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:

The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD)

Method and Its Applications

Veysel Demir, Ph.D.

demir@ceet.niu.edu

Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115

1/34

Veysel Demir

Bachelor of Science, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical

University, Ankara, Turkey, 1997.

System Analyst and Programmer, Pamukbank, Software Development Department,

Istanbul, Turkey, July 1997 – August 2000.

Master of Science, Electrical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 2002.

Doctor of Philosophy, Electrical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 2004.

Research Assistant, Sonnet Software, Inc. Liverpool, NY, August 2000 – July 2004.

Visiting research scholar, University of Mississippi, Electrical Engineering Department,

University, MS, July 2004 – Present.

Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois

University, DeKalb,IL, August 2007 – present

2/34

Computational Electromagnetics

Maxwell’s equations can be given in differential or integral form

Finite-difference

time-domain

(FDTD)

Transmission line

matrix (TLM)

Finite element

method (FEM)

Finite-difference

frequency-domain

(FDFD)

Differential equation methods

Method of Moments

(MoM)

Fast multipole

method (FMM)

Integral equation

methods

3/34

Computational Electromagnetics Maxwell’s equations can be given in time domain or frequency domain Time-domain methods Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) Transmission line matrix (TLM) Finite element method (FEM) Method of Moments (MoM) Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) Fast multipole method (FMM) Frequency domain methods 4/34 .

Commercial software packages Commercial software packages Finite element method (FEM) Method of Moments (MoM) ADS Momentum HFSS Transmission line matrix (TLM) Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) CST Microstripes 5/34 .

The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method 6/34 .

FDTD Books 7/34 .

edu/ecefaculty/Allen1.” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Conference.northwestern.html 8/34 . Can be found at http://www. “A Perspective on the 40-Year History of FDTD Computational Electrodynamics. 2006. March 15. Florida. Miami.Yearly FDTD Publications The most popular method in computational electromagnetics Source: Allen Taflove.ece.

Gauss’s law Gauss’s law for magnetism Faraday’s law Ampere’s law Constitutive relations ∇ ⋅D= ρv ∇ ⋅B= 0 ∂B ∇ × E= − ∂t ∂D ∇ × H= J+ ∂t D = ε E .Maxwell’s Equations The basic set of equations describing the electromagnetic world Shows that light is an electromagnetic wave.and B = µ H 9/34 .

FDTD Overview – Finite Differences Represent the derivatives in Maxwell’s curl equations by finite differences We use the second-order accurate central difference formula df ( x) f ( x + ∆ x) − f ( x − ∆ x) = f ′ ( x) ≅ dx 2∆ x 10/34 .

FDTD Overview – Cells A three-dimensional problem space is composed of cells 11/34 .

12/34 . IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. Yee. K. May 1966.FDTD Overview – The Yee Cell The FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) algorithm was first established by Yee as a three dimensional solution of Maxwell's curl equations.

FDTD Overview – Material grid A three-dimensional problem space is composed of cells 13/34 .

FDTD Overview – Updating Equations Three scalar equations can be obtained from one vector curl equation. ∂E ε = ∇ ×H ∂t ∂ H x ∂ Ey µx = − ∂t ∂z ∂ H y ∂ Ez µy = − ∂t ∂x ∂ H z ∂ Ex µz = − ∂t ∂y ∂ Ez ∂y ∂ Ex ∂z ∂ Ey ∂ Ex ∂ H z εx = − ∂t ∂y ∂ Ey ∂ H x εy = − ∂t ∂z ∂ Ez ∂ H y εz = − ∂t ∂x µ ∂ Hy ∂z ∂ Hz ∂x ∂ Hx ∂y ∂H = −∇ × E ∂t ∂x 14/34 .

