. The . and George Telek. In 1991. and thousands of lmernet web <: itcs. and aud io technology magazi nes over the dccadc.S. and web ~i tcs either mercha ndising worltlmusic or devoting special -.e in the 1990s and. and Indi an guitari. the American National Academy of Recording Arts and Science. But.!d hy World Bem (S pencer 1992) the nex t yea r.ts and his promotion or Cuban music a nd musicians: Henry Kai. video and television series.. By 1994 there was a n almos t ~even. Upon purchase of wo rld music products.trie~. world music news and review sections spread throu gh numcrou~ consumer recording.icia m. The mnga7. followed by World Music in the mitl. Wav ing collabora tion with mu~icia ns from Papua New Guinea and his prod uctions of Abo ri gi nal...amc paucrn emerged with li ~ tc n e r guides. Library ofCo n gres~: Ry Cooder"s collaborution~ wiLh Hawaiian.

. T hese works ask how musical differcnt·c ha~ been represented. marketed. and Zap Mama.try. E I ). one focused on marketing danccahlc ethnicity and exotic alterity on the v. critic\ hot pick\. But the same proce\~ ~i gnifi ed somethi ng more cri tical to scholars in cthnomu icology and cultural ::.. By century\ end.(Zwerin !993). fared in thi world mu ~ i c i ndu ~ t ry {for example. They 151 lullaby for World Music . and promoted.. it wa~ due to a major rewnfigurati on or how the musica l globe was being curated.. a. th at is. the rhetoric of "free" now and "greater" acccs-. and Sharma 1996... downloadahle sample'>.~dcmic inves tigation of the making of world mu-. of m u~ ic. the relative ea~e with which the music industry could.. the phrase -.. namely. 40) phrase. how th ey have been traded. Thc:-. Erl rnann 1993. or Ofra Haza and Manu Dibango. the first decade of ac:.c-mail ··info-ti sement!>:· hcsH . the un!->eLLi ing representation'>. '·banali. J996b: Feld 1988. a CD player.. in the memorable phrasing of the Ne11' York Ttmes' "Pop View" columnist ..\h' ~i gnilied the commercial triumph of global mu.Ion Pareles ( 1999.. ical industrial ization (Chanan 1995). the Putamayo compilations.for example.. tudie:-. 1996a. 1996: Garofalo 1993: Goodwin and Gore 1990: Gui lbau h 1993.. or Carlo!.ibiliti es: \onic cxcur'> ion." Con·e. Rather.es on how difference ha.e storie!-> first and foremost arc about the uneven reward~. So if the 1990s crea ted a world of co n s um e r ~ incrca:-. and cashed out. recorded. ll'orld music had come to signify "a small world with a huge number of po. and the complex ly entangled desires that lie undernea th the commercial rhetoric of global connection. and sty le a'> L adysmith Black Mambazo and The M ys teri ou:. World music was no longer domi nated hy academic documentation and promotion of traditions. or Apache Indian and Yothu Yindi.rc diffcrcm:c. Bulgarian Voices. 1997: llayward 1998.eller l i t!>. merged. akai and The Gipsy Kings. 1994.ic focu-.. clo-. region. Taylor 1997).!-. now ubiquitous in Starhucks and other chain:. orld pleasure and commodity map. a proliferation of recording laheb devoted to world mu ~ic and even diqinct marketing plans '>pecifically devoted to the genre . Anxiety and Celebra tion That any and every hybri d or traditional ~ t y l e could ~o successfully be lumped together by th e single market labelll'or/d 11111.. advertised. and oth er promotional fare.pondingly. or The Chieflam. where they have been deprecia ted and mortgaged.e a!-.ingly familiar wi th musical groups a.wept through the public sphere lir'> t and foremost signify ing a global indu5. in Joccly nc's Guilbault\ ( 1993. Likewise th ere wa-.. diverse in hi ~ tory.. exalted and feti ~hi/cd : how its market shares have ri ~e n and fallen. Hutnyk.. LipsitL 199-t: Mitchell 19%: euenfe ldl 1997: Sharrna.

in the larger -. as ra ther ~urface one">. on nuiu itlentitie~. ahout technology and g loha l dcvclorment.i. of musical authenticity and traditi ons.sentialited idelllities. as rejection\ of hounded. a discourse forged out of narrati ve:-. narrative~ once naturali7eu other grand and -.Oilletime:-.tories of how mu:-.il)Jl o f a world once more "pure:· ··real.ing why and how mu:-icallo<.:llahlc ve r). <.mL"ician David Rothenherg in a Chronicle of Higher Edunllion commentary on mu:-.tconcent ration and competition in the recording 111du~try i). If there i-. 152 . hyhridit) wi th overt re-. This can ha ve the effect of downplaying hegcrnon ic managerial and capital rdation' in the music industry.tcad on th e ~~ ay~ larger segment:-.'rn practices and in<. for cullural and financial CLJUity in the entertainment de-.s i"> cou mered by the proliferation Of new 111U">iC!. can replace the prc\iOLJ"> label internotional a~ l lcrc the a positi\C valence term for modl.picionthat capi tal i:-. " But:· he conti nue~. celehratory narratives of worltl mu o. That is. and ~. 'uch a thing as development. focusing in.e gloh:JIiL. Cl:lt:bralllr) narrati'l:" tend toward hopeful :-.. and resilience..ation ..\lOJ) narrative~ of" orld JnLJl>ic tend to normali. They place a positive or cmpha\i:-. fixed. not unlil-.weering currents that tran.Public Culture pre~elll :-. "moderni.e way:-. Anxiou-.ic often focu:-. lel>~ diluted.tre">'>i ng the reappropriation uf Western pop.ing the question-. of \\hat has been brought and what ha-. Witnc~sing and chronicling these :-.s the costs to ··tradition .e:-. ce lebratory narra tives counter the:-e anxieties h) <.ation. form!> of local. try. A<.Qp. "Sure.weep of thing">.u-.ic.e on ::wthenticity. emphasiLing f u:-ion form-. celebrat ory narrati ves l>tn::-. naJTative~ !-ome- time"> ">tart from the o..ignation ~:lobctl i nd u ~ t rie~. bl. regional. or com- rnodi lied.torie~ has prmlucctl a new discour-. edging towa rd romantic equation:-.ic now get somewhat larger returns in financia l and cultural capital to match their greater visibi lity.ical divcr'>ity. alway~ productive of a lc:-. Thi!> su:-.formcd and rerigured intercullural hi~tories. In re~ponse... and celebra tory about the world-anti the mu~ic-of world mu-. 1mes that " ·ill.ic\ place in college cour:-.!entaken. imcntion. bl.atilln:-. lt que!>tion~ whether world music does more to incite or cra\e mu:-. the world'l> developing and no tradition will stay the same:· writes philosopher.. o f th e woriLI of mu-.l>er arti'>try. Cclcbr.titution:-.e and naturali.:a ti vity..ccnario-. a more commercial..oda l di~tinction arc more and more tensely poi:-cd. nr c:-. wit h these pn::deccs<. and M.ic':-. living the contradiction" encountered through embracing and re~>ii>ting dominant hcgemonic trends in the g lobal popular music indu-.. on the production of hybrid mu ~ic:-. ''divcr\e musical :-train~ need not fade away into one global monotone.! overcome by cn.taJll'e.picion fuel!> a kintl or policing of the lm.. equally anxiou:-. addres<. a~l-.

