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TH E O TTO M A N EMPIRE

A ND ITS HERITAGE
Politics;, Society and Economy
ED I T ED BY

OTTOMA NS, HUNGA RIA NS,
A ND HABSBURGS
IN CENTRA L EUROPE
The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest

S U R A I Y A FA RO Q H I A N D H A L I L I N A L C I K

ED ITED BY

Advisory Board
Fikret A d anir • Id ris Bo stan • A xnno n Co hen • Co rnell Fleischer
Barbara Flem m ing • A lexand er de Gro o t • Klaus Kreiser
Hans Geo rg M ajer • Irene M eliko f f • A h m e t Ya§ar O cak
A bd eljelil Te m i m i • Gilles Veinstein • Elizabeth Z achariad o u

G É Z A D Á V I D A ND PÁ L

FO D O R

V O LUM E 20

BRILL
L EI D EN • BO ST O N • K Ö L N
2000

This book is printed on acid-frcc paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication

C O N TEN TS

D ata

Otto mans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe : the military confines
in the era o f Otto man conquest / edited by Géza Dávid and Pál Fodor.
p. cm. — (The Otto man Empire and its heritage, ISSN 1380-6076 ;
v. 20)
Includes biblio graphical references and index.
ISBN 9004119078 (alk. paper)
1. Euro pe, Central—Histo ry —To 1500. 2. Europe, Central—Histo ry —16th
century. 3. Europe, Central—Histo ry —1 7th century. 4. Europe, Central—
Histo ry, Military . I . Fodor, Pál. I I . Dávid, Géza. I I I . Scries.
D A W 1038 .088 2000
943—d c21
00-034284
CIP

LIST OF MAPS

V II

NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION AND USAGE

VIII

PREFACE (PÁL FODOR)

IX

INTRODUCTION (GÉZA DÁVID and PÁL FODOR)

XI

PA RT O N E: TH E H U N G A RI A N - H A BSBU RG FRO N TIER
D ie D eutsche Bibliothek - CIP- Ei nhei tsauf nahme
Otto mans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe : the military
confines in the era o f Otto man conquest / ed. by Gcza David and Pal Fodor
- Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2000
(The Otto man Empire and its heritage ; Vo l. 20)
ISBN 90-04-11907-8

GÉZA PÁLFFY

The

O rig ins and

D ev elo p ment

of

the

Bo rd er

Defence System A g ainst the O tto m an Emp ire in
H u n g ary ( Up to the Early Eig hteenth Century )
A N DRÁ S

KU BIN Y I The

Battle

of

3

Sz áv asz entd emeter- N ag y o lasz i

(1523). O tto m an A d v anc e and H u ng ari an Defence
o n the Eve o f Mo hács
JÓ Z S E F K E L E N I K

ISSN
ISBN

1380-6076
90 04 11907 8

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PRIN TED IN T H E N ET H ERLA N D S

The M i l i tary Rev o lutio n i n H u n g ary

PA RT TW O : TH E O T T O M A N
KLÁRA HEGYI

€) Copyright 2000 by Komnklijke Brill Mi Leiden, The Netherlands

71
117

FRO N TIER

The O tto m an N e tw o rk o f Fo rtresses i n H u ng ary ...

GÁBOR ÁGOSTON The

Co sts of the O tto m an

Fo rtress-System

163

m

H u ng ary in the Sixteenth and Sev enteenth Centuries
PÁL FODOR

M ak i n g a Li v i n g o n the Fro ntiers: Vo lunteers i n
the Sixteenth-Century O tto m an A r m y

GÉZA DÁVID

195

229

A n O tto m an M i l i tary Career o n the H u n g ari an
Bo rd ers: Kasim Voyvoda, Bey, and Pasha

265

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

299

INDEX

315

and Gy o r co nfines in 1582 3. The castles of the Bajcsavar. The battle of Szavaszentdemeter. The castles o f the Cro atian and Wend ish-Bajcsavar co nfines in 1582 2. 1523 6.LIST OF M A PS 1. The castles of the M i n i n g To w n's and Up p er H u ng arian co nfines in 1582 4. Kanizsa. Otto man fortresses in H ung ary 65 67 69 82 106 173 . So uthern H u ng ary at the end of the fifteenth century 5.

"  Acta  Orientálta  . It w o u l d be d ifficult to find a better expressio n to d efine the ro le o f the defence system established b y the late sixteenth century o n the fro ntier zo ne o f Hungary and its so uthern annexed p ro v inces (Slavo nia and Cro atia) against the O tto man Emp ire. 1520-1541. 1911. and H u ng arian histo rio graphy. Italy. Academiae Scientiarum  Hungancae 45:2-3 (1991) 271-345. and behind w hich Yo ur co untries and peo ples w i l l be secure. 2 Cf. Even tho ug h the H ung arian defence system constituted o nly a section of the lo ng and v aried fro ntier zone w hi c h stretched fro m N o rthern A frica v ia the Med iterranean island s. and Hungary to the Po lish-Lithuanian and Russian territo ries and p ro tected Europe against the O tto m an attacks. " Ottoman Policy Towards Hungary. Budapest. and the German Em p ire in 1577. Pál Fodor. O n the basis o f recent archiv al research and the achievements o f A ustrian. it is ev id ent that the d ecisive events of the century lo ng O tto man-Habsburg co nfro ntatio n o ccurred o n the territo ry of Med iev al H u ng ary . this stud y attempts to p ro v id e an o utline o f the system and its d ev elo p ment. So uthern Slav. 52." This is h o w H absburg military leaders summariz ed their o p inio n abo ut the significance o f the Hungarian bo rd er defence system p ro tecting the imp erial city o f Vienna. co ncentrating o n the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.  Végváraink  szervezete  a  török  betelepedésétől  a  tizenötéves  háború  kezdetéig  (1541­1593) [The Organization of the Hungarian Border Fortresses from the Establishment of the Ottoman Rule to the Outbreak of the Fifteen Years' W ar]. the A ustrian hered itary land s. w hile several mo no g rap hs have been p ublished i n d ifferent w o rl d languages abo ut the defence systems o n the Cro atian and Slav o nian 1 2 1 Pál Szegő.E ORIGIN S A N D D EV ELO PM EN T OF TH E BORDER DEFEN CE SYSTEM A G A IN ST TH E O T T O M A N EMPIRE I N H U N G A R Y (UP TO TH E EA RLY EIG H TEEN TH CEN TURY) GÉZA PÁLFFY "The system o f fortresses is the o nly means by w h i c h Yo ur Majesty w i l l be able to co ntain the p o w er and the advance o f the enemy. To w ard s the end of the tw entieth century it is ev en mo re timely as.

  The  Milttan/  Border  in  Croatia  1740­1881:  A  Study  of  an  Imperial  Institution. but the border castles subordinated to Györ. w hic h w as less decisive f ro m the p o int o f v iew of the w ho le area.4 5 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A R I A N . This is the o nly aspect w hic h can p ro v id e us w i th a mo re co herent and co mp lete p icture abo ut the strategy of defence of the med iev al H ung arian Ki ng d o m and that of the Habsburg military lead ership. and Imre Szántó.  Landcsdefension  und  Staatsbildung. 7 . and  idem. 1985. and have treated it simp ly as the anteced ent o f the military fro ntier (Militdrgrenze) o rganized at the b eg inning of the eighteenth century . Karl Käser. and the two volumes together in G erman: Gunther Ejrich] Rothenberg.  Vojna  Kra­ jina.  Freier  Bauer  und  Soldat. 1976. a dull summary of earlier results.  Die  k. 31-55.  Militär­ grenze. But the d ev elo p ment o f the defence 5 3 The most important works in chronological order: Fr[antisek] V anicek. Jakob Arnstadt. though decisive element in it. Cf. (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für neuere Geschichte Österreichs. p erio d : Fro m the beg inning to 1593.) W ien."  Historijski  zbornik  13 (1960) 111-117."  Austrian  History  Yearbook 9-10 (1973-1974) 55-110. 163-174. 5 1980. 1970.  Grenze. and f ro m 1556 up to the abo litio n o f the military fro ntier in the nineteenth century . that is f ro m Bud a until 1526. f ro m the Imp erial City and — f o r an intermed iary p i o d fro m Graz (1578-1705) respectively.  Chicago. (Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen M useums in Wien. but this latter was..Köl n. 1973. that is a special section of the defence system established in the sixteenth century to resist the O tto man advance.  op.  L'Autriche  et  l'Empire  ottoman.  Grenzfestungen) were qualitatively different from the mil­ itary frontiers organized in the early eighteenth century.) Regensburg. The Cro atian autho r d iv id ed the nearly 500-year-old histo ry of the Cro atian-Slavo nian defence regio n into the fo llo w ing tw o majo r and some mino r perio ds: 7 1. by Gerhard Emst. in my opinion.) W ürzburg.  Povijesni  pregled­histonografija­rasprave. and  idem. Croatian—and sometimes even Hungarian— works.). 6.) W ien.  Militdrgrenze  1522­1881  (mit  einer  Gesamtbibliographie). then temp o rarily f ro m Po zso ny and Vienna. 4 So far Kurt Wessely has been the only one to realize that for an understanding of the whole defence system against the Ottoman Empire it is indispensable to know the history of the Hungarian border defence zones as well: Kurt Wessely. " The Development of the Hungarian M ilitary Frontier Until the M iddle of the Eighteenth Century.  Studien  zum  Kriegswesen  des  inner­ österreichischen  Temtorialstaates  (1564­1619). Cf. no w e ll d o cumented stud y has been w ritten abo ut the system of the H u ng arian defence d istricts and bo rd er fortresses w hic h p layed a m u c h mo re imp o rtant role than the above mentio ned areas in the w ho le structure. er THE PERIODIZATION O F THE HISTORY O F THE DEFENCE SYSTEM IN HUNGARY AGAINST THE OTTOMANS The new approach makes it necessary to establish a new p eno d izatio n fo r the history of Cro atian and Slavonian territo ries w hich defines the mo st important shifts based on the qualitative changes w ithin the w ho le system. The most important Hungarian monographs: Szegő. Kurt W essely. Préface par Jean Bérenger. a capital mistake." in  Vopna  Krajina. the o utbreak of the so-called 'Fifteen Years' W ar' or 'Lo ng W ar'. fi Fedor M oacanin. and the most recent work by Jean Nouzille  (Histoire  de  frontičres. (Schriftenreihe des Regensburger Osteuropainstituts. which is.  The  Austrian  Militari/  Barder  in  Croatia. Budapest.  Specialgeschichte  der  Militärgrenze. besides the mobile field troops and soldiery kept by the counties. 1984. W i thi n this. (Inaugural-Diss. as in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries it was not these that were called A ustrian border fortress zone  (österreichische  Grenze). " D ie Regensburger 'harrige' Reichshilfe 1576. and abo ut ho w the system w as co ntro lled . 1875. G erman. the Croa­ tian-Slavonian defence zones are called military frontiers  (Militärgrenze) already from the middl e of the sixteenth century. It is to be noted that scholarly works have so far identified the border defence system against the Ottomans with the chain of fortresses.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S territo ries. (Schriftenreihe des Regensburger Osteuropainstituts. Ed. to o . Zagreb. can hard ly be used for the Hungarian territories in the narro w sense co nstituting the major and more decisive part of the defence system."  Austrian  History  Yearbook 9-10 (1973-1974) 119.  Beitrage  zu  ihrer  Geschickte. A nother remarkable mistake of Austrian historiography is to call the Croatian-Slavonian border territories A ustrian M ilitarv Frontiers  (österreichische  Militärgrenze.  Die  k.  Die  Militarisierung  der  agrarischen  Gesellschaft  m  der  kroatisch­slawonischen  Militärgrenze  (1535­ 1S81). the respective areas of the 1 the w ho le— H ung arian and Cro atian-Slav o nian—bo rd er defence system and this is true fo r the histo ry o f its subsequent p erio d s. see notes 3 and 25).XIX St. 1969.  1522­1747. " Reply to Rothenberg's Comments. Paris.. by Dragurin Pavlicevic. 1966.  A  végvári  rendszer  kiépítése  és fém/kora  Magyar­ országon  1541­1593 [The Organization and Golden Age of the Border Defence System in Hungary]. 1960. 1982. 8. Die österreichische  Militdrgrenze  in  Kroatien  1522  bis  18S1. W ien. I. The former p eno d izatio n advanced in 1960 by Fedor Mo acanin. etc.  k. In A ustrian.  cit. he d ifferentiated three subperiods: border fortresses  (Grenzgebiet. 1973.  Geschichte  und  Auswirkungen.  Die  österreichische  Militärgrenze. 48. The units of the defence system of the sixteenthth and seventeenth centuries. Belo w this system w i l l be examined as a w ho le.IV . line against the Otto mans' can o nly be und ersto o d m the kno w led g e of 3 4 Earlier inv estigatio ns have o nly discussed the Cro atian-Slavo nian p art. " Periodizacija histonje Vojne Krajine (XV . Gunther Erich Rothenberg. v iew ed f ro m the ad ministrativ e centres. 1991) which is. Therefore it is more accurate to use the term 'the Habsburg defence system against the Ottoman Empire' in the sixteenth-seven­ teenth centuries for the imperial-royal border defence system in Hungary.) Regens­ burg.  k. " Obrana madarskog pogranienog teritorija od Turaka u XV I i XV II stoljecu. W ien." in Die  russische  Gesandschaft  am  Regensburger  Reichstag  1576. also István Sinkovics. Cf also W inf ried Schulze. Mit Beiträgen von Ekkehard V ölkl und Kurt W essely. however.M ünchen. and o nly partly corrected by those w o rking o n the p ro blem later o n. 3. (Habilitationsschrift) G raz.G raz. 60. Ed. onlv one. (Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences.) Urbana.

so it is w o rth accepting the p erio d iz atio n o f Mo acanin and Ro thenberg. the first refo rm of the m ilitary fro ntiers co nsid ered im p o rtant by Mo acanin. " Phases of Turco-Hungarian W arfare Before the Battle of M ohács (1365-1526). 2. A l tho u g h the co nquests of the g ro w ing military state w ere far aw ay f ro m the bo rd ers of the subsid iary p ro v inces of King Lo uis A njo u I (1342-1382). and Maro s. By sho w ing briefly the subp erio d s I w i l l make an attemp t to analyze the mo st im p o rtant sections of the co ntinually changing netw o rk and to evaluate its land marks g iv en the co nstraints of time and space. 1755-1807. The origins of the defence system against the Ottomans (late fourteenth century-mid-M70s) 8 Tho ug h the autho rs of mo no graphs p rep ared after 1960 corrected Mo acanin's p erio d izatio n in some po ints/ their ap p ro ach to the bo rd er defence system sho w s no real change at all. In the d ef initio n of the subperio d s o f the third phase (1699-1881).2. 1. Tu rkish netw o rk Danube. 2. and also applicable to the histo ry of the Croatian-Slavonian regio n. w hic h closed the In the 1360s. 1848-1881. 1 T H E D E FE N C E S Y S T EM O F T H E M ED I EV A L H U N G A R I A N ( FRO M T H E O U T S ET T O T H E BA T T LE O F M O H A C S I N KINGDOM 1526) 1 1. 10 epoch o f the reco nquering Turkish w ars (1683-1699) and O tto m an rule in H u ng ary . The seco nd p erio d began in 1526 (the year o f the battle at Mo hács) and co ntinued till the peace treaty of Karlo v itz i n 1699. the terminatio n of the med iev al H u ng arian King d o m . 2. the beg inning of the so-called reco nquering w ar (1683-1699). histo rians are m o re o r less o f the same o p inio n. 2. p erio d : Fro m 1593 to 1881. So the p erio d izatio n to be presented here is the first attempt to define new perio ds fro m the p o int of v iew of the w ho le defence system in Hung ary against the Otto man Emp ire. The situatio n w as mad e w o rse by the fact that. the strikes by the Otto mans i n the 1370s and 1380s d irectly threatened the so uthern fro ntiers of H u ng ary .3.5. finally 2. In m y o p inio n the fo llo w ing three majo r and several mino r periods can be d ifferentiated : The first one lasted f ro m the beg inning to 1526. In the f o l l o w i ng I w o u l d like to summariz e the d ev elo p ment of the bo rder defence system up to the o rg aniz atio n of the m ilitary fro ntiers in the early eighteenth century . Tho u g h Lo uis I attemp ted —ev en if in a so mew hat unp rep ared manner—to co ntain the co nquero rs by establishing the Bulg arian banate o f V i d i n betw een 1365 and 1369 and b y p lacing H u ng arian so ld iers in the castles there. A t the same time I w o u l d like to justify the significant changes I have ap p lied in the p erio d iz atio n used so far. w hen the ad ministratio n of the Cro atian and Slav o nian bo rd er fortresses w as subo rd inated to the new ly established Inner A u strian W ar Co uncil (Innerösterreichischer Hofkriegsrat. 1. 1807-1848. Ki n g Lo uis d i d no t pay to o m u c h attentio n to the reinfo rcement of the so uthern bo rd er fortresses alo ng the Lo w er Danube. Graz). 1 0 O n the history of the organization of the defence system before 1526.1. A rc hd u ke of A ustria. cf. the co nspicuo us p o litic al and m ilitary expansio n of the Otto mans w as a clear signal that they w o u l d hard ly stop o n the south-eastern Balkans after g aining the up p er hand in the struggle amo ng the So uthern Slav rulers as their auxiliary tro o ps. sent an arm y at his o w n expense to help the defence o f the A u strian territo ries threatened by the Otto mans. and the co nfused years after his d eath further accentuated the p ro blems of so uthern d efence. the eliminatio n o f the system of m ilitary fro ntiers. Fro m 1683 to 1755. due to language p ro blems and a lack of archival research. Ferenc Szakály. Fro m 1578 to 1593. Fro m 1593 to 1683. D u ring this era."  Acta  .4. 9 See the works cited in note 2. This w ar mad e it po ssible to establish the of bo rd er fortresses and military fro ntier alo ng the Sava. separating them f ro m the H ung arian defence d istricts. A f ter the peace had been co nclud ed it again became po ssible 8 Further periods: 2.6 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A RI A N . This state of affairs can be ascribed to the fact that. they knew practically no thing about the Hung arian bo rd er defence system and therefore neglected it. the so uthern defence netw o rk stretching f ro m the A d riatic Sea to Transy lv ania w as an o rg anically co herent defence line of the H ung arian Ki n g d o m .H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S 1. o ut of w hi c h tw o sho uld be mentio ned in co nnectio n w i th the era discussed in this paper. the military and p o litical lead ership of the H u ng arian King d o m d i d no t reco gnize the danger it faced w i th the appearance of the O tto m an tro o p s in Euro pe. Fro m the o utset to 1522. 7 to create a q ualitativ ely new defence system called the ' m ilitary fro ntier' (Mditdrgrenze). Fro m 1522 to 1578. w hen Ferd inand I. W i th i n this p erio d Mo acanin d efined fiv e smaller sectio ns. Tisza.1.2.3. to w ard s the end of his rule.

The military forces of the co unties of the Temeskö z w ere subo rd inated —tho ug h o nly temp o rarily . 12 Elemér Mályusz.  Against Hungary in the Time of Kings Sigismund and Albert.  A  törököknek  első  betörései  Dél­Magyarországba  Zsigmond  és  Albert  királyok  idejében  és  Keve  és  Krassó  vármegyék  1393­1439 (The First Attacks by the Ottomans 9 T H E H U N G A RI A N . 1418). The inco mes of the co untry d i d no t rend er it po ssible to maintain a regular army p aid by the king p ro tecting the fro ntiers. after 1435.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S megszűnése. ly ing w est of the Temeskö z . at the same time. In the diet o f 1397. so I am not going to refer to them separately below." . they sho uld be reinforced. Thro ug h perso nal nego tiatio n. d i d no t make use of the o p p o rtu nity to chase o ut the Otto mans. bo atmen [naszádos) o n the Danube or mo re increasingly. 141-158. Ten years later he attached the castle to the banate of Macsó . Bo d ro g.8 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY A fter Sig ismund of Luxemb urg . A similar process started in the neig hbo uring banate of Macsó . w hat is mo re. w ho . since the ban o f Macsó dispo sed o f the m ilitary forces of the neig hbo uring counties of Baranya. O n the first raids in A ustrian territories. in the Temeskö z . Király. W ien. for every 33 peasants. Serbian refugees w ere mo re and Orientálta  Academiae Scientiaruni  Hungancac 33 (1979) 65-111. Bódog Milleker." there remained o nly one p o ssibility to d efend H u ng ary .  Kaiser  Sigismund  in  Ungarn  1387­1437. the H ung arian Ki ng (1387-1437) later Ho ly Ro man Emp ero r (1410-1437). w h o imp lemented the military refo rms of Sig ismund and the Thalló czi bro thers (Matkó and Frankó ). In ad d itio n. Pipó of Ozo ra (Filip p o Scolari). 1982. Gustav G undisch. und er the terms of the treaty of Tata in 1426. he tried to enfo rce his intentio n of q ualif y ing the Hungarian military o rg aniz atio n fo r defence purpo ses by means of several military law s.  Vojaskn  organtzaaja  na  Slovenskem  v  16. Bearing this purpose in m ind ."  Zeüschnft  des  Histonschen  Veremes  fur  Steierrrmrk 18 (1922) 63-73. Bak-Béla K. Ljubljana. and o w i n g to the campaigns and Siebenbürgen. " A német lovagrend a XV . w as ap p o inted captain of the garriso n so ld iers. 3. held in Temesvár. 63-80. Die  Kampfe Ungarns  mil  den  Osmanen  bis  zur  Schlacht  bei  Mohács. But his hopes in connection with this plan soon failed. 5-23. 1990. ho w ev er. 1899 . tho ug h temp o rarily . 12 The reforms led to the establishment of the so-called militia portalis" by w hich the ruler intend ed to create a lig ht cav alry o f co nsiderable number w hich co uld be d ep lo yed o n the fro ntiers. the o rganizatio n of bo rd er defence w as mad e mo re co herent. See also the latest summary of the Southern Slav literature bv Vasko Simoniti. Brooklyn. Still." in  From  Hunyadi  to  Rákóczi. " König Sigmund und der Deutsche Ritterorden in Ungarn 1429-1432. a chain of abo ut tw enty fortresses hand led by the king secured the defence of the bo rd er. and as a result a defence zone similar to the one i n Temeskö z came into being . w hic h w as essential fo r the strengthening of the defence. (War and Society in Eastern Central Europe. also Leopold Kupelwieser. of the banates existing since the time of the rulers of the Á rpád Ho use. (I used these works in presenting all three subpenods. 1415. " Die ersten Türkeneinfálle (1396. w hich w as of crucial imp o rtance co ncerning the defence of the southern bo rders. Soidatenbauer) in return fo r certain exemp tio ns. fo r some majo r actio ns—to the hig h sheriff of co unty Temes (comes Temesiensis). Mitteilungen aus dem Staatsarchiv Königsberg.  Idem." in  From  Hunyadi  to  Rákóczi. 1 4 A t the turn of the 1430s Sigismund put the Teutonic O rder in charge of the  bannte of Szörény defending the entrance at the Lower Danube. as peasant soldiers (vopiiks. It became imp erativ e that thev lay the fo und atio n of a bo rd er defence system capable of co mp eting effectively w ith the enemy at the fro ntiers in the lo ng ru n. and that new castles sho uld be b u ilt betw een Szö rény and Nándorfehérvár (fo r example Szentlászló ). 1947.  stoletju. 3526. by János M. and the End of Counties Keve and Krassóf Temesvár. and Valkó .  A  Jász­Nagykun­Szolnok  Megyei  Levéltár  Évkönyve 8 (1993) 33-44 Banate]. experienced the immed iate threat by the Otto mans on the battlefield of N ico p o l (1396) and his w estern neighbours d id so by means of the constant attacks. besides head ing his o w n bandérium. Budapest. 136-166 13 It meant that well-to-do noblemen had to field one mounted archer for every 20. In o rd er to increase the number of sold iers on the bo rd ers. Kolozsvár. 1991. " The  Militia  Portalts in Hungary Before 1526.) Ed.) 2 11 For the earliest attacks against Hungary. the fav o urable natural end o w ments w ere further enhanced by reinfo rcing the fo rd s on the Sava w ith w o o d en fo rts. later. cf. In p arallel to the enlargement of the d efensive military forces. Z » r  Überlieferung  der  Turkenemfallc  in  mo re frequently hired as lig ht hussars. 14 The f o rmatio n of the defence netw o rk und er relativ ely calm co nd itio ns w as facilitated by the fact that the O tto m an state u nd erw ent one o f the mo st critical p erio d s of its histo ry d u ring the so -called interregnum betw een 1402 and 1413. Sig ismund . Cf . The H u ng arian military lead ership."  Mitteilungen  des  Instituts  für  Österreichische  Geschichtsforschung 33 (1912) 87-119. see Hans Pirchegger. " The Hungarian-Croatian Border Defense System and Its Collapse. századi Bánságban [The Teutonic O rder in the Fifteenth-Century Zounuk. A t the same time. The tw o ban o n the Cro atian-Slav o nian territo ries had similar military autho rity . acquired f ro m Djo rd je Branko v ic the castle o f Nándo rfehérvár (Belgrade). Sigismund o rd ered that the bo rd er fortresses alo ng the Lo w er Danube sho uld be g iv en into ro yal hand s. and the so ldiers serv ing in the bo rder fortresses und er central co ntro l. he started to place the mo bile tro o ps of the so uthern co unties. O n the attacks against Transylvania. and recently Jenő Glück. A ndrás Borosy. Szerem. Erich Joachim.  War  and  Society  m  late  Medieval  and  Early  Modern  Hungary. Bács. cf. d ue to the activ ity of the comes Temesiensis. 1914. apart f ro m the bandérium o f the ruler.

