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Krane

Chapter 1 Multiple Choice 1

Step 1 of 4

Solution:

Length of the sheet,

Width of the sheet,

The number of significant figures in the given length and width is three.

Thus, the surface area of the sheet should be expressed in three significant figures.

The surface area of the given sheet is equal to its length times its width.

Thus, the surface area is as follows:

Substitute

for and

Round off to three significant figures, the surface area of the sheet is

Step 2 of 4

The value of area

has five significant figures. Thus, it cannot be the right answer. So,

Step 3 of 4

The value of area

Step 4 of 4

The value of area

Step 1 of 5

:Solution

,Thickness of the stack of 80 sheets measured by vernier calipers

.Number of sheets

.The number of significant digits in the given length of the stack of sheets is three

The number of significant digits in the given number of sheets is one.

The thickness of the single sheet should be expressed in least number of significant digits.

Thus, the thickness of the single sheet should be expressed in one significant digit.

Step 2 of 5

If there is no gap in between the sheets, the thickness of the individual sheet is equal to the

.thickness of the stack of sheets divided by the number of sheets

Thus, the thickness of a single sheet is as follows:

Substitute

for and

Round off to one significant digit, to get the thickness of the single sheet that is

Therefore, the option (D) is correct.

Step 3 of 5

Step 4 of 5

Thus, option (B) is not correct.

Step 5 of 5

Step 1 of 5

:Solution

It is given that dimensions of mass

, force constant

, and amplitude

Step 2 of 5

(1)

.Here

Equation (1) gives

Step 3 of 5

are as follows:

:Exponents of M

(2)

:Exponents of L

(3)

:Exponents of T

,Or

as follows:

Step 4 of 5

in equation (1)

Therefore, the option (C) is correct.

Step 5 of 5

Chapter 1 Exercise 1

Step 1 of 12

:Solution

a) The prefix used for factor

is mega.

phones.

Step 2 of 12

It is given there are

phones.

Step 3 of 12

It is given there are

Thus, there are

is micro.

is deka

cards.

.

Step 4 of 12

.It is given there are

is giga

lows

Step 5 of 12

is tera

bulls

Step 6 of 12

It is given there are

mates.

is deci

Step 7 of 12

It is given there are

pedes.

is centi

Step 8 of 12

It is given there are

Nannettes.

is nano

Step 9 of 12

.It is given there are

is pico

boos

Step 10 of 12

It is given there are

boys.

is atto

Step 11 of 12

It is given there are

withits.

is hecto

Step 12 of 12

.It is given there are

is kilo

mocking birds

Chapter 1 Exercise 2

Step 1 of 4

:Solution

a) The number of week in a year is roughly about 52 weeks.

It is given that the annual salary is $36K.

:Now, the weekly salary is as follows

Round off to three significant figures, to get the weekly equivalent of annual salary of 36K that

is

Step 2 of 4

It is given that the lottery awards of 10 megabucks are payable over 20 years.

In one year, the prize award is about

Step 3 of 4

1 buck is equivalent to 1 $.

Round off to three significant figures, to get the amount of money received through the lottery

Step 4 of 4

.c) It is given that the hard disk of the computer has a capacity of 30 GB

Also, it is given that for a single word 8 bytes are required.

Thus, the number of words that can be stored in 30 GB hard disk can be calculated as follows:

Chapter 1 Exercise 3

Step 1 of 4

Solution:

A century is equal to 100 years.

Thus,

Step 2 of 4

micro is equal to 1

Step 3 of 4

Step 4 of 4

The percentage difference from Fermis approximation is as follows:

Chapter 1 Exercise 4

Step 1 of 3

:Solution

Distance between New York and Los Angeles,

Time difference between New York and Los Angeles,

The Earth is divided into 24 time zones. Thus, each zone is equal to1 hour.

The distance covered per 1 hour between the given two cities is as follows:

Step 2 of 3

This means that one time zone hour is equal to 1000 mi.

Step 3 of 3

The circumference of the Earth is equal to the distance covered in one time zone hour times

.the 24 time zones

:Now, the circumference of the Earth is as follows

Chapter 1 Exercise 5

Step 1 of 3

:Solution

It is given that the number for seconds in a year is

Take the value of

follows:

times

Step 2 of 3

.One year is equal to 365.25 days. 1 day is equal to 24 hours. 1 hour is equal to 3600 seconds

Thus, the calculated value of second in a year is as follows:

Round off to five significant figures, to get the calculated number of seconds in a year that is:

.

Step 3 of 3

The percentage error for the number of seconds in a year as taken from the value of

:calculated value is as follows

and

Round off to two significant figures, to get the percentage error that is:

Chapter 1 Exercise 6

Step 1 of 3

:Solution

a) It is given that one shake equals to

Step 2 of 3

.One year is equal to 365.25 days. 1 day is equal to 24 hours. 1 hour is equal to 3600 seconds

:Thus, the calculated value of second in a year is as follows

Round off to five significant figures, to get the calculated number of seconds in a year that is

.

Therefore, there are more shakes in a second than seconds in a year.

