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Course # 1

Ayman Nada

Assistant Professor

Jazan University, KSA.

arobust@tedata.net.eg

March 29, 2010

ii

1

Sucess is not coming in a day

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Introduction

Mechanisms may be dened as the division of machine design concerned with the kinematic

design of linkages, cams, gears, and gear trains. Kinematic design is the design on the basis of

motion requirements in contrast to the design on basis of strength requirements. The study of

mechanisms and machines is an applied science used to understand the relation between the

motions of their elements and the forces producing these motions within some geometrical

constraints. With the continuous advances in designing instruments and automated systems,

the study of mechanisms becomes of great importance. This chapter is concerned with the

study of simple mechanisms topological structure, kinematic diagram, inversions, mobility

index, degrees of freedom, geometric constraints, and geometry of motion. The functions of

many important mechanisms are also included. These items are important for the study of

mechanism motion. The chapter is organized in ve main sections:

(a) Basic denitions and mechanism elements

(b) Kinematic chain, kinematic diagram and mechanism inversions

(c) Examples of important mechanisms

(d) Mobility index, degrees of freedom, geometric constraints, redundancy, and exibility

(e) Mechanism topology and geometry of motion

The chapter also includes 4 solved examples and ends by a set of problems.

1.2

Basic Denitions

following denitions:

Mechanism: A combination of rigid and/or exible bodies connected in such away

to do work and there are denite constrained relative motions between them.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Structure: The same denition of mechanism, but its purpose is not to do work and

there is no relative motion between its parts.

Machine: An arrangement of parts and/or mechanisms for doing work and there are

constrained relative motions between its parts.

Statics: The part of mechanics, which deals with the action of forces on bodies at

rest.

Kinematics: Study of motion without reference to the forces causing the motion.

Kinetics: Relates the action of forces on bodies to their resulting motions.

Dynamics: The part of mechanics, which deals with the action of forces on bodies in

motion.

Mechanics: Deals with the action of forces on bodies at rest and in motion.

1.3

A Mechanism is composed of three main elements: links, pairing elements, and a drive

or drives. The links are connected together with kinematic pairs, called joints, to permit

their constraints relative motions. A mechanism is normally driven through a transmission

system, which may include belts, ropes, chains, and/or gears, by a motor. Mechanism links

may be rigid, uidics, or exible. For the sake of simplicity, links are assumed rigid and

joints have perfect geometry with no clearance through out this text. In many mechanisms

springs are used for restoring forces and do not aect their kinematics.

Mechanism Links: Links through out the text are considered rigid and the number of

joints on each link gives its type. In other words, a binary link is that having 2 joints (Fig.

1.3.a), a ternary link is that having 3 joints (Fig. 1.3.b) and a quaternary link is that having

4 joints (Fig. 1.3.c). A well-known ternary link is the bell crank shown in Fig. 1.4. Other

names are given to mechanism links such as: input link, output link, driving link, driven

link, initial link, frame, base, bar, rocker, coupler, sliding block, slider, guide, crosshead,

ram, connecting rod, and many other names. This class of links makes the so-called linkage

mechanisms such as the crank-slider mechanism (Fig. 1.5) and the 4-bar linkage (Fig. 1.6).

Figure 1.3: Types of links (a) binary, (b) ternary, (c) quaternary

Cams and followers are another class of mechanism links, which make the so-called camfollower mechanisms as those shown in Fig. 1.7.

Mechanism Joints: There are two types of connecting pairing elements: lower pairs

and higher pairs. Lower pairs have surface contact between mating elements and higher pairs

have line or point contact. The contact surface of a shaft in a bearing and that of the wrist

pin joining the piston and connecting rod as well as the surface between the piston and the

cylinder are some examples of lower pairs. Lower pairs include spherical (S) , revolute (R),

cylindrical (C) and prismatic (P) joints which represented in Fig.1.8. The contact between

a cam and a follower or between two meshing gear teeth is examples of higher pairs.

Table 1.2: Classication of linkage joints

Mechanism Classications: There are three types of mechanisms: planar, spherical,

and spatial. In planar mechanisms, all particles describe plane parallel curves in space while

in spatial mechanisms there is no restrictions on the relative motions of particles. In spherical

mechanisms, each link has some point, which remains stationary as the linkage moves. The

stationary points of all links lie at the same location in space. Hooks or universal joint

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Table 1.1: Generalized coordinates and position of an arbitrary point

only revolute joints they are called spherical linkages. Mechanisms may form closed loops,

open loops or combination. Crank-slider mechanism and 4-bar linkage are of closed loop

type while robot arms are of open loop. Another mechanism classication based on the type

of their links is linkage, cam-follower, and gearset or gear train mechanisms. In practice a

mechanism may be a combination of all these types such as the engine mechanism.

1.4

1.4.1

Slider-Crank Mechanisms

as the slider-crank mechanism. Link 1 is a stationary base or a frame, link 2 is the crank,

link 3 is the connecting rod, and link 4 is the slider. The line of slider stroke passes through

the center of crank rotation.