then Upper Slavonia. w hic h w as characterized by the clashes of the raid ing tro o p s of the co ntend ing parties. This w as the mo st decisive and mo st sig nificant part of his refo rms. The medieval ' O l d' Croatia was situated south-west of the river Sava. its population sought refuge in the north. In the so uthern regions fro m the A d riatic to the Eastern-Carpathians. Sava. assumed by the high sheriffs of county Temes. The furination of a coherent defence system: the military reforms of Matthias Corvinus and their aftermath (147ÖS-152V Tho ug h the fo und atio ns of the bo rd er defence system w ere laid d uring Sigismund 's reign. the captain-generals disposed of the military forces of bo th the bo rder fortresses and the neighbo uring counties. it included the counties Pozsega. he organized the region of the Lo w er Danube into a unified border defence system. w ho was appo inted King of Bosnia in 1471. w hic h w as still no t co herent eno ug h but ad equate fo r p ermanent defence. Miklós Újlaki. besides their bandena of considerable numbers."' After the occupation of Szabács in 1476 and the death of Újlaki in 1477. The aims of the inno vatio ns w ere to create a mo re coherent defence system. which was formerly named Slavonia. " D i e Fragen des bosnischen Königtums von N . A t the same time. For Slavonia proper shrank to the territory between Drava. w ith a few exceptions. barons and nobles of the area. under the unified control of the Croatian-Slavonian ban (banus Croatuie et Slavoniae) fro m the sea to the Lo w er Danube. no r even the Bosnian actions by Matthias Co rv inus in 1463-1464 co uld stop the process by w hic h the Hung arian military force was once and fo r all d riv en back to the frontiers of the co untry by the 1460s. fortresses. To this end he created the office of the captain-general of the Lo w er Parts (supremus capitenus paiiium regra Hungaruie inferiorum). His intentio n was to subordinate the co mmanders of border fortresses. Matthias century. neither the so-called w inter camp aign (1443-1444) by János H u ny ad i. The nearly fifty years' 'peace-time' starting in the mid-1460s. Fro m that time o n. As a first step. except fo r the no rth-w estern Bosnian fortresses aro und Jajca. In the second half of the eighteenth 1 3 G yul a Rázsó. the med iev al H u ng arian Ki n g d o m managed to b u ild u p a system o n the so uthern territo ries of the co untry . to the D rava. and the Slavonian counties 17 lh l * A ndrás Kubinyi. Slavonia meant exclusively that territory. his endeavours were frustrated fo r a decade by the pursuits for independence of the ban of Macsó. who had his residence in Pétervárad and died in the battle of M ohács. he intend ed to create 15 an Eastern-Central-Euro p ean great p o w er w i th material resources to be able to finance the reo rganized defence line and to co mpete successfully w i th the O tto m an Emp ire that had changed into a Euro p ean great p o w er w i th the cap ture of Co nstantino p le in 1453. Matthias Co rv inus united and integrated und er the co mmand of three military officials the tw o basic elements of the defence system: o n the one hand . While the Croatian-Slavonian ban was personally m charge of the military and civil administration of Dalmatia.10 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A RI A N ."  Studui  Slavica  Acadermae  Scientmrum  Hungancae 8 (1958) 373-384 1 7 The reo rganizatio n of the defence system w as acco mplished in the mid d le of the 1470s. the military forces and the netw o rk of the bo rder 11 The captaincy-general of Pál Tomori (1523-1526). The Ottoman advance created a completely new situation by the second half of the sixteenth century. no thing could prevent him fro m imp lementing his plan. w hich was. and on the other. O ld Cro atia. . then. Valkó. and Csázma by the 1570s. Újlaki. A t the same time. they w ere also responsible for the civil ad ministratio n of the area. bordering on Slavonia in the north-east Slavonia proper was located between the D rava valley and the Kapela M ountain. In the lo ng ru n. " H unyadi M átyás török politikája [The Ottoman Policy of Corvinus]. and from that time on. and for this reason in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries the name Croatia designated the areas stretching from the A driatic to the Sava. furthermo re to establish an army that co uld be mo bilized faster and in a mo re unified w ay to pro tect the bo rders. co unty and no ble tro o ps. 1. w hich co uld be co ntro lled f ro m the centre and w as no t d iv id ed into many po litical. '8 It is appropriate to note here that Croatia and Slavonia as administrative and territorial notions had different meanings during the middle ages and in the sixteenth-eighteenth centuries. The shift in the fo reign p o licy o f Matthias Co rv inus (1458-1490) f ro m the South-East to the West m ig ht have served the same p urp o ses. the A rchbishop of Kalocsa. similar to the Croatian-Slavonian ternto nes.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S o rg aniz atio nal activ ity of Jáno s H u ny ad i in the 1440-1450s."  Hadtörténelmi  Közlemények 22 (1975) 305-348. in 1476 Matthias united the offices of the ban of CroatiaDalmatia and Slavorua. Presumably. however. military ad ministrative centres.2. By that time the southern parts of O ld Croatia were lost. that is to make p rep aratio ns fo r p ermanent defence. the bandena. no r his success in Nándo rfehérvár in 1456. o ffered an excellent o p p o rtunity fo r the H u ng arian King to unif y and refo rm the defence system co nstructed by his predecessors. and its territory extended between the Kapella M ountain and the A driatic Sea. in the eigtheenth century. the siege of Nándo rfehérvár in 1440 indicated that those buffer states in the Balkans w hich had previo usly served to protect Hung ary w o u ld soon be ruined by the Otto man advance. has to be ranked among these. extending as far as the river V rbas in the east. that is the military of the areas neig hb o u ring the fro ntiers. as hig h sheriffs of county Temes. Tho ug h he had already attempted to unify the tw o offices as early as in the mid-1460s. and Szerem (the so-called Lower Slavonia). as w ell as the mo bile troops of the counties.

Though it might have seemed wiser to send the captain-general of the Lower Parts " Nándorfehérvár. The southern line stretched f ro m Szö rény via Orso v a.  A  mohácsi  csata [The Battle of M ohácsi (Sorsdöntő történelmi gai [On the Siege of Nándorfehérvár in 1521. 12 refo rms o f Matthias. and Military  and  Diplomatic  Relations  in  the  Age  of Suleyman  the  Magnificent. Újlaki. The only debatable element of the reform is why Nándorfehérvár did not become the seat of the newly nominated captain-general of the Lower Parts. in Bud a. the captain-general of the Lo w er Parts had the same respo nsibilities o ver the six co unties of Temeskö z (Keve. Kő rö s.' The third great unit of the defence line w as led by the Vo ivo de 9 of Transy lv ania (vajvoda Transilvaniae/Transilvaniensis) au tho rity . the area east o f it rang ing to Wallachia w i th the centre of Temesv ár called Lo w er Parts and the Transy lv anian bo rd er area. the events afterwards justified the decision by Matthias Corvinus as the •n Hungarian­Ottoman  office with the seat in Temesvár survived the fall of Nándorfehérvár in 1521. 238-246. While one element of the defence. Szabács. Z aránd . Z im o ny . Verő ce. the m ino r castles of the Szerémség and Dubica. that is all the m ilitary and ad ministrativ e d uties o ver the territo ries called the Lower Parts. the system of bo rd er defence d i d no t seem to d iffer m u c h f ro m the netw o rk that came into being after the refo rms o f Matthias Co rv inus. Dubica. the defence system became mutilated alread y befo re the fall of Nánd o rfehérv ár. as the leaders o f the mo re secure interio r counties. d ue to the peasant so ldiers p aid by the king . and Bihács to Z eng g o n the Dalmatian coast. Royal Deed of G if t]. the son of Miklós fortress in several studies. fell into Ottoman hand s in 1524. Várasd . Nánd o rfehérv ár. "A temesközi-szörénységi végvárvidék funkcióváltozásai (1365-1718) [The Changes in Function of the Border Fortress A rea of the Temesköz and Szörénység]. A ndrás Kubinyi's article in the present volume 2 2 Ferenc Szakály has dealt with the reasons and circumstances of the loss of the key connection with the devaluated office of the  ban of M acsó held by Lőrinc. The Historical Lesson to Be D rawn From a napok. the mobile tro o ps of the neig hbo uring and inner p arts o f the co untry became practically unusable. and Szerem betw een the Drav a and Sava. tho ug h in a bad state of repair.H A BS BL' RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S of Z ágráb. unified netw o rk o f defence. A l l three parts had the functio n of serv ing and sup p o rting the bo rd er fortresses. see recently László Fenyvesi. Cf . Békés. A t the end o f the fifteenth century the H ung arian King d o m w as surro und ed by a v ertically and ho riz o ntally d iv id ed . and Csanád ). the o ther main co mp o nent. So in the d isastro us eco no mic. The fall of the defence system of the medieval Hungarian Kingdom (1521-1526) Before the loss o f Nánd o rfehérvár. Szö rény. Their concrete tasks w ere d etermined by the ruler.  to function until 1556 with different centres as will be discussed later on. 14. Cso ngrád . and o v er the counties of Pozsega. Temes. the chain o f fortresses still existed. w i th the same 20 A s a result of the refo rms of Matthias Co rv inus. Giv en the lack of a field army that co uld be m o v ed and controlled quickly and co herently. the key fo rtress of the Danube line. Krup a. Nánd o rfehérv ár co uld o nly have been replaced by a castle o f similar size and significance alo ng the Danube.3. w as to be fo und o nly several hundred kilo meters further no rth. in w hic h there w ere several tho usand So uthern Slav and Hung arian garriso n so ldiers." in  Végvárak  és  régiók  a  XVI­XVII. Szrebernik. Szentlászló . " to Nándorfehérvár. Karánsebes. Jajca. the o ther b u lw ark of the Lo w er Danube. A stro ngho ld of such strength. and Bihar. the cap taingenerals of the bo rd er territo ries. in 1521. ho w ev er. over the neig hbo uring six co unties of Bo d ro g.) Eger. and '« For the history of the captaincy-general of the Lower Parts. A rad . and Skard o na one year later."  Hadtörténelmi  Közlemények 25 (1978) 484-499.) Budapest. Szana.  Idem. co unty and no ble troops. (Studia Agriensia. no rthern line f ro m Lúgo s. 1521: The Beginning of the End of the M edieval Hungarian K i ngdom. the seco nd. In d ep th it consisted o f tw o p arallel lines of bo rd er fortresses. 1993. Valkó . ' So in case o f danger. " N ándorf ehérvár 1521-es ostromához.  2 0 2 w n 0 3. by Géza Dávid and Pál Fodor Budapest. 1994. and continued Ed.13 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A RI A N . 22 The fall of Nánd o rfehérv ár resulted in a huge breach in the defence line and bro ug ht about the loss of several neig hbo uring fortresses: Z im o ny and Szabács w ere cap tured in the same year. 2. To ro ntál. and Temesv ár via Pétervárad . bo atmen. Bács. The p erd itio n o f the castles entailed the loss o f században. A l l this might be in 21 Cf. Knin. 47-76. the bases of the defence system against the O tto man Emp ire laid d o w n by Sig ismund of Lu xem b u rg w ere transfo rmed and changed into a co herent system. and p o litical conditions of H u ng ary in the Jagellon-era (1490-1526). The loss o f the most imp o rtant castle then launched a process that culminated in total collapse. Orso v a.  A  mohácsi  csata. The same system w as d iv id ed into three sections v ertically to gether w ith the Transy lv anian territories: the Cro atian-Slav o nian p art w i th Bihács as its head quarters. which obtains very useful points of reference Ferenc Szakály. 1977. — w i t h o u t hav ing an ind ep end ent b o d y co ntro lling the m ilitary affairs—arrived at decisions on the defence of the co untry after co nsultation w i th the Ro yal Co uncil (consilium regis/regni) resid ing in Buda. social. 55-56. Krassó . dispo sed of a significant numb er o f banderia. and Orbász. Egy királyi adománylevél köztörténeti tanulsá­ opinion by Ferenc Szakály. and Knin u p to Skardo na and Kiissza. ho w ev er. ! . in the centre o f the co untry . the different 'áem. and unanimo usly co ntro lled b o th the bo rd er fortresses and the mobile field tro o ps. 56-58.

In connection with this. Tho ug h the regular A ustrian m ilitary aid seemingly strengthened the defence in this section of the bo rd er. The d eath of Lo uis II (1516-1526) at the same time b ro u g ht abo ut the fall of the med iev al H ung arian King d o m . 1903. O n the basis of the d o cuments at o ur d ispo sal. he (Rothenberg) was not the first to realize this. These castles served as stepping-sto nes fo r hi m to d o aw ay w i th the last remnants of the second line as w ell. A ltho u g h some measures w ere taken by the palatínus István Bátho rv and the captain-general of the Lo w er Parts Pál To m o ri aim ed at b ri n g i n g the fo rtresses o f the seco nd 3 34 line into a d efensible c o nd itio n and at reinf o rc ing them w i t h p aid inf antry m e n and bandena. except for so me Cro atian fortresses. Before the co llapse of the med iev al bo rd er defence system. 1993. Cf. as Thallóczy's results were often ignored even by Hungarian scholars. assessing the d anger threatening the A ustrian p ro v inces go v erned by him — m ainly Carnio la (Krain). .LX and LV LII: n.Fro m 1522 to the defeat at Mo hacs mo re and mo re frequently d i d field tro o p s arriv e f ro m the neig hbo uring A ustrian p ro v inces to the area co ntro lled by the Cro atian ban. " D i e österreichische Militar- turned to Emp ero r M axim ilian 1 (1493-1519) fo r help to jo intly avert the grenze. Histórica I. the external military sup p o rt assisting the ban of Cro atia (F. 7. Nos. 1522 between Louis II d anger threatening the A ustrian p ro v inces as w ell. 5-6) who misinterpreted the talks at the Imperial Diet  (Reichstag) remained o nly a p lan. So v illages w ho se inhabitants had p rev io usly served as Hung ary . XXXI. co uld no t be reinfo rced .Köl n. Bd. 1-10 The year 1521 which I propose to start a new period. d ue to the mo d est inco mes of the co untry . the w ho le interio r p lain area o f the co untry w o u l d so o n fall. Lajos Thallóczy. these failed one after the o ther.in. Lo uis II. Pétervárad .LXXII1: Nos.  at.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S peasant pro po sed to send several tho usand German inf antry m en to sup p o rt so ld iers fo r a p ay o f so me mo nths and fo r d ifferent exemp tio ns.  op. after the fall of the first chain of Regensburg in 1522-1523. " The O rigins of the A ustrian Mil­ v ery im p o rtant in the lo ng ru n. (M onumenta Hunganae Diplomáticas  Partium  Regno  Hungurtae  Adnexarum)."  Slavonic  and  East  Vlad islav II (1490-1516) and Lo uis II and the Cro atian baro ns and nobles European  Review 38 (1960) 493-498. A s a result. recently G erhard Rill. Fürst  und  Hof  in  Österreich  von  den  habsburgischen  Teüungsverträgen  bis  zur  Schlacht  von  Moliács (7523/22 bis 3526).  Magijarország  melléktartományainak  oklevéltára  (Codex  V ol. H o w ev er. Rothenberg..  1490-1527 [A rchives of the Croatian Border Fortresses 1490-1527). 34-38: Nos. 1). but w hic h p ro v ed 23 Lajos Thallóczy. Pal Szegó. 13 and 32. The seco nd. a change to o k place w ho se effects co uld no t be felt in the 1520s. The captain-generals (Obnstcr Feldhauptmann der nwderoblermchischen Landc) of the tro o p s sent by the A ustrian estates w ere ap p o inted by the latter and w ere no t subo rd inated to the ban.A . w hen the last units of the mo bile field tro o p s and the majo r bo rd er fortresses perished . But d u ri ng the rule and Ferdinand. There w as a threat that if the gaps co uld no t be filled v ery fast. (Forschungen zur Europäischen und V ergleichenden Rechtsgeschichte. LV 1II.  A  horvát  véghelyek  oklevéltára. j 1521. tho ug h the consequences of this d uality d i d no t manifest themselves in these years. no rthern line in the interio r of the co untry w as not facilitated by the natural surro und ing s to such an extent as the p rev io us one that w as situated almo st entirely alo ng mo untains and riv ers. Cf . but they w ere no t placed into the bo rd er fortresses as co nstant garriso ns y et. 1. and Styria (Steiermark)—resigned himself to a significant step. Süley man the Mag nificent. King s itary Frontier in Croatia and the A lleged Treaty of 22 December 1522. X X X V and LXU. Diplomataria. Rothenberg's merit is that he again drew attention to the problem. w hic h w as cho sen to substitute Nánd o rfehérv ár.law .14 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY those 15 T H E H L' N C A Rl A N .W eimar.  Außenpolitik  und  Diplomatie. A rchduke of Austria is merely the result of a mistake by Frantisek V anicek of M ax im ilian 1.) Budapest. also W infried Schulze. and no mo bile tro o p s w ere field ed . 42-43: n.  op. and this w as the first time w hen there w as an actual attemp t by the A ustrian p ro v mces to assist in the defence of the H u ng arian King d o m . the H ung arian m ilitary lead ership lost the zone that w as to have d efend ed the w ho le king d o m ..A ntal Hodinka. A lread y in the early 1500s.) W ien. W i th the co llapse of the so uthern chain of fortresses.  at. V anicek. 1. Hodinka. fortresses. Carinthia (Kamten). A rc hd u ke Ferd inand I. but o nly after the fall of the H u ng arian King d o m i n 1526.000 inf antry m en set o ff fo r H ung ary .  op. it can be stated that abo ut 2.. D u ring the siege of Nánd o rfehérv ár in 1521 he summo ned his estates fo r a special meeting and . at the request o f his bro ther. in the decades after the battle of Mo hács in 1526. he of in his introduction to the above quoted collection of documents had already corrected the mistake (L. the chain o f fortresses still remained und er the co ntro l of the ban at that time. 17. That is why the year 1522 in Rothenberg's monograph  (The  Austrian  Military  Border) is worth modifying to . exting uished the so uthern line of the fro ntier fortresses—except fo r Jajca and Kiissz a—w ithin a p erio d of some years. of."  Militärgeschichtliche  Mitteilungen  9 (1971) 191-192 Though Rothenberg proved in his study published in 1960 that the alleged treaty of December 22. Thal l oczy.. the new sultan (1520-1566). is both appropriate for marking the collapse of the first chain of fortresses and for referring to the date when Ferdinand. the entire so uthern defence system inev itably co llapsed in 1526. i n fact it d isso lv ed the unified lead ership of the military force that had been co mmand ed by the ban up to this time. A s the mo st decisive element of the defence system. A rchduke of A ustria began to support the defence system of the medieval Hungarian Kingdom with his financial and military power. see G unther E.

