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STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPT. OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND

GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.

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Student Signature

Name

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Matric No. : …………………………………………
Date

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3. and indicates the range of water content through which the soil remains plastic. It is water content at the boundary between the plastic and semi-solid states of consistency of the soil.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. Cr  LL  w PI Table 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of this experiment.75 0.25-0. determining the natural water content (the water content of a soil in an undisturbed condition in the ground) and relating it to the plastic and liquid limits can provide an indication of the soil’s consistency and/or sensitivity potential.50 0.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 1/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 1.  Identify the importance and application of plastic limit test.0-0.75-1.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.0 OBJECTIVE: To Determine the Lowest Moisture Content at Which the Soil Behaves Plastically. PI = LL – PL For fine grained soils. students are able to:  Conduct the plastic limit experiment. Liquidity Index (IL or LI) < 0.00 Consistency Desiccated (dry) hard soil Stiff Medium to soft Soft Very soft Liquid s .1 : Classification of soil according to plasticity.  Identify the plastic limit value for soil. 2. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST PAGE NO.0 THEORY Plastic limit ( P w ) of soil is defined as the water content at which a soil will just begin to crumble when rolled into a thread of approximately 3 mm in diameter.0 0.2 : Classification of soil according to liquidity indices.00 >1.50-0. Plasticity index (PI or IP) is the numerical difference of the liquid and plastic limit. Plasticity Index (IP or PI) 0 <7 7-17 > 17 Degree of Plasticity Non-Plastic Low-Plastic Medium Plastic Highly Type of Soil Sand Silt Silty clay or clayey silt Plastic Clay Table 2.25 0. IL  w  PL PI Consistency index is defined as the ratio of the liquid limit minus the natural water content to the plasticity index of a soil. One such relationship is the liquidity index.

and avoid mixing the soil on this area. Evaporating dish.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 2/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 4. 3. Two palette knives or spatulas. and about 300 mm square and 10mm thick.0 PROCEDURES i) Selection and preparation of sample (a) Take about 20 g of the prepared soil paste and spread it on the glass mixing plate. A separate glass plate reserved for rolling of threads. 5. 4. (b) Mix occasionally to avoid local drying out. and the use of unscratched glass reduces the likelihood of discrepancies. . 2. An alternative is to reserve one side of the mixing plate for thread rolling. which should be clean and free from grease.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. balance and oven) Figure 2. A short length (say 100 mm) of 3mm diameter metal rod.0 APPARATUS: 1.2 : Prepared soil paste. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST PAGE NO. 6. Figure 2. The surface condition of the plate can affect the behaviour of rolled threads. This should be smooth and free from scratches. Standard moisture content apparatus (container.1 : Apparatus for plastic limit test 5. The most important piece of apparatus for this test is the hand of operator. (c) It is convenient to set aside this sample just before carrying out the liquid limit test.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.

(d) Dry the soil further by moulding between the fingers again. iii) Rolling Into a Threads (a) Using a steady pressure. (c) Further divide each into four equal parts. (h) The first crumbling point is the plastic limit Figure 2.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. roll this mass into a thread between the fingers of one hand and the surface of the glass plate.: EDITION: REVIEW NO. not by continued rolling which gives a dried crust. (b) The pressure should reduce the diameter of the thread from 6 mm to about 3 mm after between five and ten back-and-forth movements of the hand. (g) The metal rod serves as a reference for gauging this diameter. do not reduce pressure as the thread approaches 3 mm diameter.3 : Rolling into ball and four equal part of soil after divide. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST ii) PAGE NO. (e) Form it into a thread and roll out again as before.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 3/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 Rolling Into a Ball (a) When the soil is plastic enough. .4 : The soil specimen is rolled under the fingers into a thread 3 mm diameter. (f) Repeat this procedure until the thread crumbles when it has been rolled to 3 mm diameter. divide the ball into two portions each of about 10 g. Figure 2. (b) When slight cracks begin to appear on the surface. but keep each set of four parts together. it is well kneaded and then shaped into a ball. (c) It is important to maintain a uniform rolling pressure throughout.

DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST PAGE NO. . which is weighed.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. oven dried and weighed as in the standard moisture content procedure according to BS 1377: Part 2: 1990.10: Process to take a moisture content. (c) Weight the wet sample (d) Dry in the oven for about 24 hours (overnight) (e) Weight the dry sample (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 1. (a) Weight the empty moisture content container (b) Take a moisture content sample of about 10 g from the area penetrated by the cone.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 4/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 iv) Moisture content measurement This is placed in a numbered moisture content container. using the tip of a small spatula.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.

(b) If they differ by more than 0.31 8.27 Calculation of moisture content.25   0.60 41.79 4 41 71.20 6. : Depth of Sample : Date Started : Test Number Can Number Mass of can + moist soil (M cws) Mass of can + dry soil (M cs) Mass of can (Mc) Mass of dry soil (Ms) Mass of water (Mw) Water content Plastic limit Units 1 2 3 gram gram gram gram gram % % Plastic limit = % Liquid limit = % Plasticity index = Liquid Limit – Plastic Limit = % 4 . Z.26 33.0 CALCULATION EXAMPLE i) Results Calculation (a) Calculate the moisture content of the soil in each of the two containers.96 18.38 21. No.88% ms 24.94 69.89 63.35 29.88 2 21 57.64 8.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.5% moisture content. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING PAGE NO.78 8. the test should be repeated.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS DATA SHEET Location : Soil description: Sample type : Operator: Loc.20 38. Take the average of the two results.31 24.20 14. Location : RECESS Soil description: Silty CLAY Sample type : Undisturbed Operator: A . : 6 Depth of Sample : 1.51 8.29 37.76 32.19 64.49 25.96 65. : Sample No. S Table 1: Example of Data Sheet. No. Loc.72 45.5 m Date Started : Test Number Can Number Mass of can + moist soil (M cws) Mass of can + dry soil (M cs) Mass of can (Mc) Mass of dry soil (Ms) Mass of water (Mw) Water content Plastic limit Units gram gram gram gram gram % % 1 11 46.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST 5/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 6.25 58.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.5888or58. : 00123 Sample No.05 3 32 63. w mw 14.

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.0 CONCLUSION PAGE NO.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 6/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 .0 DISCUSSIONS 10.: EDITION: REVIEW NO. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST 8.0 CALCULATIONS 9.

After oven drying the sample and the container weigh 60 g. What is the water content and plastic limit for the soil? .: EDITION: REVIEW NO. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST PAGE NO.32 g. After oven drying the sample weigh 60 g and its container is 7.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 7/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 11.0 QUESTIONS 1 (a) What is the definition of plastic limit? (b) A sample of wet clay and its container weigh 102 g.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. What is the water content and plastic limit for the soil? QUESTIONS 2 (a) What is the different between liquid limit and plastic limit? (b) A sample of wet clay weighs 176 g.