for reassertion. A t the same ti me. ( 1995.. narrati ves.. On the an xiou. on understanding the hegcmonic location th ey occupy within global ia uion pructices and instiltltions. In other words. Anxiou\ narrati ves then want to dic. Celebratory narrative!> then imagine a natural tenacity of the past rcr-. 8 8)...Cl I. A I the same time anxious narratives want to claim th e potemial and hope that every loss opens up for resistance. let alone with tho. anxious narra ti ves also chronicle indigeni zation as a respon ~e to globaliLation. for response.. one that Sca n Barlow and Banning Eyre characteri Le in th eir celebratory book AfmPop! as an "endlessly crea tive conversation" between " local roots and intern ational pop culture.. di-. it i !> the production and di ssemination of world music in cosmopolitan and metropolitan ce nters that clearly underscores the character of the exotic labor it impom and sell ·...it will include a joyful and chaotic mi x of many !>Ounds. anxiou'> narrati ves also insist on world music\ abilities to reassert place and locale agai nst globalizati on. The broad picture then. li J.. mediastapes" of global popular culture (Appadurai 1996) and the ..p/aced.ometimes quite tl i<>tinct. want to calculate the kind\ of lo~s and diminution of musical heterogeneity that proceed from its practices. the very term glohal comes tu be synonymous wi th di:. instead.ical and cultura l conversation' validated under the si gn of World Music too easi ly ma~k the expl oitati ve labour rc lation:-. noise'' or ''channelizcd violence·• of mus ic'~> industrial economy (A ttali 1985). 130) phrasing: ·The global musical pastiche i-. Indeed. in "ome anxiouc.ounding in pos~ibi lities for an ampl ified present. vii). e global itation discour~e more generall y.cover a CO~> I of globalizati on. e or the Third World with only thei r photogenic po verty to !-. mmati ve~> see lillle possibil ity ror resisting commodifications or ethnicity and rocu-.hip of the very powerful transnational corporations with the 'Third World' mm. Whil e c. Ashwani Shanna ( 1996. i~ equally routed through th e public <iphcre vi a trope!> of anxiety and celebration. In particular. an exemplary collection of anx iou~ eio.. ( 1998. 22) locates it thi s way in Dis-Oriellling Rhyr!tms: T!te Po/irics of 1/te Ne11· Asion Dance Mu sic.says: "instances of ·mu. Likewise.. for recla mation.placement metaphorites globalinttion as a simultanei ty of alienation and dispersal. Anxiou!'. these narra ti ve posi ti ons on anxi ety and celebration :. finanscapcs·· and . side we read narra ti ves that ino. a response that i ~ resistant either to trends in cultural imperiali sm or to incrcascd cultural homogeneity.ist on the complicity of world music in commodifying ethnicity.ent wi th the patina of use value in some other time and place. is that today\ world music. seamlcssly 153 Lullaby for World Music ...icians. In Veil Erlmann's ( 1993. more an attempt at coating the sounds of the full y commodified pre-. a music that plays on w hile no one knows how it"s going to end . locuting it in the ..ecm increasingly more intert wined.

and academics.its antithesis ... and Mu:-. Mmic:-... !. Rorog\\ ela.ic... to a dance bl... While this recording is well known to c thn o mu sico l ogis t ~ or tht: Pacific bland . ye t it. try players.t'>. recordist!>.the anxiou<> and celebratory both embrace mu ~ica l plurality a:. Titled . The particular t:tt'>e I review is one that begin' with the unaha'>hcd reproduction of primiti vism in world mu.ic.omething to do with the reproduction of primitivi'>l repre:-entation and des ire..hc<> for mu ....tcard (fig. All of this changed in 1992 when ...ical Source!> collection re lea. di!->lrihuted by AuviJi:-. took place when Zcmp·s recording or Arunal.Sweet Lullaby. indu-. a discourse to wo rl d music as a contact t.tri bution.. in Will I Kerr\ recent po<. a di v i ~ i on of Sony Mu:-ic.ic circu lation is increasingly dominated hy predictable mu-.in under'> tanding mu'> ical power and difference. and minimal ~a l es.-...nme of the ~. journali::. of the World. a CD produced by Dan Lacbman for Ccline Mu:-ic and ma rl.. The question I" 11 pose co n ce rn ~ how the notion of being ··into world music ... Sweet Lullaby I :-..cd an LP titled Solomon l.ical C\)ll11110ditie:-.iciam.its promi se. or tran•mational now-invohe intersubject ive da. pcr'\i\tcncc continues to cxpO'>C sig niticant i:-sue:. it received liulc airplay." it i~ an unaccompanied vocal !-.:xperi­ ential eiTccts ofworldmu.hirt now from wo rld music a. a CD in 1990.. In 1973 the U ESC'O Mu-.Ung by a woma n named Afunal.. the dive r<. Where anx i ou~ and celehrmory narrati ve'> typicall y merge i~ in the space o r a g uarded optimism for mu sical future!>.ha~ come to be co n ~ i s t e ntl y su!-.. and traffic. in the reorganized UNESCO 'erie:-.wa was digitally sampled by Eric Moquet and Michcl Sanchc. Thi' is a theme that has already produced con. a tensely modern category. Rorogwcla.. circuits.one or and representation\. Thi-. The ::.....ong appea red under the title . rcrelea:-eJ a-....!a t activitic~ t54 .l: 1-'t. Among the :-election'> on the LP and CD is a Baegu lullahy from orthern Malaita.. in a n.llalld.:mar!. Rorogwcla·· began a ca reer as a popular hit ~un g in the '~orld mu:. Rccogni 7ing how.:he Seientili4ue.ic marketplace.pended in the !->pecter or o ne world mu:-ic . ~l ha .ity in a world where world mu.Public Culture indexing the ~ tatu ~ o r world music a. recorded in 1969 and 1970 hy llugu Zemp of the Ethnomu~ico lugy Department of the Mu:-l!c de rf-lomme and Centre National de la Rechcn. limited di:.the now familiar motional and tra n ~ pon metaphor<.ably short time. I particul arly wa nt to explo re .ite/eka mu/ Buegu Mu sicjimn /vlolaito. and includes Afunakwa\ voice singing .... a . The LP wa:-.ity of wo rltl music... iderab lc critica l commentary.a dialectical necc .ing how it~ routes. for /)eep Forest..wa. icians..cted by 550 Mu:-idEpic..

voice i'> solo: on th e second chorus ~ he is backed by digital YOice multiplica tion and a swdio choru<.' •nto \\ orld \lu••<·... We arc the World .provided by a drum machine.hould cherish as a treasure which murrie' world ha rmony.ed today.icologis tl>. Deep Forest refer to the :-..m 155 Lullaby for World Music .cr accompaniments and imerludes of digital samples from Cem ral Aflican forest watcr!> pla ~ hing game'> and 'ocal yodels... a harmony often comprorni.w has recei ved the suppon of U ESCO and of t\\O mu.pect of this tradi tion which humanity !. becoming. The recordin g abo inc lud e~ ~ynthesi1. In the liner notes to Boheme. wa·:-.ary to her imagined presence.ampling of " native melodies'' a~ the u:-.. vocal effect: on the third chorus Afunakwa·s voice di~appe ar~ i nto the l ingui-... Afunal-. on their fir~t recording.i.'" or their relution to these . On the first choru:-. Hugo Zempe Isic I and Shima lsic l A ron JsicJ.. a world where her voice il> no longer neces.. Through thi~ progres~i on one hearl! ho'' '' hat was once distinctl y Afun akwa·~ world is now up for a new ' haring.tence of prim Ill\ . creating a de n ~e . an oppor1unity to cross and blend. their liner notes say: . That\ why the mu. ultimately. their 1995 Grammy award. nati ve melodies.Deef' Fores/ is the rc-. ~amon ~o~nd \\t'nd' "t'"-" n-•11.tinction of an ensemble singing her lullaby.ical creation of Deep Fore.. who collected the original docurnenh .winning CD. ~ @ figu re 2 The underlying per.e or ··raw material.tic indi•...