Step 3 of 3

Now, the fraction of time that humans existed when compared to that of the universe is as

follows:

If the age of the universe is taken to be 1 day, then the number of seconds that humans have

existed is as follows:

Therefore, the duration of time that human existed in the time scale is

Chapter 1 Exercise 7

Step 1 of 3

:Solution

.Maximum tolerable error in the distances of the winners can be determined as follows

The speed of the runner is

. longer time is

. shorter time is

Step 2 of 3

The speed of the runner with shorter time should be greater than the speed of the runner with

.longer time

Substitute

for

and

Step 3 of 3

Substitute

for

in the inequality

This means that the runner with shorter time was indeed the winner.

The maximum tolerable error is

Therefore, the maximum tolerable error in laying out the distance between the runners is

Chapter 1 Exercise 8

Step 1 of 1

:Solution

The number of minutes in a day is

.Therefore, it is needed to wait roughly

Chapter 1 Exercise 9

Step 1 of 3

:Solution

Given data:

Age of the universe,

,Time lasted for the shortest light that produced in the laboratory

Step 2 of 3

Use

to get

Step 3 of 3

Use

Or

This represents the physically meaningful time interval approximately halfway between the two

.given time intervals

Rounding off to three significant figures, the physical meaningful time interval is

Chapter 1 Exercise 10

Step 1 of 2

Solution:

1 century is equal to 100 years.

It is given that the length of the day uniformly increases by 0.001 s in a century.

Thus, the increased in the day after 20 centuries is

Step 2 of 2

The cumulative effect would be that half the product of the increased in time in a day and the

number of days in 200 centuries.

Thus,

the cumulative effect is:

in 200 centuries.

Chapter 1 Exercise 11

Step 1 of 3

Solution:

The total angle traced by the moon in one complete revolution around the Earth is

. The

Earth moves around the Sun and the Moon moves around the Earth. So, the Moon has to

move extra path along its orbit to complete its phase. This makes the lunar month larger than a

sidereal month.

Step 2 of 3

The angle made by the Moon with respect to the center of the Earth in a day is

So,

Thus, the time taken by the moon to go along with the Earth is

But in the above time, the Earth will move further and the Moon has to catch up further.

So, the angle made by the Moon to go further is

Step 3 of 3

is

Thus, the extra total time taken by the Moon to move along with the Earth is

This much of time is the lunar month longer than a sidereal month.

Rounding off to three significant figures, the lunar month is longer than a sidereal month by

.

Chapter 1 Exercise 12

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

In British units, the unit of length is expressed in foot or ft.

Height of the Pierre,

Step 2 of 2

Chapter 1 Exercise 13

Step 1 of 4

Solution:

(a) The relation between yard and feet is

Step 2 of 4

Therefore,

Step 3 of 4

The difference between 100 yard and 100 m in ft is:

Step 4 of 4

And 1 metric mile is equal to1500 m.

Thus, the difference between them is

Therefore, the 1 mi is

or

Chapter 1 Exercise 14

Step 1 of 2

Solution:

One year equals 365.25 days. 1 day is equal to 24 hours. 1 hour is equal to 3600 seconds.

Thus, the calculated value of second in a year is

It is given that the two cesium clocks will lose 1 s with respect to each other in about 300,000

years or

Step 2 of 2

The distance between New York and San Francisco is 2572 mi.

The relation between meter and mile is

distance is

Round off to three significant figures, the successive measurements of the given distance will

differ by a distance of

Chapter 1 Exercise 15

Step 1 of 2

Solution:

The Antarctica is roughly semicircular in shape, so find the area of the semicircular curve. The

volume of Antarctica will be equal to the surface area times its thickness.

Radius of the Antarctica is 2000 km.

Convert the radius from km into m.

Step 2 of 2

. The area of the Antarctica will be equal to half the area of a circle with radius

Thus, the surface area of the Antarctica is

The amount of ice in the Antarctica will be equal to its volume. It is equal to the surface area

.times the thickness

Thus, the amount of ice in the Antarctica will be

Substitute

in the

Chapter 1 Exercise 16

Step 1 of 2

Solution:

Volume of the earth removed is equal to the surface area of the land consumed by the open-pit

coal mine times the depth.

The unit1 hectare is equal to

Thus,

Surface area of land consumed by the open-pit coal mine is

Depth of the surface area of land consumed by the open-pit coal mine,

Step 2 of 2

The volume of the earth that is removed due to the coal mine is equal to the surface area

.consumed by the open-pit coal mine times the depth

Thus, the volume of the Earth removed is

Substitute

for area , and 26 m for depth of the surface area of land consumed by the

Round off to two significant figures, the amount of land removed from the earth is

.

Chapter 1 Exercise 17

Step 1 of 4

:Solution

The Earth is considered as a solid sphere. Using the formula for the circumference, surface

area and the volume of a sphere, the corresponding values of the Earth can be determined.

Radius of the Earth is

Step 2 of 4

Substitute

Step 3 of 4

. The surface area of the Earth is equal to the surface area of a sphere with radius (b)

Thus, the surface area of the Earth is

.Substitute

Round off to three significant figures, the surface area of the Earth is

Step 4 of 4

The volume of the Earth is equal to the volume of a sphere with radius (c)

Substitute

Chapter 1 Exercise 18

Step 1 of 5

:Solution

The maximum speed of the squirrel is

Step 2 of 5

The maximum speed of the rabbit is

The maximum speed of the snail is

Step 3 of 5

The maximum speed of the spider is

Step 4 of 5

The maximum speed of the human is

Step 5 of 5

The maximum speed of the lion is

It is found that the maximum speeds of the given animals are in the following order:

.

