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STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPT. OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND

GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.

_________________
Student Signature

Name

: …………………………………………

Matric No. : …………………………………………
Date

: …………………………………………

. students are able to: 2.3).: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 1/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 1. According to the British Standard.: EDITION: REVIEW NO. Dry sieving is used only for soil with a negligible amount of plastic fines such as gravels and clean sands. dry sieving may be carried out only on materials for which this procedure gives the same results as the wet-sieving procedure. 3. 2.0 OBJECTIVE The sieve analysis determines the grain size distribution curve of soil sample by passing them through a stack of sieves of decreasing mesh opening sizes and by measuring the weight retained on each sieve.0 THEORY (BS1377 : Part 2:1990:9. If particles of medium gravel size or larger are present in significant amounts. Sieving can be performed in either wet or dry conditions. where as wet sieving is applied to soils with plastic fines.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. which usually implies clean sandy or gravelly soils that is.3 Understand the methods used to determine the consistency properties of fine grained soils in the laboratory. The sieve analysis is generally applied to the soil fraction larger than 75µm. soils containing negligible amounts of particles of silt or clay size. 2. This means that it is applicable only to clean granular materials. 2. the initial size of the sample required may be such that riffling is necessary at some stage to reduce the sample to a manageable size for fine sieving.1 Understand the methods used to determine the size of soil particles in the laboratory.4 Carry out the calculation and plotting processes used in consistency limit methods of classification.5 Appreciate the way in which particle size and consistency properties are used to classify and predict the probable behavior of soils and also to indicate the type of tests needed to assess their engineering characteristics. Normally the wet-sieving procedure should be followed for all soils.0 LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of this experiment. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO. 2. 2.2 Carry out the calculation processes used in particle size determination.

1. 63. Figure 1 : Particle size grading curves of some typical soil . 28. 0.212. 2. 0. the first comprises that retained on a 20 mm sieve and the second that passing 20 mm.: EDITION: REVIEW NO. from which the percentage of the sample passing each sieve can be calculated. the test sample mass is determine before being separated into two parts.0.6. 3. 14. 10. 0. allows either wet or dry sieving to be used. The sieves used are generally chosen from the range (in mm) of 75.425. 0.15 and 0. 50.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 2/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 BS 1377: 1990. to give the particle size distribution curve. if the amount justifies the further test.18. 37.35.5. but the wet method is preferred. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO. The combined results of the coarse and fine analyses are plotted on a semi-logarithmic graph of the form show in Figure 1.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. 63. 0. The mass retained on each sieve is recorded. 20.063. while that smaller is wet sieve prior to being re-sieved dry. That greater than 20 mm is dry sieves.3.5. Material passing the 63 micron (0.063 mm) sieve is retained for a fine particle analysis. After oven drying.

Soft wire brush Figure 2 : Typical stack of sieve for grain size analysis 5.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. Balances sensitive 0.6mm. 0.5cm to 75m including a cover plate and bottom pan. 2. Arrange the stack of sieves so that the largest mesh opening is at the top and the smallest is at the bottom. 0. 0.3mm.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 3/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 4. A stack of six or seven sieves is generally sufficient for most soil and applications. Mechanical sieve shaker 4.15mm. Oven dry the sample. The top sieves soil should have and opening slightly larger than the largest particles. Test sieve having the following aperture size 10mm.063 mm. 1mm.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS 1. 0. allow it to cool and measure its weight. Pour the sample on the top sieve. 6mm. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO. 3. Figure 3: The soil sample is poured on the stack of sieves .0 PROCEDURES 1. Attach a pan at the bottom of the sieve stack.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.5g 5. 3. Select a stack of sieves suitable to the soil being tested. 2. Add the cover plate to avoid dust and loss of particles while shaking. Series of standard sieves with opening ranging from 7.

. Place the stack of sieves in the mechanical shaker and shake for about 10 min or until additional shaking does not produce appreciable changes in the amounts of material retained in each sieve. Carefully empty the sieve without losing any material. transfer its contents to a piece of the paper or a larger recipient. Both weights should be within about 1% if the difference is greater than 1% too much material was lost and weighing and or sieves should be repeated. As a preliminary check. Remove the stack of sieves from the shaker. Repeat step 5 for each sieve. Measure the weight of soil retained in each sieve and notes the corresponding sieve mesh opening and number. Figure 4: The soil particles stuck in the mesh opening of the sieves are removed with a brush 6.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. and use a brush to remove grains stuck in its mesh opening. the weights retained on all the sieves and the bottom pan are added. and their sum is compared to the initial sample weight. 5. Beginning with the top sieve.: EDITION: REVIEW NO. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMEN T DATE: 4/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 4.

00 5.28 0.86 Pan 234.30 0.00 99.50 276.600 73.00 Total mass = 500 g Lost = 0 From the data.63 14.10 91.20 55.30 46.34 0.212 8.40 234.70 73. plot a graph partical size versus percentage passing.00 495.74 0.0 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Data : Total mass of dry sample = 500 g Sieve BS (mm) Mass Retained (g) Mass Passing (g) % finer by weight 5.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.90 459. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO.425 17.82 1. GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION 120 % PASSING 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.01 0.00 293.80 52.40 366.150 7.00 35.40 256.300 11.40 264.74 0.96 0.00 2.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.24 0.00 0.180 92.1 1 GRAIN SIZE 10 .: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMEN T DATE: 5/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 6.70 49.70 58.40 51.70 248.

Mass of dry sample = Plot particles size distribution chart. No.63 Pan Total % Passing = 100 .: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 6/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 7. Depth of Sample : Date Started : Sieve no.600 0. : Sample No. Mass Mass Cummulative size (mm) Retained (g) Passing (g) Percentage passing (%) 5.00 1.00 2.0 DATA SHEET: Location : Soil description: Sample type : Operator : Loc. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO.: EDITION: REVIEW NO.∑ % Retained.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.150 0.212 0. d 60 Cu  = ____________ . d 60d10 gram .300 0.180 0.425 0. d 10 2 Cc  d30 =___________.

Taburan Saiz Zarah 100 90 Penjumlahan Kumulatif (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.1 1 Saiz Zarah (mm) 10 100 .001 0.01 0.

0 SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (BS 5930) . 9. Under what conditions should you use wet sieving instead of dry sieving? 3.0 QUESTIONS : 1.FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. Classify the type of soil that you use in the laboratory according to BS 5930.: EFFECTIVE DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 7/7 1/01/14 1/01/15 8. Is it possible to carry out a sieve analysis on a sample of clay? 5. What is the purpose of grain size analysis? 2.: EDITION: REVIEW NO. DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : DRY SIEVE ANALYSIS PAGE NO. What is the smallest and largest mesh openings used in practice for determining grain size distribution? 4.

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