39. hetten Euer Kunigliche Majestät etc. F. XCI and 148-149: No. Konv.time—there w as a need for a lo nger p erio d of peace. O nly the p erfo rmers of the Christian party had changed : no w the A ustrian pro vinces w ere in the same situatio n as the med iev al H ung arian King d o m had been earlier. John I w as forced to cooperate w i th the Otto mans. A ltho ug h it w as o bvio us to those kno w ing the geographical situatio n of Hung ary that if the castles of Buda and the p lain areas co uld not stop the Otto mans. they w o u l d get several hund red kilometers nearer the centre of the A ustnan pro vinces. Hodinka.und already taken part in the recruitment of the auxiliary troops commanded to Croatia from 1522 Staatsarchiv [hereinafter H H StA ].16 GÉZA PÁLFFY 17 THE HUNGARIAN-HABSBURG BORDER DEFENCE SYSTEMS 2.  Die  Türkenpolitik  der Universität W ien. A l l this resulted i n the establishment of O tto man rule in H u ng ary . as the Cro atian-Slavo nian ban Tamäs Nädasdy expressed it in his letter to Ferd inand in the summer of 1539: "If Your H o l y Majestv does no t sup p o rt this co untry w ith y o ur other provinces it w i l l certainly hap p en that. Hof. the other p ro v inces of Yo ur Ho ly Majesty w ill be lo st. d ue to the loss of this co untry ." W ien. the questio n w as w hether H ung ary w o u ld be able to o rganize a new defence system or w hether it w o u l d share the fate of w hat had been its vassal states in the Balkans. fo r an ap p ro p riate apparatus to o rganize and co ntro l the system. In vain d id the siege of Vienna in 1529 cause a shock. fo r the ap p ro p riate eco no mic and financial backgro und and p o litical sup p o rt. the residence of the family Szapolyai. fo r a d ip lo macy that w as aware of the Otto man's custo ms and metho d s. for w ho m the Hung arian theatre of w ar w as overshadowed by the Mediterranean and Italian pro vinces also threatened by the Otto mans. 36-37. (Dissertationen 1968. .  von  1529  bis  1532. et ex amissione huius regni amittentur alia etiam regna Vestrae Sacra- '528/3/16 c. Juni-Juli fols. and und er w ho se leadership w o u ld the new defence system co me into being. Fase. Tho ug h among those A ustnan co mmanders w ho knew little about the co nd itio ns in Hungary there w ere some w ho realized the severe consequences of d elay ." in  Hungarian­Ottoman  Events Preceding Military  and  Diplomatic  Relations. No ne of these conditions w ere met at that time.1. The questio n was the same: w o u l d they manage to stop the enemy in fro nt of the borders. In 1526. crowned the king o f this co untry .. klain vnd groß behaltenn. on the territo ries o f H ung ary und er the autho rity o f Ferd inand 1. 93-130. they d id no t have the p o w er to act against it effectively. and last but not least fo r a thorough kno w led ge of local H ung arian circumstances.  at.. THE DEFENCE SYSTEM AGAINST THE OTTOMANS IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES The defeat at Mo häcs o pened up a new era in the histo ry of Hungary The co untry lost no t o nly its ruler. Österreichisches Staatsarchiv [hereinafter ÖStA]. To p ut it mo re accurately: even if they reco gnized the Otto man threat. Thaüdczy-A.a. the Habsburg military leadership w as unable to p erfo rm the tasks of defence against the Otto mans. 10. vnd die ortflegkhen gegen dem Turgkhenn damit versechenn . Haus-. 1539.) W ien. It is not a coincidence that it was Leysser who made these proposals as he had tissimae Maiestatis. Ungarische Akten (Hungarica) [hereinafter Hunganca). 2. new geschuez giessen vnnd die Turgkhisch 35 " N isi Vestra Sacratissima Maiestas alicunde ex aliis regnis suis huic regno provident. A n d if the co untry w as to succeed. and the d iv isio n of the co untry into three parts. includ ing bo th the netw o rk of bo rd er fortresses and the neig hbo uring parts sup p o rting them w i th their field tro o ps. or.. 145-147: No.  op. 2 S After the royal Ferdinands  I. To save his territories. hetten solh Geschucz. so he was among those who rightly assessed the real degTee of the Ottoman threat (see L. the coronations of John Szapo lyai I (1526-1540) and Ferd inand I (1526-1564) as kings of H ung ary . 2 7 Christine Turetschek. Tho ugh the so vereignty and ind epend ence of the co untry d id no t entirely disappear in the f o llo w ing centuries. XCOI). Ulrich Leysser chief field armoury officer  (Obrist­Feldzeug­ Gräniczen damit versechen lassenn. meister) suggested to his ruler on March 28. A llgemeine A kten [hereinafter A A ] . But these southern territories of Hung ary seemed far aw ay enough fro m Vienna. For the 25 rganization of a new defence system—as had been imp lemented on the southern fro ntiers of H u ng ary in Matthias Co rv inus'. One and a half decades of confusion: the period of the commandersin-chief of the royal army paid by Ferdinand I of Habsburg The fifteen years after 1526 remind us of the events at the turn of middle of the fifteenth century." ÖStA Kriegsarchiv [hereinafter K A ] Alte Feldakten [hereinafter A FA ] actum erit de eo. in w hat f ramew o rk. while they advanced capturing mo re and more fortresses in the Szeremseg and Cro atia. however. The conflict betw een the tw o rulers of Hung ary bro ug ht about civil w ar conditions in the co untry and its annexed pro vinces (Slavonia and Cro atia). 1528. its territo ry became the battleg ro und of two great p o w ers. " A Forgotten Theatre of W ar 1526-1528 (Historical the Ottoman-Hungarian A lliance of 1528). 26 27 28 2 6 Gabor Barta." But the extent of the d anger w as no t adequately assessed in Vienna at the end o f the 1520s. in w hich p art of it. that the artillery arsenal here and in other places should be transported to the southern border fortresses and the ruined cannon should be cast again with the same purpose: " Euer Kunigliche Majestät etc. the Habsburg and the O tto man Emp ire. troops led by Hans Katzianer captured the castle of Szepesvär. but almo st the w ho le of its southern defence system. no t to mentio n the palace of emperor Charles V ^519-1556) in Toledo.

Lajos Pekry. A ltho u g h Kassa. ÖStA K A A FA 1528/7/6. the key to Upper Hung ary remained in the hand s of John 1. There w as a similar co nflict betw een the Croatian 19 m litary leadership mad e an attemp t at w hat Sig ismund o f Lu xem b u rg "nd his successors co uld no t achieve. The questio n of co ntro l caused serio us co nflicts fro m the mo ment the first l. w i t h his tro o ps sent to Hungary he g rad ually bro ke the p o w er of his riv al king . right to co mmand them c o uld no t be d ebated ." in  Emlékkönyv  Szentpétery  Imre  of these troops w as co vered by the ruler f ro m his A ustrian p ro v inces. eco no mic. Carinthia.  évi  leveles  könyve  (The Hungarian  Locumtenentia under Ferdinand I and its Letter Book from 1549 to 1551). These w ere supplemented by the p aid so ld iers of the H ung arian and Cro atian nobles suppo rting the Habsburg s. 8. században [To Slav captains (Bálint Tö rö k. These military decisions. We can assume that the parties '"ere perfectly aw are of the hig h stakes in the struggle fo r the sphere of tho rity 3 31 The p o int w as that the w inner co uld take charge of the Hungarian and Cro atian m ilitary affairs and simultaneo usly the co ntro l f the bo rder defence system. and Győr) w ere similarly p ro v id ed w i th so ldiers o f v ario us natio nality (i. Explained and referenced by Dezső Márkus. 1938. The Hungarian military . an adequate co unterp o int was created by su p p ly ing the castle of Sáro s w ith a sig nificant Habsburg garrison. they w ere decisio ns mad e in an emergency situatio n. For this p urp o se the eco no mic and military power of the A ustrian p ro v inces sufficed even if Charles V w as reluctant to g i v e sup p o rt. Temesvár. For H u ng ary to preserve its so vereignty and territo ry to some extent. Ferd inand sent considerable numbers o f fo reig n (mainly German) tro o p s. ho w ever. Budapest. So in these co nfused times . 3«  Magyar  torvénytár. Fasc. Practically. Budapest. " A helytartói hivatal történetéhez a XV I. There w as hard ly any reassuring w ay o ut of the dead end. and Lippa) in Temesköz with the aim of checking how they could be strengthened to serve the purpose of defence against the Ottomans. Between 1526 and 1541. 1528. But acco rd ing to the so-called palatínus' articles of 1485. A s the p ay ment the History of the  Locumtenentia in the Sixteenth Century].  Ferdinánd  korában  és  1549­1551. So in the next fifteen years the Habsburg 2v The tw o processes to o k place in a sim ilar framew o rk and were acco mp anied by similar p ro blems.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S Ferd inand 's p o litical. and the A ustrian co mmand er-in-chief. it seemed that it had to pay an eno rmo us p rice in return. his születésének  hatvanadik  évfordulójának  ünnepére. the d ep u ty c o m m and ing these tro o ps in the absence of the king was the palatínus regni Hungáriáé. the military affairs o f H u n g ary and the annexed areas w ere almo st exclusiv ely co ntro lled by the abo ve mentio ned A ustrian co mmand ers-in-chief o f Ferd inand . O n the one hand . and o n the other hand' w i th the help of the mo st end angered p ro v inces of Carnio la. 1899. Carinthia' and Styria. In o rd er to strengthen his p o w er both in H u ng ary and in Cro atia and Slavo nia. Carnio la. as the co mmand er-in-chief o f the tro o p s serving in H u ng ary o r Cro atia (Obnster Feldhauptmann der mederosterreichischen Lande in Ungarn/in Kroatwn) at the cost of the ' Lo w er A ustrian estates' (at that time still co mp o sed of Lo w er A ustria. " The situatio n w as further co mp licated by the fact that this o ffice had no t been filled since 1530 and the governor (locumtenens regni Hungarme). and Győző Ember. the armoury officer of Ferdinand in Carniola  (Zeugwart  in  Kram).  A  magyar helytartótanács  l. the leader of the g o v erno rship {locumtenentta regia). See also ÖStA H H S tA Hunganca A A . Konv. created to replace the palatínus. Kiss.nmisknecht set foot on H u ng arian so il.-Juni fols 175-176. The co o p eratio n of the German and H u ng arian tro o p s w as no t unclo ud ed . Csanád. John Sigismund betw een 1536 and 1552. he started to reo rganize und er his o w n co ntro l the Croatian bo rd er defence system co o rd inated by the ban. Tnta.p o litic al o fficeho ld ers and the estates fo rmerly controlling the co untry and its defence had to reno unce their po sitio ns in leading the military .e. and Pál Bakics). of a coherent defence system. 3 1 István R. They tried to ensure their p o w er b campaigns led o utsid e the A ustrian pro vinces and by taking co ntro l of the military affairs and bo rd er defence in such areas they so ught to stop the Otto man ad vance. and Styria) tried to extend his autho rity bo th o ver the H ung arian and Croatian co ntingents.18 G ÉZ A PÁLF-FY T H E H U N G A RI A N . Germans and Spaniard s) p aid by king Ferd inand . A fter the battle of Mo hács the only efficient army w as co nstituted by the German tro o p s and by the cavalry units p aid also f ro m abro ad but led by H u ng arian and So uthern Budapest. 1908. 398-399: article No 4. The fortresses p ro tecting Vienna (Ko máro m. lacked any kind of strategy aimed at the fo rmatio n ^ Though in the summer of 1528 Martin Fleugaus. and m i l i tary resources allo w ed tw thing s i n this p erio d . and then passed to his son. mustered the border fortresses (Szeged. Jan. Up to the peace of Várad in 1538 mad e w ith John Szap o lyai. the foreign tro o ps led to H u ng ary by the A ustrian co mmand ers-in-chief secured—if no t quite satisfacto rily —the territo ry o n w hic h the new defence system co uld be o rg aniz ed later o n. d i d his best to keep co ntro l over the H u ng arian tro o p s. and by the units of the co unties and insurgent fielded und er the law s of he co untry . they could not prevent them from getting into the hands of John I. Esztergo m.  (Corpus  juris  Hungária)  1000­1526. 1.  évi  törvényczikkek (Articles of 1000-1526). 142-156.

7.  Festschrift  Fritz  Posch  zum  70.) Budapest. (1493-1564).  und  die  stemschen  57-173. and Oto csác.  Geburtstag. Hans Katzianer) began to o rganize the bo rd er fortresses und er ro yal ad ministratio n into a co herent system. reno unced his co ntro l o ver the castles he had been in charge of. but it d i d no t entail—and it co uld no t w i th i n the med iev al H u ng arian King d o m—the transfo rmatio n of the defence system." in  Siedlung.  Macht  und  Wirtschaft. 3 6 " Pro conservandis partium istarum ad confinia Turcharum Capitaneum assumpsimus et constituimus iacentium locis illique Castrorum et O ppidorum Bihigij et Repatz. W ith the ap p o intment of Thu rn the co nstructio n of the w estern section of the Cro atian bo rd er defence system extend ing f ro m the Una to the A d riatic Sea actually started . Bernd Zimmermann. In ad d itio n to taking charge of the majo r bo rd er fortresses. tho ug h subject to changes in its personnel. and therefore the estates of Carnio la. " Landeshauptmann Hans Ungnad von Sonnegg » On the help given by the Styrian estates: Günther Burkert. Hodinka. fols 86-87. Belügy box 1 fols. and the w o rk w as co ntinued by the co mmand ers-in-chief in Cro atia and Slavonia (Obnstcr Feldhauptmann windischer und krabatischer/kroatischer Lande) ap p o inted after 1540. Civitatisque nostrae Segmensis et Ottoschutz cum omnibus attinentiis curam administrationemque demandavimus" .. M agyar kincstári levél­ tárak. A s a first step. Stande  Dargestellt anhand  der  stemschen  Lmdlagc  1526­1541. Magyar Országos Levéltár [hereinafter M O L] E 144. Cf. Fasc. Fase 2 -Fase. .  ibid. Ein Beitrag zu seiner Biographie. Budapest. sent tro o p s p aid by his A ustrian estates to the castles of Z eng g and Kiissza in 1527 and to Bihács after the resignatio n of Ferenc Batthyány in 1528. the Cro atian-Slavo nian ban w h o had supported Ferdinand. 1538. d efend ing Bihács again. and Styria soon managed to transfer control of this section of the defence system of the med iev al Hungarian Kingd o m to A rchd uke Ferd inand and reo rganize it fo r their o w n protection. 3. M agyar Kamara A rchívuma [hereinafter M K A j Történelmi emlékek.GÉZA 20 PÁ LFFY the 'task' of the go verno rs (locumtenens regni Hungáriáé) 21 T H E H U N G A R1A N . 1976. Gábor Barta. firstly by Hans Ung nad . 70. nec non Civitatis nostrae Segnensis et Attatschvz ac praeterea et oppidorum nostrorum Bihigij et Repath assumpsimus ct constituimus. August 27. 1540. 94-95. 12. w hen the ban Péter Keglevich. 671: No D XXIV .  at. Graz. At the same time. in nostrorum eorundem Capitaneum universorum regni nostri Croatiae locorum finimorum simul et gentium ibidem nostrorum. Cf. after the death of his captain-general and ban* Kristóf Frangepán in September 1527. 1527. fols. A fter the resignatio n in 1528 of Ferenc Batthyány.c hief w ere the f ield marshals (Feldmarschall) co mmanded to help him and the w ar co uncillo rs (verordnete Knegsrdte) either staying beside him or in V ienna— inc lu d ing a w ar secretary (Knegssckretdr):'' So in this p erio d a new military ad ministrativ e organization came into being. fol. D XXV I and 677-686: Nos. Konv. 38. by Gerhard Pferschy. Without place The  Bestallung of Ferdinand I for Hans Ungnad " Oberister V eldhawbtman vnnserer Funff Niderosterrcichischen. Thal l ckzy.  op. mo re and mo re field tro o ps also arriv ed in the Sava regio n to sto p the O tto man raid s.  Ferdinand  I. the Austrian provinces w ere mo stly threatened in these areas i n this p erio d . the vacancy of the office o ffered an excellent o p p o rtunity to curtail the sphere of autho rity of the ban.. ' In accordance w i th the practice fo llo w ed i n the case of the co mmand ers-in-chief in H u ng ary they w ere also assisted by 35 36 3 35 L. 34 Thus the Habsburg military ad ministratio n started to f o rm the first unit of the new defence system against the Otto mans in the Cro atian border area.  passen) from the period 1526-1550 "Cnstoforus de Frangepanibus 1 7 rcgnorum Dalmaciae.. W indischen vnd Crabatischen Lannde" . January 12. Carinthia. and the m ino r fortresses belo ng ing to them.D X X X V and LV11. w hich. Ho w ev er.. 35 » On the war councillors. 210.) G raz. 1527) O StA HHStA Hungarica A A Fasc. 1981. and their co mmand ers-in-chief (Miklós Jurisics. (Inaugural-Diss. that is of the O l d Cro atian co nfines. in 1538 they set up the post of the captain-general w ho se resp o nsibility encompassed the regio n called the O ld Cro atian co nfines (alte krabatische/kroatische Grenze) in later sources. 89. The real military assistants of the c o m m and er. had less po w er to sup p o rt his fo llo w ers there.A . In Croatia the changes in the military ad ministratio n and bo rd er defence were similar and even faster than in H ung ary .in. 195. In spite o f this fact. see the  Hungarica collection of OStA HHStA (A A . 672-674: No. and " in supremum . It has already been mentio ned as a precedent that after 1521 field troops paid by the A ustrian estates regularly marched to Cro atia. Ferd inand ap p o inted Erasm v o n Thu rn the captain-genera! of Z engg. the Otto mans—as in the next one and a half centuries—regarded this territo ry as a seco ndary theatre o f w ar besides the main Hungarian front in its narro w sense. 12-13 and 86." ÖStA H H StA Hungarica A A . (Studia Histórica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Cf. 63-64. Croaciae et Sclavoniae banus ac capitaneus regius generalis" (Vehke. Bihács. Ripacs. A pr. 93 and 96-99.  La  route  qui  mčne  ŕ  Istanbul  1526­1528. D X X X U . (Veröffentlichungen des Steiermärkischen Landesarchivs.) Ed. In the last d ays of A p r i l . Ferd inand I m his capacity as King of Hung ary and Cro atia. John I. 1994. and the locumtenens in Pozsony had hard ly any w o rd in the d irectio n of these remo te territories. show ed some signs of stability and became o f great sig nificance as the precedent of the A ulic War Co uncil (Wiener Hofknegsrat). 1. Konv.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S in Pozsony w as only to consult the co mmand ers-in-chief no t w ell-v ersed in the H u ng arian conditions and to quarrel about the spheres of autho rity .

It w as no t by chance that the estates of H u ng ary . " XV I. 1992. The first attempts to organize a new defence system (1541-1556) The fall of Buda in 1541 and of the fortresses of Sikló s.  op. A t the same time. w ho se territo ry decreased to the shape of a crescent.  (Corpus  Juris  Hungária)  1526­1608.. nam Hungaricum per se subsidium ad ista omnia haudquaquam satis futurum esse. The p attern and the metho d s w ere g iv en: bo rd er defence regio ns had to be f o rm ed that w ere similar to those w hic h used to pro tect the so uthern bo rd ers of the med ieval H ung arian Ki n g d o m .H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S w ar co uncillo rs delegated by neig hbo uring p ro v inces.b. A n d tho ug h he d i d no t seek to o rganize a new defence system in these far aw ay areas of H u ng ary . 198-199.  The  Uskoks  of  Sen/. he o nly spo ntaneo usly reto rted his riv al king John I. and p articularly in the fo reg ro und of Vienna. He co uld also benefit fro m the serious mistakes co mmitted by the Otto man military lead ership. that is he w as no t energetically inv o lv ed against the Otto mans. századi közigazgatástörténeti adatok Z ól yom vármegyéből [Data 3^ Kaser.1."  Századok 57-58 (1923-1924) 474: n.  and  Holy  War  in  the  Sixteenth­Century  Adriatic." 1547: article 16. Pécs. w hic h the Otto mans had already menaced by marc hing to the A ustrian fro ntiers. then of Esztergo m o n the Danube.. and the loss of Valp ó and A ty ina in Slavo nia d u ring the 1543-1544 camp aig n justified those few w ho w ere of the o p inio n alread y in the 1530s that Cro atian areas—co uld be p o stp o ned . Nó grád .. stressed so many times m the fo llo w ing years that. W hile up to this p o int the creatio n of the new sy stem — w ith the exceptio n of the mo st end angered 4 0 " Subsidium vel pecuniarum. 1899. The repeated advance of the Otto mans created a co mp letely new situatio n. w i th these steps he still ensured those regio ns w here later o n the new chain of fortresses co uld be built u p as the basis fo r the o rg aniz atio n of the new defence system.22 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY 23 T H E H U N G A R1 A N ." they c o u ld no t f u l f i l their tasks d ue to the lack of financial resources. Catherine W endy Bracewell. 3 2. he co mmissio ned co mmand ers-in-chief to take charge of the military affairs and bo rd er defence in H u ng ary . Carinthia. w ho se certain g ro up s later o n p lay ed an imp o rtant ro le in the defence of bo rd er fortresses and then f ro m the eighteenth century in thé m ilitary fro ntiers. H atv an. Tata. A ntal Föglein.  Piracy. vel gentium Sacrae Caesareae et Regiae M ajestatum ac imperii pnncipum omnino est necessarium. W i th his tro o ps reg ularly sent to Cro atia-Slav o nia and H u ng ary each year. 40 Tho ug h the H ung arian estates elected tw o captain-generals of the co untry (supremus capitaneus regm Hungáriáé.. "there is a need fo r the financial and military assistance o f the H o ly Imp erial and Ro yal Majesties and of the Imp erial Princes. Süleyman I w ithd rew his tro o p s to the line of the Lo w er Danube and Drav a and d i d no t retain those fortresses w hic h afterw ard s faced h i m as the b u lw arks of the new defence netw o rk and c o uld o nly be regained at the expense of severe losses. 60-61. Banditry. . at the same time. the o p p o site w as true as w ell. Fo rtunately. 60-79.London. Obrister Landeshauptmann in Ungam) at the d iet of Besztercebánya in 1542. This w as no easy task—no t o nly fo r financial or military reasons. Székesfehérvár. Ithaca. and Vienna. 3« Schulze. The d istricts of those fortresses that co uld be fitted into a new line w ere ruined o w i n g to the O tto m an these fortresses w o u l d have to be reinfo rced and a new defence system co v ering the w ho le co untry o rganized .  íörvényczikkek [Articles A ccompanied by explaining notes by Dezső M árkus [hereinafter 1526-1608). and Styria in the Cro atian territo ries alread y had a certain kno w led ge of the place and so me practice in the basics of ho w to create a defence line..  Magyar  löménytár.. in H u ng ary .* In the p erio d lasting f ro m the battle of Mo hács to the fall of Buda the fo rmatio n o f a new defence system w as initiated by the Habsburg m ilitary lead ership o nly in the Cro atian bo rd er area betw een Z eng g and Bihács. Immed iate actio n w as needed in the Slav o nian p arts. because the H u ng arian w ar tax (subsidium) alone canno t cover all these at al l . of C/HJ. no w there w as no further p o ssibility f delay d ue to the threat to Styria. Budapest. fo r the maintenance of the bo rd er fortresses.  at. there w ere p o liticians and military leaders o n bo th sides w h o und ersto o d the real consequences of the lack of co o p eratio n. Lo w er A ustria (Niederösterreich). i n 1529 and 1532. 1. the leaders of the end angered Lo w er A ustria c o u ld o nly start their job w i th the help o f the co mmand er-in-chief d elegated by them and of the H u ng arian estates.  Landesdefension. the basis had alread y been established in the Cro atian bo rd er zo ne. " In p arallel to this the settlement of and o ffering of p riv ileg es to the Vlachs (Valaclu) and Usko ks (Uscoci) started in the Cro atian-Slav o nian areas. jam majestas sua intelligit. W hile the military leaders of the estates of Carnio la. Ferd inand I to o k the necessary steps o nly in the territo ries mo stly threatened by the O tto mans and even if he reco gnized the real nature of this d anger (namely that Vienna w as also menaced ) he w as unable to create a co herent defence system to av o id it.  on the A dministrative History of County Z ólyom in the Sixteenth Century). " The parties fighting fo r co ntro l o ver the H ung arian military affairs w ere fo rced to cooperate in o rd er to surv iv e.