Therefore, the animals in order of increasing speed are Snail, Spider, Squirrel, Human, Rabbit,

Fox, Lion, and Cheetah.

Chapter 1 Exercise 19

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

The speed of the spaceship can be converting into light-year per century by using proper unit

conversion factors.

The relation between miles (mi) and meter (m) is

Step 2 of 2

Now, the speed of the spaceship is

Chapter 1 Exercise 20

Step 1 of 1

Solution:

Now, the SI unit of

is

Chapter 1 Exercise 21

Step 1 of 4

:Solution

A light year is the distance traveled by light in a year. It is equal to the velocity of light times one

year. Light travels at the speed of

Step 2 of 4

Given that 1 AU is equal to

Thus,

A parsec is defined as the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of 1

second of arc.

Thus,

Step 3 of 4

The distance from the earth between the Sun in parsec is (a)

Rounding off to three significant figures, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is

.

Also, the distance from earth between the Sun in light year is

Rounding off to three significant figures, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is

.

Step 4 of 4

The required conversion parsec into kilometer and light-year into kilometers are shown (b)

.above

Therefore, 1 parsec is equal to

Chapter 1 Exercise 22

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

The physical meaningful distance between the given radii is equal to the average of the

logarithm of the given radii.

Thus, the logarithm average of the given radii is

Substitute

observable universe

, and

Step 2 of 2

, thus

thus

Rounding off to two significant figures, the physically meaningful distance that is approximately

halfway between the given extremes on a logarithmic scale is

Chapter 1 Exercise 23

Step 1 of 2

:Concept

Consider the mass of a single hydrogen atom. Use it to find the number of hydrogen atoms in 1

kg of hydrogen.

Step 2 of 2

:Solution

Mass of a single hydrogen atom is

Round off to three significant figures, the number of hydrogen atoms in 1.00 kg of hydrogen is

.

Chapter 1 Exercise 24

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

(a) The mass of the water molecule can be calculated as follows.

Here,

, 1.0 u for

water molecules in 1 kg of water is

Round off to two significant figures. The number of water molecules in 1kg of water is

Step 2 of 2

The number of water molecules in the entire ocean is equal to the number of water (b)

molecules in 1 kg times the total mass of the ocean. Thus, the number of water molecules in

the ocean is

Round off to three significant figures, the number of water molecules in the entire ocean is

.

Chapter 1 Exercise 25

Step 1 of 2

Solution:

It is given that one pound is half a kilogram in continental Europe. Paris is in Continental

Europe. As coffee costs $9.00 in Paris, it means half kilogram costs $9.00 only. Thus, the cost

of one kilogram of coffee in Paris is

Step 2 of 2

This shows that 0.4536 kg of coffee will cost $7.20 in New York. Thus, the cost of one kilogram

of coffee in New York is

It is found that the cost of one pound of coffee in New York is lower than that in Paris. Hence,

one should buy

Chapter 1 Exercise 26

Step 1 of 2

:Concept

The mass of a substance is equal to density times its volume. Use it to find the mass of the air

contained in the given volume of the air. It can be expressed as follows.

Step 2 of 2

:Solution

Volume of the air in the room is

The mass of the air is its density at room temperature times the density. Thus, the mass of the

air in the room is

Substitute

for V,

for

Chapter 1 Exercise 27

Step 1 of 3

Solution:

One mole of a substance has Avogadro number

Step 2 of 3

It is given that the sugar cube is having an edge length of 1 cm. Thus, the volume of such

sugar cube is

Let

be the length of the volume of 1 mole of sugar. Then, the volume of 1 mole of sugar is

Step 3 of 3

.Substitute

for

in the equation

Rounding off

to two significant figures, the edge length of 1 mole of sugar cube is

Chapter 1 Exercise 28

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

Convert the unit of the mass of the diet loss by the person from kilograms to milligrams.

Step 2 of 2

.The mass loss rate is equal to the amount of the diet lost divided by the time interval

Round off to two significant figures. The mass loss rate in milligram per second is

.

Chapter 1 Exercise 29

Step 1 of 2

Meter is defined as 1,650,763.73 wavelength of the certain orange-red light which is emitted by

.krypton atoms

,Let

Step 2 of 2

The distance corresponding to one wavelength of the orange red light is equal to the meter per

.wavelength

From the expression

The definition on one meter is given in nine significant figures. So, the distance of the

.corresponding one wavelength should be given in nine significant figures

Rounding off to nine significant figures, the distance corresponding to one wavelength of the

orange-red light emitted by krypton atoms is

Chapter 1 Exercise 30

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

Significant is three in the number 0.132. Thus, the result of the given expression should be

rounded off in three significant figures. Therefore, the final answer is

Step 2 of 2

. In this expression, the number of

least significant is five in the number 16.264. Thus, the result of the given expression should be

rounded off in five significant figures. Therefore, the final answer is

Chapter 1 Exercise 31

Step 1 of 1

:Solution

The volume of water in time moves through a cross section of area

of the aquifers is

Here, is the vertical drop of the aquifer over the horizontal distance and K is the hydraulic

conductivity of the aquifer.

