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Definition

Given a function f (x, y ) of two variables,

We say that f has a local maximum at the point (a, b) if

f (x, y ) f (a, b)

for all (x, y ) close enough to (a, b).

We say that f has a local minimum at the point (a, b) if

f (x, y ) f (a, b)

for all (x, y ) close enough to (a, b).

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Definition

Given a function f (x, y ) of two variables,

We say that f has a local maximum at the point (a, b) if

f (x, y ) f (a, b)

for all (x, y ) close enough to (a, b).

We say that f has a local minimum at the point (a, b) if

f (x, y ) f (a, b)

for all (x, y ) close enough to (a, b).

Todays goal: Given a function f , identify its local maxima and minima.

Math 105 (Section 203)

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The first step in finding local max or min of a function f (x, y ) is to find

points (a, b) that satisfy the two equations

fx (a, b) = 0

and

fy (a, b) = 0.

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The first step in finding local max or min of a function f (x, y ) is to find

points (a, b) that satisfy the two equations

fx (a, b) = 0

and

fy (a, b) = 0.

Note: Any local max or min of f has to be a critical point, but every

critical point need not be a local max or min.

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Find all critical points of the following function

f (x, y ) =

1

1

+ + xy .

x

y

B. (1, 1)

C. (0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1)

D. There is no critical point

E. (0, 0)

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Is the critical point (1, 1) a local max, a local min or neither?

If (a, b) is a critical point of f , calculate D(a, b), where

D = fxx fyy fxy2 .

1. If D(a, b) > 0 and fxx (a, b) < 0, then f has a local maximum value at

(a, b).

2. If D(a, b) > 0 and fxx (a, b) > 0, then f has a local minimum value at

(a, b).

3. If D(a, b) < 0, then f has a saddle point at (a, b).

4. If D(a, b) = 0, then the test is inconclusive.

Math 105 (Section 203)

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In the example

f (x, y ) =

1

1

+ + xy

x

y

A. a local minimum

B. a local maximum

C. a saddle point

D. neither of the above

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An application

A company manufactures two products A and B that sell for $10 and $9

per unit respectively. The cost of producing x units of A and y units of B

is

400 + 2x + 3y + 0.01(3x 2 + xy + 3y 2 ).

Find the values of x and y that maximize the companys profits.

A. (100, 80)

B. (120, 90)

C. (120, 80)

D. (80, 120)

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