Realizing this. The reason fo r this w as that the Cro atian-Slav o nian ban. and their successors w as either to take these fortresses entirely into ro y al use (Szigetvär. Lat. Contemporary copy . Szigetvár. In v ain d i d the H ung arian estates try to finance the fortresses fro m the w ar tax (subsidnim o r dica) of the decreased co untry in 1546. majo r rivers o r marshy areas) u p to Lake Balato n or the N o rthern and Transd anubian M o untains w hic h co uld have sto p p ed them. the Hung arian estates asked Ferd inand I in 1546 to care for the fortresses o f Do mbó . but still d ep end ing o n the extent o f the O tto m an menace had to be replaced by co nstant p artic ip atio n. Csesznek. the metho d s w hic h w ere alw ay s ap p licable in their p erfected fo rms if new defence zones had to be created against the O tto man advance.Ę7. ro y al co mmand er-in-chief. The process w hic h resulted in the f o rmatio n of a co herent defence system rang ing f ro m the A d riatic Sea to the Transy lv anian bo rd er in tw enty years w as the f ruit o f their w o rk starting at the turn o f the 1550s. So metimes new fortresses (Olähüjvär)—mainly p alisad es—w ere erected. had a better w o rking relatio nship than his predecessors w ith the locumtenens and w ith the Transd anubian captain-general (supretnus capitnneus partium Transdanubianarum) and the 'Cisd anubian' captain-genera) (supremus capitnneus partium Cisdanubtanarum) ap p o inted to the territo ries no rth and east of the D anube. Gy ula) or to make sure that the ro y al garriso n sho uld be p laced in the p riv ate ones (Papa. It w as of mo re imp o rtance. Devecser). their effo rts resulted each time in f ailure. 14-29. as these fortresses had been d ep riv ed of all their incomes by the O tto m an ad v an c e " Bv this time the Otto mans quickly mo v ed fo rw ard despite their military mistakes. and Léva north-east of the Danube w i th the help of his A ustrian p ro v inces. W hile Lo w er A ustria. c o mmand er-in-chief fo r the w ho le theatre of w ar against the Otto mans (Obrister Feldhauptmann der Krone Ungarn. Szécsény. Pásztó . had to und ertake the sup p ly of the fortresses p ro tecting Vienna and its d istrict and the castles no rth of Lake Balato n. Lak. A rchbisho p of Esztergo m and lucumtcncns. Fol. . In the fo und atio n of the new defence system in the 1540s. Kroatischen und Niederösterreichischen Lande)' * and ap p o inted in 1546. 54. The field tro o ps led by the ro yal co mmand ers-in-chief w ere no t able to co unterbalance the disadvantages d eriv ing f ro m the natural surro und ing s so the fortresses enumerated by the estates co uld rely on o nly d im inished sup p o rt. in o rd er to surv iv e. and Pal Värday. A n d tho ug h the m ilitary lead ership in Vienna w as still far f ro m o rg aniz ing the defence on the basis o f a coherent strategy. tho ug h this w as still no t c o mmo n practice. b u R a c M » S P" « M O L E 554 M K A Városi és kamarai iratok. Salm. Furthermo re. the estates of Carnio la and Carinthia w ere co nfro nted w i th new tasks fro m the 1550s on as the o w ners o f the fortresses in the regio n fro m Bihács to Sziszek and no rth of the river Una arhcl " e« a ^ TsÍlsT^ ^ p r ° V e n . Fasc. that is he remained as helpless w i tho u t the sup p o rt of the neig hbo uring A ustrian p ro v inces as the tw o captain-generals of the co untry elected by the H ung arian estates. 1546). Drégely. a decisive role w as p lay ed by N iklas Graf z u Salm. bv the late 1540s this task w as m ainly entrusted to the A ustrian pro vinces and to the German Emp ire. 41 Fro m all this the m ilitary lead ership i n Vienna came to the co nclusio n that the field tro o p s o ccasio nally sent to H u ng ary and Cro atia-Slavo nia w ere no t sufficient to pro tect their pro vinces. A t the same time. The restructuring w o rk w as hamp ered bv the fact that mo st of the castles to be includ ed in the new system of fortresses w ere p riv ately o w ned at that time.A PA LFFY T camp aigns so their up keep and the p ay ment of so ld iers co uld not be covered bv their d iminished incomes. and later to o .H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S more and mo re frequently turned to their ruler fo r help . o ften granted y early . Värd av. Eger. A n o utstand ing ly im p o rtant task of Salm. for after their o ccup atio n of the fortresses in the Szerémség there were no natural obstacles (mo untains. Styria had the same job co ncerning the bo rd er fortresses of Slavo nia shrunken to the territo ries betw een the Sava and Drav a w est of Pozsega. " t 154* H E 25 H U N G A R I A N . Tihany . Kapo sújvár So mo g y v ár. 1546-1547 fols. came into being in this p erio d . Their o d d sup p o rt. M arch 21. and Szentmárto n m Transd anubia.24 C. that several m ino r fo rts w ere strengthened in the d istrict of ro y al castles and w ere 1 « Ö StA H H StA Hungarica A A (V ienna. Lo w er A ustria and Styna w ere no w faced w i th the same task as Carnio la and Carinthia— w hic h had been financing the O l d Cro atian bo rd er fo r a decade. the many fo rced measures bro ug ht their first results by 1556. der Windischen. Buják. g rad u ally d ep riv ed of the military autho rity he had possessed befo re the battle of Mo häcs. tho ug h. w as unable to protect this territo ry effectively w i th the infantry and cav alry troops co nsisting of o nly a few hund red p eo p le p aid by the king f ro m the dica. W hile before 1521 all the military and financial resources of the co untry co uld be mo biliz ed in o rd er to p ro tect the tw o so uthern bo rd er castles defence lines. 851 T —  *P°»** * un . Csesznek. fo r Ság.

The fo llo w ing table pro v id es info rmatio n on these defence zones. 36 143 203 r. f. Gyôr. 1. 4 + Upper Hungary field 51 troops Captaincy-general of min. 1080 826 8144 r. Eger. 123 000 r. 1 d. 2. Szo lno k. f." in Rapporti  veneto­ungheresi  all'epoca  del  Rmascimento (Studia Humanitatis. századi várépítés M agyarországon [The Fortification of Castles Total monthly payment dumber of cavalry 46 4 5 27 T H E H U N G A RI A N .-Juii fols. To develo p this bo rd er defence into a coherent system there w as a need for a central d irecting bo d y that c o uld go v ern them acco rd ing to the same concept. 169-179. f. Budapest. 28 056 r. f. fortresses + minor ones " vv^ndislTconftnes 15 + 12 k.). 59 125 r. 38 945 475 r. 1 d. 5 0 The 928 infantrymen consisted of 528 Hungarian boatmen  (naszados) and 400 G erman infantrymen  5 1 (Landsknecht). 2 + the Lower Parts field troops Imperial troops in Transylvania 48 V idor Pataki. 4 » 1556: ÖStA H H S tA Hungarica A A . mo st of the constructio n w o rks in this p erio d w ere no t subject to co mprehensive controls and b u ild ing s w ere no t co nstructed acco rding to mo d ern architectural proced ures but in a ro ugh-and -read y w ay . if no t in integrated framew o rks. f. 5 2 . Together with the 59 coach-horses  (Postpferd) used in Hungary. f. f .  250 915 4927 r. the cavalry and infantry tro o ps serving in them." in  Technologisches  Cewerbemuseum. and Kassa und er the d irectio n of Italian p ro fessio nal m i l i tary architects hired by the Vienna hig h c o mmand .  cit. The exception to this rule w as the fo rtificatio n of the strategically mo st imp o rtant castles such as Esztergom.und Kreidfeuersystem)" the w ho le defence line still d i d no t w o rk effectively eno ugh. But these actions w ere alw ays acco mp lished i n the last minute so the establishment of the new defence netw o rk p ro ceed ed quite halting ly . 16-37. f. 156 000 r. f. Fase. f. 50 k. k. 45 T h . 76. and the use of German and Hung arian so ldiery together caused some further pro blems so far u nkno w n to the Habsburg military leadership.  I included in this figure the muster master  (Mustermeister). Jan. Simoniti. 944» 900 9263 r. 1 Komarom 7 5 the mining towns Border fortresses in min. zahlmeister­Kontrolleur) the muster scribe  and the war paymaster inspector  (Muster­ (Kriegs­ who were employed to supply the fortresses from Pozsony to G yul a. But before the establishment of this in 1556 the fo rmatio n of the units of the new defence system began.26 m anned f ro m large fortresses and that the castles. k. the war paymaster  (Knegszahlmeister). " Partecipazione di architetti militari veneziani alia costruzione del sistema delle fortezze di confine in Ungheria tra il 1541 e il 1593. and also the 125 infantrymen calculated from the amount of pay they received in the castle of Saros. there w ere halts in the w ar supplies and p ro v isio n of fo o d . f. and o n the mo nthly and annual costs of their p ay . 77 206 r. f. The taking o ver of the castles by the king and the sup p ly of them w ith so ldiers w ere fo llo w ed by their fo rtificatio n. 15 k. schreiber). 1975. 35 k. f. f. f. 1D56 N umber of fortresses ^ I d ^ ^ ro ati aT T ci ^ 2 major N umber of infantry Total annual payment 565 241 6433 r. Ko mâro m. " A XV I. Ed. Konv.Rheni sh forint.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S G ÉZ A PÁ L FF Y Total R. 4 7 G erman  Mörser  zu  Kreidschüssen or  Larmmörscr = Latin  mortanum  pro  dando  signo  seu  rumore or  bombarda  ad  sonum  apta = Hungarian  hírlövő  mozsár or  hírpattantyú = Croatish glasnik and Turkish  haberdar."  A  Bécsi  Magyar  Történeti  Intézet  Évkönyve 1 (1931) 98-132. t. ones Border fortresses 987 1874 8 around G yor Confines protecting 11 933 r. — 1000 2000 13 000 r.  op. k. mainly by build ing palisades made of so il and beams. f 21 k. 39 k. 762 826 6711 r. f. and the aband o ned castles that w ere no t b l o w n u p o ften became v ery imp o rtant elements in the Otto man system o f stro ng ho ld s i n H ung ary . d=Pfennig in Hungary in the Sixteenth Century]. 80 539 r. field troops ^rToopT^ed by the  ban  Border fortresses Sziget + around Szigetvar minor 200 300 2338 r. Ho w ev er.in. G ustav Otruba.. 15-43. 12 k. k=Kreuzer. Tho ug h in o rder to defend the hinterland pro vinces they started to create a system of signalling w ith gunsho ts and fires (Kreidschuss.  Jahresbericht 1955/56. f. 4 6 Endre M arosi. f.  i. 11 97 730 r. I l l 160 r f. mansio ns and cloisters no t f itting in the system w ere d estro yed . 5 k. 928 " 150 5788 r. 1375 859" 10 250 r. " Z ur Geschichte des Fernmeldewesens in Österreich. 1956. about 50 8978 8004 78 789 r. 1556. 69 456 r. 4 9 I counted the 24-person auxiliary staff of the commander. V ienna. organization of the defence system against the Ottomans and the number and payment of the soldiers in the border fortresses.chief — including the artil­ lerymen serving in the fortresses—in the infantry. 195-215. by Tibor Klaniczay. f. A t the same time.

) Ed. and a Carinthian w a r co uncillo r. w hic h w ere supp o rted by the field tro o ps of the co mmand er-in-chief. as he had been represented in this bo rd er regio n by his assistant co mmand ers-in-chief (Verwalter der obristen Feldhauptmannschaft) several rimes. Pápa. w hic h w as mo re end angered than Slavo nia. The perso nnel of the co mmand er-in-chief also includ ed a muster master (Mustermeister). 5 5 " T ag und nacht zwischen den türkischen Schlössern auf der W acht Hegen müssen. . In ad d itio n to the 1. 1546. Drav a) so uth and south-east o f Várasd .800 ro yal tro o p s—similarly to the Cro atian bo rd er line—several nobles had their o w n armies.  III. A n im p o rtant step in this d irec tio n— w hic h also d etermined later d ev elo p ments—w ass that. Skarthaus. Jan. Their fortresses were d iv id ed into tw o captaincies (Hauptmannscluift).M ünchen. See also Lajos Gecsenyi. 20/1993. (without fols.28 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY 29 T H E H U N G A R I A N . Hans Ung nad became co mmand er-in-chief in the Cro atianSlavo nian bo rd er area (Obrister Feldhauptmann an den imndischen und kroatischen Grenzen) in 1553. fols. A ngelika Hametner. III. 57 Lopasic. the castle d istricts of Z eng g (Oto csác. (Phil. H u ng arian góré. Z ur Problematik der ungarischen Städteent­ wicklung. 84. In 1573 for example eight guards were serving " am Wasserflus V nna" : ÖStA K A A FA 1573/11/1. even o ccasio nally by the army of the ban in case of a majo r O tto m an raid . Hof f inanz Ungarn [hereinafter: H FU ] R N 2. Brlo g) and Bihács (Ripacs. In ad d itio n to their g arriso n. 1889. 1566.' The sailors o n the A d riatic Sea. a Carnio lan.  Das  Haus­. 3 6 See note 65. (Wiener Beiträge zur Geschichte der Neuzeit. W hile his tasks in H u ng ary w ere assigned to Sforza Pallav icini ap p o inted f ield marshal (Obrister Feldmarschall in Ungarn. were employed on the Croatian border later.  Die  niederösterreichischen  1970. a w ar paymaster (Knegszahlmeister).H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S Up to 1556 there w ere no essential changes in the o rganizatio n of the O l d Cro atian co nfines established by 1538. That this new defence unit w as of extreme imp o rtance to Vienna is sho w n by the fact that in its eight fortresses there w ere many mo re so ld iers in 1556 than i n the tw o d o zen castles of the O l d Cro atian and Slav o nian co nfines p ro tecting the three Inner A ustrian pro vinces. II. 1889. therefo re. XV . 64-65.  supra. the title of the co mmand er-in-chief of Hung ary and Cro atia-Slav o nia w as d iv id ed into tw o parts. 390-391: No. a zone similar to bo th the one that had existed befo re the battle of Mo hács and the one that had already taken shape in Cro atia.  Skartleuts 1915. 5» ÖStA Finanz. Izacsics. apart f ro m the field marshal (Feldmarschall) in the mid -1550s. 1993. W ien. furthermo re. Thus the o rg aniz atio n of a bo rd er fortress zone w as also initiated 58 in H u ng ary . in parallel to the ap p o intment of Salm as co mmand er-in-chief in 1546.  Rajzok  a  török  világból [Sketches from the Ottoman W orld]. 420-426: No. o n the Cro atian bo rd er a special d ep u ty (Leutnant) w as also c o mmand ed to help hi m .  op." in  Archiv  und  Forschung.) W i en. in o rd er to defend Styria. So ldiers p aid by the Sty nan estates w ere sent to the bo rd er fortresses of the riv er valleys (Ló nya. a p ro v isio n o fficer (Proviantmeister). In the co ntro l of this second defence reg io n and in the co mmunicatio n w i th the three pro vinces p ay ing the so ld iers. 70: n.  1531  do  1730. by Elisabeth Springer und Leopold Kammerhofer. Csáz ma. 2. Tu rkish cardakf* and in the forests p aid b y the ruler (Skartleut). XX. Budapest. assistance w as p ro v id ed by a Styrian." Sándor Takáts. N iklas Graf z u Salm ap p o inted in 1546 w o rke d in H u ng ary . tho ug h these w ere no t subo rd inated to the co mmand er-m-chief. 48. too. and Szentmárto n) w ere sup p lied w i th so ldiers p aid by the Lo w er A u strian estates.. 53 5 Since the Otto mans w ere g rad ually ad v ancing on the Slavo nian territo ries betw een the Drav a and the Sava in the 1540s. after his d eath i n 1550. that is Slavo nian bo rd er defence zo ne (windische Grenze) w ere relativ ely q uic kly laid .) and  ibid. w ho se task w as—acco rd ing to a co ntemp o rary d o c ument— to w atch d ay and nig ht and signal in case of a raid by the enemy . Hofkammerarchiv [hereinafter H K A ] Niederösterreichische Kammer R N 46. Veszp rém. belo nged to this o rg aniz atio n as w ell. the fo und atio ns of the so-called W end ish. the fortresses no rth of Lake Balato n (Győ r. 33. Latin excubia. then f ro m 1542 b y ban Mikló s Zrínyi (1542-1556) w i th a few hund red of his cavalry and infantry . especially on the territo ries rang ing f ro m Bihács to Sziszek alo ng the Una and the Ku lp a. a/ 1-18. Radoslav Lopasic. Brinje. Besides the tro o ps o f the co mmand er-in-chief.) Zagreb. and To p licski turanj) . D iss..  Od  godme  1693  do  1780  i  u  dodatku od g. 5 3 5 4 See the picture of a typical example in  Vojna  Krajina.  Spomcma  hrvatske  krajme  (Acta  históriám  confirm  militaris  Croatia  illustrancia). w hic h also to o k p art in the defence of the mo re and m o re threatened p art of the co untry .und Hofkammerarchiv [FHKA J.  cit.  Hof­  und  Staatsarchiv  in  seiner  Bedeutung  für  die  Geschichte  Österreichs  und  Europas. supremus bellicus mareschallus in Hungária). and Landtage  von  1530­1564. Szo ko l. w h o p lay ed an im p o rtant ro le in c o ntro lling the coastline so uth of Z engg. " Ungarische Städte im V orfeld der Türkenabwehr Österreichs. % 57 The establishment o f the new defence zones in H u ng ary w as mo st rap id o n territo ries p ro tecting Vienna and Lo w er A ustria. (Monumenta Spectantia Históriám Slavorum M endionalium. the tro o ps o f the bo rder zo ne inc lud ed the so ld iers serv ing in the guard -ho uses (German Skart. the Cro atian bo rd er area w as d efend ed by the bans Péter Keglev ich and Tam ás N ád asd y (1537-1542).

A fter the fall of Fülek in 1554. tho ug h they w ere rather exhausted by the O tto man d ev astatio n. Do mbó . fols. regm Ungariae dux et capitaneus a rege Ferdinando constiruitur. 35. A n d altho ug h in 1554 the o ffice o ften called in this time the cap taincy-general o f the areas bey o nd the Tisza (supremus capitaneatus partium Transtibiscanarum) w as held by the Bisho p of Várad and later—after Várad w as attached to Transy lv ania (1557)—by the captain of Gy ula. " V édelmi öve/ etek a Tiszától keletre a XV I században [Defence Zones East of the River Tisza in the Sixteenth Century]" in  In  memonam  Barta  Gábor. Similar tasks w ere fulfilled in Up p er H u ng ary by Gábo r Perényi (1554-1555).30 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY U p to his death in sp ring 1550. etc." Somogy  megye  múltjából. There w as a chance that the Otto mans w o u l d sever the co nnectio n betw een the territo ries near Vienna and the areas and fortresses o n the tw o banks of the Tisza.  Tanulmányok  Barta  Gábor  emlékére. Babó csa. co o p erating w i th h i m efficiently. see Csaba Csorba. furthermo re. Drégely. Kisko máro m. 1402. A lbeit the instructio n sent to field marshal Sforza Pallav icini in N o v ember 1552 decreed that all the so ldiers in the bo rd er fortresses no rth. 74-75. 209-227.). still p ro v i d i ng a lio n's share of inco mes i n the d iminished co untry . by István Lengvári. Ed. it w as o nly a matter o f time before the remnants of the captaincy-general o rg aniz ed in the so uthern parts of the co untry in the 1470s submitted to O tto m an advance. M eanw hile. Kézirattár [hereinafter K t] Fol. t'ol. The letter of János Balassa to Tamás N ádasdy 6 3 un  ostlichen  Mitteleuropa. Ho lló kő . Kékkő . No. and w i th the locumtenens Pál Várd ay (d ied in 1549).  Eme  krittsche  Sludie  zur  osmanischen  Expansion  europas. July 9. Libetbánya. after the taking o f Temesv ár fo r Ferd inand . The o ccupatio n of the fortresses in co unty Nó grád in 1552 and of Fülek tw o years later cut an eno rmo us w ed g e into the co untry und er Ferd inand I's rule. 11. A t the same time. 7. Divény. of Perényi: " A nno Chnsti 1554. Balassa held this office called the captain-general of the m i ni ng to w ns (supremus capi­ taneus civitatum montanarum) u p to 1562. Item 24. the Transd anubian and A nd rás Bátho ry. No. O n the appointment Z ólyom. Pécs.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S A greement with him on the payment of his soldiers: M O L E 211 M K A Lymbus Series II. 6 2 histonsch­auellen­ (Z ur Kundé Südost- 1994. they placed Jáno s Balassa. In accordance w i th the med iev al co ncept.^ A nd rás Bátho ry attemp ted to f u lf il similar tasks in Up p er H ung ary . w h o w as ap p o inted V o iv o d e of Transy lv ania (1552-1553). and by István Dersffy.  Levéltári  évkönyv 5 (1974) 13-47. A rchív Mesta Kosic." Budapest. Ko rp o na. the hig h sheriff and cap tain of Z ó lyo m (comes and capitaneus Zoliensis) in charge of the bo rd er fortresses d efend ing the m i n i n g to w ns f ro m Léva to Div ény (Léva. 61 62 63 64 «> A summary of all this: Géza Pálffy. 11/18. But Szo lno k and Temesv ár w ere o ccup ied and had to be replaced b y Gy ula and Várad . Z ó lyo m. Segesd. Lai . the Cisd anubian captain-general of the c o untry .Köl n. the successor of A nd rás Báthory. tried to create a co herent system o ut of the castles so uth of Lake Balato n and the ones p ro tecting his estate o f Kanizsa (Szigetvár. the Otto mans captured fortresses o f crucial imp o rtance (Veszprém. Die Eroberung  von  Fülek  durch  die  Osmanen 1554. His appointment: Fasc. etc. the captain of Kassa (1556-1557) after Perényi d eserted to John Sig ismund . M issiles. Gy armat) d u ring their 1552 camp aig n. the Vienna hig h c o m m and had tried to reo rganize the captaincy-general o f the Lo w er Parts (capitaneatus partium regm Hungáriáé inferiorum) created by Matthias Co rv inus in the mid-1470s as p art o f the new defence system. W hile N ád asd y . O rszágos Széchényi Könyvtár [hereinafter O SzK[. after the ro yal taking o ver of Szigetvár in 1546. Szécsény. Ság. 6 4 Dersffy's instruction: Kosice. as in 1550. 6 1 M árkus Köhbach. Kapo svár. in 1551.) W ien. considerable number of soldiers w ere sent to Temesv ár and the neig hbo uring m ino r fortresses. O nly the hero ic f ig hting of the garriso n o f Eger co uld stop the enemy threatening the up p er p arts of the co untry . He w as g reatly assisted by Tamás N ád asd y . Berzence. Lak. Buják. Bo zó k. w 31 T H E H U N G A RI A N . M O L E 185 M K A A rchívum familiae N ádasdy [hereinafter E 185]. there w as an unsuccessful attem p t to place Transy lv ania und er Habsburg lead ership.D unántúl török kori végvári rendszerében [Cloisters Fortified and Converted into Castles in the South-Transdanubian System of Border Fortresses in the Ottoman Era]. 1555. Palota. the m i n i n g to w ns situated in H u ng ary alo ng the riv er Garam. Collectio Schwartzenbachiana 1780 and O StA K A A FA 1557/ 6/ ad 8. w i th the help o f Geo rge M arti n u z z i . an attemp t w as mad e to mo biliz e the nearby co unties in the hinterland to d efend these stro ng ho ld s.) w i th the help of the captain o f Szigetv ár und er his cap taincy-general. passed into the fo refro nt of Otto man co nquest. Vienna regard ed their p ro tec tio n— sim ilarly to the significant Up p er H u ng arian parts—as extremely imp o rtant. M artii supremus For these smaller castles. " Erődített és várrá alakított kolostorok a D él. The loss o f Temesv ár and Szo lno k in effect shattered this exp eriment. N iklas Graf z u Salm co ntro lled the defence o f the co untry and started to fashio n the new defence system w i th his d ep uty .W eimar. W hile Ferd inand I sent a majo r army to the p rincip ality led by Gianbattista Castaldo. 1996. die 8. M O L E 142 M K A Acta publica . his w ar co uncillo rs and his secretary.