Rearrange the above equation for K.

Substitute

for the unit of volume (V), m for the unit of the distance (L), m for the unit of the

vertical distance (H),

for unit of the cross-sectional area (A), in the above equation, and

determine the SI unit of K.

is

Chapter 1 Exercise 32

Step 1 of 5

:CONCEPT

The Planck length depends on the given constants.

Here,

Step 2 of 5

:SOLUTION

Use the units given in the above three constants, the dimensions of constant are

Step 3 of 5

:Exponents of M

:Exponents of L

:Exponents of T

Step 4 of 5

Step 5 of 5

Put the value of i, j and k in the given formula for Planck length and remove the proportionality

.sign

Substitute

for ,

for h,

.equation

Chapter 1 Exercise 33

Step 1 of 5

CONCEPT:

The Planck length depends on the given constants.

Here,

Step 2 of 5

SOLUTION:

Use the units given in the above three constants, the dimensions of constant are

Step 3 of 5

:Exponents of M

:Exponents of L

:Exponents of T

Step 4 of 5

Step 5 of 5

Put the value of i, j and k in the given formula for Planck length and remove the proportionality

.sign

Substitute

.equation

for ,

for h,

Chapter 1 Question 1

Step 1 of 1

The meaning of invariable in picking a standard is that it should not change at any condition.

But it is found that most of the standard is not invariant under certain circumstances. The very

example can be cited when taking the standard kilogram. This amount of mass can be found

variable when one takes its measurement in other reference frame. So, it can be inferred that a

standard is not invariable.

Chapter 1 Question 2

Step 1 of 1

A physical standard should be easily available and could be easily stored under any

circumstances. The maintenance of physical standard should be very easy. The standard

should be indestructible and reproducible.

Chapter 1 Question 3

Step 1 of 1

Consider speed as the base unit instead of time. It is the distance travelled by a body in unit

:time. Dimensionally, it the length divided by time. So, it can be expressed as

Therefore, the base unit of time is replaced by the base unit speed.

Chapter 1 Question 3

Step 1 of 1

Consider speed as the base unit instead of time. It is the distance travelled by a body in unit

:time. Dimensionally, it the length divided by time. So, it can be expressed as

Therefore, the base unit of time is replaced by the base unit speed.

Chapter 1 Question 4

Step 1 of 2

It would not be wise to redefine the mass of platinum-iridium cylinder at the International

Bureau of Weights and Measures as 1 g rather than 1 kg. The reason is that certain units are

assigned taken into consideration the unit of mass as 1 kg. Replacing kg by g will make a lot of

discrepancies in defining certain units which involve kg.

Step 2 of 2

For example, newton is the SI unit of force. One newton is the amount of force when a body of

one kg is accelerated one meter second squared. If kilogram is replaced by gram, there would

be a change in the definition of one newton. Correspondingly, every unit involve newton will get

affected by such replacement.

Chapter 1 Question 5

Step 1 of 2

Solution:

The micro- used in the microwave signifies the

irradiate the food kept inside it. Microwave radiation is an electromagnetic wave whose

.wavelength is in the range of 1 mm to 1 m

Step 2 of 2

that its wavelength is in the pico range.

. This shows

Thus, the oven that used gamma rays to irradiate food that has been kept inside is named

picowaved. This means it used a radiation of wavelength in the order of pico.

Chapter 1 Question 6

Step 1 of 2

, and

Step 2 of 2

Extrasensory perception is due to the vibration in the sense organs. As vibrations are involved

in the phenomenon, it can be described by its period of vibration. It can also be inferred that

length of the sense organs changes when vibrations take place. Thus, it can also be described

by length. Also, the phenomenon can be described as due to electric signals. This means the

signals travel through electric field. Thus, it can be described by electric current.

Chapter 1 Question 7

Step 1 of 1

Solution:

Several repetitive phenomena occurring in nature that could serve as reasonable time

standards are as follows:

a) Oscillating pendulum.

b) Oscillation of mass-spring system.

c) Oscillation of a quartz crystal.

d) The rotation of the Earth on its axis

e) The revolution of the Earth around the Sun.

Chapter 1 Question 8

Step 1 of 1

The definition of second based on the atomic clock is much better than one pulse beat of the

.president of the American Association of Physics

The reason is that the atomic clock gives the definition of second based on the duration of the

vibration of the radiation emitted by a specific isotope. Such duration of time never change

from any external disturbances.

On the other hand, the duration of pulse might change depending on the physical condition of

the human. So, such duration due to pulse cannot be standardized to give the correct definition

of a second.

Chapter 1 Question 9

Step 1 of 1

:Solution

A good clock should give standard time. It should not change its standardization with factors

such as temperature and physical dimensions. Any time standard should answer the fact that

at what time any event occurs and how long the events last. Any good clocks should correctly

go with some astronomical observations like the time taken by the rotation of the earth around

.the Sun

Chapter 1 Question 10

Step 1 of 2

It is conventionally assumed that the Sun is overhead at equinox. On this day, the clock should

show 12:00:00. The clock will have a symmetric increase or decrease in the time. So, the given

.table is arranged in order of the clocks relative value as good timekeepers

.Clock D gives decreasing time with time interval of 57 s between successive days

.Clock C gives increasing time with time interval of 58 s between successive days

.Clock E gives decreasing time; but the time interval is increasing between successive days

Clock A gives increasing time; but the increasing time interval between successive days is not

. symmetric

.Clock B does not give symmetric time

Thus, clock D gives the accurate time at noon.

