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# Theory of Machines

Course # 1

Ayman Nada
Assistant Professor
Jazan University, KSA.
arobust@tedata.net.eg
March 29, 2010

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Sucess is not coming in a day

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1

Introduction

Mechanisms may be dened as the division of machine design concerned with the kinematic
design of linkages, cams, gears, and gear trains. Kinematic design is the design on the basis of
motion requirements in contrast to the design on basis of strength requirements. The study of
mechanisms and machines is an applied science used to understand the relation between the
motions of their elements and the forces producing these motions within some geometrical
constraints. With the continuous advances in designing instruments and automated systems,
the study of mechanisms becomes of great importance. This chapter is concerned with the
study of simple mechanisms topological structure, kinematic diagram, inversions, mobility
index, degrees of freedom, geometric constraints, and geometry of motion. The functions of
many important mechanisms are also included. These items are important for the study of
mechanism motion. The chapter is organized in ve main sections:
(a) Basic denitions and mechanism elements
(b) Kinematic chain, kinematic diagram and mechanism inversions
(c) Examples of important mechanisms
(d) Mobility index, degrees of freedom, geometric constraints, redundancy, and exibility
(e) Mechanism topology and geometry of motion
The chapter also includes 4 solved examples and ends by a set of problems.

1.2

Basic Denitions

## To better understand the mechanics of mechanisms, it is necessary to keep in mind the

following denitions:
Mechanism: A combination of rigid and/or exible bodies connected in such away
to do work and there are denite constrained relative motions between them.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Structure: The same denition of mechanism, but its purpose is not to do work and
there is no relative motion between its parts.
Machine: An arrangement of parts and/or mechanisms for doing work and there are
constrained relative motions between its parts.
Statics: The part of mechanics, which deals with the action of forces on bodies at
rest.
Kinematics: Study of motion without reference to the forces causing the motion.
Kinetics: Relates the action of forces on bodies to their resulting motions.
Dynamics: The part of mechanics, which deals with the action of forces on bodies in
motion.
Mechanics: Deals with the action of forces on bodies at rest and in motion.

1.3

## Mechanism Elements and Classication

A Mechanism is composed of three main elements: links, pairing elements, and a drive
or drives. The links are connected together with kinematic pairs, called joints, to permit
their constraints relative motions. A mechanism is normally driven through a transmission
system, which may include belts, ropes, chains, and/or gears, by a motor. Mechanism links
may be rigid, uidics, or exible. For the sake of simplicity, links are assumed rigid and
joints have perfect geometry with no clearance through out this text. In many mechanisms
springs are used for restoring forces and do not aect their kinematics.
Mechanism Links: Links through out the text are considered rigid and the number of
joints on each link gives its type. In other words, a binary link is that having 2 joints (Fig.
1.3.a), a ternary link is that having 3 joints (Fig. 1.3.b) and a quaternary link is that having
4 joints (Fig. 1.3.c). A well-known ternary link is the bell crank shown in Fig. 1.4. Other
names are given to mechanism links such as: input link, output link, driving link, driven
link, initial link, frame, base, bar, rocker, coupler, sliding block, slider, guide, crosshead,
ram, connecting rod, and many other names. This class of links makes the so-called linkage
mechanisms such as the crank-slider mechanism (Fig. 1.5) and the 4-bar linkage (Fig. 1.6).

Figure 1.3: Types of links (a) binary, (b) ternary, (c) quaternary
Cams and followers are another class of mechanism links, which make the so-called camfollower mechanisms as those shown in Fig. 1.7.
Mechanism Joints: There are two types of connecting pairing elements: lower pairs
and higher pairs. Lower pairs have surface contact between mating elements and higher pairs
have line or point contact. The contact surface of a shaft in a bearing and that of the wrist
pin joining the piston and connecting rod as well as the surface between the piston and the
cylinder are some examples of lower pairs. Lower pairs include spherical (S) , revolute (R),
cylindrical (C) and prismatic (P) joints which represented in Fig.1.8. The contact between
a cam and a follower or between two meshing gear teeth is examples of higher pairs.
Table 1.2: Classication of linkage joints
Mechanism Classications: There are three types of mechanisms: planar, spherical,
and spatial. In planar mechanisms, all particles describe plane parallel curves in space while
in spatial mechanisms there is no restrictions on the relative motions of particles. In spherical
mechanisms, each link has some point, which remains stationary as the linkage moves. The
stationary points of all links lie at the same location in space. Hooks or universal joint