They arc your past.nt The \econd reference here i s to Simha Aro m.·(~ tracks. The rccordmg has a11racted a huge audience worldwide. peoples i~ announced gi~ t ..'' This particular mi x or respectful reverence and primitivist ca ricature cr eate ~ thl! eclchratory ambience of Deep Forest . again including "Sweet Lullaby:· were abo licensed as background music for TV commercial'> hy.cmp ( 1996.49) 156 . Sony.t and it:-. Indeed.che. including -·sweet Lullaby:· appeared in video form : several. one of four on the theme of cthnomusicology and the politics or glohal ~ound recordi ng (Zcmp 1996.ona nt voice that announces (in English): . and it struck a financially responsive chord. Several :-. and the theme o f the African m in forc:-. Por. and The Bod) Shop (fig.'>. 4-+.. c lhnomu ~ico logy\ main international journal: hi~ pic<:c wa:-. } )_ In 1996 llug. Maybe they arc your future.. among other'>.Somewhere deep in th e jungle arc li ving some liulc men and woml!n.ic and packaging. )OUr luiUrc" 1>f prinuti'c and ' Pintualm<lllcrru.o Zemp wro te an article in the Yea rlmok for Traditional Mu~ic....ong-. ~ho'>l! rl!co rdin g~ qrongly in the CD's mu<. Fcld 1996: Mill~ 1996: Sccgcr 1996). cutrogcna. also titled " Deep Fnrc~t:' begins w ith a very deep and re!-. Coca-Cola. In fact much o f the music on Dee11 Fo rest invol ve!-> pygmy refere n ce~. In thi ~ anicle /.Public Culture Figure 3 Till· ·• mayhc . the introductory <. selling approximately four million copies and appearing in <.ong. another C 1RS ethn o mu ~icolo­ or Cemral A frica n pygmy mu!>ic are sampled on many or /Jeefl Fo re.cvcral editions and remi xe.

the publ isher of the cthnomusicological record series Zemp direct:-.. on the telephone to him.Jists agreed. a well known African co mpo~er and musician (who wrote also a book on traditional African music).protest contains the following key narrative points: Noriko Aikawa. and out of respec t to him. 4 and S). Hi1. of the CD\ mounting marketpl ace succe!. I thought.erving and protecting tropical rai n forests in the world.ked for hi!> con'-Clll to u.~ and two lcuers from overseas colleague' inquiring about his adveni~ed compl icity in Deep Forest.aid O. from the division in charge of their recording series. without license. after making sure that I 157 lullaby for World Music . did Zcmp actuall y receive and li~ te n to a copy of the C D. of UNESC0'1. and i f the source musicians and recordings were properl y credited. UNESCO's Chief of Cultural Heritage. Franci ~ Bebey confirmed that he had been enlisted by the producer ut Celinc Music to persuade Zcmp to rewnsider. K. Zernp was told that Deep Forest wished to sample several U ESCO recordi ngs for a projcct in honor of Earth Day: UNESCO was will ing to grant license for the samples as long as Zemp and th e other recon. put it this way: ·'Mr. Zemp.indeed. I reconsidered my point of view. in opposition he encouraged A ikuwa and UNESCO to suppon project:. L e Chant du M ondc pursued the case.J . Bebey's ~u bscqu entlcncr to Cel ine Music. While he heard no :-. quoted by Zcmp ( 1996. at the Musce de l ' llomme. plu s press repon o. After Oeep Forest wa!-1 released.co nt racLUal relationship to the recording. Zemp listened to a Deep Forest extract over the phone and re fused to give his perm ission." lie had never been a::. urging him to reconsider his refusal.amples taken from his Wc<. tcd meetings with both Francis Bebey and Noriko A ikawa. L e Chant du Monde. Then. eventually wi nni ng an outof-court financial selllcmcnt from Celine Mu~ic.. After all . sampled material from an African recording in th e mu ~cum series. 45) writes: ··since Bcbey. Zemp rcque-. gave his personal support to the matter. Only after thi ~ episode. contacted Zemp in 1992 to seek his permission to license to Deep Forest samples from a UNESCO recording he had made in West Africa.e any materi al from his Solomon blands recording ( tigs. he sharply challenged the legal and moral circumstancc5. moved by hearing "Sweet L ullaby'' as background music for a !>hampoo commerci al on French TV. it wa~ for a justifiable aim: pre-. presumed "!>uppon·· for Deep f (Jre.urpriscd by the -.spoke out abou t hi). Sometime later Francis Bebey called Zcmp. 47). informed him that Deep Fores t had.ampling of Afunakwa\ "Rorogwela" for ''Sweet Lullaby." Zemp's next encounter with the recording was unrelated.that more direc tly benefit ind igcn o u ~ nwsics and musicians. he wa~ quite -. Of this epi sode Zcmp ( 1996. t African UNESCO recording.w.

allows you to fini ~ h your project for The Day o f the Earth successfully.. in February 1992.. conclutling: "somebody (Deep 158 . Zcmp wrote a p o~ t ­ ~t:r ipt to his Yearbook. But he indicated that Auvidio. inclutling the ones Zemp recorded in West Africa and the Solomon blantl~.ing his recordings in the context of a modern musica l crea tion a~ yo urs..s. Late whether ri ght ~ should he given freely or to -. n...uhsequl!nt letter from Auvitlis to Aikawa..ampled.49) wrote to Deep Forest in July 1996. there was a letter from Ce line Mu sic to Auvidis ao. Zemp ( 1996.king for confirmation that Zemp had reconsidered. Based on this lener and their meeting Zemp decided that Celine Music had misled Behey to helieve that the recording was a limited relea"e for a noncommercial purpose. he consented to let you use forty '>econds of music taken rrom his disc . insisting that their project had the full aULhori.:qucsted ttuthorizations for sa mpling from UNESCO tli~c .. a\king UNESCO to confirm the authoriza ti on and to ). and that Auvidis never an~wercd the contingent letter from Celine Music. antl Auvicli~\ claim that no such authorization was signed. But in the meantime Zemp had already rcccivetl a contrary leucr. behall') indicating that Zcmp had denied permission for his Wes t African recording to be . None of this addressetl why UNESCO contacted Zcmp only about hi s Wes t A i'rican recording and not the Solomon Islands one. com parable to other UNESCO recording~. Zemp reviewed three items in the UNESCO correspondence tile. Second.igned no agreement and informed Cel ine Music's lawyer of the impus~c in M arch 1992 (Bricard 1996)..e. This wou ld indicate that Ccline Music and Deep Forest acted ~olcly on the ba~is of Franci~ Bebey's letter.c o f •·Rorogwela. In his meeting with Noriko Aikawa. was remarkabl y cou rteo u~ and under~ta ntling.. In other wo rtls. BricarcL a~se rting that no such pcnni~sion had ever been authorized. hearing from UNESCO of Zemp\ ini tial refu saL o.pecify the requiretl payment. First was A ikawa's letter to A uvidis (the company that holds licensing rights on UNESCO '-.for Tmditiona/ Music article. Finally. I hope that thi o.. th ere was a <. What Zemp then discovcrctl was that Aikawa never answered the letter from Auvidis..Public Culture really believed in the value of u.. denouncing their usurpation or hi~ name anu reques ting compen~ation to the Baegu com munity for the u:-." They answered two months later.. -1-8 . from Auvitlis's director. At the end of our telephone conver'iation. treating it as a legally binding document. Bricard's letter also co nfirms that Celinc Music's lawyer had.ation of Auvidis (Sanchez and Mouquet 1996). Loui.. Zemp discllv- or ered that UNESCO authorized no sa mpling his recordings to Auvidis or I ll Cdine Music. Yours . Facetl with reconciling Deep Forest's claim that their project had legal liccn!.

