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See us at Automation & Power World March 2-5, 2015

©2015 Baldor Electric Company

What you spec
is what you get.

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© 2014 Trane
Trane is a brand of Ingersoll Rand, a world leader in creating comfortable, sustainable and efficient environments.
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IL 60523. lighting designers and engineers can achieve energy performance in a variety of building types. PE. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. compressors. 52. LEED AP DEPARTMENTS 09 | Viewpoint Stay ahead of the curve 11 | Research 55 | Digital Edition Exclusives  Lighting controls: Fire protection engineers should use the guidance of NFPA 13 when designing fire suppression piping in nonresidential buildings. monthly except in February. LLC. Here’s how to specify a VFD to meet load conditions while achieving efficiency. fans.csemag.JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 FEATURES 44 | Seismic design of fire suppression piping systems ON THE COVER: This shows a 20 hp totally enclosed.1 contributes to integrated design Use the icons to identify topics of interest. including all issues: USA. minorities in engineering 71 | Advertiser Index ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES Electrical. Oak LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein. motor strategies for energy efficiency A variable frequency drive (VFD) often is specified to reduce operational cost for pumps. single copies are available for $30. Suite #250.00 US and $35. power trends 14 | MEP Roundtable Driving data center design 72 | Future of Engineering 23 | Codes & Standards Connecting buildings via the Internet of Things How ASHRAE 90. Vol. No.00 foreign. LLC used under license. Courtesy: McGuire Engineers COVER STORY 34 | VFD. JOHN YOON.. GST#123397457). ROBERT J. IL 60523. 40685520. This particular tower is a two-cell cooling tower with 3. International air delivery $325/yr. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook. Group Publisher /Co-Founder. IL 60523. Oak Brook. Suite #250. Postmaster: send address changes to CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER. E-mail: customerservice@cfemedia. Suite #250. Suite #250. ARM 56 | Intelligent lighting control and energy performance By designing intelligent lighting systems. regardless of whether such errors result from negligence. accident or any other cause whatsoever. Oak Brook. 1111 W. Printed in the USA. LEED AP 13 | Career Smart Best practices begins with strategy  Where do ideas come from? Women. by CFE Media. CONSULTINGSPECIFYING ENGINEER is a registered trademark of CFE Media. AUTOMATION & CONTROLS HVAC COMMUNICATIONS LIGHTING ELECTRICAL PLUMBING FIRE. Publications Mail Agreement PE and JEFFREY HUANG. All rights reserved. safety. 1. LLC. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated. SECURITY & LIFE SAFETY CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER (ISSN 0892-5046. and potential energy savings when designing laboratory ventilation systems. JOSEPH H. CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER copyright 2015 by CFE Media. Oak Brook. Canada/Mexico. IL 60523. 22nd Street. The photo is looking up at a low-speed high-volume fan at the top of the tower. CDT 64 | Designing lab ventilation systems Engineers should consider the codes and standards.000 gpm total capacity. PE. Jim Langhenry. air over permanent magnet ac motor directly coupled to the fan instead of using a typical belt drive or gearbox. GST #123397457) is published 11x per year. $150/yr. CFE Media. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media. PE. LLC. 1111 W. the view is from inside a cooling tower. 22nd Street. Email: customerservice@ cfemedia. 22nd Street. 1111 W. $180/yr (includes 7% GST. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions. www. IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Oak Brook. JON Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 3 . IL 60523. 1111 W. GARRA JR. 22nd Street. 22nd Street. Suite #250. PE. Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. Please address all subscription mail to CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER. TALBERT. or any similar equipment with variable load profiles that may be found in a typical building. risk mitigation. LinkedIn: http://tinyurl. HVAC Pipe Sizer Steam.Gas High).Gas Low. 26: HVAC: Alternative heating/ cooling systems Consulting-Specifying Engineer is on Facebook. Update your The tablet and digital editions of this publication are greatly enhanced and have unique content for digital subscribers.facebook. visit Effinity93 payback calculator Effinity93 calculates the cost and energy savings associated with installing the Effinity93 Condensing Unit When engineering systems in data centers and mission critical facilities. return on investment. cfm. and will do so by recognizing and encouraging them through mentoring articles in the to read articles found only .twitter. HVAC Pipe Sizer . and the desired performance you want and this app will compute the remaining values to achieve the Google+: http://google. and horsepower). and HVAC Pipe Sizer . static pressure. sustainab sustainability Read the Q&A about data centers and mission critical facilities on page www. HVAC Psychrometric Plus.csemag. rpm. what is the most difficult issue you face? Codes and standards omation Automation and controls Electrical and power po 15% 4% 21% 18% Read this on your tablet 21% 21% Fire and life safety HVAC En Energy efficie efficiency. HVAC Pipe Sizer . Greenheck toolbox This calculator will help engineers determine the flow rate of a duct when its performance needs to be altered. and environmental advantages. HVAC toolkit This app is a suite/compilation of several of the individual applications offered by Carmel Software plus bonus software (eight total.csemag. Simply input basic specs (i. and SlideShare. HVAC Duct Sizer. Follow ConsultingSpecifying Engineer. Web exclusives Visit www. 4 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine is dedicated to encouraging and recognizing the most talented young individuals in the engineering community supporting the building industry. Google+.Liquid. Upcoming webcasts Register for educational webcasts at www. LinkedIn. Steam Twitter: www.  Top 10 business trends to watch in 2015  Details on how ASHRAE 90. join the discussions. To view more poll results. Web links. Nominate a young professional by Jan. and the 40 Under 40 program. including: HVAC Quick Load.csemag. 30. and receive news and advice from your SlideShare: www.e. young engineer networking events. It is ideal for engineers responsible for specifying HVAC equipment. Facebook: www. We want to shape the future of young engineers. Learn more: www. 2015.slideshare.csemag. They also include interactive tools such as videos.1 affects the plumbing engineer  Condensing boilers and emissions regulations  Redundant VFDs and fan arrays in critical operations  Fire risk from solid fuel commercial cooking  Mitigating data center harmonics  Transforming battery technology  FMI: Nonresidential construction index slowly rises  Proper installation ensures performance standards are met: Part 2 Apps for Engineers: HVAC calculations Download these and many other Apps at: www.Nominate a professional to the 2015 40 Under 40 program online now csemag. Users can compare products with differing efficiencies and determine the annual cost savings. and other items. and receive the digital edition in your e-mail in-box: www.

