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Dr. S.

Suresh lecture note at the MANIT
Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering"

BIOMASS SOURCES, CHARACTERISTICS
AND CLASSIFICATION

Dr. S. Suresh
Assistant Professor,
Department of Chemical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal462 007, MP, India
Email: sureshpecchem@gmail.com

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Waste-to-energy plants offer both generation of clean electric power and environmentally safe waste management and disposal. One of the most critical bottlenecks in increased biomass utilization for energy production is the cost of its logistics operations.. Theoretically.Dr. animal residues and organic wastes) could be as high as 1100 EJ. The production of second-generation biofuels obtained by waste biomass is actively supported globally to avoid the direct and side effects that stem from the energetic utilization of energy crops (OECD/FAO. 2001. The requirements with respect to biomass supply in terms of quality and quantity can differ substantially depending on the energy demand trends. Dr. Its appeal is due to its potential worldwide availability. as well as biosolids. Suresh et al. S. Many research efforts document the current and potential role of biomass in the future global energy supply (Yamamoto et al. forest. (2003) further reinforce this potential of biomass in the future global energy supply by analysing and synthesizing earlier studies on the subject. the organic fraction of municipal waste and certain types of industrial wastes. energy crops. Berndes et al. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on "Bioenergy Engineering" 2 . exceeding the current global energy use of 410 EJ (Hoogwijk et al. The rising demand for biomass and the increased complexity of the often multi-level involved supply systems outline the need for comprehensive waste biomass supply chain management approaches. its conversion efficiency and its ability to be produced and consumed on a CO2-neutral basis. S. a careful analysis of all the related literature reveals that there is no consensus regarding the biomass potential among the researchers. vegetation. Parikka. 2011). but rather their assessments differ strongly. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" BIOMASS SOURCES.. 2007). However. the cost-efficiency and complexity of its logistics operations. the energy production technology. the end-use of the power generated and. forestry and agricultural residues. 2004. animal. and further support effectively waste management policies. CHARACTERISTICS Biomass encompasses among others.. 2003). the total bio-energy contribution (combined in descending order of theoretical potential by agricultural.

storage and transportation more costly per unit of energy carried.Dr. In addition. The complexity of biomass supply chains is even higher for perishable products. thus dictating the need of storing large amounts of biomass for lengthy time periods. most forms of biomass tend to have a relatively low energy density per unit of mass compared with fossil fuels. which in turn leads to high inventory holding costs during the year-round operation of a power plant. as the demand of the produced energy depends on the type of the conversion facility and/or the price of competitive fuel substitutes. weather related variability and competing uses of waste biomass in a dynamically changing market have to be considered when determining the flows of the material supply network. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" BIOMASS SOURCES. Moreover. WBSCs possess several distinctive characteristics that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. S. agricultural biomass types are usually characterized by seasonal availability. WBSCs need to be robust and flexible enough to adapt to unpredictable changes in market conditions. (iii) transport (using a single or multiple echelons) and (iv) energy conversion (Fig. S. Firstly. Furthermore. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on "Bioenergy Engineering" 3 . 1). This often makes handling. Dr. (ii) storage (in one or more intermediate locations). as perishability constrains severely both the acceptable transportation lead times and the length of storage time. CHARACTERISTICS Waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs) for energy production are comprised in general of four general system components: (i) biomass harvesting/collection (from single or several locations) and pre-treatment.

1. S. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" Fig.Dr. S. Graphical representation of a waste biomass supply chain Dr. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on "Bioenergy Engineering" 4 .

and of other meaningful improvement options (Wonglimpiyarat.. pyrolysis and charcoal production).Dr. biodiesel) through physical (e. Dr. 2010). Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on "Bioenergy Engineering" 5 .g. Many of the processes are suitable for either the direct conversion of biomass or the conversion of intermediate types of biomass. pressing) and chemical (e. i. (Balat et al. economic conditions and other project-specific factors (Hulteberg and Karlsson. conversion options. end-use requirements. It is important to obtain a strategic view about the ramifications and various parameters of all these technological options on waste biomass supply chains. 2009).g. animal manure).g. Bio-chemical conversion is based on biological processes. networks. Fig 2 presents the alternative biomass feedstock and the energy carrier for the presented conversion technologies.g. In this context. (b) bio-chemical and (c) physicochemical processes.. environmental standards. liquid or gaseous fuel (e. Conversion of waste biomass and organic substrates into energy encompasses a wide range of different types and sources of biomass. Finally. 2): (a) thermochemical. enduse applications and infrastructure requirements (Karagiannidis et al. S.e. The most significant options are: alcohol production from biomass containing sugar.g. transesterification) processing of dedicated energy crops. Biomass can be converted into useful products or exploitable energy via three main process categories (Fig. Factors that influence the choice of a conversion process include the type and quantity of biomass feedstock and the desired form of the produced energy. 2009). 2009). gasification. Thermochemical conversion processes convert biomass into a solid. physicochemical conversion processes provide liquid fuels (e. and biogas production from crops or organic waste material (e. starch and/or celluloses. this would facilitate the identification of optimal configurations for bio-energy supply systems. S. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES A thorough understanding of the technologies available for biomass energy production is a critical input to the strategic design of any biomass supply chain network.

2011) Dr. S. 2004. Overview of renewable energy production from organic substrates (Iakovou et al.Dr. 2. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on "Bioenergy Engineering" 6 . S.. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" Fig. Suresh et al.

Dr. S. identifying gaps in the existing research and thus opportunities for additional research. Then. we provided a taxonomy of all related research efforts as these are mapped on the levels of the hierarchy. S. generic system components along with the unique characteristics of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs) that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. Stakeholders involved in both the design and the execution of such WBSCs need to address systemically an array of decisions spanning all levels of the natural hierarchical decision-making process. For example. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Logistics and supply chain management are areas of critical importance for the successful energetic utilization of waste biomass. Dr. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on "Bioenergy Engineering" 7 . Here. The natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs based on industrial practice and needs and existing research.

Dr. Suresh lecture note at the MANIT Bhopal on “Bioenergy Engineering" 8 . S.