spon!.. sources. could arford th e ri l>k of pos!>ible legal action from either the combination of Deep Fores t. the International Council ror Traditional Music (hot h. o f academic purish (for exa mple.!>Cd on que!>tion~ o f sampling ethics they have made them).ent themselves as guardians of respect: when pre)..<Jmulr Figuros 4 and S Rorog" c la\ cthnomu. In the three year:-.. Ce line Mu~ ic.o Fore~ I or Auvidi~) is lying:· Thi'i statement wa<.elve" out as would-be victi m). and Sony. Garbarek didn't encounter ·· Rorogwcla. who informed Zemp that neither the journal nor it ~ parent academic organization. at the si te of many of the CD '. though Zcmp\ UNESCO recording but ra ther through Deep Fore.. Zcrn p"s further requests for darilica tion from all partie). lt \\a!.. For their part. cut by the j ournal's editor.lulla by for World Music V Rtwltktunul Bmgu \ hLnr i1almto Solmnon /.icological . never printed.t ha'> .tic and instrumcntnl adaptation of"Rorogwela"' was recorded by Jan Garharek. Pygmy (sic) Lullaby Aside from Zemp\ chill ing articl e. "incc there ha" heen no other re\olution. a Norwegian saxophoni:>t.. sumed that the . So on Visible World hi ~ adaptation i~ titled 159 . Since Deep Forest gave no '>Ource for ··sweet Lul laby:· Garbarek a. have gone largely unan~wcred.our. or from U ESCO and Auvidi~. ucces).11 . Deep Fore). An acoul. Goldman 1995. ironically. on his ECM CD tit led Visible World. Prior 1996). ong originated in Cent ral A frica.ored by UNESCO). '>Omethin g else important happened to Afunakwa's lullahy in 1996..full y used the music pr es~ to pre).

ethno-tcchno ' ound clod.. wa\ " Rorogwcl a'' to the modal \ tyle Protestant hymnody and ~wcct l y deli ver~ thl: melody on soprano '-<t:>. or Thi'> rrayer-lik. bore an interesting relation<. and uvant-garde appropriations and extension' of mu. from Central Africa's rainfore'-t people-.. and drum machine-." the hi~t or) of jaa.wphonic mimesi' that wa!:> becoming popular in the softer.ampler<. rock.fo rmed into an acou~ t ic and .ccond-gcnera tion schi../..mooth j:. it -.(') to global fore'>t grome (the modernl'. With \lU rk reverb... (Fcld 1996).hip to trends in the genre..H::ou. and ~ u ggcs ti o n or plagal cadence.. of rcfa-..t generation Of ~a mpJed cJct:tfOilil: ve r~ i on:-. harmoni/eS AfunaJ. your future").:apc ·'Pygmy Luii<Jhy:· and the lin er not~~ cred it th e compo-..ic globalintion \erninar in orway in June J9(}H to Ji -.lllll"il:\ \VLI'> becoming oJd 11CW\.ic-.vihle World th i. anti gentler (a l ~o often ethnica lly whiter) mid-to late-1990~ world mu ~ ic ~cc n e.l/ /' mdio format '> ty le a"ociated wi th Kenny G (fig. kinller..ion' 160 . the mark.icological aura (the primitive "your pa.. Where glohul pop\ lin-.trck.eemed an example of the kind of . take " Ro rog\vela" from ethnomu .ition as "a traditional Afncan melody.cu'" my research on "p)gmy por.. .ric . the u~e or ~ynthC'-i/Cr~ ..t "111<1) be .ophone i n the romantic .piri tua l ~uun J­ ~ca pc. Garbarek. i ~ tran.etplacc was now grcciing many example-... But on \li. new age arpeggio'>. 6).. llf indigenOll'..hionell acou~t ic ver-.. Garh..111d 'p1rirual 'uuud. While not Ai'rica-dcrived..\ " Pygmy Lullaby'' nonethclcs-. arranged hy Jan Garbarck :· On /Jeep F(Jre:.Public Culture Figure 6 f'thno-tcdmn "'und doe~ "' .c " Pygmy Lullaby" was on Ill) mind when I went to a mL.

vocally comm unal to signifying that which belongs to no one in particular. it didn't address the underlying legal and financial relation <:hip. a trend MTV initiated for rock in 19H9. however.!. ~ he volunteered to contact him about th e '"Pygmy Lullaby"' ~tory.\ includes a bookkl documenting the acclaimed rel ationship between Garbarek and ECM. Con1>equcntly. oral tradition is a concept that might more easily protect those who wish to cheapl y acquire indigcnou ~ cu ltural property.cparatin g and di stancing th e creati ve work of mu .\ . When th at happens. Legally. He told her that he cou ld not do anything about the printed allribution on Visible World.tencc of local canon-.ic saga would have ended there. the term ora/tradition can easi ly be manipulatec.. Academically that mean'> th at her :-ong typically cin. again indicating how Ga rbarek\ compo161 lullaby for World Music .torical acc ident that makes this possible is that her . Indeed.hip and the existence of local consequence:. that he and ECM have to the original compo~cr and performer. comparing himself to Edvard Grieg. Rite. The hi. :-. titled Rite.l. Having presented programs or Garbarek·s music. Over th e twenty-eight year period from 1970-98 Garbarck was fea tured as a leader on twemy-three ECM recording'> and as a participalll on another twemy-'>even. and rather le!>s to protect indigenous cultural property or it ~ originators.or the !>a me or sim ilar material..:u latcs in an aural and oral economy. Rorogwcla·· was created wi thin and circulates through what is called oral tradition. hut that hc wou ld correct the title if he performed the song in concert.. The phrase OITllnMed by (as in '"a rran ged hy Jan Garbarck"") further naturalize~ thb power relati on~h ip . Sweet Lullaby"" as hi. or rather lack of it . or course.. l?ite. The local Norwegian tlimcn!>ion of thi s minor world mu:-.tered su rpri~e and some dismay abou t his miscredit.. Garharck claimed folk music to be an important '>Ourcc of inspiration for him and not a :-.1: Mills 1996: Seeger 1992: Z i ff and Rao 1998). When she did Garbarck acknowledged Deep Forest's . the notion or oral tradition can ma~k both the exi -.. :-cc Frith 199. icians and recording compa nies from the ·'traditions·· of their muses (on the moral and lega l complexi ti es or these mauer~. of owncr. By law.\ both celebra tes and ex tends thi s hi!>tory. source and regic.. But... in th e hands of a Western mu~ic lawyer. from signifying that which i:-. save for the fact that it played out just as ECM was about to release a major Garbarek double CD project.. following on the tremendous commercial 'iUCCe\!> of " unplugged"' recordings.for taking wi thou t asking. While Garbarek's response indicated concern. Garbarck and ECM owe nothing to the Bacgu communi ty and to Afunakwa. where auention to source origins might maner morl. without an underlying wrillen or notaled form.cholarly preoccupation. One of the seminar participants wa~ Marit Lie of Norway·~ NRK radio.