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we design and develop internet-connected building controls for a wide range of green buildings. recreational and commercial facilities. please visit our website or sign-up for a facility tour at: www. To learn more about our solutions for universities.php input #5 at www. in a modern and environmentally constructed LEED Platinum-Certified facility.reliablecontrols.csemag. hospitals. including schools. R&D Headquartered in Victoria. British Columbia.James Puritch Vice . and opportunities in the green buildings industry.

be 40 years of age or younger (as of May . and be nominated by a supervisor. public relations professional. 40 UNDER 40 PROGRAM AWARDEES WILL: • Be highlighted in major media arenas as a Consulting-Specifying Engineer 40 Under 40 winner • Be offered networking opportunities with other 40 Under 40 awardees. 2015). Stand among the past 280 Consulting-Specifying Engineer 40 Under 40 winners who have made their accomplishments known. nominees must work in the building community. enlarging their professional circle • Increase the exposure of the company by highlighting projects the young engineer has worked on • Improve the company’s recruitment efforts by showcasing young employees • Receive a handsome plaque to show off their accolades. 2015 SPONSORED BY: Nominate a colleague who is 40 years of age or younger by going to: www. mentor. project leader.Under Forty You drive your accomplishments and dictate your career success. 2015 | SUPPORTING MATERIALS DUE FEBRUARY 13. or other person directly involved in their career progress. To qualify to be a 40 Under 40 winner. NOMINATIONS DUE JANUARY 30.csemag. peer. academic advisor. and those achievements deserve to be recognized.