Step 2 of 2

Therefore, the following table shows the five clocks in the order of their relative values as good

.timekeepers

Saturday Friday

Thursday Wednesday

Tuesday

Monday

Sunday

Clock

11:57:17

11:58:24

11:59:31

12:00:38

12:01:45

12:02:52

12:03:59

15:56:33

15:55:35

15:54:37

15:53:39

15:52:41

15:51:43

15:50:45

12:01:12

12:01:22

12:01:32

12:01:52

12:01:54

12:02:49

12:03:59

12:38:14

12:37:59

12:37:44

12:37:27

12:37:12

12:36:56

12:36:40

12:00:03

11:59:56

12:00:02

12:00:07

11:59:57

12:00:02

11:59:59

Chapter 1 Question 11

Step 1 of 1

:Solution

The period of the oscillation

Thus,

The period of the repeated oscillations of the pendulum is taken as the time standard.

But the value of acceleration due to gravity is not fixed quantity and changes from place to

place. Again, the length of the string is also affected by temperature and other factors. Thus,

the overall effect is that standardization of time due to the period of the pendulum will have

.certain drawbacks

Chapter 1 Question 12

Step 1 of 1

Here, l is the length of the string, and g is the acceleration due to gravity of the Earth at the

.point of observation

The frequency of the swinging pendulum is the reciprocal of its period. Thus, the frequency of

,the swinging pendulum is

Substitute

.

for

In the above expression, the frequency of the pendulum does not depend on the amplitude of

the pendulum. It solely depends on the length of the string and the acceleration due to gravity

of the Earth. Keeping fixed the length of the string, the frequency of the pendulum can be

maintained at constant value. Thus, Galileo knew this fact that the pendulum swings at the

same frequency regardless of the amplitude.

Chapter 1 Question 13

Step 1 of 3

The egg based sand timer is based on the period of the rate of flow of particulate materials

from one reservoir to the other. The particulate materials used in such timer are grain of similar

size with smooth and regular size. The uncertainty is that the rate of flow of grains is reduced

with the change in temperature. This in fact gives inaccurate results.

Step 2 of 3

For hour glass, the period of flow of grains from one reservoir to the other is one hour. Due to

temperature change, the rate of flow is also reduced.

Step 3 of 3

For candle light, the measurement of time is based on the rate of burning. If the rate of burning

is not maintained constant, then there would be uncertainty in given the accurate time. This

might happen as the rate of burning of the candle might change due to its internal factors such

as chemical composition.

Chapter 1 Question 14

Step 1 of 1

It is desirable to readjust our clocks because a small error in the time will lead to a large error

in the season after long years. Leap second is occasionally introduced so that the time given

by our clocks after many years remains the same. This will not change the seasons. If such

error is not adjusted in the clocks, the season in a year will not be the same in the next few

years.

Chapter 1 Question 15

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

The number 89.5 means to operate the radio receiver at the frequency of

Step 2 of 2

The advertisement made by the radio station that it is at 89.5 on your FM dial means the

receiver of the radio should tune to 89.5 kHz frequency. At this frequency, the receiver can

received signals sent by the transmitter of the radio station.

Chapter 1 Question 16

Step 1 of 1

:Solution

The SI base unit of length is meter

.Therefore, there are no SI base units for area or volume

Chapter 1 Question 17

Step 1 of 1

The standard meter bar is an alloy of platinum and iridium. Meter was defined in the bar as the

.distance between two lines in it which are measured at the melting point of ice

The definition of meter as the distance of one ten millionth of the meridian line from North Pole

to the equator that passes through Paris disagrees with the meter bar by 0.023%. It means that

the comparison of the definition of meter in both the cases is inaccurate. It depends on which

.standard definition is chosen

If meter is chosen as given by a standard meter bar, then there will be no error in the length of

.one meter

Therefore, it does not mean that the meter bar was not inaccurate.

Chapter 1 Question 18

Step 1 of 1

As per the definition of meter, one meter is equal to one ten-millionth of the meridian line from-

The measurement of the distance between North Pole to the equator was not completely done.

Half of the distance is measured. The measurement was done through expedition between

Dunkerque belfry and Montjuic castle, Barcelona. Thus, it serves as the distance of half the

distance connecting between North Pole and equator. So, twice the length will give the

distance between North Pole to the equator.

There is a certainty in the experimental measurement of the distance between the North Pole

and equator. The shape of the Earth is not regular but is an oblate spheroid. Such shape is

undesirable for defining standard definition of length at the level of required precession.

Chapter 1 Question 19

Step 1 of 1

Make a standard thread having standard length by marking its end points by a meter scale.

Now, the measurement is done by keeping the thread along the curved line.

If the curve line is much longer than the thread, the measurement of the curved line can be

done by successively measuring how many times the curve line is longer than the thread. So,

the length of the curved line is equal to the number of the length of the standard thread.