Garharek had wriuen to the NRK accu..hcd European an orchc-... where it <:an be U!-. 162 .We-.cUS'> the . tcrn European mu ... NR K\ Per Kristian ot .~t Deep Forest and Garbarck . tCd that he al-.~gain new~ in the Norwegian music world.. that Zemp. ~ings o r acou\tic and electronic.tcd that ~omeonc might be asking a few atypicalque:-. We!-.\..ioncd h) these event. Pygmy Lullaby.ing Ol~cn.e interview..hed his reputation. cl<t'>~ical. b dic. She "aid she would get me an audio copy of the r<ldio program and gcnerou!. In the openi ng to the progmm Per Kristian Ol.cn then says that Garbarel-. Thc!'. Indeed.ly offered to tran::. aml roll-. hments we re. a nu i\ tran~lated. He the n pl ays some or G<1rburck's . o r maybe just be<:au~e.. was interviewed by Kulturn yll and that he repudiated thc~c notion:-.H. would you accept to corrc<:t thi s on the next reic. creating a new kind of imperi alism.ed for hi ~ use of indigenous mu ~ i c on Visih/e World.Public Culture -. oncl! :. Garbarek\ mu . cn then called me lO Ji. ex tremely upset by Per Kristian Olsen·s program...cn indicates that Garha rek has been critici.. link and blur the genres u-. art and popular. one or ECM's bcc.." M) voice follow\. ic and accompti . improv i ~ed aml wriuen. one or Marit Lie·~ NRK Ctllleagues seemed particularly in terc:-. 01-. Garbarck·s ECM recordings feature a veritable who's who of global cnntemporary jan.h).tion' about Garharel-. They involve numerou" cro. The piece c lo"e' with Zl!mp\ voice (in Engli-. So ju~t when...ed for promotion and preserva ti on of cultural heritage?" A few wceh later Marit Lie called rne to say that Jan Garharc k wa-. But. indigcnou!'. and me o r lie~ that tarni. ·. one that musicians and record co mp<ln i e~ mu~t engage rather than avoid..1 .tcrn European a nu non. who mude the recording in Samoa (sic)...l!d with di. ical \tylcs.h .identifying the ~o n g's source a~ the Samoa (not Solomon) blands. 11)9lJ).. wi th the mcdieval-mll'. IO say that We!'> tern COp) right law is not comprehensive enough to cq uiwbly include indi genou'> culture!>. string a nu bra\\ groups.: "So l would a:-. and VOCa)i-.. Garharek called an hour laLer to withdraw his inten iew. and avant-pop worl<k lie has a l~o worl-. anu I \Ugge!'.ually called jau..ing further comment... addrcs~ing Garharel-.. you. 01-. Oben says th:.tra .latc it. \\ere edited inw :.repertory.cn then inuicate-.illu.. he say. carneu million~·· from the 'ong but that the rccordi!'> t and performer didn't gel ··a penny. with the release o r Rite.).for e\ampJc.tingui-.)mrt hroadca\l on NRK \ 15 September edition of Kulturnytt (Culture New...ic \pl!cia(ist llill iard Ensembk.. collaborating on Ofliciu111. Pygmy Lullaby.... refu-. ue? Would you also accept to scnu part of thl! royalties ynu get from thi~ record to the Solomon Islands.cll ing recordi ng' (Griftith. vocal and ins trumental. Zern p.ition' und performance!-.. \lOry.1.o contact Hugo Zemp.'· mi -.

m may be hurtful. for Tradi1ional Music. on 12 October. point of view the 50 percent or withheld roya ltie~ (whether o r nmthcy went to the ~ong\ original source) constituted comren<.~ surprbed to receive a gift of Riles. He !... In the c a ~e of "Pygmy Lullaby . From hi. in~crihcd " I'm glad you didn't !>ay what RK quoted !" Mean while.But before these arrived I rece i v~ d a !. Garbarek then asked the Norwegian Pres\ Council.:curacy.. I ex rlained that my concern was not to auack him pen. tressed. cn clo~ in g co pi c~ of the articles Zemp and I had written fo r the 1996 Yearhon/. He wa~> ted no time asking if I had branded him a thie f to th e NRK. TO 0 j udges. After this calli <. The report stated that culture jo urnali~m in orway was once typica lly less critical in s tyle and that Kulturnytt\ current approach was welcome.onall y but to rai '>e the i::. fro m Jan Garbarek.ic .urpri !>e phone call. He '>aid he was relieved to hear that my concern ' were ~tru c tura l a nd not ~pecilic to him. TONO considered 50 percent of the song to be Garbarek\ o rigi nal wo rk . e. This comment was not a reference to Per Kris tian Olscn·s confusion of Sa moa with the Solomon blands: rather it was a reference to the inaccurate !.o stated ~orne sympathy for Garbarek'~> predicament . The muller didn't end there. I wa... Nonetheless he ~ai d he wan ted RK 10 issue an apo logy becau ~e Per Kris tian Olscn·s statemenh were mi sleading..aid that he did not hear me 1. He said that the prog ram !>ingled him out.ent Garbarek a letter reviewi ng my concerns.. what portion of a recorded ~ong i ~ a uniquely new arrangement and performance and what portion is the source material. he insis ted that his case against Kulturnytt be reviewed by the highest broadcasti ng review board. reminding the RK that the effect of criticic.l>Ue of ownership inequitiel> in intellectual and cu ltural properLy. I continued to hear from o rway that Ga rbarek felt accu ~ed by NRK of not paying royalties. the highest journalism body in the country. On thi ~ point Garbard.ely a!> required. implied in the program\ introduct ion..ation for the use or oral tradition material. :.. re!>pon. The revie\\ that followed uphe ld Kulturnytr s integrity. from Third World mu:.. documenting his grievances in a 17 ovcmber letter of over 163 Lullaby for World Music . Arguing that he had handled all of his TONO obligatio ns prcci:-. Unsatisfi ed by NRK\. split the reven ues from ~o n g~ auributed to oraltratlitio n between the pcrl'ormer and a rund to promote ··rolk mu.tatcment that Garbarek was "earning million:. to review the case. even if the content is technicall y correct.. although it could he accomp li ~ hed with more a~.. that he had indeed paitl for "Pyg my Lullaby"' because in orway.ay thi ~ hut that it wa:. giving li ~ ten er' the impre~si on that he hadn't paid for songs he recorded. TONO.. Crossing with thi ~ in the mail. The decision aJ. repeatedl y.ics . the national collecting age ncy. on a rercentagc ba~i.

insi sting that he adequately paid through TONO for the use of any unoriginal material. that or being th e Global Samaritan. the ont. at their wo rd ).. She felt that owing to . it may he l e~~ significa nt that Garbnrek prevailed with the Norwegian Pres~ Council than that the res ulting publicity movt. thrust more substantially imo the Norwegian public arena than ever before. Garbarek insisted that NRK"s program insi nuated that he generally gave wro ng in formati on or ignored the ownerindigcnou' property.500 words. i ~ bciltg threatened. A s the events unl"olded around Garbarek·s protes ts. making him into .eei ng how the Norwegian media wer e staging a di~ Lin ct nationali st drama. if and when it was proven to him that he wao.:. t among Garbarek's grieva nces wa:-. from an engaged po ~i ti on in Norwegian mu~ic journalism. there would never have hccn any discussion around ir· ( Li e 1998). thi s Norwegian phase play~ out in a distincti vely national mediated space. At the sa me time. indicating. the is~ ue of copy ri ght and owner~hip incq uitie~ for indigcll(HIS musics wm. He read it us ··a morality play where the ct.. th e i rony or what tran spired pleased Marit Lio.lan Garbarck·s high protile. that they ~ id ed w ith Garbarek and agai nst the vindica ti on or '"Culture News·· by the prior hroadca<. Th en. of the . He said that he was open to correctin g th e song title. Or th e many twist'> and turn:-. he nrgued that he could hardly be held accountabl e for a prior error that wa~ made hy Deep Forest.Public Culture 2. writi ng. Th e No rwegian Prcs-: Counci l was convinced hy thi ~ appea l. even though they more ty pi cally deal with social and political co mplaints involving censorship and free :-. anthropologist Odd A re Berkaak responded to their shape by 1:. focu~cd around radi o jo urn a li ~ m and the stake~ in critica l discourse. On next wee k ·~ epi sode o f JanWatch: will he be throw n into the dungeon forever or will he be rc<.: who -.:ntral issue in the Royal Norwegian cthOi. ·'Jf he wa ~ a nobody. torecl to th e throne?" ( Berkaak 1998) . But mos t criticull y. Fir:-.ex pe rt~ .pecch.:d UNESCO"s Norway branch to seck n mee ting with Noriko A ikawa...Ling board review (Lie 1999). In thi ~ way he suicl that N RK had manipulated the ship feelings its listeners. in fact in error (thereby refu sing to take N RK and its . Rorogwela. In this contex t he cited our phone co nv e r~a ti o n as evidence that Per Kristian Olsen had overstated my concerns. Jan Garbarek i~ the nati onal moral icon who is now falling from grace like the tragic hcroe~ of the melodrama. that NRK personalized the story. Ultimately. va ri ati ons.hntthe Bambi.. The Norwegian Press Council agreed tO review the case. or or Garbarek built a lengthy and emotional case that he was the victim of zca l o u ~ j ournalism founded on misinformati on. in February 1999."" In '> hort. 164 .