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PE. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 9 . Keeping professional networks up-to-date ensures regular interaction with both clients and partners. PE. LEED AP BD+C. RCDD. LEED AP. Senior Engineer. Washington. Associate Principal. APelliccione@CFEMedia. though? Several engineers I’ve spoken to over the past few months are spread too thin—they have too much work and not enough talented people to handle the job. Ohio JASON GERKE. Production Coordinator 630-571-4070 x2224. Thought leaders are invited to submit. Suite 250. other times it will be about legislation or codes and standards. Chicago KENNETH KUTSMEDA. CEM. Fla. RJA Group Inc. PE Vice President. LEED AP BD+C. This forward-looking column will discuss a concept that engineers should be familiar with. Research: Our research team gathers data on specific engineering disciplines and on general topics of interest to this audience. publications like this one help. Stay on top of the latest technology and trends. They are struggling to keep on top of projects already in process. LEED AP. Wis. Austin Operations Group Manager and Senior Mechanical Engineer. Chicago RANDY SCHRECENGOST. encouraging them to return. the team of columnists has reviewed research and determined what business development topics you need most. Market the firm to show off all of these AMANDA PELLICCIONE. Hire talented people that will make you look good.) Fire Rescue MICHAEL MAR. LEED AP BD+C. Seattle J. Creative Director 630-779-8910.Editor’s Viewpoint 1111 W.. Stay ahead of the curve F or the most part. Sometimes it will be technology (like it is this month).csemag.. Chicago BRIAN MARTIN. PE. D. 2. President. Read past columns at www. Powell. Smith Seckman Reid Inc. Lovorn Engineering Assocs. HP Technology Services. Principal. PE. LEED AP BD+C. PE. Regular reports (see page 11 and www. Texas GERALD VERSLUYS. Kansas City..D. Principal. Mass. PE. Arup. Confluenc.csemag. PE. Columbia. Madison. RENER. Create partnerships with like-minded businesses that will help you succeed. EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD ANIL AHUJA. PE. LEED AP. Ore. Senior Electrical Engineer. LEED AP. ARozgus@CFEMedia. Cambridge. PATRICK BANSE. PE. Center for Sustainable Energy. BEMP. JBA Consulting Engineers. MSmith@CFEmedia. Education sessions—like webcasts and lunch-and-learns with equipment vendors—can shed light on technology trends. Jacobs Engineering Group. FSFPE President. Metro CD Engineering LLC. Jacksonville. RCDD. Mortenson Construction. 3. Seattle JULIANNE LAUE. Career Smart: Though this section isn’t new. IL 60523 630-571-4070 Fax 630-214-4504 CONTENT SPECIALISTS/EDITORIAL AMARA the industry. There isn’t a silver bullet for the engineer to take in all this information to help ensure the business stays strong. LEED AP BD+C. Portland. Electrical Engineer. Chicago RAYMOND GRILL. WILLIAM KOSIK. Boulder (Colo. Who has time for all of that. CDM Smith Inc. everyone knows the recipe to run a successful business. Mo. Make sure customers are will help you stay on top of recent trends in particular portions of the industry. PE. LEED AP. Arup. PE. they’re treading water. In short. Austin. LEED AP. President. Philadelphia KEITH LANE. PE. They haven’t kept up with the latest trends in engineering technology or developments to help them streamline current processes.. Md. Koffel Associates Inc. Associate Principal. GRAEF. FSFPE. National Program Executive. Minneapolis KENNETH L. C X A. Stanley Consultants. PE. CEM. They have job openings that are tough to fill with the right talent.. Reviewing research and understanding trends can help ensure the engineering team is staying on top of www. Amara Rozgus. Associate. Environmental Systems Design Inc. Future of Engineering: This new column.. ccrd partners. Houston JERRY BAUERS. PE.C. PE. AEE CPQ Chief Executive Officer. RCDD.csemag. PE. Principal Data Center Energy Technologist. let alone develop new business for the future. EISSLER. They don’t have time to attend conferences or in-person education sessions because they’re already traveling too much for client meetings. Have a high-quality yet affordable product. EEissler@CFEMedia.. Principal.. Director of Research 630-571-4070 x2209. BRIAN A. 22nd St. DANNA JENSEN. President. LOVORN. To help develop your business further—whether you’re a five-person engineering firm or a multibilliondollar behemoth—we’ve gathered three things to help you do your job a little better in 2015: BEMP Senior MEP Engineer. PE. MIKE WALTERS. Be a leader in the industry. Lane Coburn & Assocs. PE. Engineering Design Principal. CCJM Engineers. GREENE. Oak Brook. will focus on one item each month that you should be aware of. Senior Mechanical Engineer. MILLER. Senior Associate. MICHAEL CHOW. LEED AP. PE. found at the back of the print publication. CH2M Hill. SmithGroupJJR. PE. Outcome Construction Services LLC. TLC Engineering for Architecture. LEED AP. LEED AP BD+C. Editor in Chief/Content Manager 630-571-4070 x2211. PE. Chicago PETER ALSPACH. DWAYNE G. Mechanical MICHAEL SMITH. Editor in Chief ERIC R. PE. Pittsburgh DAVID LOWREY Chief Fire Marshal. Mechanical Engineer. Hong Kong SYED PEERAN. Milwaukee JOSHUA D. LC. Dallas WILLIAM KOFFEL. Principal.

com/information .input #6 at www.csemag.