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

## Figure 1.8: Mechanical Joints

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Table 1.1: Generalized coordinates and position of an arbitrary point

## used in automobile is an example of spherical mechanisms. If spherical mechanisms have

only revolute joints they are called spherical linkages. Mechanisms may form closed loops,
open loops or combination. Crank-slider mechanism and 4-bar linkage are of closed loop
type while robot arms are of open loop. Another mechanism classication based on the type
of their links is linkage, cam-follower, and gearset or gear train mechanisms. In practice a
mechanism may be a combination of all these types such as the engine mechanism.

1.4
1.4.1

## Examples of Important Mechanisms

Slider-Crank Mechanisms

## Slider-Crank Mechanism: The sketch of linkage arranged as shown in Fig.1.9 is known

as the slider-crank mechanism. Link 1 is a stationary base or a frame, link 2 is the crank,
link 3 is the connecting rod, and link 4 is the slider. The line of slider stroke passes through
the center of crank rotation.
Oset Slider-Crank Mechanism: The slider crank can be oset as shown in Fig.1.10.
This oset produces a quick return motion for the slider. However, the amount of quick
return is very slight, the mechanism would be only used where space is limited.
Scotch Yoke Mechanism: This mechanism is sketched in Fig.1.11. It consists of the
same elements as slider-crank mechanism and is early used in steam pumps and in computing
machines as a harmonic generator. Recently, it is used as a mechanism on a test machine to
produce vibrations.

1.4.2

Four-Bar Linkage

The 4-bar linkage consists of 4 pin-connected rigid links as shown in Fig.1.12. There are
many types and names of the 4-bar linkage depending on the mechanism dimensions. These
include double crank, crank-rocker, drag link, double-rocker, and crossover-piston or changepoint mechanisms. For crank-rocker type, link 1 is the frame, which is stationary, link 2 is
the crank, which makes complete revolutions, link 3 is the coupler, and link 4 is the rocker,

## Figure 1.10: Slider-Crank Mechanisms with oset

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

## Figure 1.11: Scotch Yoke Mechanism

which performs the desired task. This simple mechanism is important, as it is the base of
many other mechanisms. For these reasons it will be studied in all details through out the
text.

## Figure 1.12: Four Bar Mechanism

1.4.3

Quick-Return Mechanisms

Several types of quick-return mechanisms QRM are in use in machine tools. The QRM give
quick return strokes and slow cutting strokes for constant angular velocities of the driving
cranks. These mechanisms are combinations of simple linkages such as the 4-bar linkage
and the slider-crank mechanism. An inversion of the slider crank in combination with the
conventional slider crank is also used. All known QRM are described after.

## Figure 1.13: Crank-Shaper Mechanism

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1.5

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

MOBILITY OF MECHANISMS

The mobility of a mechanism is its number of degrees of freedom. This translates into a
number of independent input motions leading to a single follower motion. A single unconstrained link (Figure 1.14.a) has three DOF in planar motion: two translational and one
rotational. Thus, two disconnected links (Figure 1.14.b) will have six DOF. If the two links
are welded together (Figure 1.14.c), they form a single link having three DOF. A revolute
joint in place of welding (Figure 1.14.d) allows a motion of one link relative to another, which
means that this joint introduces an additional (to the case of welded links) DOF. Thus, the
two links connected by a revolute joint have four DOF. One can say that by connecting
the two previously disconnected links by a revolute joint, two DOF are eliminated. Similar
considerations are valid for a prismatic joint.