organizations. and media ca n now fi nd their identities embroiled in complex multilocal <. which can in part be accompli~hed by juxtaposing today's world music wi th a momen t in its prehistory. one hundred years ago. al though 165 .. Consider then John Comfon Fill more.e of the nineteenth century. From the initial s tandpoint of the 1-. Critically. performers. Thu-. it is the detachability of their underlying acoustic material that takes precedence over hearing '·Rorogwela. but couldn't realize. speciHcally the fraught politics of the copy. Accordingly. a pianist and pioneer field rccord i ~ t of ati vc Nort h America active at that time. Michacl Taussig writes: "Once the mimetic ha. The two powers are inseparable'· ( 1993. These representational politics call out for more his torical contextualitation. yet that same power is a power to falsify.lay. But even this introductory accounting begins to make clear how companies. when it comes to mimetic power. 42-43). rccordi~ts. In Mimesi. difference to dominance. the name "Rorogwela:· or the song's ac tual geographic location." "Sweet Lullaby. This work initi all y suckered the most prominent ethnomu!>icologist (France Dcnsmore) and ant hropologist (Fran7 Boas) or the <. not a person but a ~o und . from the ~ ub~eq u c nt standpoint of the arra nger tha t ~ound is a melody and not a distinct performance. These hi stolies can be reviewed as signs of anx ious and celebratory contradictions in world music and as signs of globaliLation's uneven naturali tation.. and pol itical issues they ra i ~e.ong histories. there is born the power to represent the wo rld.lulla by for World Mus ic Whose Master('s) Voice? Much more could be detailed abou t these versions of ··Rorogwcla:· and the ~onic. creati vi ty to caricature. mask and pose. as revealed by chains of schizophonic mimesi'>. and presented them as revelation:. at the clol. First. the world music story has something to say about power under globalization. he produced transcriptions of early wax cylinder fie ld record ing in the form of harmoni zed piano arrangement . a terrifically ambiguous power is established. aesthetic. In 1895 and 1899 he wrote articles in the Journal of Ame rican Folklore a nu A111erican Anthropologist to argue that natural and uni versal acoustic la ws underlie the latent harmonic logic of Native American vocal melodic:. Afu nakwa i1-. Here those two in eparable power~ are productive of the anxiety and celebration that links aura to authenticity. the musiciu ns who made "Sweet Lullaby" a nd "Pygmy Lullaby'' didn't need to know the name Afunakwa. of what American Ind ia ns really meant to ~i n g.\ und Alreriry. Much too could be added about why nobody knows whether ''Sweet Lul laby" or '·Pygmy Lullaby'' have had a hearing or response from Afunakwa or the Baegu community.· and ''Pygmy Lullaby'' as the same song. sprung into being.ampler.

And your action on behalf of local . Lil-c varictie-. of "world mu ~ ic. like pro fessio nal academic -. liberato ry and in:-.:d pop star\.er-. The le-. they !>earch fo r the nat ural rhythm -.. Th e~e "train<.m. hn omu~ico log i !-. Jan Garbarek hea r'> ye t more: arra nging the inner harmonic:-. That thc'>e blend" and mi xing'> arc celebrated a:. an auditory denowering tha t penetrate" the harmony of difference.idc diiTerenee. in virtual collabo ratio n'> with the indigene\. The de<. till the wo rld mu ~ic location where celebration ru le. mo:-. this one provoke:-. about the power and privilege tll contact and !-now.Public Culture both later repudiatcu Fillmorc\ methou'.. these power and represelllat ion theme:. an: deeply about exploration. Rubin IY84: ClilTo rd 1988. fo r gain ing emry in to their world of rcp re~e nta t i o n ? (on deve lopmen t and humiliati on. they amplify the latent beat they hear in:-.1. 189 .: ­ no us compose r-performer-. titlllional presti ge mean lillle when you arc up against internati onal entertainment law..covery.214: To rgovnicl.: then. that they unque:. or even UN ESCO. he i. t S.. ( for exam ple. or prim i ti v i ~ m well chronicled in other domain-. academic recogniti on. highly protect.. a voyage of di-.. triali ted neocolo niali' m ' urely mark'> th ~. 1890) than a scholarl y inquiry into acou:.ay and u:-. Deep Fores t take to their sampler). a sonic ex perience of contact. And like other ~itcs of di ~ cnvery. and they arc 166 . and in:-.piring.cem vas tly overwrittcn by the plea'> ure:-.: end of all c thn omu~ i wl ogica l innocence. world mul-ic create!-.orult raditio n" o r .. not le-. the :-.1990: Bar"an an d Bu-. Butt he"e occasio nal pains or ethnomusicology -.h 1995).ocieties and their journa l\.tening to old reco rdin g~ . One hundred years later.ti onab ly bring plea"ure and s timulation to ma ny. then. and highl y paid. the price primiti've!-. (for examp k .on for rescarchcr1> i'> that community tru ~t.aur. rccogniting them as reflecti ve more of the ro mantic nationalism o r his compo~ iti o n :-. Li:-. and primiti ve:-. pay for attracting the allention Of modems.arne anxiou. or famous in d ig~. For recordb t' o r cl. sec Sahlins 1<)92). synt h e~ i t. . qu e~ti on : h world mu'> ic a form of artis tic humiliatio n. can be producti ve of a different humiliation: complicity. are havi ng a great time. Here they arc glohali7<llion. Lii.-.e.pair of 'eci ng documentary projects lran~fo rm from icons o r musical di versity to "raw materi al" ror inuu -. or musical panicipation.. the media and ma rketing ''orld... and yo u arc a clino. heritage·· can become more of a s truggle. Indian Famasia Numl1er OnejiJr Full Orches/ra . when your allie'>. to tal-c av.u ggc~ t '> their underl}i ng ~ piritual­ it y.tic univer'>ali:-.. Musician-." like their primiti v i ~ t and romantic n ational i~ t antecedents.. are revealed to be even weaker or mo re complicit in the"' hole affair. retell!> a '> tory of the aflinitie'> of modern. and that is -. and drum machine-.•. mnjor rccoru companic~ . music cDIIccti ng agencic'.tcning to that amplification..