power products specified 90% 87% 91% 85% 88% 82% 88% 80% More research Quarterly. 7.csemag. electrical and power. BAS products $500. In April 2014. etc. Selection involvement: Seven out of 10 engineers are responsible for recommending the brand of electrical or power systems for specification. 35% on retrofit/renovation projects.0 million 13% 16% 11% $ FOR MORE RESEARCH INFORMATION www. View the full study at www. and wires. power industries R espondents to the ConsultingSpecifying Engineer 2014 Electrical and Power Study identified seven important high-level findings impacting the electrical and power industries today: 1. Specifications: 60% of engineering firms are consistently using open electrical or power system specifications in which engineering approval and/or explicit brand use is required. and HVAC and building automation 6.001 to $750. Design factors: 98% of engineers rank product quality at the top of their list when selecting one electrical or power system over another. 5. cables. circuit breakers. Consulting-Specifying Engineer surveys its audience on four topics: fire and life safety. 84% 79% 2013 2014 Electrical distribution Circuit breakers. fuses.0 million $1. Source: Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2014 Electrical and Power Study $7. manufacturer’s reputation.001 to $1. wire.000 Don't know 9% 17% 24% 10% research < $500. Electrical. while 47% are also challenged with frequent codes and standards updates.csemag.0 million Nine out of 10 fire and life safety engineers rank product quality.3 million: Average annual MEP/FP design revenue earned by firms specifying lighting and lighting control products for new and existing buildings. Source: Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2014 Lighting and Lighting Controls Study 2014 ELECTRICAL AND POWER STUDY: Seven key findings for the electrical. and 6% on commissioning/retro-commissioning.Total annual dollar amount of HVAC. and previous experience with manufacturer as very important factors for selecting one fire and life safety system over another. design.1 to $5. 2.csemag.000 > $5. All of the reports are available online at www. Consulting-Specifying Engineer surveyed audience members related to the design of electrical and power products and services within their firms for the 2014 Electrical and Power Study. CFE Media www. Top challenges: More than 80% of engineers agree that an inadequate budget is a common challenge for electrical or power systems design. Source: Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2014 Fire and Life Safety Study 47% of annual MEP design revenue in the electrical and power industry is spent on new construction. lighting and lighting controls.0 million $ fuses. Systems specified: More than 80% of engineers responsible for decisions related to the design of electrical and/or power systems specify electrical distribution equipment. etc. or make product selections for office buildings and industrial or manufacturing facilities/warehouses.csemag. Emergency. power revenue: 64% of engineering firms specifying electrical or power systems for new or existing buildings are generating $5 million or less through these projects on an annual basis. Building structures: Six in 10 engineers specify. 4. Cable. standby power Transformers Source: Consulting-Specifying Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 11 . Top 5 electrical. 3.1 to $3. and another 69% spend their time researching and evaluating options.

integrate and display more data center power information easily and reliably. optional 802. Introducing the new STARLINE® Critical Power Monitor (CPM). please visit www. STARLINE gives you the best in efficiency. reliability. input #7 at www.11n Wi-Fi connectivity • Ability to use both Modbus and SNMP protocols simultaneously • Telnet and Modbus TCP/IP are also standard protocols To learn more about how our CPM can help your data center or other mission critical installation. and customization. The STARLINE CPM also features: • Revenue grade metering functionality • Monitors multi-circuit configurations • End feed and branch circuit models • Display and non-display versions available • Wired Ethernet and serial communications are Now the STARLINE CPM offers an enhanced monitoring package that will allow you to monitor.csemag. When it comes to power distribution. You want the best for your data center.StarlinePower.Critical Power Monitoring for Mission Critical .