## Figure 1.14: Various congurations of links with two revolute joints

Since the revolute and prismatic joints make up all low-pair joints in planar mechanisms,
the above results can be expressed as a rule: a low-pair joint reduces the mobility of a
mechanism by two DOF.
These results are generalized in the following formula, which is called Kutzbachs criterion
of mobility
M = 3(n

1)

2j1

j2

where n is the number of links, j1 is the number of low-pair joints, and j2 is the number
of high-pair joints. Note that 1 is subtracted from n in the above equation to take into
account that the mobility of the frame is zero.
In Figure 1.15 the mobility of various congurations of connected links is calculated. All
joints are low-pair ones. Note that the mobility of the links in Fig.1.15.a is zero, which
means that this system of links is not a mechanism, but a structure. At the same time, the
system of interconnected links in Fig.1.15.d has mobility 2, which means that any two links
can be used as input links (drivers) in this mechanism. Look at the eect of an additional
link on the mobility. This is shown in Fig.1.16, where a four-bar mechanism (Figure 1.16.a)
is transformed into a structure having zero mobility (Figure 1.16.b) by adding one link, and

## 1.6. GRASHOFS LAW FOR A FOUR-BAR MECHANISM

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then into a structure having negative mobility (Figure 1.16.c) by adding one more link. The
latter is called an overconstrained structure.

## Figure 1.15: Mobility of various congurations of connected links:(a) n = 3; j1 = 3; j2 =

0; m = 0; (b) n = 4; j1 = 4; j2 = 0; m = 1;(c) n = 4; j1 = 4; j2 = 0; m = 1;(d) n = 5; j1 =
5; j2 = 0; m = 2:
In compound mechanisms, there are links with more than two joints. Kutzbachs criterion
is applicable to such mechanisms provided that a proper account of links and joints is made.
Consider a simple compound mechanism shown in Fig.1.17, which is a sequence of two fourbar mechanisms. In this mechanism, joint B represents two connections between three links.
In other words, it should be taken into account that there are, in fact, two revolute joints
at B. The axes of these two joints may not necessarily coincide. According to Kutzbachs
formula M = 3 5 2 7 = 1.

1.6

## GRASHOFS law for a Four-Bar mechanism

The fourbar linkage has been shown above to be the simplest possible pin-jointed mechanism
for single degree of freedom controlled motion. It also appears in various disguises such as
the slider-crank and the cam-follower. It is in fact the most common and ubiquitous device
used in machinery. It is also extremely versatile in terms of the types of motion which it can
generate
Simplicity is one mark of good design. The fewest parts that can do the job will usually
give the least expensive and most reliable solution. Thus the fourbar linkage should be among
the rst solutions to motion control problems to be investigated. The Grashof condition is
a very simple relationship which predicts the rotation behavior or rotatability of a fourbar
linkages inversions based only on the link lengths.
Let
S =length of shortest link

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1:

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## L = length of longest link

P = length of one remaining link
Q =length of other remaining link
Then if :
S+L

P +Q

the linkage is Grashof and at least one link will be capable of making a full revolution with
respect to the ground plane. This is called a Class I kinematic chain.
If the inequality is not true, then the linkage is non-Grashof and no link will be capable of
a complete revolution relative to any other link. This is a Class II kinematic chain.
Note that the above statements apply regardless of the order of assembly of the links.
That is, the determination of the Grashof condition can be made on a set of unassembled
links. Whether they are later assembled into a kinematic chain in S, L, P , Q, or S, P , L,
Q or any other order, will not change the Grashof condition.
The motions possible from a fourbar linkage will depend on both the Grashof condition
and the inversion chosen. The inversions will be dened with respect to the shortest link.
The motions are:
For the Class I case,
S+L<P +Q
Ground either link adjacent to the shortest and you get a crank-rocker, in which the
shortest link will fully rotate and the other link pivoted to ground will oscillate.
Ground the shortest link and you will get a double-crank, in which both links pivoted to
ground make complete revolutions as does the coupler.
Ground the link opposite the shortest and you will get a Grashof double-rocker, in which
both links pivoted to ground oscillate and only the coupler makes a full revolution.
Determine the mobility index and the degrees of freedom of each of the plane mechanisms
shown in Fig. 1.37. All joints are of R type.