Chapter 1 Question 20

Step 1 of 2

:Solution

Yes, length can be called a fundamental property if another physical quantity such as

.temperature be specified in choosing a standard

Step 2 of 2

The material of the meter bar is platinum-iridium alloy. One meter is defined as the distance

between two fine lines engraved near the ends of the bar, when the bar is held at a

temperature of

. This is due to the fact that any change in temperature will change the

dimension of the meter bar. It is also supported mechanically in a prescribed way. This makes

the position of the meter bar intact in its original position.

Keeping at the constant temperature and supported mechanically in a prescribed way will

make the length of the meter bar unchanged. Thus, the length can be standardized using the

.meter bar. Any measurable length can be compared with the length of the meter bar

Chapter 1 Question 21

Step 1 of 3

. So,

the standard length of meter is defined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum during a

time interval of

of a second.

. Defining the

standard value of meter in approximate value will give discrepancies in the standard definition

of meter. Thus, the delegates to the 1983 General Conference on Weights and Measures did

not simplify the definition of meter by taking the speed of light to be

Step 2 of 3

The value of the speed of light is a constant quantity. Taking into consideration the speed of

light to be

will give the desired result of one meter. But it is convenient to standardize from

some known values which never changes.

Step 3 of 3

The delegates of the conference rejected both the possibilities because the exact value of the

speed of light is known. It is easy and most accurate to define the length of one meter from the

experimental value of the speed of light in vacuum.

Chapter 1 Question 22

Step 1 of 2

The value of

is equal to the ratio of the circumference of the circle to its diameter. This ratio

.constant

Most recent value of

assigned to

is about

is about

cannot be redefined

Step 2 of 2

the fact that

For example, the circumference of a given circle will give much error if

Chapter 1 Question 23

Step 1 of 3

(a)

.Radius of the Earth can be determined as follows

is used equal to 3.

Use shadow cast by the suns rays at two different places on Earth at noon to calculate the

radius of Earth. This method was used by Greek philosopher Eratosthenes. Let us chose two

cities, Alexandria and Syene, where he measured the circumference of the Earth. It was found

to be 25,000 miles or

is

Rearrange the

Step 2 of 3

(b)

.Distance between Sun and the Earth can be determined as follows

The distance between the Sun and the Earth can be measured by knowing the time it takes for

the light coming from the Sun to reach the Earth. The distance is equal to the speed of the light

times the time taken. In fact, the light rays from the Sun take approximately 8 minutes to reach

the Earth. The speed of the light is roughly

Step 3 of 3

(c)

.Radius of the Sun can be determined as follows

The radius of the Sun can be measured using the parallax method. In this method, the angle

made by a point to the diameter of the Sun is measured. The radius of the Sun is given by

Here, distance between the Sun and the Earth is and the angle made by the distance

between the Sun and the Earth and the diameter of the Sun is .

Chapter 1 Question 24

Step 1 of 3

(a)

The thickness of a sheet of paper can be measured by direct method. Consider a stack of

paper. Let be the number of papers in it. If be the thickness of such stack of paper, then the

thickness of single sheet of paper is

Step 2 of 3

(b)

The thickness of a soap bubble can be measured by using the interference of thin films.

Consider a monochromatic light having wavelength incident on the soap film having

thickness . The light will undergo interference pattern.

For constructive interference,

From the above equation, the thickness of the soap film is

For

Therefore, the thickness of the paper can be measured by knowing the refractive index of the

soap film and wavelength of the light.

Step 3 of 3

(c)

The diameter of the atom can be measured by the x-ray diffraction of crystals.

When x-ray is incident on the atomic crystals, it undergoes diffraction. The Braggs equation for

such diffraction is

and is an integer.

This gives the spacing between the similar atoms. Such spacing is equal to the diameter of the

atoms.

Therefore, the diameter of the atom is measured by diffraction of x-ray.

Chapter 1 Question 25

Step 1 of 1

The reduction in the dimension of every object to half its original value is not really happen.

The change in the dimension of the object is minute and gives inaccurate result. But this does

not mean that much of the dimension will reduced in a single overnight. Such reduction might

take a lot of time even year but will not happen in a single overnight.

Chapter 1 Question 26

Step 1 of 3

and

Step 2 of 3

The SI standard of kilogram is the platinum-iridium cylinder which is kept at the International

Bureau of Weights and Measures. This standard can be moved from one place to another for

checking the values of tertiary standards. So, it is easily accessible. It is also invariance as the

value is used a standard sample.

It can be destructible as it is made from destructible material. It is not reproducible.

Step 3 of 3

, an atomic standard would not be better in any respect.

Mass is a fundamental quantity. It gives the amount of matter present in it. An atomic standard

cannot be adopted as for length and time. The adoption of atomic standard is based on the

wavelength of light emitted by certain atoms. Mass cannot be defined from the wavelength.

Thus, the atomic standard cannot be used for mass.

Chapter 1 Question 27

Step 1 of 2

ANSWER:

It is useful to have two standards of mass, the kilogram and the

atom because present

laboratory techniques allow us to compare atomic masses with each other to greater precision

than we can presently compare them with the standard kilogram.

Step 2 of 2

One kilogram is the mass of the platinum-iridium cylinder which is carefully kept at the

International Bureau of Weights and Measures. It is assigned by the international agreement. It

is the SI unit of mass.

Unified atomic mass unit (u) is the atomic mass of carbon 12 atom which is used to measure in

atomic scale. It is assigned by the international agreement. It is not the SI unit of mass.