world music means th e joy of playing any kind of mu:. that every voice can be heard. is a stunning ac t or n a rci ~si ~ m for an indust ry so invested in a democratic image of collaborati on. But it masks th e reality that visibility in product choice is directly related to sales volume.ted in reminding everyone that for th em. For example. plenty to dance to.. In the ca&es here. 63).. overwhelming amount of product choice is imagined as . We sec how exotic Eu ro morph s can be marketed through newly layered tropcs. th e abili ty to take bi g risk-. the world music page in a recent HMV (His M as ter\ Voice) catalog circulated in my Sunday newspaper beg in~: . The opportunities arc numerous for crossing what were once ph y~ i cal and aesthetic boundaries. ion of world mu~ i c i-. to be identifi ed a~ voyagers.. no matter how affirming its participatory dimension. no matter how in~ p iring the musical creation. ~haring. For many consumer. and mu ~ida ns are eager to do the exploring. The de~ire to ad verti se a democratic vi<. We sec how what is produced has a place i n a 167 Lullaby for World Music .. thi -. Succes ful musicians don't just get "royalties:· they become .. like green enviroprimitivism. We sec how productiun can proceed from the acqui-. with anyone (li ve or virtual) they choose. everything will be available to everybody. or '> pi ritual new age avant-gardc roma ntici -. G reu t music knows no nati onal boundaries. <1 11d stardom. royalty: ' th e princes and princcSl>CS or an aes thetic and technological kingdom guarded by sal e~ ( Kcil and Fclu 1994. Industry ha-. as th e victims i n a hi ~to ry w here they are guaranteed vastly dil> proponionute gain to their muses? The inability of pop music . How else could one read Deep Fores t and Jan Garbarek presenting themscl ve!-.ic remind. us of our globa l community.) and large (Sony) and maj or independent (ECM ) music owners and di stributor'\ can come into unexpec ted interaction. the ex i ~ Lcnce and ~ ucccss or world music returns to one of globali zation\ basic economic clichcl>: the dri ve for more and more markets and market niches ( Harvcy 1989: Kumar 1995). every style can be purcha~cd . omc kind or sign that democracy prevails. A udiences arc happy: there i s plenty to listen to. central to it'> industrial <>ucccss in th e West.piration and labor. The marketplace is Oooded. The best World Mu-. anywhere in the world.m.ition of u faraway cheap in:-. with fi ve or six times as many titl e~ a<> ten years ago.very inve:. we sec how the worlds or ~m all (U ESCO and Auvid il. and choice. Much or thi s year ·s list has elements or more than one innucnce with a celebrati on or sharing:· Th e advcrti ~cme nl of thi " democratic and liberal vision for world music embodies an idcali ·m about frec-nows. In th e end .. royalty'' to examine their pri vilege ( Lip~ iu 1994. and th eir lack of reflex ivity about how tho~e being cumtcd might sec and hear it all quite di fferently. plenty to bu y. profi tability. in technological and promoti onal support of those crossings..ic. 32 1).

t includes the CD Voices {~f the Rainj(Jrest. et al. Mil:hacl. Cambridge: Harvard Univcr:-. Cal il'. and art..\ on music. Atta li. 1995.ily or Minnesota Press. one that follow-. 1996. Simon. we ~cc how world music participates in ~ hapin g a kind or consu mer. i ~ the place where a '':-. Jacque:-.. 10 Octohcr. Prelti..ligcncity.tic wi th in<. and nurtured at the corporate breast. Modemity tll lw. 1998. The ll'orld music C D li. 1995. 13arkan. Conversa tion with author. Works Cited Appadurai. th e dream desires technologica l and arti:-. Then. . cfulncs-.y. Scan. Blumcnthal. L ondon: The Rou gh Guides/Penguin. 168 .on.1 . 14 Octohcr. Howard . Noise: The political economy ofnwsic. Sta nford. Bcrkaak.lu-. 1988.. enco unter~ or Steven Feld teaches anthropology at New York Uni versity.1ic Ofl(l popular cult11re.wect lullaby"' might resona te most as a liui ng mu ~ ic a l tropc for globaliLation'l> capital project. lai n.oli dation. the market logic or expansion and con:-. World music: The rough guide. Broughton.ity Press. they are once more cradled and lulled on a fi rm mauress of stark in cquit i c~ anti padded mergers. otes on World Beat" appeared in the lir:-1 i ~~ue of Puhlic Culture. M i nneapol is: U ni vcr~i ty or Minne ~o ta Press.tic e lite~ arc jolted by market cycle~ of agitated waJ. His work as a ~ou nd recordi . CliiTord. The predicament of culture: Tu·entieth-century ethiiO!{raflhy. 1996. G lobal corpora tions and ··world music. cd~.J.: Chanwcll Book:-. Chamhcrs.'' In Repemed takes: A 1l10rt histo1y of reconling and its effect. 1988. London: Maemi llan . N.tri al mu~ ic 1onc of commodity imc n~ilica tio n . in thi~ ca11e ani. A1jun.. Minneapo li ~: Univer!. Odd A rc. Drifting ofT. Barlow. and Banning Eyre. Leucr to Hugo Zemp. ll i-. ew York: Vcr. New York: Billboard Books.~e: Clllt11ml dimensions f~{ glolwli-:_ation. Thi :-. made over in popular Western styles. TG 3.wories of the f uture: 111e primitil·ist fl roject and the cult11re f~{ modemism . and Ronald Bu~h. 1985.. literature. Bricard.1tener's g11ide.. ElaLar. Urba n rhythms: Pop 11111. AfmpOfJ! An illustroted g11ide to cm/tempnrtny Aji-icw1 1111tsic. Edio. blanketed in prommion. Leadbelly L cgm.: Stanford University Press. Louis. 1985. Jamcs. 1995.Public Culture larger in<. A~ a rnu:-ician he ha~ played with Bonc tied. In all.o. 1994. Chana n.friendly multicultural ism. and Li ve Action Brass Band. al.

1990.87.J.. Steven. Popular Music 16: 3 1. Cambridge: Blackwell. The World of Music 35(2): 33.. Nightso11g: Pe1fo rma11ce. . 1989. 1993.Erlmann. ic: A challenge in theory and practice.41.. America11 A11thropologist I: 297 . Music at the horder. Goldman. From schitophonia to schismogcnesi s: The di scourses of world music and world beat.national mu ~ ic industry. 1999. pygmy POP: A genealogy of schizophonic mime1>i s. . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Oxford: Basil Blackwcll. 53. rev. Feld.47... 1996b. E:t Guilbault .37. . In Mu sic grom·es.. Erik.Jocelync.ucceed'? Joumal of American Folklore 8: 139. ed.. The Wnrld of Mu. On redefining th e '·locar· throu gh world mu~ic. . eel. IS99. . leisure.. Reche. World beat and the cultural imperialism debate. London: Constable. 23 March. Yearbook . What do lmliuns mean to do when th ey sing. 1994.. and the politics ofmck..w -industrialto post-modem soriety: Nell' theories of the com emporary II'Orld.35.\.-.. 1993. 1995.. From po. Harvey. Sound efieC'/s: Youth. Grifllths. 1996a.-.. Fillmore. Hamm. Frith. 1998. and ~ocial clw11gl'. 1996. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Goodwin. London: John Libby. Philip. Music a11d copyright. 169 lullaby for World Music . 1983. e world. 1989.. Charlc!>. poll'er a11d practice in South Africa. and Joe Gore.. and Steven Feld. The harmonic '> tructure of Indian music. 1994. what bea t: The tranl-. and how far do they l-. 1993. The aesthetics or the global imagination: Rellecti on" on world mu ·ic in the 1990s. Garofalo. in Keil and Feld 1994. John Com fort.1ic 35(2): 16-32 . Amlrew. Kumar. Popular Music 8: 299-303. Wm•i11R a11d their e11gageme111 ll'ith Papua Ne\\' Guinewt culture. 1895. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Pr e~s. Commodifi ed groove:-. Interpreting world mu. Who. .. Public Culture I : 3 1. Charles. 1993. Public Culture 8: . Socialist Rel'iell' 20(3): 63. Veit. Graceland revisited. Jn depth w ith Deep Forest. The politic~ and ael>lhetics of transnational mu)>iC!. When a saxophone can offer a prayer. Paul. Krishan . 1988. Manchester: Manchester Un i ver~ it y Press. ed. 1995. llayward.-. Rhy thm Mu1ic 4(8): 36 .80.67. Nell' York Times. The condition ofpostnwdernity.. 1989.for 7i'aditiOII(II Music 28: 1. In Keil and Feld 1994. 1997. . Notes on world beat. Wo rld music. politic. identity and cultural impcriali ~m.39. The World of Music 35(2): 3.44.. Keil.3 18. .. . Simon . David..1: Not D ro ll•nill!{.15.