The letter of Sforza Pallavicini to Tamás N ádasdy. nostrorum Danubii parte in existentium demandaverimus" (Ebersdorf. Okt. the military sciences u nd erw ent an unusually fast d ev elo p ment. 1991. fols.  1550­1800.. castcllanos ct milites nostras ex utraque Danubii parte existentes firmissimis mandatis.. Cf . This huge m i l itary o rg aniz atio n—ev en in Euro p ean term s— d id no t w o rk und er unified 6 5 " D ans ad universos ac smgulos capitaneos. the new metho d s of the castle fo rtificatio n w ere inv ented in Italy . ex arcium et locorum utraque 1552. of  Early  Modern  Europe. N ov. see the article of Jozsef Kelenik in the present volume.  át. A l l this required that qualitatively new metho ds o f lo gistics sho uld be w o rked o ut. " V igore instructions ratione officii mei bellimarsalcatus mihi datae universi praesidiarh milites.  A  Military  Revolution?  Military  Change  and  European  Society. The co ntro l o f the ne w d efence system w as greatly hamp ered by the fact that the co mmand ers-in-chief had to share their tasks w i th the bans in the Cro atian-Slav o nian b o rd er areas. w h o w ere ap p o inted o nly fo r the p erio d o f a camp aig n. the new system co uld no t be co ntro lled w i th o u t a central sup reme c o mmand ev en in this immature f o rm .  Ibid.  op.  The  Military  Revolution. '' In the curtailment of Pallav icini's autho rity those interests can be reco gnized w hic h mo tiv ated the tw o captain-generals o f the co untry and first o f all Tamás Nád asd y . the v aried zo nes and units of the system co uld no t be efficiently o perated w i tho u t the co o rd inatio n of the central military ad ministratio n because it w as at that time that m ilitary affairs i n Euro p e started to d ev elo p in such a w a y w hic h w as later labelled as the ' m i l i tary re v o l u ti o n' b y m o d e rn histo rians.2. and in H u ng ary w i th the locumtenens.  Readings  on  the  Military  Transformation  Clifford Rogers. In the lo ng ru n . and last b ut no t least that military -ad ministrativ e refo rms sho uld be carried o ut w i th the aim o f facilitating central co ntro l and the lo gistics o f the armies and the b o rd er defence zones. 268-269. Belfast. Ed. ut eundem tanquam supremum bellicum marescalcum nostrum colant et observent ipsique debitam et convenientem obedientiam praestent" (Ebcrsdorf.  Military  Innovation  and  the  Rise  of  the  West. w hic h had just become an Imp erial City . and most recently  The  Military  Revolution  Debate. verum deinde postquam bellimarsalcatus officio fungor.  The  Military  Revolution. Strategy and tactics w ere g rad ually transfo rmed . no t to mentio n the Cro atian-Slav o nian bans. Geoffrey Parker.. o r Jáno s Krusith). equites et pedites ex utraque parte Danubii adusque Tijbiscum et D ravum existentes mihi subiacent. and also w i th the tw o captain-generals o f the co untry . fols.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY w est. 214-215. 1542. The consequences of the foundation of the Aulic War in Vienna Council (1556-1566) Before 1556 the theatre o f w ar against the Otto mans in H u ng ary had been go verned by the co mmand ers-in-chief of Ferd inand I and the m ilitary co uncillo rs (verordnete Kriegsrdte) o rd ered to help them.kno w n changes. They d i d not w ant to g iv e u p the lead ership of the defence system o r at least active p artic ip atio n in it. Köhbach. The new system co uld no t be o rganized w itho u t the Hung arian land o w ners and military leaders possessing castles near the bo rd er and w ell-v ersed i n w arfare against the Otto mans (such as Nád asd y . Perényi.  1560­1660. b y military . 108-112. also " ipsique simul curam superioribus regni nostri Hungáriáé partibus. ap p o inted palatínus in 1554. This w as realized in time in Vienna.San Francisco-Oxford. me inscio plures capitanei et milites cum sunt dimissi vel noviter conducti. For the impact of the revolution in Hungary. turn de uno in alium locum traducti . Fasc. A n d tho ug h u p to 1556 the signs of these changes co uld hardly be recognized in the Hung arian theatre of w ar. N ád asd y w as p ractically in charge of the fortresses aro und Szigetvár so uth o f Lake Balato n. Balassa.  1500­1800. Bátho ry. 1552). 5 6 By the mid-1550s the establishment o f the new defence system had been co mmenced all o ver H u ng ary ruled by Ferd inand I . The reason fo r this w as that there w ere scarcely any Lo w er o r Inner A ustrian military leaders at that time w ho c o u ld have efficiently replaced the H u ng arian no bles kno w i ng the H u ng arian m ilitary and p o litical situatio n. Konv. 67 1 mention only some authoritative works: M ichael Roberts. A . A n d the successes o f the O tto mans betw een 1552 and 1554 p rev ented the Habsburg military lead ership and Pallav icini fro m so lv ing the p ro b lem o f autho rity amo ngst the mo st urg ent defence measures. Ferenc Tahy. W i th the establishment o f the A u l i c W ar C o u nc il in 1556 the p ro b l e m o f c entral 39-40 (under bad archival placement) and M . Jáno s Balassa o rg aniz ed the castles p ro tecting the m ining to w ns. Győr. November 16. Consilium Bellicum) w as set u p .A." M O L E 185 Missiles. Cambridge.. 1955. A s palatimis. firearms became mo re and mo re d ecisive. w hen i n N o v ember 1556 the A u lic W ar C o u nc il (Wiener Hofkriegsrat. ho w ev er. 67 2. Dersffy . 68. O StA H H S tA Hungarica A A . pp. Boulder. Jeremy Black. It seemed ad visable to inv o lv e the H ung arians in co ntro lling certain units of the defence system at the expense o f so me co mp ro mise. 1988. 1995. eco no my sho uld serve the p urp o ses o f w ar. 1552). November 16. and east of the Danube w ere to obey h i m / this d i d no t come into effect except fo r the castles south-east of Gy ő r d esignated as his headquarters. f ro m 1554 to 1562 w i th the palatinus.32 T H E H U N G A RI A N . furthermore ÖStA K A M emoiren 28/1334/11. M acmillan. 1555. huge armies began to be emp lo y ed —just to mentio n the basic and w ell. 33 central co ntro l at that time. Gábo r Perényi and then István Dersffy und erto o k the military co ntro l of the Up p er Parts of the co untry east of co unty Gö mö r (partes superiores). 49. Fasc. July 6.

the locumtenentm regia finally lo st its functio n of co ntro lling military affairs and it co uld no t regain it after the co nsiderable streng thening of the estates in the seventeenth century either. The command ers-in-chief and their co uncillo rs w ere replaced by a bo ard o f experts that had a co nsid erable number of members and met d aily . on the chief fortification commissary (1578): ÖStA K A Sonderreihe des Wiener Hofkriegsrates. by the chief fo rtificatio n co mmissary (ObnstBaukommissar) resid ing in Vienna fro m the 1560s. 13-17. Though it is beyo nd the scope of this stud y to present these nego tiatio ns in *« On the chief arsenal officer (1567): ÖStA FH K A H K A Niederösterreichische Herrschafts­ akten W . Triest. 6. " Z ur Geschichte des österreichischen M ilitärwesens. 5. Camera Hunganca) w o rking in Buda i n 1528-1529. Kassa.Ko m aro m . fols.. Skizze der Entstehung des Hofkriegsrathes. one Expeditor. Their role in financing the military was of utmo st impo rtance as the War Co uncil itself had o nly restricted financial po w ers.  Die  österreichische  Zentralvenvaltung. 1878.Hemrich Kretschmayr. Laibach. The chief p o nt^neer (Obrist-Schiffmeister. all those offices that w ere to be o rganized o r stabilized in the f o llo w ing decades to co o rd inate the d ifferent field s of military affairs f ully served the sup p ly of the bo rd er fortresses in the sixteenth century . on the chief muster master: O . i n 1562.] Reg. 1949. and E. Hofknegsrätliches Kanzleiarchiv [hereinafter H K R K1A ] VI. the w ar paymasters {Kriegszahlmeister).' A t the same time.  Pionnier­Regimentes  m  Verbindung  mit  einer  Geschichte  des  wesens  in  Oesterreich. fols.) and o ver the central d irectio n of w ar sup p lies w as p u t in charge of the chief arsenal o fficer (Obrist-Zeugmeister). 89-90. for examp le in Vienna. one Registrator..  bis  zur  Vereinigung  der  österreichischen  Geschichtliche  Übersicht. The A ulic Chamber (Hofkammer. 1. u In p arallel to the establishment of the central lead ing o rgan of the military affairs.  op. The establishment of the A ulic W ar Co uncil w as necessitated by the requirement that the d ifferent parts of the new defence system be organized into a unified w ho le. A s a result. A fter the d eath of the influential locumtenens and palatums. Friedrich Firnhaber.) W ien. Food p ro v isio n w as o rganized by the chief fo o d p ro v isio n o fficer (Obnst-Proviantmeister).H A BS BL' R C BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S PA LFFY military leadership and ad ministratio n w as finally settled . G v o r. on the construction supervisors: V Pataki. (Veröffentlichungen Österreichs. and Oskar Regele. on the chief food provisional officer (1558): ÖStA K A Protokolle des W iener Hof ­ kriegsrates [hereinafter H K R Prot. A l l this d ecid ed the struggle fo r the lead ership of the central m ilitary co ntro l w i th the H ung arian estates and their leaders to the ad v antage of the ruler and his A ustrian estates. The bo ard had the task of exercising co mp lete central co ntro l o v er the military admin istratio n. (Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Staatsarchivs.  k.  1  Kommission für neuere Geschichte 234-241. the Cro atian-Slav o nian confines). then later as their superio r. 0 ue to the ad ministrativ e reforms of Ferdinand 1. 7-9 and 611-613: No. RN 300/2. cit."  Archiv  fur  Kunde  österreichischer  (1864) 98-99 and 140-147: No. 84: A nlage 9. Bd. and on the chief pontooneer (1557-1558): W ilhelm Brinner. So its measures taken i n the name of the ruler co uld not be d efied either by the locumtenens o r the captain-generals of H u ng ary and the bans. but it w as actually assigned by the chambers.34 G ÉZ A 35 T H E H U N G A R I A N .  cit. negotiations started betw een Ferd inand I and the A ustrian and Hungarian estates in 1555-1557 to create a coherent defence system. The tw o most p ro blematic areas o f military affairs w ere also led by separate officers w i th their increasing staff. Camera Aulica) set up in 1527 w as the leading o rgan of financial ad ministratio n.  op.  Abt.  Von  und  böhmischen  Hofkanzlei  (1749). etc. in certain matters it exerted some influence o n the Hung arian Chamber (Ungarische Kammer.61/ C/ 90/ B. 140. op. 1907. Regele. M arosi. h 8 Thomas Fellner. Camera Austriaca) also had special tasks in this respect as fro m the 1540s the p ayment of the soldiers in the fortresses in the vicinity of Gyö r that w ere d efend ing Vienna w as taken up by the A ustrian pro vince. 1/1. Bd. the duties of the War Co uncil and d ip lo macy to w ard s the Ottomans w ere discharged by the staff of the A ulic War Chancery (Hofknegskanzlei Cancellaria Bellica) w hich was composed of tw o secretaries (Sekretär). / 0 Knegs­Brücken­ W ien.  Maximilian  1.  Der  österreichische  Hofkriegsrat  1556­1848. the p ay ment o f the soldiers w as so lved by the chief muster master (Obrist-Mustermeister) and his 68 bordinates. This w as expressed by the fact that d iplo macy to w ard s the O tto m an state closely co nnected w i th the defence w as mostly ad ministered by the War Co uncil u ntil the early eighteenth century. the financial matters of Hungary and the A ustnan provinces had been managed fo r some decades by separate offices also constantly meeting at certain headquarters and working as a team. On the o ther hand . Geschichts­Quellen 30 . The co ntro l o ver the arsenals of the bo rd er fortresses and the hinterland sup p ly bases (Graz. Prague. Erg. the payment of the garriso n soldiers w as o rdered by the War Co uncil. then Obnst-Schiffbrückmeister) and the d irectors of the arsenals (Zeugwart) in Vienna and Po zso ny had a great task • the field of w ar sup p lies and the equip ment of the Danube fleet. The Lo w er Austrian Chamber (Niederösterreichische Kammer.) W ien. hV A fter 1556. XV I. der I.  at. then in Pozsony after its reo rganizatio n in 1531.. Geschichte  des  k. The fo rtificatio n w o rks in the border areas w ere co o rd inated by co nstructio n superviso rs (Bausuperintendent. Tamâs Nâd asd y . 1050-1053. several drafters (Konzipist) and scribes (Schrei­ her) some servants (Diener) and a translator (Dolmetscher).

1 rang ing f ro m Po zso ny to as far as Gy u la. 213-215. 1559. 1. In their ap p licatio n submitted the f o llo w ing year they pro po sed the sup p ly of the mo st imp o rtant bo rd er fortresses w i th permanent ro yal tro o ps. Kassa. (Rep 136. and Gö rz assembled to take measures against the O tto man assaults fo r at least tw o or three vears in advance and to discuss ho w they co uld make the defence mo re efficient w ith their financial aid . 76. His successor. Bd. No. Reg. 40-62. A no ther fundamental change took place in the summer of 1559. Palota. Carnio la. granted co nsid erable sums fo r the p ro v isio n o f the bo rd er fortresses p ro tecting their p ro v inces and declared their claim that the captain-generals of the tro o p s in bo rd er castles paid by them sho uld be chosen fro m amo ng their cand id ates. 80 and ÖStA K A H K R Prot. Oláhújv ár. 7 3 ÖStA K A A kten des W iener Hofkriegsrates [hereinafter H K R A kten] Exp. tw o majo r develo pments demonstrate the kind of preliminary w o rk needed to qualitatively transfo rm the bo rd er defence zones. pp.' A t their talks w i th the ruler and the representatives of the A ustrian estates in 1555-1556. there was a need for o rganizing the Cro atian-Slavo nian bo rd er fortresses und er a single captain-general. Stv na." This practically meant the final completion of the Cro atian confines (krontiiche/krabatische Grenze/Grenzgebiet) co mbining tw o smaller parts in a short time and the Wend ish bo rd er castles (windische Grenze/Grenzgebiet). FFY T H E H U N G ARI A N . 35. 19. 66-67. Várad . 10 and ÖStA H H S tA Hungarica A A . fortresses south-east of Gy ő r. Vízvár. 1556. Cf. 33 7 6 " D ie N ew Crabatisch V nnd Yeczo die geferlichist Gräniczen " 7 7 ÖStA K A Best. A nsbacher Reichstagsakten 7 5 ÖStA K A Sonderreihe des W iener Hofkriegsrates. Konv. Ho w ev er. they w o u l d g rad ually lose co ntro l of the Cro atian-Slavo nian bo rd er fortresses and the ones so uth o f Győ r. Though recent literature considers Hans Ungnad. Pápa. op. and Gy ula. [Z alaJKo már. ap p o inted the captain-general of Gy ő r (Obrist/Oberst zu Raab) at the same time as Lenko v ic in M arc h 1556. September 1. p ractically —if not by decree—had the autho rity of a captain-general o v er the tro o ps in the border. So they managed to gam co ntro l of these fro ntier zones. 1. A pril 12.  7 1 Jod. W ith their p ro p o sal they effectiv ely d esignated the most significant elements of the system of bo rd er castles u p to 1566: so uth and east o f the Danube Ko máro m. to o . [N ag y jKaniz sa. A t this meeting the estates arranged fo r the establishment o f the War Co uncil. No. " A ussohustag der fünf niederosterreichischen Lande in W ien 1556. 72 73 m 74 73 7 The field marshal Sforza Pallav icini had similar autho rity in the area pro tecting Vienna in the p erio d before the establishment of the A u lic W ar Co uncil.) Bd. 23. ÖStA K A Best. Ecsed. Jan. Léva.. Carinthia. In terms of this idea and of the decisions made at the meeting in Vienna mentio ned above. Csurgó . and he w as assisted by d eputies (Obrist-Leutnant) in the three sub-zones.37 and 236-237: n. the military leaders of the H ung arian estates also accepted o ut o f necessity that in ad d itio n to the central d irectio n of bo rd er defence. 7 8 Gecsenyi.  Die  österreichische  Best] the first Feldhauptmann)  captain-general Militargrenze. cit. they tried to ensure the w ar taxes p aid by the co unties and o ther resources of the co untry to su p p ly the tro o ps of the bans and the captain-generals of H u ng ary and o f the line of bo rd er fortresses so uth of Lake Balato n and The structure of the bo rd er defence zones d evelo ped in accordance w ith e pretensions p ut fo rw ard at the negotiations betw een the A ustrian and Hungarian estates in the decades up to 1566. A s the Otto mans w ere g rad ually advancing in 'peace-time' as w ell.'" Fro m 1546 the 7 4 Staatsarchiv Nürnberg [hereinafter StA Nürnberg]. 162. This time it was finally d ecid ed that f ro m then on the A ustrian estates—even if thev had to be fo rced —sho uld participate in the up keep and d irectio n of the H ung arian and Cro atian-Slav o nian bo rd er defence zones no t o nly w ith field tro o ps b u t w i th permanent garriso ns. 3. Husz t. M ärz No. r Bestallungen [hereinafter No. w hich had been captured three vears earlier. Cf Rothenberg. the representatives of Lo w er and Up p er Austria (Obcrosterreich). Murány. [Z alaJSzentgró t. Hans Lenko v ic w as appo inted the first captain-general of the Cro atian-Slavo nian confines (Obrist wmdtscher und kroatischer Grenze) in spring 1556 rather than a co mmand er-in-chief (Obrtster Feldliauptmann an den windischen und kroatischen Grenzen). Berzence.."  Archiv  für  Kunde  österreichischer  7 2 Geschichts­Queüen 8 (1852) 155-173. No 41 and ÖStA K A M emoiren 28/ 1334/ 11. Ged ő . 141. M O L E 142 Fase.' . A t the same time. Lenkovic w as again appo inted the captain-general of the tw o — O l d and New —Cro atian and Wend ish confines. In January 1556 in Vienna. especially alo ng the Drav a. 1557. 40. appointed in 1553. No. i n Transd anubia Győ r. Eger. . The so-called N e w Croatian confines (near kmatische Grenze) " had been o rganized by this time on the no rth-w estern bank of the Una from Sziszek to Bihács and o ppo site Kostajnica. 7.-Juli fols. his rank as commander-in-chief  (Obrister  was only a transition to the formation of the office of border defence possessed bv Lenkovic  (Grenzobnst). Shülz. Tata. M O L E 156 M K A Urbaria et Conscriptiones Fase. Fase. and Tihany .36 37 G ÉZ A PA I. Bo zó k. border defence captain-general. 77 and ibid. A d am Gall. No. tho ugh they w ere for a lo ng time co ntro lled by one captain-general.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S detail. No. No.

Szigetvár and Gy ula w ere cap tured by the O tto mans i n 1566. W hile the fall of Gy ula marked the end of the histo ry o f the captaincy-general of the Lo w er Parts (capitaneatus partium regni Hungáriáé inferiorum) created by Matthias Co rv inus in mid-1470s. w ho at the same time held the title of captain-general of Sz ig etv ár. 1564): ÖStA K A H K R Prot. 1563): ÖStA K A Best. CJH 488-491. he w as also co mmissio ned to be respo nsible fo r the bo rd er fortresses p ro tecting the mining to w ns and earlier d irected by Jáno s Balassa (1554-1562) and István Do bó (1562-1564). the territo ries east o f co unty Gö mö r w ere w i th d raw n f ro m the autho rity of the Cisd anubian captain-general and to gether w i th the bo rd er fortresses to be f o und there they w ere subo rd inated to the new ly established Up p er H u ng arian captaincygeneral. 166. D u ri ng the term of o ffice o f Gall (1556-1560). there w ere mo re favo urable o p p o rtunities to make u p fo r the loss o f Szigetv ár. 13. 1559): M O L E 136 M K A Diversae instructiones [hereinafter E 136] No. Bd. 66. In 1562. Reg. 1564): ÖStA K A H K R Prot. The consolidation of the new defence system: the Border Fortress and (1566-1578) In the course of the last H u ng arian camp aig n of sultan Süleyman. 1564): ibid. but m German they co ntinued to be called bergstadterische Grenze. The loss of the tw o key fortresses bro ug ht abo ut the p erd itio n of a w ho le chain of castles. Exp. this w as imp arted to the command ers of the bo rd er fortresses as w ell (capitaneis in finibus Austriacis intra Damibium et lacum Balathon exislentibus) w hen it w as o rd ered that they ackno w led g e Salm their sup erio r and captain-general (pro antecessor et supenore capitaneo). 8-9. So the ro y al defence system was pressed back several hund red s of kilo meters to the line o f the Tisza and the N o rthern M o untains.2-fc. Várad ) belo ng ing to the O tto m an vassal state o f Transy lv ania. the autho rity o f the captaingeneral of Gy ő r further increased o ver the bo rd er fortresses south-east of Győ r. the marshy v alley of the riv er Kanizsa and the med iev al castles to be f o u nd there c o uld be transfo rmed into a system similar to the one aro und Gy ő r after a chief castle and the head quarters of a new captain-general had been d esig nated . M ai. R 0 The instruction of Zrínyi as the Transdanubian captain-general (A pril 28. The hilly areas of the co unties of Z ala and So mo gy. 323-331. No. His instruction (after February 6. and ÖStA K A H K R A kten Exp. This d i d no t Lo cal d irectio n of the bo rd er castles aro und Szigetvár.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S g arriso n tro o p s w ere p aid almo st entirely by the Lo w er A ustrian estates w h o therefo re d emand ed that an A ustrian o r German captain-general d elegated by the military lead ership in Vienna be placed in charge of them. fol. fols. 122. Bd. that is the captain-general (Grenzobrist) of the bo rd er fortresses aro u nd Gy ő r. 141. W hen in 1564 István Dersffy w as ap p o inted the new Cisd anubian captain-general. The small fortresses so uth o f Lake Balato n w ere co ntro lled d irectly by the chief co mmand ers o f the fo rt o f Szigetvár (supremus capitaneus arcis Sziget) and w ere und er the influence o f palatínus Tamás Nád asd y until 1562. The defence of Up p er H ung ary w as o rganized in a similar w ay . 143. 82 2. 24. w hic h also meant the bo rd er castles p ro tecting the m i ni ng to w ns. Its o ccup atio n w as o nly a matter of time as it w as surro und ed by O tto m an castles (Szo lno k) to the west and east or fortresses (i. w hic h p ractically resulted in the fo rmatio n of the Gy ő r confines (raaberische Grenze/Grenzgebiet). 102. 16. Reg. Fro m 1563 to 1566. they belo ng ed to Mikló s Z rínyi. A s o p p o sed to Gy u la. N o. the d o w nf all o f Szigetvár resulted in the loss o f the areas so uth o f Lake Balaton. the border zones w ere co mpo sed of a majo r stro ng ho ld and several m ino r castles subo rd inated to it. Cf. A letter warning the Hungarian troops in Upper Hungary to be obedient in connection with his appointment: ÖStA K A H K R Prot. No. shrunk to the areas betw een co unties Po zso ny and Z ó lyo m. bo rd er fortresses and co unties w ere p u t i n charge of Im re Thelekessy. cause a p ro blem as the latter o ffice w as vacant at that time. 1563: article 16. A lread y in the early 1560s Gy ula fell into the same iso lated situatio n as Jajca after the battle of Mo hács. the Transd anubian captain-general. the captain-general of Kassa and Up p er H u ng ary (supremus capitaneus civitatis Cassoviensis et partium regni Hungáriáé superiorum) by A rc hd u ke M ax im ilian in M ay 1559. fol. Eck Graf z u Salm (1560-1574). 142. 1559. fol. 173. Juni No. His  Bestallung (May 28. Bd. and then that of his successor. So the autho rity of the mentio ned Cisd anubian captain-general District Captaincy-Generals 79 80 81 ™ ÖStA K A Best. and o f those p ro tecting the m ining to w ns and Up p er Hung ary w as carried o ut by the m ilitary leaders of the H ung arian estates until 1566.38 39 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A R I A N . fols.. 143. 82 Dersffy's  Bestallung (January 22. 10. A n d up to as far as To kaj in the no rth there w as no o ther castle that co uld have substituted it. The necessity The instruction of Thelekessy (M ay 8. Bd. The survey of his forces as captain-general (after January 19. 1564. . Fro m that time o n these bo rd er fortresses together w i th the castle of Oláhújvár began to be called confinia antemonlana o r confinia ante montanas cwitates in Latin and bányavárosok előtti végvárak i n H ung arian (confines in fro nt of the m ining to w ns). as the m am feature of the defence system w as that its units. Reg.e.1563): ÖStA K A H K R Prot. A s a result.