Chapter 1 Question 28

Step 1 of 3

SOLUTION:

The SI unit of the quantity of a substance is mole. The mass of one mole of

exactly 12 grams.

atoms has

The SI unit of mass is kilogram. The relation between kilogram and gram is expressed as

follows.

Mass of 1 mole of

atoms is about

Step 2 of 3

The number of

Avogadro constant.

Step 3 of 3

Now, 1 unified atomic mass unit is equal to 1/12 the mass of the carbon atom.

Thus, the value of 1 unified atomic mass unit is as follows:

Round off to four significant figures, to get the relation between unified atomic mass unit and

kilogram that is

Chapter 1 Question 29

Step 1 of 14

Known Universe:

The mass of known Universe can be estimated by knowing the number of stars present in it. If

the mass of all the stars are approximately same as the Sun, then the mass of the galaxy can

be equal to the number of the stars times the mass of the Sun.

Step 2 of 14

Our Galaxy:

The mass of our galaxy can be estimated through the number of stars present in it. If the

masses of all stars are approximately same as the Sun, then, number of the starts multiplied

with the mass of the Sun gives mass of the galaxy.

Step 3 of 14

Sun:

The mass of the Sun is measured by knowing the period of the Earth and the distance from the

Sun.

If be the time period of the Earth and

calculated as

Step 4 of 14

Earth:

The mass of the Earth is measured by knowing the period of the Moon and the distance from

the Earth.

If be the time period of the Moon and

Earth is calculated as

Step 5 of 14

Moon:

The mass of the Moon is measured by sending a satellite around the Moon.

Moon is calculated as

Step 6 of 14

Ocean liner:

The mass of the ocean liner is measured by using Bernoullis principle.

If be the volume of water displaced in the water, then the mass of the ocean liner is given as

density of the water is .

Step 7 of 14

and

Elephant:

The mass of the elephant can be measured by using Archimedes principle.

If the elephant is placed in the wood block and allow to partially submerged in the water, then

the sum of the weight of the wood block and elephant is equal to the weight of the water

displaced by them.

Thus,

and density of the water is .

Step 8 of 14

Person:

The mass of the person can be measured by using spring balance

Step 9 of 14

Grape:

The mass of the grape can be measured by using spring balance.

Step 10 of 14

Speck of dust:

The mass of the speck of dust can be measured by using spring balance.

Virus:

The mass of the virus can be measured by using mass spectrograph.

Step 11 of 14

Penicillin molecule:

The mass of the penicillin can be measured by using mass spectrograph.

Step 12 of 14

Uranium atom:

The mass of the Uranium atom is equal to the mass of its nucleus. The nucleus is composed of

92 protons and 146 neutrons. Knowing the mass of the protons and neutrons, the mass of the

Uranium atom is measured.

Its mass can also be directly measured by using mass spectrograph.

Step 13 of 14

Proton:

The mass of the proton is roughly equal to the hydrogen nucleus. So, knowing the mass of the

hydrogen nucleus, the mass of the proton is measured.

Step 14 of 14

Electron:

The mass of the electron is measured by knowing charge to mass ratio. Such ratio is

measured in Millikan oil drop experiment. As the charge of the electron is known, the mass of

the electron is measured.

Chapter 1 Question 30

Step 1 of 1

Solution:

The mass of the moon from table 1-5 is

The object whose mass lies in between Moon and ocean liner is given in the table shown

below:

Object

Great pyramid of Giza

Amount of concrete present in the three gorges dam

Average World population

Approximate amount of world crude oil production in 2009

Earths atmosphere

Rings of Saturn

Ceres(Dwarf planet)

Earths ocean

Charon (Dwarf planet)

Chapter 1 Question 31

Step 1 of 1

ANSWER:

The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg). In British unit, the unit of mass if pound (lb).

The relation between kilogram and pound is as follows:

Thus, buying of 1 lb of butter is just equivalent to buying 0.456 kg of butter. It will not change

the amount of butter bought. The only thing is that it depends on which countries are you

buying butter. Different countries have different metric system for measuring units.

Therefore, implication of different metric system will not make life more complicated.

Chapter 1 Problem 1

Step 1 of 3

SOLUTION:

It is given that 1 day is equal to10 decimal hours. 1 decimal hour is equal to 100 decimal

minutes.

Step 2 of 3

Step 3 of 3

The integer part is in hour. But the decimal part is still in decimal minutes. It can be converted

into minutes as

or

Chapter 1 Problem 2

Step 1 of 6

SOLUTION:

It is given that the average distance of the Sun from the Earth is 390 times the average

distance of the Moon from the Earth.

Here,

is the average distance between the Earth and the Moon,

distance between the Sun and the Earth.

is the average

Step 2 of 6

SKETCH:

The figure which presents the Moon, Earth and the Sun is shown below:

Step 3 of 6

(a) From the figure shown above, the diameters of the Earth and the Sun are, respectively,

and

.The triangles

and

of the triangle are proportional to each other.

The distance

and

are the diameters of the Earth and the Sun. Therefore, the ratio of the

Step 4 of 6

Consider the shape of the Earth and the Sun to be uniform sphere. Thus, the volume of the

Earth and Sun are given by

Step 5 of 6

Now, the ratio of the volume of the Sun and the Earth is

Rounding off to three significant figures, the ratio of the volume of the Sun to the Earth is

.