Rather. “I wonder how she chose to be an engineer?” The latter is speculation. but sometimes women or minorities may feel that the process is prolonged because a veteran doesn’t know how to accommodate their input. which focuses on strategic planning and product-to-solutions business model transitions. Push through in a calm and insistent manner by making eye contact and holding your ground—you have a right to state your case. Those who are working with female engineers may have to overcome the novelty that a woman is speaking on technical topics. John Suzukida was Trane’s senior VP of global marketing and strategy prior to founding Lanex Consulting in 2002. most adjust. and the situation generally will work out well. people might be thinking. I don’t presume to completely understand the challenges women face as engineers. give them a little time. Those who are working with female engineers may have to overcome the novelty that a woman is speaking on technical topics. make sure you don’t fall into the trap of talking too much when you have the floor. Once they do. Initial encounters are not always focused on you or your abilities. In my case. Good or bad. Read more career advice at www. Be aware of the impact of your words and make sure you are on target. The best solution is to roll with it to the extent that you can tolerate. That person will soon see you as you—for what you can bring to the table. It is a reality: You’re more easily remembered when you overwhelm people with competence. so rely on your largesse in overlooking a poorly worded comment and giving someone a chance to get used to relating to you. Take the long view. When you’re dealing with people who have not been exposed to diverse work situations. As a minority male. One way to help with that is to pick a key point to ensure you are clearly heard. “Where did he learn to speak such good English?” In a woman’s case. minorities in engineering Both women and minorities face similar challenges in the engineering workplace. Don’t think of this opportunity as if it was your only time to talk. much as a nonminority woman can’t fully understand what a male minority faces. Don’t wear your gender or ethnicity on your sleeve or make it an issue—even if it is one at the start. However.S. Before reacting. most adjust. what comes across as blunt or insensitive is often benign in nature. Don’t let yourself be overlooked.csemag. people are more likely to remember you. L et’s consider the parallels between being a woman in engineering and being an ethnic minority. most people develop confidence to deal with that. Once they get past that. PE Lanex Consulting. which is sitive to others’ initial reactions. they may be thinking. Sometimes. make pure competence their memory of you. It may take them some time to adjust. and speak only one This phenomenon is one most people face when they’re young or new to a career. you might hear language that is not politically correct. just come to grips with the fact that you are a minority and some people are not used to working with you. There are times when you realize that what you’re saying is not really being heard. As you speak.Career Smart JOHN SUZUKIDA. so women shouldn’t be too senwww. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 13 . Minneapolis Women. Once they get past that. considering I was born in the U. so women shouldn’t be too sensitive to others’ initial reactions. pointing it out any controversy publicly could just make the other person uncomfortable and avoid communicating with you in the future. The fact that you’re a women or a minority can be taken out of the equation as long as you focus on the facts and solve problems. the former has actually been verbalized. Only you can determine how far is too far.csemag. More experienced veterans may talk over you or ignore you. He has a BSME and distinguished alumnus award from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Over time. But drawing parallels between the two may help some female engineers work through tough situations. check your filters to determine if the comments are truly gender-related and offensive. regardless of gender or other status. There’s no need to project impatience or an attitude.

the IT equipment was designed and selected in conjunction with the mechanical systems to operate within the mechanical system parameters. Modular data centers are designed and built as a complete system. The EOC contains conference rooms and 50 workstations for various user groups. There are numerous challenges and numerous benefits to the design. CxA. and Phase 1 was designed to be a 4 MW information technology (IT) fit-up with a 12 MW total facility load at full build-out. supporting the client’s commitment to the environment. size. Andrew Baxter: Page recently designed a Tier III data center for a confidential Fortune 100 company located in the Chicago metropolitan area. NTS. LC. which are focused on a video wall Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 and a control room overlook for supervision.MEP Roundtable Andrew Baxter. The new data center has been designed to achieve energy savings of approximately 50% above the required efficiency standards with state-of-the-art economizer systems for cooling critical electrical rooms and air-handling units. high-efficiency condensing boilers for heating. . Moduwww. but an entire global corporation. including 160 air handlers and 21 generators. It is anticipated that approximately 85% of the facility will be free cooled. This is one of the most efficient data centers in the transportation sector. PE Principal/ MEP Engineering Director Page Austin.000-sq-ft project includes 25.csemag. Keith Lane: Lane Coburn & Associates has worked closely with Silent-Aire for more than 5 years enhancing the design of modular data center deployments around the country. and highly efficient LED lighting. etc. RCDD CEO JBA Consulting Engineers Hong Kong 14 Driving data center design In the information age. we are not dealing with large central chiller plants that have complex control sequences. and fire protection systems. The biggest commissioning challenge has been staffing and scheduling to test the sheer quantity of mechanical and electrical equipment on each site. The design consists of multiple buildings. Texas Brandon Kingsley. which have hot aisle containment but no raised floors and no mechanical cooling. CEM Project Manager Primary Integration Solutions Inc. This initial phase includes the company’s backup emergency operations center (EOC) in which it will control its entire worldwide operations in the event that the main operations center is ever down. including building location. Engineers with experience working on data centers offer advice on their complex design and getting all the various aspects to compute. which is anticipated to achieve an annual average power usage effectiveness (PUE) of 1. plumbing (MEP). N.09. The entire mechanical and electrical system is built around the client’s IT infrastructure needs and requirements. owner’s project requirements (OPR). electrical. PE. LEED AP BD+C President/Chief Engineer Lane Coburn & Associates LLC Seattle Dwayne Miller. data centers can be the beating heart of not just a building. RTPM. Keith Lane. The intent of the OPR is to design more reliability into the IT network and equipment and less into the mechanical. Cold aisle allowable operating temperatures can be as high as 90 F. It is based on N+2 1000 kW units. because of the inherent simplicity of the mechanical and electrical system designs.C. PE. Charlotte. construction. an energy recovery make-up air handling unit for ventilation. CSE: Please describe a recent data center project you’ve worked on—share details about the project. Instead of designing the mechanical systems based on the IT equipment. Brandon Kingsley: Primary Integration is currently involved in commissioning a 128 MW cloud data center that is being deployed in four sites. PE.000 sq ft of white space in an 180.000-sq-ft building. Phase 1 of the 308. It was built to withstand severe weather conditions without compromising the integrity or security of its cooling system. and deployment of modular data centers. RCDD.