Oset Slider-Crank Mechanism: The slider crank can be oset as shown in Fig.1.10.

This oset produces a quick return motion for the slider. However, the amount of quick

return is very slight, the mechanism would be only used where space is limited.

Scotch Yoke Mechanism: This mechanism is sketched in Fig.1.11. It consists of the

same elements as slider-crank mechanism and is early used in steam pumps and in computing

machines as a harmonic generator. Recently, it is used as a mechanism on a test machine to

produce vibrations.

1.4.2

Four-Bar Linkage

The 4-bar linkage consists of 4 pin-connected rigid links as shown in Fig.1.12. There are

many types and names of the 4-bar linkage depending on the mechanism dimensions. These

include double crank, crank-rocker, drag link, double-rocker, and crossover-piston or changepoint mechanisms. For crank-rocker type, link 1 is the frame, which is stationary, link 2 is

the crank, which makes complete revolutions, link 3 is the coupler, and link 4 is the rocker,

10

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

which performs the desired task. This simple mechanism is important, as it is the base of

many other mechanisms. For these reasons it will be studied in all details through out the

text.

1.4.3

Quick-Return Mechanisms

Several types of quick-return mechanisms QRM are in use in machine tools. The QRM give

quick return strokes and slow cutting strokes for constant angular velocities of the driving

cranks. These mechanisms are combinations of simple linkages such as the 4-bar linkage

and the slider-crank mechanism. An inversion of the slider crank in combination with the

conventional slider crank is also used. All known QRM are described after.

11

12

1.5

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

MOBILITY OF MECHANISMS

The mobility of a mechanism is its number of degrees of freedom. This translates into a

number of independent input motions leading to a single follower motion. A single unconstrained link (Figure 1.14.a) has three DOF in planar motion: two translational and one

rotational. Thus, two disconnected links (Figure 1.14.b) will have six DOF. If the two links

are welded together (Figure 1.14.c), they form a single link having three DOF. A revolute

joint in place of welding (Figure 1.14.d) allows a motion of one link relative to another, which

means that this joint introduces an additional (to the case of welded links) DOF. Thus, the

two links connected by a revolute joint have four DOF. One can say that by connecting

the two previously disconnected links by a revolute joint, two DOF are eliminated. Similar

considerations are valid for a prismatic joint.

Since the revolute and prismatic joints make up all low-pair joints in planar mechanisms,

the above results can be expressed as a rule: a low-pair joint reduces the mobility of a

mechanism by two DOF.

These results are generalized in the following formula, which is called Kutzbachs criterion

of mobility

M = 3(n

1)

2j1

j2

where n is the number of links, j1 is the number of low-pair joints, and j2 is the number

of high-pair joints. Note that 1 is subtracted from n in the above equation to take into

account that the mobility of the frame is zero.

In Figure 1.15 the mobility of various congurations of connected links is calculated. All

joints are low-pair ones. Note that the mobility of the links in Fig.1.15.a is zero, which

means that this system of links is not a mechanism, but a structure. At the same time, the

system of interconnected links in Fig.1.15.d has mobility 2, which means that any two links

can be used as input links (drivers) in this mechanism. Look at the eect of an additional

link on the mobility. This is shown in Fig.1.16, where a four-bar mechanism (Figure 1.16.a)

is transformed into a structure having zero mobility (Figure 1.16.b) by adding one link, and

13

then into a structure having negative mobility (Figure 1.16.c) by adding one more link. The

latter is called an overconstrained structure.

0; m = 0; (b) n = 4; j1 = 4; j2 = 0; m = 1;(c) n = 4; j1 = 4; j2 = 0; m = 1;(d) n = 5; j1 =

5; j2 = 0; m = 2:

In compound mechanisms, there are links with more than two joints. Kutzbachs criterion

is applicable to such mechanisms provided that a proper account of links and joints is made.

Consider a simple compound mechanism shown in Fig.1.17, which is a sequence of two fourbar mechanisms. In this mechanism, joint B represents two connections between three links.

In other words, it should be taken into account that there are, in fact, two revolute joints

at B. The axes of these two joints may not necessarily coincide. According to Kutzbachs

formula M = 3 5 2 7 = 1.

1.6

The fourbar linkage has been shown above to be the simplest possible pin-jointed mechanism

for single degree of freedom controlled motion. It also appears in various disguises such as

the slider-crank and the cam-follower. It is in fact the most common and ubiquitous device

used in machinery. It is also extremely versatile in terms of the types of motion which it can

generate

Simplicity is one mark of good design. The fewest parts that can do the job will usually

give the least expensive and most reliable solution. Thus the fourbar linkage should be among

the rst solutions to motion control problems to be investigated. The Grashof condition is

a very simple relationship which predicts the rotation behavior or rotatability of a fourbar

linkages inversions based only on the link lengths.