Jan. 19-29. ' This is half of the total inco me. Géza Pálffy.  op. 16-37.  Turki  so  v  deleli  ze. choice but to use the resources of his p ro v inces and the German Emp ire to sup p ly the H u ng arian marches. Nach Quellen des k. Budapest. 1593) and using them to d etermine to w hat extent H ung ary w as i n need of the sup p o rt of the neig hbo uring p ro v inces and the German Em p ire. 1576: ÖStA H H S tA Reichstagsakten der Reichskanzlei [hereinafter RT A ] Fasc. still. fols. The necessity of this step w as so o n realized by the H absburg military lead ership f ro m those m ilitary registers that w ere p rep ared nearly every year to calculate the amo unt needed to pay the soldiers serv ing in the bo rd er fortresses in H u n g ary .and pay-registers (Muster.  Turski  vvadi  na  slovensko  ozemlje  v  15. fols. (Prager Studien aus dem Gebiete der Geschichtswissenschaft.  stoletju. Until the o utbreak of the Lo ng W ar in 1591 no serious O tto m an attack w as launched against H u ng ary . 2-3 S emp er (Pozsony. die noctuque excubantes atque in omnem fortunae casurn promptos retineas. 1990. non secus. w hic h lasted fo r several decades. 1899. Majthényi család."  Századok (1982) 537.  Kriegs­Archivs bis 1582. attemp ts to extend taxatio n to the territo ry of the enemy.A rchivs. 8. This p erio d was characterized by co nstant incursio ns. The peace treaty of A d riano p le (Ed irne) mad e fo r eight years in 1568 o p ened u p a new phase in the Habsburg -O tto man struggle f o llo w ing the battle o f Mo hács. July 14.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S o f this w as immed iately reco gnized in Vienna as. The f o llo w ing graph p ro v id es inf o rmatio n o n the ratio betw een the to tal annual inco me of H ung ary and the sums spent on the military and the am o unt of mo ney needed fo r the p ay ment of the so ldiers in the bo rd er castles. o n the o ne hand . and by skirmishes o n the fro ntier to capture some m ino r bo rd er fortresses. 172-196. w hich seems an o ver o p timistic estimate g iv en that the data suggest o nly 20.  1. Loebl. The situatio n is w ell illustrated by a co mmand of Empero r M ax im ilian II (1564-1576)."  Hadtörténelmi  H ? 41 Közieménvek 108:1 (1995) 114-185. O nly in the Cisd anubian area as far as co unty Z ó lyo m and in Up p er H u ng ary d i d so me territo ries remain unto uc hed by O tto m an incursio ns. Konv 1.  Zur  Geschichte  des  Türkenkrieges  von  1593­1606. 350-369 Published by Pálffy. " A magyarországi és délvidéki végvárrendszer 1576. 141-158. 1556. In the lo ng ru n this process. This questio n came to the fo refro nt after 1566. w hich have been generally accepted.40 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A K 1 A N .4% of the cash inco me o f the H u ng arian Chamber w as spent o n the military in 1555-1562 Despite this it is w o rth co mp aring the tw o m ax i m u m estimated values w i th the amo unts of the pay of the so ldiers i n the three years mentio ned abo ve. évi jegyzékei (The Registers of the Hungarian and Croatian-Slavonian Border Fortresses of 8 5 " M ilites autem nostros nihilommus pro nostrae ditionis tibi subiectae et vicinae securiore permansione in eorum officio et statione.w ith the loss of southern Transd anubia-the eastern bo rd er of Styria and the W end ish confines became mo re threatened than ever befo re. k.) Prag. and on the other hand . Szekfu p ut the to tal inco me o f Hung ary in the seco nd half of the sixteenth century at 750. In this situatio n M axim ilian II and his successors had no o ther 84 85 kno w n d ue to the d iv erg ent financial ad ministratio n and the lack o f sources.-Juli fols. 1935. 76.000 Rhenish fo rint w as spent o n military expenses o ut o f this amo unt. k. but it also ensured that the defence system co uld really assume a coherent character."  Mitteilungen  des  k.  m 16. csop. 1 87 1576 and 1582]. w as d etermined by ho w the A ustrian p ro v inces to o k p art in financing the bo rd er defence zones in H ung ary and to w hat extent the A u lic War Co u nc il w as able to co ntro l defence and restrict the lead ing military role p rev io usly held by the H ung arian estates. 134 and 137 8 7 Győző Ember. it co uld no t be entirely spent on m aintaining defence and o n the p ayment of the so ld iers. " Türkennoth und das G renzwesen in Ungarn und Croatien während sieben 'Friedensjahren' von 1575 Kriegs.000 Rhenish fo rint (reinisch Gulden) at mo st. 1576. It is w o rth selecting three muster. 1593: Alfred H. " A magyar királyi kamara pénzbeli bevételei és számadásai 1555-1562 2 [The Cash Incomes and A ccounts of the Hungarian Chamber in 1555-1562]. the defence system in H u ng ary became d ep riv ed of any hinterland. quam si nullae induciae essent. 1567). The inco mes o f H u ng ary in the sixteenth century are no t entirely 1 N o t o nly d i d the lo ng peaceful p erio d facilitate the creatio n of the o ffices co ntro lling the d ifferent areas of military affairs mentio ned above. cf. This sum co uld never be co llected co mpletely as. 116 . as the territo ry of H u ng ary und er Habsburg autho rity shrunk to a rather narro w strip stretching f ro m the A d riatic Sea to the Danube betw een Pozsony and Ko máro m after the loss of Szigetvár. és 1582. Gustav von Gömöry. Cf .and Soldliste) fro m the sixteenth century (1556. III.. peace w as only o stensible at the bo rd er of the tw o w o rl d empires. Celje. But w e can rely on the estimates mad e by Gy ula Szekfu in 1935. For this reason the era is called the 'Little War' (Kleinkrieg).  at." M O L P 485 Családi levéltárak. (1885) 155-178 and V asko Simoniti. he o rd ered the cap tain of the fortress of Kisko máro m situated at the so uthern end of Lake Balato n to keep his so ld iers in such readiness "as if there w as no peace of any k i n d " " in o rd er to pro tect the neig hbo uring territo ries. 8 6 G yula Szekfu. Heft 6. 1556: ÖStA H H S tA Hunganca  hh.  Magyar  történet [Hungarian History]. Vorgeschichte. Fasc. mo st of it w as lo cally remitted . A cco rd ing to Szekfu. 8 8 4 O n these. 53. a m ax i m u m of 350. 1. Co nsequently .

  " EG  1st  aber  alhie  Z umerckhen. a d efence sy stem came into b eing on its territo ry that w as financed by the hered itary pro vinces o f Habsburg s and the G erm an Em p ire. and o ther H u n g ari an tro o p s co uld no t be sub o rd inated to Germ an cap tain-g enerals. o n the same supremus capitaneus partium regni Hungáriáé.  das  hierczue  rut  gerait  wiirt.  A ber  auft  dise  abbemelte  Possten  Lauftt  Jarlichen  ain  their head q uarters in a certain area. A s a co nsequence.  fo rtress z o ne (Grenze/Grenzgebiet). w ar posts and the costs o f the Danube fleet.  M unition. A c o m p ro m ise had to be f o u n d w h i c h p erm itted the A u l i c W ar C o u nc il to exert c o ntro l over the bo rd er defence. the German Emp ire.  1613. b u t d i d no t exclud e the H u n g ari an estates.  53. The H u n g ari an estates. In the o rg aniz atio n of the bo rd er defence the mo st d ecisive ro le w as p layed by the rist/Grenzoberst. It also has to be emphasized that this calculatio n do es no t includ e such 'co nsiderable sums' as the O tto m an d ip lo mac y . the b o rd er fo rtresses m aintained f r o m the sup p o rt o f the A u strian p ro v inces w ere g rad u ally w i t h d r a w n f ro m the autho rity o f the o ffice-ho ld ers o f the H u n g ari an estates. confinia) (Grenzob- They w ere resp o nsible (Grenzfestungen/Grenz- su b o rd inated to a majo r key fo rtress d esig nated as man  nit  eigeritlich  wissen  khan.  territo ries and at the same tim e.  fol. the p ro d u c tio n and sup p ly of am m u nitio n.  Artoloreij.  Dez. The sums in 1576 ind icate clearly w h y Carinthia. In p arallel to th e m . and ev en Bo hemia and M o rav ia had to p articip ate co nstantly i n the maintenance o f the bo rd er defence system in H u ng ary . " 88 89 fro m the c o u ntry ' s o w n inco mes.42 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY 1 800 000 The m etho d of f inanc ing the b o rd er d efence m entio ned by the W ar 1 658 736.  Prouiandt  b u t the situatio n had d rastically by the mid -1560s. the C ro atianSlav o nian ban. To p u t i t m o re p recisely: o n each territo ry of H u n g ary tw o kind s o f cap taincy -g eneral came into b eing .  A rsional. The p rice o f the suppo rt o f the A u strian p ro v inces w as hig h. the bo rd er defence against the Otto mans became a c o m m o n task of the w ho le o f Eastern Central Euro pe and the H absburg Emp ire. A s a co nsequence. A n d if w e o nly examine the m ax i m u m estimated su m spent o n m ilitary expenses w e may co nclud e that it w as eno ug h to co ver o nly 25-30% o f the pay o f the so ld iers in the established bo rd er defence system. then later the Transd anu b ian and C isd anu b ian cap tain-generals of the c o u ntry . In o rd er to achiev e this. as the c o unty . no b ility . etc.  was  auch  durchs  Jar  auf  M usterung  vnd  andere  Comissions  sach  lauftt. fo r the d i re c ti o n o f the m i n o r b o rd e r castles orten. In the past.  alles  nottwendig  gepew. the d efence sy stem against the O tto mans assumed a d ualistic character. This c o nf lic t was p erceiv ed i n Vienna an d — i n the kno w led g e of the resu lts— it can be f i rm l y stated that it w as so lv ed satisfacto rily . fo rtificatio n o f castles. Styria. Lo w er A ustria. that is i n the co nfines o r b o rd e r ansehenliche  grusse  Summa  gelts. It w as no t accid entally stressed by the W ar Co unc il befo re the Thirty Years' W ar (1618-1648) that "ev ery p ro v ince sho uld up keep their o w n co nfines i n H u n g ary .   " D as Jedes  landt  seine  sondere  G raniczen  in  Hungern  Z uerhalten"  (December  29.  68. the so u thern defence line of the m ed iev al H u n g ari an K i n g d o m had been m aintained • the maximum estimated annual income of Hungary • H  the  maximum  part  ^ ™  of  Hungary's  annual  income  spent  on  military  expenses  1556 1576 1593 The data in the g rap h clearly sho w that the m ax i m u m estimated inco mes o f H u ng ary co uld no t cover the p ay of the so ldiers in the bo rd er fortresses. . alo ng w i t h the central c o ntro l of the m i l i tary af f airs— and the O tto m an d ip lo mac y w h i c h meant f o reig n affairs as w e l l — g rad u al l y had to reno unce the d irec tio n of the bo rd er fo rtresses w h i c h w ere o f c ru c ial imp o rtance to the p ro tectio n of the ne i g hb o u ri ng p ro v inc es.  369. tho ug h these amo unts w ere g rad u ally increasing d ue to the p erfectio n o f ad ministratio n and the results o f the m ilitary rev o lutio n.  1613)  O StA  K A  H1CR  A kten  Reg.  welches  chang ed and ind ep end ence after the battle o f M o hács.g en- 8 9 erals (Kreisobrist/Kreisoberst. Carnio la. Turckhische  verehrung."  O StA  H H StA  RT A  Fasc. the so -called d istric t c ap tain. intelligence service. W hile H u n g ary p reserv ed its so v ereig nty so-called supretnus bo rd er fo rtress captain-generals capitaneus confiniorum). they c o u ld no t be to tally ig no red i n the lo cal ad m inistratio n o f the bo rd er d efence.5 1 600 000 I 1 400 000 \ 43 T H E  H U N G A R I A N ­ H A BS BU R G  BO RD ER  D EFEN C E  S Y S T EM S  1572 533 I ' I annual payment ' in theory Co uncil is of special significance because it f u nd am e ntally inf lu enc ed the final struc ture of the d efence sy stem.  was  auf  die  Jarliche  8 8 sachen. fo o d p ro v isio n.  No. H o w e v e r.

his sphere of influence w as even mo re limited .) Ed. 1863. A fter 1526 he lost co ntro l o f the O l d Cro atian bo rd er fortresses and then of the Slavo nian and N ew Cro atian castles. 28. tho ug h their p ay w as assigned from the w ar taxes granted by the Cro atian estates and by other Hung arian incomes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centunes (see map 1). Veszprém.  országkapitánya). Ko márom. their co mmand w as taken over by field marshal Sforza Pallavicini and then—by the late-1560s—by the captain-general of the co nfines aro und Gy ő r (Obrist in Raab und zuge­ höriger Grenzfestungen). A fter 1566. The separatio n of the bo rd er fortress and the d istrict character o f the defence system is further co mp licated b y the fact that the tw o offices w ere o f ten— in some parts of the co untry alw ay s—held by the same perso n. See capitaneus" . The autho rity of the Transd anubian district captain-general (Kreisobrtst in Transdanubium. Later. and to his o w n forces mainly co nsisting o f 250 cav alry and 250 inf antry . Várasd . Fejér. 5. and the insurg ent no ble and co unty tro o ps in his area. supremus capitaneus parlnan regm Hungáriáé Transdanubiannrum) was subsequently restricted to the military affairs o f eleven counties (Mosón. A fter the Lo w er A ustrian estates assumed the burd en of financing the border fortresses pro tecting Vienna in 1546. it alw ays d epend ed o n w hether the person ho ld ing the office chose to be stationed in his o w n p riv ate estate or m a bo rd er castle w ith his tro o ps. Z ala. Fro m that time o n his autho rity in his capacity as d istrict captain-general The contemporary Hungarian term to designate the district captain-generals was " captain of the country"  (országhadnagi/. fol. and a further 150 cavalry and 100 infantry. After the fall of Szigetvár the A ulic W ar Co uncil o rganized a new bo rd er fortress captaincy-general w ith Kanizsa as its centre. In the latter case he w as the co mmand er w '•" The extract of Tahy' s instruction (November 13. 16. in 1559 their d irectio n w as taken o ver by the Cro atian-Slavo nian bo rd er fortress captain-general (Ofensf dcr kroatischen und wmdischen Grenze) and b y his d eputies. 4. and to w n insurgent tro o ps and of the so-called district cap tain-general arm y o f some hu nd red cav alry and infantry p aid by the king . 1 and fol. 1567): ÖStA K A A FA 1566/11/1 also from 1567: " f inium intra lacum Balaton et D ravum ac M uram supremus ÖStA FH K A H K A Familienakten D . Győ r. (M onumcnta Hungáriáé Historica II. and Sty na. The ban was the military co mmand er o f his banderia. they w ere financed by the estates of Camio la.  lllésházy  Istxmn  nádor  följegyzése!  1592­1603. the ro y al garriso ns. Somogy. by Cábor Kazinczy. a similar fate befell the Transdanubian captaincy-general set up in 1542 by the H u ng anan estates. the d istrict captain-generals w ere exclusively Hung arian subjects. Z ágráb. In o rd er to und erstand the seeming ly co mp licated system w e hav e to enumerate the bo rd er fortress and d istrict captaincy-generals that had been created by the mid-1570s f ro m the A d riatic Sea to Transylv ania. They d irected the military affairs of the co unties in the d istricts (Kreis. So pro n. and Baranya) and the bo rd er fortresses aro und Szigetvár. On the territo ry betw een the Drava and the Danube. 8.  és  Hídvégi  Mikó  Ferencz  históriája  1594­1613 [The Records of the  palatínus  Count István lllésházy 1592-1603 and The History of Ferenc Hidvégi Mikó 1594-1613]. and thus the ban w as forced to reno unce co ntro l o ver them. V II. Scnptores. Carinthia. co unty . See Gr.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY as restricted to the military affairs o f the co unties in Cro atia and Slavonia. 43 and 56. A s the inco mes of the d iminished co untry d i d no t co ver the sup p ly o f the bo rd er fortresses. after several decades. so uth of Lake Balaton. the assistant Cro atian (Obristleutnant der kroatischen Grenze) and W end ish b o rd er fo rtress captain-generals (Obristleutnant der wmdischen Grenze). Vas.44 prorex banus ) w ere o p erating. This captain-general had no permanent residence. Fo llo w ing the O tto man occupation of the counties o f Tolna and Baranya. To lna. 90 In Cro atia and Slavo nia the bo rd er defence had been o rganized by the Cro atian-Slav o nian ban (banus Croatiae et Slavoniae. 9 0 45 T H E H U N G A RI A N . that is to the p ractically unusable no ble insurrectio n and the troops field ed by the co unties of Kő rö s. the autho rity o f the Transdanubian captain-general shrank to the military affairs of the Transdanubian district (partes Transdanubiarme) co nsisting o f the nine counties left and his infantry and cavalry tro o ps mentio ned above. Pest. A l l this d epend ed on w hether the War Co uncil w ished to exercise co mp lete co ntro l over a bo rd er defence zo ne or w hether it ceded the d irectio n to Hung arians (mainly on territo ries w hic h w ere no t so d ang ero us fo r the A ustrian pro vinces). W hile the o ffice of bo rd er fortress captaincy-general w as filled bv the representatives o f the A ustrian estates o r H u ng arian nobles accepted by them.T. A ltho ug h he w as still called the captain-general of the bo rder fortresses betw een Lake Balaton and the nvers Mura and Drava (supremus capitaneus inter lacum Balaton et fluvios Muram et Dravum regni Hungáriáé finium) by co ntempo rary sources/ ' his successors held the title of the captain-general of the bo rder fortresses aro und Kanizsa (Obnst in Kanisclia und zugehöriger Grenzfestungen). ban in Kroatien und Slavomen/ban in Windischland) before the battle o f Mo hács. and ap p o inted Ferenc Tahy as its separate captain-general. partes) und er their autho rity and disposed of the tro o ps d irectly subo rd inated to them co nsisting of the o ut-o f-date no bility . The latter can be regarded as his p rev io us bandérium.