Baxter: The biggest trend is probably moving the data centers completely out of these types of buildings and having “purpose built” facilities. Building off-site in a controlled. and generator back-up power are served from centralized systems. delivers speed. In addition. Increasingly. An independent cooling system may also be used rather than relying on the central chiller plant. electrical. Enough design time must be built into the sched- Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 15 . medium-voltage services. The centralized generator backup system is composed of multiple parallel engines. from a cooling standpoint. The sheer amount of power and critical nature of the loads being served require significant expertise. Both data centers tie into property infrastructure. plumbing.lar off-site construction. It is critical to design flexibility to modify the design for future phases and to ensure the infrastructure is in place to provide for changes. This involves 3-D modeling of the underground feeders as well as a comprehensive failure mode analysis and Neher-McGrath heating calculations. all components and systems are tested in the factory before shipping to the site. fuel supplies.csemag. large conductors. Uninterruptable power supplies. the data center is tied in to a large centralized chilled water system and is the highest priority load for the system. This saves time and money during the final integrated systems testing (IST) before handover to the client in the field. Heat recovery would be a newer trend. and the data center loads are second only to life safety systems with respect to the load priority. The initial cost of building a data center is tremendous. harmonic distortion. This may make the most economic sense as an energy savings strategy in a building with a large white space data center and office space that represents a fraction of the overall cost. Owner requirements included on-site disaster recovery capabilities. and environmentally friendly space may quite often allow for much quicker deployment. Dwayne Miller: Our most recent data center projects have been enterprise data centers for international integrated resorts. which may be shut down in winter. performance. and structural components. normal power. Lane: Flexibility and modularity are the key features clients require in the market today. Because of the unique nature of the electrical load profile. various voltages. especially in regions where extended heating periods allow the heat generated by the data center to be used for building heating. which are very significant and must be considered during the design process. electrical. required reliability. For example. or fire protection systems? Lane: Data centers are very unique facilities. large transformers. metering. The properties are both in excess of 4 million sq ft. As a result. CSE: What are the newest trends in data centers in mixed-use buildings? Kingsley: This really depends on the rack density. power reliability is one important aspect. as opposed to the conventional brick-and-mortar data center. MEP designers tend to use a high-density cooling solution such as an in-row cooling. A combination of centralized and localized infrastructure is deployed to ensure continuity of services. Modularity is critical to ensure incremental components can be added as density and/or redundancy increases are required. a research-based data center at a college or university may have a high rack denwww. and available utilities. we are seeing heat recovery systems being used in mixed-use buildings to recover waste heat from the data center and use it for the building heating system. PUE. The long-term costs associated with running a data center include the electrical and water services. the heating of underground electrical duct banks must be evaluated. and cost containment. safe. Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers sity and high-reliability requirement. hence the cooling. which are addressed with primary and secondary data centers for each property. The electrical and mechanical engineers must work collaboratively to ensure the most reliable and cost-effective systems are designed and implemented. Because of the crucial and often sensitive information stored therein. In addition to the time savings in building the mechanical. large standby generators. CSE: What are some challenges you have faced in coordinating structural systems with Figure 1: Data center projects are among the most complex projects an engineer can tackle. and energy efficiency all must be considered in the design of data center facilities.