5 H zn + 0. k ) − H zn + 0.5 (i. j . j . j .5 (i. j . j − 1. k ) = ∆t n + 0. k ) − Exn (i. j . j.5 n + 0. k ) ε x (i. k − 1) − ∆y ∆z 15/34 . k ) − H y (i.FDTD Overview – Updating Equations Represent derivatives by finite-differences ∂ Ex ∂ H z ∂ H y εx = − ∂t ∂y ∂z Exn + 1 (i. k ) H y (i.

k ) − Ezn (i. k ) − ∆z ∆y 16/34 . k ) = ∆t E yn (i.5 (i. j .5 (i. k ) µ x (i. j + 1. k ) − H xn − 0. k ) Ezn (i. j . j .FDTD Overview – Updating Equations Represent derivatives by finite-differences ∂ H x ∂ E y ∂ Ez µx = − ∂t ∂z ∂y H xn + 0. k + 1) − E yn + 0. j .5 (i. j . j.

j . j . j . k ) − Ez (i. k ) − ∆y 17/34 .5 (i. j .5 (i. j .FDTD Overview – Updating Equations Express the future components in terms of the past components H zn + 0. j . k ) H yn + 0. k ) Ez (i. k ) + n n µ x (i. k − 1) − ∆z E yn (i. j − 1. j . j . k ) − H zn + 0. k ) ∆ y ∆ t Exn + 1 (i. j + 1. k ) − H yn + 0.5 (i.5 (i.5 (i. j. k ) − ε x (i. j . j . k ) = H xn − 0. k + 1) − E yn + 0. k ) = Exn (i. k ) ∆ t ∆ z H xn + 0. j .5 (i.5 (i.

FDTD Overview – Leap-frog Algorithm Exercise 1D 18/34 .

Absorbing Boundary Conditions The three-dimensional problem space is truncated by absorbing boundaries Most popular absorbing boundary is Perfectly Matched layers (PML) Exercise 2D PML 19/34 .

Active and Passive Lumped Elements Active and passive lumped elements can be modeled in FDTD ∂E ∇×H= ε + σ E+ J ∂t Voltage source Current source 20/34 .

Active and Passive Lumped Elements Resistor Capacitor Inductor Diode 21/34 .

Active and Passive Lumped Elements A diode circuit 22/34 .

Transformation from Time-Domain to Frequency-Domain Results can be obtained for frequency domain using Fourier Transform A low-pass filter S11 S22 Exercise 2D object 23/34 .

Near-Field to Far-field Transformations An inverted-F antenna 24 24/34 .

Modeling fine geometries It is possible to model fine structures using appropriate formulations A wire loop antenna 25/34 .

Incident plane wave 26/34 .

Scattering Problems ∇ × ( H inc + H scat ) ∂ = ε ( Einc + Escat ) ∂t ∇ × H inc ∂ = ε 0 Einc ∂t A dielectric sphere Exercise 3D PML 27/34 .

Scattering from a Dielectric Sphere 28/34 .

” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Conference.northwestern. Florida.ece. Can be found at http://www. “A Perspective on the 40-Year History of FDTD Computational Electrodynamics. 2006.Earth / Ionosphere Models in Geophysics Snapshots of FDTD-Computed Global Propagation of ELF Electromagnetic Pulse Generated by Vertical Lightning Strike off South America Coast Source: Allen Taflove. Miami. March 15.edu/ecefaculty/Allen1.html 29/34 .

northwestern. Can be found at http://www.ece.” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Conference.Wireless Personal Communications Devices Source: Allen Taflove. 2006.edu/ecefaculty/Allen1. “A Perspective on the 40-Year History of FDTD Computational Electrodynamics. Florida.html 30/34 . Miami. March 15.

2006.” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Conference.ece.Phantom Head Validation at 1.html 31/34 .8 GHz Source: Allen Taflove. Miami. Florida. March 15. Can be found at http://www. “A Perspective on the 40-Year History of FDTD Computational Electrodynamics.northwestern.edu/ecefaculty/Allen1.

2006.ece.northwestern. Can be found at http://www. “A Perspective on the 40-Year History of FDTD Computational Electrodynamics. March 15.html 32/34 .” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Conference.Ultrawideband Microwave Detection of Early-Stage Breast Cancer Source: Allen Taflove. Miami. Florida.edu/ecefaculty/Allen1.

“A Perspective on the 40-Year History of FDTD Computational Electrodynamics. March 15.html 33/34 . Florida.ece.edu/ecefaculty/Allen1. Can be found at http://www.northwestern. Miami.” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Conference.Focusing Plasmonic Lens Source: Allen Taflove. 2006.

Thank You Exercise 2D PEC 34/34 .

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