Szatmár.  judex  und  Landtagsbeschlusse  vom  fahre  1526  an  bis  auf  die  Neuzeit. supremus capitaneus partium regni Hungáriáé Cisdanubianarum) practically co mprised the office of the captain-general of the border fortresses d efend ing the mining to w ns as w ell. 100-108 and M O L E 136 N o. 173. fo rmerly imp erial ambassado r to Co nstantino p le. In ad d itio n to the lo cal centralizatio n of the financial ad ministratio n. o w i n g to the d evelo pment of military ad ministratio n and lo gistics. 1588: A rchiv des milian's U. so this w as carried o ut by the captain-general of the bo rd er fortresses d efend ing the mining tow ns (bergstadterischer Grenzobrist. c. Érsekújvár (N euháusel) They. this practice w as ap p lied mo re o ften. H o w ev er.. Jo hn Sz ap ° ly and his son Jo hn Sig ismund u nti l the late-1560s. 93 94 9 2 That the two offices were distinct is shown by the fact that Z rinyi received two instructions when he was appointed in 1574. Ung . Ho nt. Ein unerledigtes G ermanischen Nationalmuseums N ürnberg [hereinafter A rchiv G N M N ürnberg]. Heves. Bd. Wien. and temporarily in the sixteenth and seventeenth Svazek 1. 1527-1589. Bereg. This is testified by the fact that."  Zeitschrift für  historisclie  Forschung 14 (1987) 27-46. f ro m 1559 to the above mentio ned Im re Thelekessy (1559-1560). A t the incentiv e of Lazarus Freiherr v o n Schw end i. királyképe: "imag e of the king " ) — w as respo nsible fo r b o th the border fortresses and the 13 co unties of the area (Gó mó r-Kisho nt. and in 1588 he was supported by two assistant captain-generals in both captaincy-generals  47 T H E H U N G A R I A N . and Ugocsa). 15. ÖStA FH K A H K A H FU RN 21. 14. 1526-1591. and Z ó lyo m) of the Cisd anubian parts (caries Cisdanubianae). Liptó. N y itra."  ibid. and to the Euro pe-w id e famo us Lazarus Freiherr v o n Schw end i f ro m 1565 to 1568. Trencsén. a separate chamber (Szepesi Kamara. Upper Hungarian military judge  (Kriegsrichter  in  Oberungarn. A baúj.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S (Grenzobristleutnant and  Kreisobristleutnant). After the treaty o f Speyer w i th Transy lv ania in 1570. Szepes. I-VTI. started to take part m the sup p ly of the bo rd er castles pro tecting the mining to w ns (confinai antemontana o r confinia ante montanas civitates. These w ere unanimo usly subo rd inated to the Up p er H u ng ari an cap tain-general o f e field tro o ps and o ther forces (Feldobnst/Generalobrist in Oberungarn. there w as no need to separate the tro o p s of the bo rd er fortresses and o f the co unties either. 75 and fol. ftere there w as co nstant w arfare w ith the vassal of the Otto mans. the office of the Cisd anubian district captain-general (Kreisobrtst in Cisdanubium. (Prameny k Ceskoslovenskym dejinäm vojenskym.46 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY of that castle as w ell. O n these. see the documents of the Bohemian diets. To rna. fol. For strategic reasons the d irectio n of the garriso n tro o p s. d i d not w ant to interfere in their co ntro l. Thus. The fortresses here w ere of special significance for the security of the Bohemian and Mo rav ian provinces. ivahrer  in  Oberungarn) from the mid-1590s. he received o nly one instruction (see map 3). mainly fro m the fo rtificatio n of the totally new bo rder fort. in  Oberungarn). Ed. ai m 95 96 A ugust 14. Upper Hungarian chief architect (Salitterver­ vnitra RCi \ V  Praze.) K vydäni pfipravil Frantisek Roubik. at the incentive of the ruler. Szabolcs. son of Mikló s Zrínyi (d ied in 1566. Z emp lén. Fürsten [hereinafter W F]. after 1564. Weltliche Thema der historischen Forschung. w hen Simo n Forgách in 1569 w as appo inted the captain-general of the confines and the district.  Lazarus  Freiherr  von  Schwendi  oberster  Feldhauptmann  und  Rath  Kaiser  Maxi­ " Instruction vber die oberst Haubtmanschafft Z u Kanischa.  Die  böhmischen  9 6 Landtagsverhandlungen  Upper Hungarian deputy of chief arsenal officer in V ienna  (Obrist­Zeugmeister­Leutnant  m  Oberungarn) from 1567. Árva. In this manner in Up p er H u n g ary a cap taincy-general came into being (see map 3) w hic h resembled that w as existing in the southern p arts of the co untry (partes inferiores regni Hungariae) befo re the battle of Mo hács. He w as the district captain-general of the ten counties (Pozsony. fol. Dil I. 1574: " Instruction vber die Craißhaubtmanschaff herdißhalb der Thonaw. September 4. Szigetvár). Turóc. ho w ever. 1574: 9 5 Wilhelm Janko. " A főkapitányi . Reg. bergstcidterisclie Grenze) fro m the 1570s o n. Praha. and Roman Schnur. This explains w h y Gyö rgy Z rínyi. Zipsensche Kammer. see Géza Pálffy. 351 (October 26. A ug. pontooneer (Sc/iif/fanicicmtisfer  in  Oberungarn) and food pro­ visional officer  (Proviantmeister  m  Oberungarn). Nógrád. " ÖStA K A H K R K1A IX. Prag. fols. Siebenbürgen Z R 7657. m arked an essential difference. supremus capitaneus partium regni Hungariae supenorum). 1569). " Lazarus von Schwendi (1522-1583). Borsod. 9 3 O n this. Bars. 1570. 92 The structure of defence on the Cisdanubian territo ry east o f Pozsony up to as far as co unty Zólyom w as to a certain extent different fro m the setup in Croatia-Slavonia and Transdanubia. the offices and ranks f o rm ed . Their estates. 1877-1891 and  Regesta  fondu  Müitare  archivu  (Baumeister  in  Oberungarn) around 1580: Upper Hungarian saltpetre supervisor  ministerstva  from 1568. several offices w ere established w ho se task w as to act as substitutes of the central office ho ld ers of the A ulic W ar Co uncil i n this remo te area. 1871. war paymaster (Knegszahlmeister  in  Oberungarn). 80. so in the Up p er p arts of the co untry (partes superiores) the same cap taingeneral—the so-called Up p er H ung arian m ilitary assistant of the ruler (prorex. co uld be bo th the captain-general of the bo rd er fortresses around Kanizsa and the Transd anubian d istrict captain-general (see map 2) at the same time in tw o perio d s (1574-1575 and 1583-1592). Camera Scepusiensis) w as set up in Kassa i n 1567 to finance the bo rd er fortresses mo re efficiently . o f the armies of the co unties and of the Emp ire sent here co uld no t be separated . In o rd er to protect the bo rd er mo re efficiently and to enhance co o peratio n.  The bo rd er defence i n Up p er H u ng ary had a mo re d istinct character. 159. 1 and ÖStA K A H K R Prot. centuries: Upper Hungarian muster master  (Mustermeister  9 4 1937. fol. by Königlich bellicus  in  parttbus  regni  Hungariae  supenoribus) Böhmisches Landesarchiv. supremus capitaneus confimorum antemontanonim) fro m 1564. then to Ferenc Z ay (1560-1565). Sáro s. fol.

w hich had strengthened and become ind epend ent i n the meantime.) were co ntro lled by the captain-general of Várad (Obrist in Wardein. 1930.Hungary in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries]. 9 8 " Comaromium per se est. was overshadowed by the Hung arian defence zones. The endeavours to modernize and their results: the reforms of the great military conference in Vienna (1578-1591) While the bo rder defence d ev elo p ed into a co herent system b y the mid-1570s. 1. " A magyarországi és délvidéki végvárrendszer. The Croatian-Slavonian bo rd er defence zone lay far aw ay fro m the immediate direction of the Otto man advance. fols. 1995. the bulw ark of Lo w er A ustria.  Katonai  igazságszolgáltatás  a  királyi  Magyarországon  a  XVI­XVIl. there w ere 22.3. 88 and  ibid. StA Nürnberg.500 system. supremus capitaneus Zatmariensis et partium Transtibiscanarum) w as p u t in charge of the m ilitary ad ministratio n of the bo rd er fortresses (Kalló . Cf. 19. His o nly sup erio r w as Co uncil.. A t this time and throughout the fo llo w ing century.  [Documents of  palatínus Miklós Esterházy]. Komárom  az  erődök  városa [Komárom. By that time.) Ed. and Szatmár) and the co unties (Szabolcs. Bél. w i th the Hung arian bo atmen (naszádos). Sarkad. 1589. Cf. No. 1 0 0 Klára Hegyi. Bajo n.  49 the fortress. the Town of Forts]. Székelyhíd . Halaga. Up o n the p ro p o sal of Lazarus Freiherr v o n Schwendi the captain-general of Szatmár or the territo ries bey o nd the river Tisz ' (Obrist zu Sakmar samt zugehörigen Ortflecken jenseits der Theiß. A do rján. 7. Thus the A ulic W ar Co uncil was able to yield its ad ministratio n in 1578 to the leaders of the Inner Austnan territories. 1995. by Tivadar Petercsák and Ernő Pethő. p rimarily of Vienna and of the German Emp ire w as Hung ary in the narro w sense. supremus capitaneus Varadiensis) w i th p o w ers of autho rity similar to those of the bo rd er fo rtress captain-generals in the H ung arian King d o m . 136.. Budapest.  Poőiatky  Kosíc  a zrod  metropoly. etc. D ez.) Ed. They expanded their tax-co llecting activ ity in H u ng ary b y co nstant plundering and then also o ccup ied dozens of v illag es. Ugocsa.) Budapest. When the peace treaty of A d riano p le w ith the Otto mans expired i n the Habsburg bo rd er defence in Hung ary co nstituted a w ell o rganized ' In the 123 bo rder castles registered at this time. 1591.a.. 25-32 and Ö StA Documents]. Monográfiák. supremus capitaneus Comaromiensis) w as in charge of the German infantry statio ned in the fo rt. 380-390. 1995.D ez.) Bd.  Török  berendezkedés  Magyarországon [Ottoman Rule in Flungary]. 1992. also Ondrej R. the Otto mans had established their o w n line o f bo rd er fortresses. 1580." 124-125. Reg. Kosice. Belényes. Cf . 41. by István Hajnal. the p rincip ality itself established its o w n bo rd er defence zone against the Otto mans w ho se castles (Z sáka.g eneral" Its special situatio n w as d ue to its extreme significance.  Hospodársko­sociálne.48 GÉZA H U N G A RI A N . Ko máro m served the defence of the Imp erial City d irectly w i th its Danube fleet. Szatmár. Eger.  op.' A t the same time." in  Végvár  és  kör­ nyezet. Idem.  spráune  a  kultúme  dejmy. A ug. "p  cit. No. Kormányzattörténeti iratok 1984. Ansbacher Reichstagsakten (Rep. n e x f ] i c W a r 0 1 6 i n a n 99 2. ^ f t r y tro o ps. 9 7 Pálffy. 43. W i th the captaincygeneral o f Szatmár a special Hung arian fro ntier zone came into being w h i c h d i d no t pro tect the territo ries und er the autho rity of the Hungarian ki ng against the O tto man Emp ire. Budapest. 45. undoubtedly more imp o rtant fo r the A ustrian pro vinces in the 1520s-1530s. and the H ung arian hussars. and 32% to the 13 castles in Up p er Hungary. w ho se leaders after 1566 ap p o inted exclusiv ely ^rhief c o mmand ers— w ith the exceptio n of Mikló s Pálffy (1584German cm icaq)—to head the bo rd er castle. Győr. 84-85. In 1575 they 100 101 században [Military Ju­ risdiction in Habsburg. . 81-117. No. KA HKR Akten Exp.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S PÁ LFFY W i thi n this structure in Up p er Hung ary a separate p tainc y . (Esterházy Miklós nádor iratai I ambassadors to Constantinople in order to make a complaint to the sultan.g ene ] w as set u p o n the territo ries adjacent to the Princip ality of Transylvania in the mid-1560s. but against a rising Christian state that w as a vassal of the sultan. (História könyvtár. the significance of the Cro atian-Slavo nian confines. See for example: 1642. " " C ro n V ngern—ein Propugnakel vnnd V orM aur Deutscher Lannden" (1570). This w as v iv id ly expressed by the palatinus Mikló s Eszterházy (1625-1645): "Ko máro m is a fo rt of its o w n . Konv. w hile 14% w as allocated to the nine fortresses in the confines aro und Győ r.  cit. and p artly Bereg) east of the Tisza. (Studia A griensia. it does no t d ep end on any c ap tain.  évi  meghiúsult  országgyűlés  időszaka  (1640  december­1643  március) [Administration ÖStA HHStA Türkéi (Turcica) Karton 43. also László Kecskés. ca ra a 7 The fortress o f Ko máro m also had a d isting uished ro le in the defence system. 183-221. Kisvárda Ecsed. and these served as a basis fo r their slo w b u t steady ad v ance. the bo atmen serv ing in the town 98 hadiipari műhely kiépülése Kassán és nyersanyagellátó forrásai [The Formation of the Ar­ senal of the Captain-General in Kassa and its Raw Material Resources]. 129: No. 15. By this measure the defence of the territo ries far aw ay fro m Kassa w as effectively ensured . Its chief co mmand er (Obnsi in Komorn. also G ömöry. N ov. quod a nullo supremo generáli capitaneo depende!"  Az  101 The Ottoman advance is testified by those reports which were prepared by the military [The Period of the administration of Vienna on the attacks and damages made by the enemy and sent to the Uncelebrated Diet in 1642 (Dezember 1640-M arch 1643)]. The mo st decisive task in the defence w as nalfuled by the border fortress and the district captaincy-generals in Hung ary ro er By w ay of illustratio n it is eno ugh to say that o nly 22% of the w ho le amount of pay was spent o n the salary of the soldiers serving in the 72 castles of the Croatian-Slavonian bo rder. and Simoniti.

H u ng arian cap tain-general Hans Rueber v o n Püchsend o rf (1568-1584). 6. the p articip ants sup p o rted the ideas o f the first. A rtur Steinwenter. Handschriftensammlung Cod. Kékkő. " Hadi tanácskozások az 1577-ik évben [Military Conferences in the Year 1577). and at the same time A rc hd uke Ernest w as p u t i n charge o f the f o ur H u ng arian co nfines extend ing f ro m the Drav a to Transy lv ania (the bo rd er fortresses aro und 10 'harrige' Reichshilfe 1576. " Törekvések a német lovag-rend meghonosítására M agyarországon [Endeavours to 20 (1924) 43-59. The p ro blems o f military d isc ip line. " D ie innerösterreichische Hofkriegsordnung und Settle the Teutonic Order in Hungary]. Herw art Freiherr v o n A uersperg (1568-1575) fell. But the central 102 103 104 105 102 P[ ter] von Radics. Cf Wessely. " Über den V ersuch einer Translation des Deutschen O rdens an die ungarische G renze. V11I-1X and 368-369. Fro m amo ng the p ro p o sals mad e by Lazarus Freiherr v o n Sc hw end i and Up p er. and v o ted f o r an ev en mo re o rg aniz ed and tho ug htful defence strategy by realistically w eig hing the p o w er o f the German Emp ire and the A ustrian p ro v inces o f the Habsburg s. Cf . Jahrhunderte."  Archiv  für  österreichische  Geschichte 81 (1895) 513-599 and János 1 0 6 Schulze. Hans von Zwiedeneck-Südenhorst. w ar sup p lies.  op. A rc hd u ke Charles was mad e respo nsible fo r the d irectio n o f the Cro atian and Slav o nian bo rd er areas as the cap tain-general o f the Cro atian. the p o ssibility o f settling d o w n the Teuto nic O rd er in H u ng ary w as also b ro ug ht up —as it had been d u ring the rule of Sig ismund o f Lu xem b u rg i n the finteenth c entu ry . l u 3 W ien. Since the establishment o f the new defence system. " so it is eno ugh to und erline that the co ntro l of the d efence system against the O tto man Em p ire w as d iv id ed into tw o p arts i n 1578. 8678. to o . A t the military conference. Lazarus Freiherr v o n Schw end i's strategy c o mp rised the fo rmatio n o f closed and strictly co ntro llable defence zones. Thanks to the m o no graph of W . The military conference has not been given due attention by historians. 8345. and w hat is mo re. " D i e Frage der Heranziehung des Deutschen O rdens zur V ertheidigung der ungarischen G renze. Before d w elling o n the im p lem entatio n o f the refo rms it must be mentio ned that the conference w as an im p o rtant step i n the process that lasted f ro m 1564 to 1578 and as a result o f w hi c h the Cro atian-Slav o nian confines became subo rd inated to the Inner A ustrian W ar Co unc il (Inner­ österreichischer Hofkriegsrat." 38-49. they made the Imperial Diet (Reiclistag) in Regensburg grant a considerable military aid. die windisch-kroatische G renze. In the meantime the peace treaty of A d riano p le expired . 51 T H E H U N G A R1 A N . the fo rtificatio n o f castles. So mo skő in the mining district and Fonyód by Lake Balaton. being based o n the fav o urable natural surro und ing s. W ien. to reorganize the system in an even mo re co nsidered w ay . this w as the first and last occasion that the p ro blems o f bo rd er defence had been so tho ro ug hly discussed and a co ncept based o n active defence (d efensive w ar in o ther w o rd s) elabo rated . " D ie Übernahme der G renzverteidigung in Kroatien duch den Beherrscher Innerösterreichs (1578)."  Zeitschrift  des  Historischen  Vereines  für  Steiermark  Illéssy. and they fo ught a nearly constant battle near Bud acki by the nv er Ko rana in the Cro atian confines. Repositoriumok 77. w hic h lasted fo r one and a half mo nths and w as chaired by A rc hd u ke Ernest. Ö N B Cod. they captured the castles o f Divény."  Hadtörténelmi  Közlemények  7 (1894) 502-537 and 647-673. "  Századok 36 (1902) 233-248. and extracts of the conference published in Hunganan by István Geőcze. Schulze. Österreichische Nationalbibilitohek [hereinafter Ö N B]. also V iktor Thiel. 5. N . w hic h. w here the assistant captain-general of the Cro atian bo rd er fortresses (Obristleutnant der kroatischen Grenze). 1578-1705) i n Graz. 4. in ad d itio n to their raids."  Blätter  für  Heimatkunde 35 (1961) 92-98. based o n the experience gathered i n the co ntro l o f defence. and then Empero r Maximilian II d ied .  cit. 1862."  Zeitschrift  des Historischen  Vereines für  Steiermark 12 (1914) 159-170. the basic questio ns co ncerning the defence system and strategy w ere d iscussed . Landesdefension. therefore the A ulic W ar Co uncil deemed it necessary to discuss the pro blems and. " Z ur Ceschichte der innerösterreichischen Kriegsverwaltung im 16. In o rder to achieve this they asked the central and local leaders of the bo rder defence fo r preliminary proposals co ncerning the sho rtco mings as early as 1576.  em  kramischer  Held  e und  Staatsmann.  Katonai  igazságszolgáltatás. and fo o d p ro v isio n w ere d ealt w i th. and they summo ned a great military conference i n Vienna (Wiener Hauptgrenzberatung) in the mid d le o f A ug ust 1577 to solve the pro blems.  Herbard  VIII. Günther Probszt-Ohstorff.W end ish co nfines (General-Obrist kroatischer und windischer Grenze) und er the central lead ership o f the Inner A u strian W ar Co unc il. M O L P 108 Családi Levéltárak."  Archiv  für  österreichische  Geschichte 56 (1878) 403-445 W ilhelm Erben. The minutes of the great military conference  (Hauptgrenzberatung) in V ienna survived in several copies:  1. Fase.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S 2. W i 1 0 5 Pálffy. O StA K A A FA 1577/13/2. The Defensionsordnung o f the A ustrian p ro v inces and the d ifficulties o f financing the bo rd er fortresses w ere also d isp uted . " D ie Regensburger question w as w hether the peace w i t h the O tto mans— mad e fo r eight years in 1568—co uld be maintained o r w hether o ffensiv e w ar sho uld be launched against the enemy . 75-77. Esterházy család hercegi ágának levéltára. Ö N B Cod.  Freiherr  von Auersperg  (1528­1575). 12 660. A rchiv G N M Nürnberg. co uld resist the raids of the O tto man forces mo re efficiently and at the same time sto p the ever increasing O tto m an tax-co llectio n i n the H u ng arian King d o m . . 3. the circumstances o f this are w e l l k n o w n . 65-69.50 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY launched mo re serious attacks. Schulze. W F Österreich Z R 7670.

Kr as z n ah o r k a. and G ö m ö r i n the w i n te r o f 1593. Fürstenfeld . 237 and ÖStA KA A ktén de. A s d uring the rule o f M atthias C o rv i n u s a n d M a x i m i l i a n I I .A herceg Batthyány i ' i a No. A fter 1607 the Confines facing Kanizsa w ere finally o rganized w ith the centre of rszen on the river Z ala and in the districts of the castles of Lenti and Kjskomárom. by the early ban along the river Ku lp a (banische Grenze. W i th the recapture of Fülek N ó g rád . To kaj. In theo ry. and th e n o f G y ö r g y Rákó czi I (1630-1648) and his so n (1648-1660). Sz écsény . the Styrian estates reinfo rced and o rganized into a co herent unit their bo rd er fortresses in the d irectio n o f Kanizsa (Hard berg . 1.schen H o f k r i e e s r ^ ' Hsrates. 4. 34 . fol. család levéltára. the fortress of Légrád at the confluence of the prava and the Mura also belo nged to this bo rd er zone. The mo st serious difficulty w as caused by the loss o f Kan i z s a i n 1600. A t the same time. Feldbach. l e v é l t á r a k . the rebellio n against the H u n g ari an K i n g Ru d o l f l e d b y Istv án Bocskai frustrated the fast dev e l o p m e n t o f the new b o r d e r d e f e nc e zo nes all o ver H ung ary . Pf w est seventeenth century. H o w e v e r. confinia maritima) fro m the m id d le o f the sixteenth confinia Croatica et maritima/confima und Croatiae et maritima) Meergrenze. 0 1 1 9 was efficiently replaced by the bo rd er fortresses alo ng the rivers Tsza Sajo. 4 and fol. namely the ones of Győ r. 9225. etc. Their o rg ani z ati o n c o uld o nly be c a r r i e d o u t after the peace treaty of Zsitvato ro k in 1 606.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S w as attached to the d efence area. the bo rd er area f Érsekújv ár p ro tec ting the m i n i n g to w n s w as co nsid erably reinforced M e an w h i l e . M e m o r a b " O N B Handschnftensammking Cod. O n the territo ry bey o nd the river Tisz a.56 C EZ A PALFFY 57 T H E H U N G A R I A N . [Érsekjújvár. M O I _ P törz si of century. had to be rep laced i n the sev enteenth c e n tu ry by Szend rő . steirische Konfinien-Plalze). the years o f peace made it p o ssible to f o rm new d ef enc e u n i t s o n the basis o f the sixteenth-century m e tho d s and ad m i ni strati v e e x p e ri e n c e . as—unlike in the case of Bihács and Eg e r— o nly so me i n s i g n i f i c an t m e d i e v al castles existed in the border fo rtress cap taincy -g eneral i n its hinterland.4. and Pettau) und er the name of the Styrian confines (steinsche Grenze. the Cro atian [that is the one of ^ HKR KIA IX. Radkersburg. The six bo rd er fortress captaincy-generals w hic h co nstituted the decisive element of the defence system and the temp o rary cap taincygeneral led by the ban surv iv ed until 1663 in an unchang ed f o rm . confinia Canisae opposita) w as at first established a l o n g the riv ers Rába and Z ala w i th centres at Kö rm e n d and the rem o te Sá r v á r . Thus a co mp letely new border z o ne had to be set u p w est o f Lake Balato n. Zerinische Grenze). the captaincy-general centered aro und Káro lyv áro s Kassa. and Bo dva. Sz af m ár retained its e ar l i e r statu s. No. b u t . o r mo re precisely an era of ' skirm ishes' o r Klernkrieg o n th e b o rd e rs. Eger. As a result.). and sev eral m i n o r O tto m an fortresses in counties H o n t. an d its neig hb o uring castles (Putnok Sz ád v ár. tho u g h d u ri n g the rule of Gábor Bethlen (1613-1629). it w as o ften u n d e r the c o ntro l o f the Transylv anian princes. o r cap taincy-generals from the A d riatic Sea to the Transy lv anian bo rd ers. Nov. The organization of new border of border defence (1606-1699) Grenze. but practically the members of the Zrínyi family w ere p ut in charge of it together w ith some other garrisons i n the Murakö z (praesidu Legradiensis ac tothis Insulae Muraköz supremus capitaneatus. A Batthyány cs al ád regni Mountain Kapela w as w i th increasing frequency called the m aritim e was called the Cro atian-maritime co nfines (kroatische 2. o n U n ti l 1606 the C hristian tro o p s w e re able to m o v e o nly the borders o f the co nfines o f Érsekújv ár f u r th e r so u th.s ínnerösterreich. The bo rd er fortresses und er the lead ership of the In 1606 ano ther lo ng p e r i o d o f p eace. captaincy-general w hic h und petrimanische zones and the new methods w as situated aro und Z eng g tA the confines (Meergrenze. The captaincy-generals w ere listed by palatínus Mikló s Esz terház y in his memo randum to the ruler in 1641: "Und er the jurisd ictio n o f the Saint Crow n of Hung ary there are six captain-generals. w hic h had been g rad u al l y f o rtif ied f ro m the 1570s. confinia banalia) w ere o ften named as the Kulp a co nfines (confinia Colapiana). That p art of the Cro atian bo rd er fortress . This so-called bo rder area f ac ing Kaniz sa {gcgen Kanischaiuarts ligende Grenze. above all by Szendro and Tokaj. began. N ó g rád . 120 The Wend ish bo rd er area w i th the centre of Várasd w as united w i th Petrinja on the so uthern bank of the Kulp a and assumed the name o f Wendish-Petrinja co nfines (wmdische Slavomae confinia et Petrinia). being in a f o r w a r d p o sitio n similarly to Bihács. Ó no d . This p erio d lasted for m o re than half a c entury i n th e H u n g a r i a n theatre o f w ar. tho ug h this w as no t a captaincy -general. c. the bo rd er fortresses facing Kaniz sa. Croatica 1600. the Slavonian [that is the one of Várasd ]. as it w as kep t o nly fo r a year the territo ries no rth o f Lake Bal ato n the bo rd er befo re the Lo ng War was resto red .