for example. I believe this will also be the direction colocation sites will eventually take. we may find that a cable tray. first cost of infrastructure. I would suggest a more rational approach is to have a strategy wherein my data is housed and manipulated in 2. part of our job is to make sure that all of the MEP equipment is accessible and maintainable. Additionally. Each location is supported by reasonable infrastructure (Tier I or Tier II) with virtualization software providing seamless transfer between the sites in the event of an incident in one location. When a data center is added in an existing facility. CSE: How do you see the design approach for data centers changing in the next 2 to 5 years? input #8 at www. The structure can be very deep to carry the higher than normal weight densities a data center can impart to a structure. especially in multi-level facilities. a self-healing mesh within a mesh. the level of complexity. is not sustainable. The available floor-to-floor height may dictate the types of systems that can be installed. or 4 geographically diverse locations. and final coordination becomes critical. and ongoing maintenance expenses are all going to make software-driven alternatives more attractive.csemag. excess wind loading capabilities. Miller: It’s my personal belief that proliferation and support of an Uptime Institute Tier III or Tier IV infrastructure environment. etc. mechanical systems. Without good coordination among all systems. energy consumption. comprehensive commissioning of the data center should be provided by a third party to ensure all components of the MEP system work independently and as a system prior to actually serving critical loads. the MEP systems have to be designed around fixed existing structural systems. along with the large number of cable trays. or electromagnetic pulse (EMP) shielding. Add in specific project requirements such as seismic restraint. engineering. redundancy. Baxter: Coordinating all systems together—not just the MEP and structural—can be quite a challenge for these types of facilities. particularly for enterprise data centers. In other words. Kingsley: We are seeing more modular and scalable designs to provide for flexibility and . In simple terms. The increasing use of BIM in system design. and construction is improving coordination and reducing these types of problems. 3. electrical raceways. is inaccessible. As commissioning agents. can create significant space management challenges.MEP Roundtable ule to ensure value engineering ideas are fully vetted. Kingsley: Coordination with structural systems is especially challenging in existing buildings. such as in-row cooling instead of a more conventional system using raised floors and ceiling return plenums..

input #9 at .csemag.

This will likely require the installation of BAS sensors for fail-safe operation if the communication between the servers and the BAS goes down. This unique design also provides a on a few BAS sensors throughout the data center. This could be an effective strategy in cloud data centers. prefabricated systems (i.951.7020 . universities. I also think that a design approach using the strategy of higher reliability in the IT network and less in the MEP systems will become more common as owners find that they can save money by writing code rather than installing additional generators. Courtesy: Thomas McConnell. The TripleSwitch uses three interlocked circuit breakers to isolate standby generator circuits during load bank testing. Ten to 15 years ago. Page Easiest Way to Conduct Required Maintenance on Your Permanent Generator TripleSwitch™ 3-Way Manual Transfer Switch 125A . air handlers. chillers. and pumps. rather than relying Figure 2: Engineering firms like Page are engaged to handle data centers for a wide range of clients—Fortune 500 corporations. Increasingly.. Additionally. As commissioning agents. while less critical loads will be built with N or N+1 topology. safe method to connect to a portable generator for redundant backup CSE: How have cloud computing.csemag. There is also discussion of integrating the IT servers with the building automation system (BAS) to enable the servers to control the mechanical systems. which can operate at the server’s upper limits from the start. input #10 at SWITCH TM . but providing for future expansion. This includes provisions for additional uninterruptible power supply (UPS) modules. Very critical loads will be built with full 2N topology (or greater). to ensure that all phases are properly operating as an integrated system.2000A up to 600VAC Type 3R Enclosure UL/cUL 1008 Listed up to 800A Make Load Bank Testing More Convenient & Economical ESL's TripleSwitch™ is designed to service critical operations facilities that have an automatic transfer switch and dedicated generator. these modular designs include a chiller plant for each phase. Baxter: Networking systems are becoming even more important and more significant components of the data center. which are integrated to operate as a single chiller plant when the full build-out is completed. and other trends changed the way in which you design a data center? Wat c Loa h Simp d l eslp Bank ify Ge ne Te wr.922. These loads could be in the same room. Today we are seeing single data centers and Tier II data centers with minimum redundancy for portions of the critical loads as well as Tier IV for other portions of loads. we are building more data centers in a modular fashion—only building the power density required today. municipalities. we always commission all previous phases. To this end. To this end we are seeing an increase in the amount of design-build and integrated delivery approaches used in order to shorten the time from when the project design kicks off to when the doors open on the new facility. cyber security. and electrical gear.4188 . not only the current phase.e. standby generators.eslpwr. and other entities. photographer. Each server can provide input for the operation of the HVAC .c om/T sting rator V rip leSw ideo: itch Vid eo 800. Baxter: Because of the high demand for IT infrastructure. The redundancy level depends on the specific function of the computing task. Lane: We are seeing varying levels of redundancy in modern data centers. The reliability of the communication between the servers and the BAS will need to be designed for fail-safe operation. we would see enormous data centers built to the same redundancy level and the same power density throughout the entire facility. This is the University of Texas at Austin Data Center Consolidation Project. skids) for central electrical and mechanical systems are being used more as well.739.MEP Roundtable phased build-out of data centers over time. speed to market is definitely pushing the design approaches used.