Meintje~. eds. Marit.\111 and the /IOl'lics of place. Chicago: A Capcl la Books. Sanjay. new idcao. clop-man in the Pacific.. Sian. Sharma..1roads: Popular 11111. Sherylh:.: Open Univer~ily Pre~'t-. London: Leicester Univer'>ity Prc-. ABC Radio Australia. 170 . PO/J. Richard. 1996. John.it) of Minn c~ola Prcs-. Shepherd. and Eric Mouquct. su~an.~ill direc!UIJ (!t' ll'orld 11111. McClary. 1991. /UI\'IIIIndemi. Neu· Yorf. 19lJ7. In Sharma. Peter. 26 Ol:lohcr. World beat: 1\ li. 1984.: Univer-. Pare le ~. Dct:p Fore:-... gender and Sl'.25. New York: Verso. Ruhin. Times.\·ic.. Paul Simon·:-.ical meaning..\ cms. Art. 199H. Cambridge. New York: Mu~eum of' Modern 1\rl. 26.1ic. Mu.te11er\ guide to contempora1~. Suu/ying JWpular IIIU..\iCo!ogy 3-t( I): 37-73... and th~: o..1ic 28: 57 . 19lJ6. Chmnide (!( Higher Educmion.sional o rga ni7atioth. RES 11: 13.icnlogy and mu ~ ic Jaw. Mitchcll. Minncapoli-. The didjeridu: From Arnhem Land to l11teme1. Amhony. London: Zed Hoob. 1998. I lutnyk. Loui!>c. Michcl. 29 January. Prior.1ic as social text. ed. 1991.. and Sharma 1996. 1999. David. A global heart heat on CDs. bthnomu~tcologi:-. Popular mu1ic a11d local ideutitl': Roe/.1\. lndigcnou1> mu~ic and the law: An ana l y. 9 February.. prorc. 1996.[/i11i1y oft!te trilml n11d !he modem. London : John Lihhy. Philadelphia. 1996.86. 1992.. Ethnollul\icology 36: 3-+5-59. lill ~.. 1991.lation. Feminine endings: Mu sic. William. Middlcton. Sharma. archives. 5 June. and the mediation or mu-. 199H. The :-. 88. Sanchcz. Lip. Pcnn. New York: Henry Holl. Dis-orie11ting rhrthms: The polilics oftlte 11£'11' Asian da11ce ntusic. 1990.. IYlJO. ··Printilirism" illtu·etllielh-cenltlly art: A. Sounds oricmal: The ( im ) po~:-ibil it) oftheoriLing A~ian musical cullurcs.1 1oday.hifting e thic~ of intellectual properly. Spencer..ilL. 1992. 1996.ttllllity.1ic. YearhookfiJr7i·oditioua/ M11. I Ocwbcr. Lt:tter to Hugo Zcrnp. Conver~ation with author.. T!te Vi1. 1\:-. 199-t Dangemu. cuenfcldt. Karl. E I. Phi lip. Graccland. 1996. . Jon. John l lutnyk. Sahlin~. Ethnomu. Conver:-.hwani.alion '' ith author. Mar~hall..t intcn ie11 .Publ ic Culture Lie. Scegcr. ed. The economic\ of de. England: Polity. a111/ rap in Eumpe mu/ Oceania. South Africa.o.o und~ or glohal changt:: DitTcrent beat:. Yearl>r10k j(1r Tmditio11al Music 28: 87-105. and A~hwa n i Shanna. . ll'orld 111t11ic on CD. Efltli0/1111. 1996. Gcorgc. Sweeney. October l!L Rothcnherg. i ~ of national and international legi:-. 1992.. Ton y.

modem lil•e. except Pygmy Lullaby. Malaita .ound/550 Mu!. © 1992 Celine Mu1. 171 lullaby for World Music .1.. Marianna. ZiiT. . Figure 4. Gone primiJil·e: Sal'll~e illlcllt•t'ls..ic. arranged by E1ic Mouquctand Michcl Sanchct.1es..1ihle World. arranged by Jan Garharek.. Putamayo and th e secretlworld music. 24 Februa ry.ic/Synsound ® 1992 Cclinc Mu~ic/Syn:. New York: Routlcdge. ed:. Torgovnid.. N.:ien~ du Mondc/M us ic~ and Mu!>icia ns of lhe World.1 on culwral OfJfJI'O{Jrimirm. Chicago: Univer~ity of Chicago Pre:-. 8 March. (LP) Edited for the International Mu-. Bruce. and Photographs by Hugo Zemp. Figure 6-Jan Garharek. 197J. an African traditi onal melody..ic. np.-. Rao. Recording'>. CD® 1996 ECM Record:.ic tlll~ine~s..1.U ESCO Collection Mu!»ieal Source~.. and Pratima V. and PhoiOgraphl> by Hugo Zcmp. Vi. . Burrmred poll'er: Es. 1997.: Rutgcr!'> Univcr~ity Prc!'>~. 1997. 1998. © Auvidis/IIMSD/UNESCO 1990 ® Auvidi~-UNESCO 197311990.J.~ig. Notes. Faraleka and Baegu Music. Timothy. Taylor..Michael. Figure 5. The/An ethnomu!>icologi'>t and the mu. Hugo.Deep Fore. ew York: Rout ledge. (CD) Rci ~suc with I he support of the French Ministry of Culture and Communication for lhc International Music Councii/Consei l lntemati onal de la Musique.wy. Conver!>ation with author. 1993.A. The Primeval Culture~ 1.56. Solomon Islands/lies Salo111o11: Faw!eka wul Baegu Mt1.UNESCO Collection Mul> ique~ et Mu~>ic. LP © ® 1973 Philip~/U ESCO. Tau. Mimesi!J and alterity: A particular history of the . Zemp.\ . Dc~ign and photo~: F.~.). }'earbook . "All compositions by Jan Garbare(.W.. Design: Jacques Blanpain.for Tmditional Mu. or Figure Credits Figure 3. 1999.1icjro111 Malaira. l111emarional Hemld Trilnme. Inc. Zwerin. 1990. Global pop: World mu. Solomon Islands. Recordings. Produced by Manfrcd Eicher. otes. Mike.Epic (Sony Mu-...H!11.ic Council hy the Intcrnational lnl>titutc for Comparative Mu~ic Studies and Documentation. New Brunswick.·ic 28: 36.. Cover photo: Jan Jcdlicka : cover design: Barbara Wojirsch. 1996. Produced by Dan Lack~­ man.1ic. ll'orld nwrket. General Editor: Alain Daniclou.1r.

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