w hile the Cisd anubian cap tain-general Pál Esterházy. 45. the land lo rd s liv ing near the fro ntiers to o k a mo re active p art in the defence against the O tto m an raid s w i t h their priv ate tro o p s and w i th their subjects d o ing m ilitary service i n return fo r vario us exemp tio ns. Roma-Budapest. given to H u ng arian d istrict captain-generals. 1994.000 so ldiers p aid by the king w ere d if f ic ult to replace. 7235. ho w ever. therefore a mo d ern fo rt (Lipó tvár) w as erected o n the bank o f the Vág and a new bo rd er area w as o rganized aro und it i n 1665. Jáno s Vano v icz i. 151: No."  Vlastivedny Casopis 20 (1971) 72-73. Unpublished Ph. A s a result.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S Káro ly v áro s). praeter confinia banalia. in his capacity as a bo rd er fortress captain-general. a missio nary belo ng ing to the Ord er o f St Paul. no rth o f the Danube. the third i n Sempte. 166-215. 128-131: No. and the numb er o f g arriso n tro o ps f ro m 22. the second i n Németújv ár. the Up p er H ung arian captain-general i n Kassa. (Bibliotheca A cademiae Hungáriáé in Roma. 83-93 and O StA FH K A H K A H FU R N 219. 45. 14 1 2 5 Hajnal. During the Thirty Years' W ar the emp ire jo ined the c o m p etitio n o f great po w ers by m ilitary means. Budapest. This new defence zone was called the confines facing Érsekújvár [gegen Neulwitsel ligende Grenze. quartus Cassoviae. w ho . Kristó f Batthyány. a significant change took place in the bo rd ers d efend ing the mining to w ns. 122 23 In ad d itio n to the bo rd er fortress captaincy-generals.. resid ing i n Sempte. István Czigány. the system of d istrict captaincy-generals also surv iv ed i n the course o f the seventeenth century . and fo r this reason it tried to keep peace w i th the Otto mans. 1 2 1 Frantisek Sedlák.  op. Jauriensis. Cro atia. A fter the fall o f the centre o f the fro ntier castles captaincy-general (Érsekújvár). the f o urth. co ntro lled the confines facing Kanizsa. H av i n g p ro v id ed their blo o d as tax these estates still tenacio usly insisted o n m aintaining these posts because these leg itimiz ed their actual p artic ip atio n i n the defence. 1 2 3 1 2 4 " Proreges. terrius in arce Sente ultra D anubium. w i th the exceptio n o f Lipó tvár and its zo ne.58 G ÉZ A PÁ LFFY T H E H U N G A RI A N . confinia contra Újvár posita) or o f Lipótvár (leopoldische Grenze)} The role o f this zone w as almo st as imp o rtant as that of the confines aro und Győr. In 1669 these w ere listed by a co ntemp o rary . Vienna. in Vngaria. also ad ministered the special co nfines belo ng ing to the ban alo ng the riv er Kulp a. It was only after the 1663-1664 Ottoman war that the Aulic W ar Council sent G erman troops attached into regiments in great numbers to the Hungarian border fortresses. unus V arasdini in Croatia. These w ere related to the lo ng p erio d o f peace and the p o licy o f the Habsburg hig h c o mmand against the O tto m an Emp ire. Fontes 1. as in the sixteenth century. also reinforced to be able to d efend Vienna in this time. w i th the exceptio n o f the co nfines that are led by the Cro atian-Slav o nian ban. " Mesto Leopoldov—jeho vznik a vyvoj ." ]2> A fter the O tto man w ar in 1663-1664. H u ng ary . op. d ue to the sho rtco mings of the co unty and no ble tro o p s. fols. or at least i n its lo cal ad ministratio n. w ho 125 " Sunt huiusmodi supremi generales capitanei seu capitaneatus sub jurisdictione Sacrae Coronae Hunganae a M ari A dnatico usque ad limites et terminus Transylvaniae sex. the number o f bo rd er fortresses w i th ro y al troops i n them decreased f ro m 120 in the late sixteenth century to 88. prorex partium supenorum regni V ngariae " Relationes  missionariorum  de  Hungária  el  Transilvania  11627­1707). altér in Nemet Uyuar. cit. The Transd anubian d istrict cap taingeneral.000. Lo w er A ustna and the Bo hemian-Mo rav ian provinces became d irectly threatened. by István György Tóth. Co nsequently. A s a so lutio n to this p ro blem. . cit.  A  királyi  Magyarország  hadügyi  fejlődésének  sajátosságai és európai  összefüggései  1600­1700 [The Characteristics and European Connections of the Military in Habsburg-Ruled Hungary 1600-1700]. " Z dejín pevnosti Leopoldov.. Diss." The first d istrict captain-general mentio ned w as the Cro atian ban Péter 124 59 Zrínyi (1665-1670) resid ing i n Várasd . w ho w as the immed iate representative of the A ulic W ar Co uncil. A ltho u g h. The ad ministratio n of the fortresses aro und Lipó tvár and o f Pozsony w as w ithd raw n fro m the autho rity of captain-general of the m ining to w ns and w as confen-ed o n the German co mmand er-in-chief of Lipótvár. the so-called peasant so ld iers (Soldatenbauer). 1996.) Ed. 1665. The system of g uard houses p rev io usly co ntro lled by the ro y al bo rd er fortresses and the ro ug hly 5. Besides the system o f co nfines and d istrict captaincy-generals. quibus banus Croatiae et Sclavoniae praeest. 1 2 2 Ö N B Handschrif tensammlung Cod. M árz fols.000 to 17. supervised the co nfines p ro tecting the mining to w ns." Hajnal. the d istrict captaincygenerals had lost mo st of their military imp o rtance b y that time. hav ing his seat i n N émetújv ár.D . praesidiorum Canisae oppositorum. N ovae A rcis."  Vlastivedny Casopis 12 (1963) 151-153 and Jozef Simoncic. urpote: Cassoviensis. the leadership o f bo rd er fo rtress zones that w ere no t o f v ital imp o rtance for the defence o f the A ustrian p ro v inces w as. this arrangement w as reasonable because the H u ng arian estates had co nsolidated their p o w er in the seventeenth century . Less and less sup p o rt w as sent to su p p ly the H u ng arian theatre of w ar. new fo rms and metho d s o f fro ntier defence appeared and strengthened in the seventeenth century. in his submissio n to the H o l y Co ng reg atio n o f the Pro p agatio n o f the Faith [Sacra Congregatw De Propaganda Fide) i n the f o llo w ing manner: " O u t o f the d istrict captaingenerals [ in H u ng arian: királyképe] the first lives i n Várasd . Sclavoniae et Croatiae regnorum. 128: No.

w hic h mad e closer co o p eratio n betw een the ro yal and p riv ate tro o p s po ssible.000 German and 12. The significance of the g ro w ing number o f ro yal and private H e y d u c k settlements also increased fro m the early seventeenth century Thus the territo ries behind the military co nfines had to p articip ate more activ ely i n the bo rd er defence. tho u g h— in a similar w ay to the German arm y — in the f ramew o rk of regiments. or w hether it sho uld be a co mp letely d ifferent one.) Debrecen. " N euordnung der í] unganschen G renzen nach dem grófién Turkenkrieg. 9-24. Gesollschaft und Heer in Ungarn un Zeitalter der Turkenkriege Das (G razer' For­ Soldatenbaucrntum. Hung arian and Southern Slav captain-generals. Käser. Danube. Und er n e 2 . as the latter and the d istrict captaincy-generals w ere often ad ministered by the same perso n in these places.chte.a V al acho rumV in  Die  österreichische  Mihtargrcnze. w h o o btained ro y al p riv ileg es i n return fo r their military serv ice. and to establish a d istinct military fro ntier [Militargrenze). and Maro s.  ct. The  Einrichtungswerk}.  k. The questio n in this situatio n w as w hether the new — the third — bo rd er d efence system in the so uthern territo ries of H ung ary against the O tto m an Emp ire sho uld reflect the structural and ad ministrativ e f ram ew o rk existing befo re Mo hács or the one in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries.) Ed. " Esterházy Pál nádor es a magyar rendek tervezete az ország új m berendezkedésével kapcsolatban [The Proposal of  palatínus Pál Esterházy and the Hungarian Estates in Connection with the N ew Establishment of the Country].  A  hajdúk  a  XV!.Slav o i bo rd ers the same ro le w as p lay ed by the Vlachs (Valachi) and Uskoks (Uscoci).w Emma Iványi. They intend ed to separate the zones of the new system f ro m the rev iv ing c iv il local ad ministratio n. the military assistant of the ruler. 2. " M ilitärgrenze und 'Sta.' ] ~ A part from the works quoted in note 3. W i th the excep tio n o f Nánd o rfehérvár (Belgrade) and the Temeskö z reo ccupied o nly i n 1718. 29-93 From the Hungarian literature: Á kos Koroknai. Századok 125 (1991) 449-488. see recently Kurt W essely." in  Die  k.  op. One of them w as f o rw ard ed bv the palatums pâl Esterhâzy (1681-1713) and the H ung arian estates in co nnectio n w i th the new establishment of the co untry in 1688.  Gazdasági  és  társadalmi  viszonyok  a  dunai  és  tiszai  határőrvidéken  a  XVIII. The terminatio n of O tto man rule in H ung ary mad e the maintenance o f the bo rd er defence system built by the mid -sixteenth century by the Habsburg military lead ership unnecessary.' '* the o ther w as the co ncept of the A ulic W ar Co uncil fo rmed in the 1690s. A t the same time."  * stvan N .  passim."  Levéltári  Közlemények  42 (1971) 137-161 and János J V arga. bv Othmar Pickl.  század  elején [Economic and Social Conditions on the M ilitary Frontier A long the D anube and the Tisza in the Early Eighteenth Century] (Értekezések a történeti tudományok korébői. They d i d no t w i sh to inv o lv e the Hung arian estates in the co ntro l of the military fro ntiers to be d iv id ed into reg iment d istricts (Regimentbezirke/Kompaniebezirke).aIgesch. The m ilitary leaders in Vienna w anted to create a qualitativ ely new bo rd er d efence system. they wished to sup p ly the bo rd er fortresses w i th regularly p aid stand ing troops co nsisting of 12.. Kiss.60 GÉZA PÁLFFY w ere o ften settled o n those territo ries O n the C ro atian. The concept of the A ulic W ar Co uncil w as fund amentally d ifferent fro m the p ro p o sal o f the estates. A z Einrichtungswerk [Schemes for a N ew Establishment in Hungary After the Expulsion of the Ottomans. They considered the w ar tax of the reco nquered co untry sufficient to cover the payment of the 24.  században (The Heyducks in the Seventeenth Century] (M agyar történeti tanulmányok. Tisz a.und Soz.e  wirtschaftlichen  Auswirkungen  der  Turkenkriege schungen zur Wirtschaft.  Militargrenze. f ro m the Hung arian co unties.000 so ld iers.. Graz. the fro ntiers w hic h had existed befo re the battle o f Mo hács w ere resto red by the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 1974..u." in  D.H A BS BU RG BO RD ER D EFEN C E SYSTEM S n an 127 . . w hic h w as to a certain extent similar to the setup in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MILITARY FRONTIERS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY A s a result of the so-called reco nquering Turkish w ar launched in 1683 and co nclud ed in 1699 by the peace o f Karlo v itz . 73 ) Budapest. The Hung arian estates w anted to rev iv e the med iev al defence system w i th the resto ratio n of the banales and the defence captaincy-generals. 1969. Tw o pro po sals w ere w o rked o ut co ncerning the establishment of the w bo rd er defence system. This second. and the earlier autho rity o f the palatums. as they intend ed to co ntro l the new bo rd er defence netw o rk co mp letely f ro m Vienna and no t fro m Buda as had been the case in the m id d le ages.R 3. The system of garriso ns previo usly maintained by the king w as replaced by a system o f fo rtified settlements and g uard houses d efend ed by peasant so ldiers and Hey d ucks and co ntro lled by the bo rd er land lo rd s and captain-generals. " Berendezkedési tervezetek M agyarországon a török kiűzésének időszakában. Új sorozat. Bracewell  op  at  ­'erreichte  ™ István Rácz. They w o u l d hav e field ed the latter o nes out of the p rev io us bo rd er castle so ld iers in Hung ary . hinterland defence line co mp lemented the ro y al bo rd er defence system v ery w ell. 1. 1971 273-^96 Ekkehard V ölkl. the fro ntier betw een the t w o w o rl d emp ires w as p ushed back to the line o f the Sava.000 Hung arian and So uthern Slav so ldiers und er the jo int lead ership o f German. 126 61 T H E H U N G A RI A N .

the Tisza and the M aro s w ere o rganized . the Sava. W e are g o ing to f ind these i n the m o no g rap hy to be w ritten o n this to pic. o f Varasd . i n the three p erio d s d esignated above. by settling and inco rp o rating in the bo rd er defence the mass of So uthern Slav refugees. they d i d no t w ant the H u ng arian bo rd er castle so ld iers to take p art i n the p ro tectio n of the fro ntiers. 63 at the same time. it created a new bo rd er defence system w hic h c o u ld effectively p ro tect H u ng ary and the H ab sb u rg Emp ire against the Otto man tro o p s u ntil the f o rm atio n o f the natio n states in the nineteenth century. these fro ntiers w ere later d i v i d e d into w e l l d isting uishable regiment d istricts. The fo und atio ns of the new bo rd er defence system w ere laid in the first decade o f the eighteenth century acco rd ing to the concept o f the A u lic W ar Co u nc il. the land ed and p riv ileg ed peasant so ldier sentries served in the g uard houses (cardaks) situated betw een them. Cro atian. A fter the co llapse of the Ki ng d o m . Tho u g h the f o rmer co nstituted the mo st imp o rtant p art o f defence. and co uld establish the unif ied autho rity of the new military offices. it abo lished a po ssible centre o f social tensions. they themselves w ere reluctant to leave their bo rd er fortresses. the Habsburg rulers w ere expected to solve the p ro b lem of sto p p ing the enemy o n the territo ry o f H u ng ary and o f d ef end ing the A ustrian p ro v inces. Due to their special lig ht cavalry tactics they w ere needed o n the French battlefield s o f the Habsburg Emp ire. Until the battle o f Mo hács the med iev al H u ng arian Ki ng d o m co ntained the ad vance o f the O tto mans w ith its co herent bo rd er defence system co ntro lled by the Cro atianSlavo nian ban. ho w ev er. o n the o ther hand . as the real changes in the o rg aniz atio n and ad ministratio n o f the defence system o ccurred in 1526 and 1699. . Fro m the A d riatic Sea to Transy lv ania. the d ismissed and ho meless members o f the H ung arian bo rd er castle so ld iery had already been recruited into H u ng arian imp erial reg iments f ro m the 1670s and 1680s. This explains w h y the bo rd er defence w as d iv id ed into a tw o f o ld system: the co nfines captaincy-generals financed by the ruler and based o n the bo rd er castles and the d istrict captaincy-generals based o n the o utd ated insurrectio n of the no bility and the co unty tro o p s. their co unterparts in the d ualistic state structure. they co uld no t reject the help of the H u ng arian estates.62 G ÉZ A T H E H U N G A R I A N . aro u nd w hi c h they w ere mo re and mo re o ften eng ag ed —in the seventeenth c entu ry — in the cultiv atio n o f land o r animal husband ry . the tro o ps of the new m ilitary fro ntiers w ere mad e u p o f Serbian. W hile the majo r bo rd er fo rtresses w ere d efend ed by the regular German regiments. This piece o f w o rk has achieved its p urp o se if it c o u ld ' d em o nstrate that the d ev elo p ment o f the defence system against the Otto mans can o nly be und ersto o d i n the kno w led g e o f the co mplete H u ng arian theatre o f w ar.H A BS BU R G BO RD ER D EFEN C E S Y S T EM S PÁ LFFY this p lan they c o uld sim p ly abo lish the earlier d iv isio n o f the defence system into d istrict and bo rd er fo rtress captaincy-generals. In the o rg aniz atio n of the new defence system. The military lead ership in Vienna so lv ed three p ro b lem s w i t h the creatio n of the m ilitary fro ntiers. O n the one hand . and Vlach refugees w h o had settled in the so uthern territo ries of H u ng ary . the m ilitary fro ntiers o f Karo ly v aro s. the captain-general of the Lo w er Parts (supremus capitaneus parthim inferiorum) and the V o iv o d e of Transy lv ania. of the ban. A s o ppo sed to the d raf t p lan of the palatums. The H ung arian estates w ere f u lly exclud ed f ro m the ad m inistratio n o f the new bo rd er defence system established i n the territo ries o f H u ng ary . Their central co ntro l w as entirely taken o v er b y the A u lic W ar Co uncil after the d isso lutio n of the Inner A u strian W ar C o u nc il in 1705. It d ecid ed the strug g le fo r the central and local ad ministratio n of m ilitary affairs and b o rd er defence in the sixteenth and seventeenth century to its o w n ad v antag e. it w as o nly at the beg inning of eighteenth c entury — and after the settlement of So uthern Slav peasant so ld iers—that the A u lic W ar Co unc il w as able to create a system of m ilitary fro ntiers in the so uthern territo ries of the c o u ntry w hic h exclud ed the H u ng arian estates. Thus. O nly one c o m m o n element of the ideas o f the H u ng arian estates and o f the A ulic W ar Co uncil w as left: the reco nquered co untry had to co ntribute financially to the sup p ly of the new m ilitary fro ntiers to be established on the so uthern bo rd ers of the c o u ntry . and fo r p ractical reasons they co uld no t oust them entirely f ro m the lo cal manag ement of the system. O ur surv ey o f the 500 year lo ng histo ry o f the bo rd er defence system in Hung ary against the O tto m an Emp ire canno t have answ ered all questio ns that the reader m i g h t have. the Danube. apart fro m the German regiments. d o ing military service i n return fo r land and p riv ileg es.

Hresno . Cro 35. Karlo v ac. Cro 36. C ro 24. Krc u z . C ro 41. Sankt Veit am Pf lau m . H rasto v ic a. 16. B Slunj. Kap ro nc a. Cro = Cro atia. To p o lo v ac. Brinje. Cro Cetin. Ceting rad . B Rip ac. C ro 42. Cro 30. Sveti Kr i . Oto csäc. Slo v = Slo venia. Cro 40. Cro 43. Remetinec. Bihäcs. O g u l i n . Smrcko v ic. C ro 44. Cro M ala Klad usa. H Bajcsav ár. B Bihac. C ro 4. Fiume. N o v i g rad . Sanktpeter. Cro 23. Bajcsa. M o d ru s . Cro 39. Cro Brlo g . Slo v 2. Szentkereszt. Cirkv ena. U = Ukrainia MA P l : THE CASTLES OF THE CROATIAN AND WENDISH-BAJCSAVAR CONFINES IN 1582 1. Blagaj.Po d rav ski. Cro 13. Hrasz to v ica. 10. 8. C ro 14. Cro Derny e. Senj. Cro 34. Izacsics. Karlo b ag . N o v ig rad . C ro Jesenica. 17. Izacic. C ro 27. Sveti Petar Cv rstec. Lu d b re g . Svetica. Cro 32. R = Ro mania. Drnje. Petro vac. Cro Dabar. C ro 12. D rez nik. Segnia. Szentp éter. M o d ru s . Sz entg y ö rg y v ár. Kő rö s. Ko p n n i z . Trzac. Ivanics. Cro 11. 21. H The territories under the command of the Croatian-Slavonian ban in 1582 Cro atia Kő rö s c o u nty Varasd c o unty Z ág ráb co unty .GÉZA PÁLFFY 64 A PPEN D IX ABBREVIATIONS B = Bo snia. Petro v a g o ra. Cro 37. H = H ung ary . Sred nji Grad ac. H eilig enkreu z . 20. 45. To p o lo v ác. D rez nik G rad . V araz d in. Z eng g . H Fíty eház a. Crad ec. C ro 3. Kriz ev c i. Murakeresz túr. C ro 33. Bag. 47. Rijeka. Laibach. 19. Ko p riv nic a. Cro 29. C ro 15. Cro Keresztúr. W arasd in. Sanktgeo rgen. Cro 5. Cro 38. Iv anic g rad . Käro ly v äro s. Karlstad t. 9. Bud acki. Led enice. 18. V araz d inske To p licc. Licka Jesenica. 46. Iv anic. C ro Oto cac. 7. Ljubljana. C ro 28. Cro 31. Cro 6. C ro 26. Varasd . Cro 25. Slo = Slo v akia. B 22. Djurd jev ac. Rip äcs.

Csákány . 47. 46. H Sz ig lig et. Murakeresz túr. H Isabo r. H Csesznek. 59. Ko már. 50. Mikló sfa. H Sz entmikló s. C ro Kaniz sa. Kaniz sa m elletti to ro ny . KANIZSA. H The counties under the command the Transdanubian district captain-general in 1582 0j Fejér Gy ő r Ko m áro m Mo só n So mo g y So p ro n Vas Vesz p rém Z ala 56. Z alalö v ő . Váz so ny . Pö lö ske. H Páp a. H 52. Keresz túr. Kéthely . Pacsa-lsabo r. 48. Panno nhalma. 61. 71. N ag y v áz so ny . H 53. Z alacsány . H Kesz thely . H 54. Ko m arno . 78. 77. 73. H Bajcsav ár. Kemend o llár. Z alabér. Z alako már. Isebor. H Kap o rnak. Ro mlo ttv ár. N ag y kaniz sa.H A BSBU R C BORDER DEFENCE SYSTEMS GÉZA PÁLFFY MA P 2: THE CASTLES OF THE BAJCSAVÁR. 65. Bér. H Ke m e nd . H 55. Kisko máro m . Ko m o rn .. H Sz entg ró t. H Gy ő r. AND GYŐR CONFINES IN 1582 45. H Fity eház a. 63. Slo O • tt 4- The casües of Ihe Bajcsavár confines The casües of ihe Kanizsa confines The castlcs of the Győr cofincs Komárom. 68. Kaco rlak. H 66. Várp alo ta. H "Palota. Sz entmárto nheg y . H 58. H Z alav ár. H 81. 64. H 76. 67. Leg rad . Vesz p rém. 70.M ikló sf a. V áz so ny kő . Sz entmárto n. E 66 H U N G A R I A N . Ko m áro m . N ag y kap o rnak. H 62. H Tata. Raab. 60. 72. Újud v ar. 69. H Cso bánc. 49. N ag y kaniz sa. Bo tsz entg y ö rg y . Kielmansz ig et. Kilimán. Z alasz entg ró t. "a border fort of its own' 67 . H Csány . H Lég rád . H 51. H 57. H 75. H Rajk. H 80. Bajcsa. A lsó rajk. H 74. Tihany . N ag y kaniz sa. H Lö v ő . 79.