Chapter 2
Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms
There are various methods of performing kinematic analysis of mechanisms, including graphical, analytical, and numerical. The choice of a method depends on the problem at hand
and on available computational means.
Kinematic analysis of a mechanical system means the computation, at any time instant,
of the mechanism congurations, positions, displacements, linear velocities and accelerations
of its interesting points as well as the angular velocities and accelerations of its links. This
chapter deals with the kinematics of planar linkage mechanisms using graphical and analytical methods. More emphasis is given to analytical methods in order to simplify the use
of computers for mechanism animation and simulation. The analysis of the 4-bar linkage,
slider-crank mechanism, and the shaper quick return mechanism is used through out the
chapter to illustrate the used methods for linkage kinematic analysis. The chapter ends with
a set of interesting problems.

2.1

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## Coordinate Systems and Vector Representation

For planar mechanisms, two coordinate systems are used: rectangular (x; y) and polar (r; )
as shown in Fig. ( ). The choice of the coordinate system is arbitrary and must be selected
to suit the situation. After dening the mechanism working space, reference frame, and
time instant, its kinematic analysis is possible using graphical or analytical methods. In this
text, only planar mechanisms are considered and vectors are represented either in Cartesian
coordinates as x and y components or in polar coordinates by its magnitude r and phase
angle or by complex numbers. Rotation in planar motion is always represented by a vector
normal to the plane of motion i.e. the z-axis.

## Figure 2.1: Coordinate System

Position Vector: The vector ~
r or ~
rP dening the absolute position of point P; Fig. ( )
is represented in polar coordinates by its magnitude and phase angle or by complex numbers
as:

~
r =~
r p = r\
= r ej
= r (cos + j sin )
where j is the imaginary number.
Velocity Vector: The rst time derivative of the position vector r denes the absolute
velocity of point P; v
~P as:

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## Figure 2.2: Velocity vector

v
~P = ~
rp
= r_ ej + j r _ ej
= r_ ej + r _ ej ( +

=2)

## If r is constant in magnitude, the absolute velocity of point P is given by:

v
~P = r _ ej ( + =2)
= r !\ ( + =2)
where, _ is the angular velocity of the vector OP, _ = !:
Acceleration Vector: The second time derivative of the position vector ~r denes the

~
aP =
=
=
=

~
rp = ~
a =r ej ( + =2) + r !ej ( +
r ej ( + =2) + r ! 2 ej ( + )
r \ ( + =2) + r! 2 \ ( + )
~
aP

~
a=~
at + ~
ar

## 2.1. COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND VECTOR REPRESENTATION

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where
~
at = r \ ( + =2)
~
ar = r! 2 \ ( + )

## Figure 2.3: Acceleration vectors

Where is the angular acceleration of the vector OP, and ~
at and ~
ar are respectively the
acceleration components.

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## Example 1 Slider Crank Mechanism

The general linkage conguration and terminology for a slider-crank linkage with oest
are shown in Figure (2.4). The link lengths and the values of 2 , ! 2 and 2 are dened in
the table. For the row(s) assigned, draw the linkage to scale and nd the velocities of the
pin joints A and B and the velocity of slip at the sliding joint using a graphical method.

row
f.
e.
g.

Link 2
3
5
7

Link 3
13
20
25

Oset
0
-5
10

100
225
330

!2
-45
-50
100

50
10
18

21

(f.)

Results:

row
f.

vB
2:5

!3
50 = 125

vB=A
r3

0:6 50
13

= 2:307

aB
2:47

1000 = 2470

3
aB=A
r3

6:06 1000
13

= 466:15

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(e.)

Results:

row
e.

vB
1:91

!3
100 = 191

vB=A
r3

1:77 100
20

= 8:85

aB
3:31

2000 = 6620

3
aB=A
r3

4:49 2000
20

= 449

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