Let

S =length of shortest link

14

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1:

15

P = length of one remaining link

Q =length of other remaining link

Then if :

S+L

P +Q

the linkage is Grashof and at least one link will be capable of making a full revolution with

respect to the ground plane. This is called a Class I kinematic chain.

If the inequality is not true, then the linkage is non-Grashof and no link will be capable of

a complete revolution relative to any other link. This is a Class II kinematic chain.

Note that the above statements apply regardless of the order of assembly of the links.

That is, the determination of the Grashof condition can be made on a set of unassembled

links. Whether they are later assembled into a kinematic chain in S, L, P , Q, or S, P , L,

Q or any other order, will not change the Grashof condition.

The motions possible from a fourbar linkage will depend on both the Grashof condition

and the inversion chosen. The inversions will be dened with respect to the shortest link.

The motions are:

For the Class I case,

S+L<P +Q

Ground either link adjacent to the shortest and you get a crank-rocker, in which the

shortest link will fully rotate and the other link pivoted to ground will oscillate.

Ground the shortest link and you will get a double-crank, in which both links pivoted to

ground make complete revolutions as does the coupler.

Ground the link opposite the shortest and you will get a Grashof double-rocker, in which

both links pivoted to ground oscillate and only the coupler makes a full revolution.

Determine the mobility index and the degrees of freedom of each of the plane mechanisms

shown in Fig. 1.37. All joints are of R type.

Chapter 2

Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms

There are various methods of performing kinematic analysis of mechanisms, including graphical, analytical, and numerical. The choice of a method depends on the problem at hand

and on available computational means.

Kinematic analysis of a mechanical system means the computation, at any time instant,

of the mechanism congurations, positions, displacements, linear velocities and accelerations

of its interesting points as well as the angular velocities and accelerations of its links. This

chapter deals with the kinematics of planar linkage mechanisms using graphical and analytical methods. More emphasis is given to analytical methods in order to simplify the use

of computers for mechanism animation and simulation. The analysis of the 4-bar linkage,

slider-crank mechanism, and the shaper quick return mechanism is used through out the

chapter to illustrate the used methods for linkage kinematic analysis. The chapter ends with

a set of interesting problems.

2.1

17

For planar mechanisms, two coordinate systems are used: rectangular (x; y) and polar (r; )

as shown in Fig. ( ). The choice of the coordinate system is arbitrary and must be selected

to suit the situation. After dening the mechanism working space, reference frame, and

time instant, its kinematic analysis is possible using graphical or analytical methods. In this

text, only planar mechanisms are considered and vectors are represented either in Cartesian

coordinates as x and y components or in polar coordinates by its magnitude r and phase

angle or by complex numbers. Rotation in planar motion is always represented by a vector

normal to the plane of motion i.e. the z-axis.

Position Vector: The vector ~

r or ~

rP dening the absolute position of point P; Fig. ( )

is represented in polar coordinates by its magnitude and phase angle or by complex numbers

as:

~

r =~

r p = r\

= r ej

= r (cos + j sin )

where j is the imaginary number.

Velocity Vector: The rst time derivative of the position vector r denes the absolute

velocity of point P; v

~P as:

18

v

~P = ~

rp

= r_ ej + j r _ ej

= r_ ej + r _ ej ( +

=2)

v

~P = r _ ej ( + =2)

= r !\ ( + =2)

where, _ is the angular velocity of the vector OP, _ = !:

Acceleration Vector: The second time derivative of the position vector ~r denes the

~

aP =

=

=

=

~

rp = ~

a =r ej ( + =2) + r !ej ( +

r ej ( + =2) + r ! 2 ej ( + )

r \ ( + =2) + r! 2 \ ( + )

~

aP

~

a=~

at + ~

ar

19

where

~

at = r \ ( + =2)

~

ar = r! 2 \ ( + )

Where is the angular acceleration of the vector OP, and ~

at and ~

ar are respectively the

acceleration components.

20

The general linkage conguration and terminology for a slider-crank linkage with oest

are shown in Figure (2.4). The link lengths and the values of 2 , ! 2 and 2 are dened in

the table. For the row(s) assigned, draw the linkage to scale and nd the velocities of the

pin joints A and B and the velocity of slip at the sliding joint using a graphical method.

row

f.

e.

g.

Link 2

3

5

7

Link 3

13

20

25

Oset

0

-5

10

100

225

330

!2

-45

-50

100

50

10

18

21

(f.)

Results:

row

f.

vB

2:5

!3

50 = 125

vB=A

r3

0:6 50

13

= 2:307

aB

2:47

1000 = 2470

3

aB=A

r3

6:06 1000

13

= 466:15

22

23

(e.)

Results:

row

e.

vB

1:91

!3

100 = 191

vB=A

r3

1:77 100

20

= 8:85

aB

3:31

2000 = 6620

3

aB=A

r3

4:49 2000

20

= 449

24

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