Step 6 of 6

(c) It is given that the angle intercepted at the eye by the Moon is

Consider the diameter of the Earth is a section of an arc having radius of the average distance

between the Earth and the Moon.

From the figure given above in part (a), the corresponding arc

Earth.

Chapter 1 Problem 3

Step 1 of 4

Here,

of an arc with respect to the circumference of the Earth is

of the Earth.

and

The uncertainty in the tankers position measured along the east-west line is,

Step 2 of 4

(a)

Approximately the circumference

Now,

Substitute

for

in the equation

is circumference

Rounding off to two significant figures, the uncertainty in the tankers position measured along

the north-south line is

Step 3 of 4

(b)

The east-west range is smaller because the distance measured along latitude is smaller than

the circumference by a factor of the cosine of the latitude.

Substitute

for

and

Rounding off to two significant figures, the uncertainty in the tankers position measured along

the east-west line is

Step 4 of 4

(c)

From the positions of latitude and longitude the tanker is situated in Lake Ontario. It is about

20 km off the coast of Hamlin.

Chapter 1 Problem 4

Step 1 of 3

(a)

The rate at which the Sun sweep above the equator is,

The correction factor, since latitude at England is equal to cosine of the latitude, so the sun

curves above the England is approximately

.

A

Trip takes about 6 months. Thus, the accuracy required by the clock is

Step 2 of 3

Step 3 of 3

(b)

Now, an

Trip takes about 1 year. Thus, the accuracy required by the clock is

is

Chapter 1 Problem 5

Step 1 of 3

SOLUTION:

A single breathing contains about 0.3 L of oxygen. Thus, the mass of the oxygen inhaled in a

single breathing is

It is given that single breathing contains about 0.3 L of carbon dioxide. Thus, the mass of the

carbon dioxide exhaled in a single breathing is

Step 2 of 3

If we consider the number of complete breathing in a minute to be 20, then the amount of

weight loss from our body in a minute is

Step 3 of 3

Round off to one significant figure; the loss in the weight in 8 hours is

Chapter 1 Problem 6

Step 1 of 3

Let us assume that the container is completely filled with water. So, the volume of the water will

be equal to the volume of the container. The mass of the water that flows from the container is,

Here, volume of the water in the container is , and density of the water is

Step 2 of 3

The mass flow of the water in the container is equal to the amount of water that is flowing

from the container divided by the time it takes to drain completely the container. Thus, the

mass flow rate is,

Step 3 of 3

Substitute

for

in the equation

Substitute

for the time taken ,

density of the water in the equation

for the

Rounding off to three significant figures, the mass flow rate of water from the container is

.

Chapter 1 Problem 7

Step 1 of 5

SOLUTION:

The average radius of the grain is

to m.

Step 2 of 5

It is given that

of volume has a mass of 2600 kg. The density of the cube is equal to the

mass divided by volume.

Step 3 of 5

Consider the grain to a sphere. The surface area of the grain is calculated as follows.

Let be the total number of grains that would have the total surface area equal to the surface

area of the cube having edge 1 m.

Step 4 of 5

Step 5 of 5

Therefore, the mass of the sand grains that would have a total surface area equal to the

surface area of the cube exactly 1 m on an edge is

Chapter 1 Problem 8

Step 1 of 3

CONCEPT:

The volume of the circular cylinder is expressed as follows.

Rearrange for h.

Here, and be the radius and height of the circular cylinder, respectively.

Step 2 of 3

from equation 1,

Step 3 of 3

SOLUTION:

The condition of minimum of the surface area is that the derivative of

zero.

should be equal to

Rearrange for V.

The above value of surface area is obtained when the radius is equal to the height of the

cylinder.

It is proven that for a circular cylinder of fixed volume, the smallest surface area is obtained

when the radius and height of the circular cylinder are equal.

Chapter 1 Problem 9

Step 1 of 4

SOLUTION:

(a) The volume of an iron atom is equal to mass of the iron atom divided by its density. The

volume of the iron atom is expressed as follows.

corresponding sphere of iron sphere is

Step 2 of 4

The spacing between the neighboring iron atoms is equal to two times the radius of the single

iron atom. Thus, the spacing between the neighboring iron atoms is calculated as follows.

Rounding off to three significant figures, the spacing between the neighboring iron atoms is

.

Step 3 of 4

(b) The volume of a sodium atom is equal to mass of the sodium atom divided by its density.

The volume of the sodium atom is calculated as follows.

corresponding sphere of sodium sphere is

Step 4 of 4

The spacing between the neighboring sodium atoms is equal to two times the radius of the

single sodium atom. Thus, the spacing between the neighboring sodium atoms is

Rounding off to three significant figures, the spacing between the neighboring sodium atoms is

.

Chapter 1 Problem 10

Step 1 of 2

SOLUTION:

(a) The area of the rectangular metal plate is equal to its length times the width. Thus, the area

of the plate is

The number of significant figures in the area of the plate should be expressed in three

significant figures.

Rounding off to three significant figures, the area of the rectangular metal plate is

Step 2 of 2

The number of significant figures in the area of the plate should be expressed in two significant

figures.

Rounding off to two significant figures, the area of the circular plate is

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