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Because most jurisdictions don’t recognize the clean agent system for life safety purposes. shown here) to protect the city’s valuable information and processes. telephony. For example. We are seeing this even more on the enterprise level where the owner has control over the network management. CSE: Discuss the trends of convergence and automation within building technology. certain government agencies require wet systems because they have had trouble maintaining pre-action systems. business operations cease.csemag. For example. firms like JBA Consulting Engineers frequently tackle municipal data centers (such as Las Vegas City Hall. and owners and IT groups are not always ready for that kind of advancement of schedule. Occasionally. To achieve this. if the nameplate of a server indicates that it can operate at up to 90 F. temperature controls. are now all managed by IT departments. If the data center loses power or fails due to cooling or other infrastructure issues. thus eliminating the need for galvanized pipe and reducing the potential for internal pipe corrosion. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 CSE: What unique fire suppression or life safety systems have you specified or designed in a data center? Kingsley: Actually.MEP Roundtable Figure 3: In addition to corporate projects. we are noticing a trend back to traditional wet and preaction systems and fewer clean agent systems. the MEP may be designed to a cold aisle temperature of 85 F to save cooling energy. the BAS and EPMS will be the same system. The use of clean agent systems is declining significantly. for new builds as that network needs to be up and running very early. audiovisual. etc. and we are now seeing them used only in very specific “critical asset protection” type installations such as tape or document storage areas.csemag. Other owners require double-interlock pre-action systems because they do not want water sitting above the data center but do not want to incur the cost of a clean agent system. security. EPMS. Lane: The convergence of all building technology to the data center has created 20 significant stress for those managing the IT to read more about:  Cabling and wiring  Co-location facilities  Fire and life safety systems  HVAC systems  Neher-McGrath considerations  Power usage effectiveness (PUE)  Sustainable buildings. A single building backbone network for all of the systems is not uncommon. Visit www. especially if they represent a small fraction of the total. Insofar as this can result in a simplified MEP design. the critical nature of the power distribution and cooling is obvious. The CIO and the IT staff have to become much more educated about the critical infrastructure and the associated operation. data centers are being designed to operate at the upper limits of the industry standards and beyond. temperature control of the data center can be lost in seconds. In the past many of the systems were decentralized and deployed as discrete stand-alone systems. energy efficiency is extremely important. hardwire control of critical equipment is still a must for data centers because a network is not 100% reliable.. Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers Kingsley: Due to the large capacity of cloud data centers. Baxter: We are using more double interlocked pre-action systems for the fire protection of the critical systems and areas. Systems such as lighting controls. Baxter: We are definitely seeing a trend to bring more and more of the building automation and monitoring systems into one . www. or they are willing to replace those that have failed. not minutes. We are also using dry nitrogen systems as the purge and pressure maintenance system for these dry sprinkler systems. Increasingly. commissioning becomes even more important as there is less of a ridethrough “cushion” in the event of a loss of cooling.9 recommends a maximum cold aisle temperature of around 80 F. While integration of BACnet devices is still not perfect. ASHRAE TC 9. the sprinkler systems are still required and thus the clean agent becomes somewhat redundant and is a cost many owners no longer want to have. etc. however. The CIO now owns data associated with the entire facility operation. Kingsley: We have not seen this in action yet because it appears that there is still a lot of work to be done by the manufacturers to perfect this type of system or network. If the MEP systems do not perform as intended. security. though. They may have found that they can bring their servers back up after they dry out without a lot of failures. That said. surveillance. . BACnet seems to be the industry standard for mechanical systems. MEP systems are being designed to the nameplate operating data of the IT equipment instead of industry standards. Early warning smoke detection systems are becoming the norm. That is also one of the biggest challenges. including controls of all systems within one network. We are still seeing separate systems for BAS. With so much of the facility systems and associated business operations relying on the data center. it has greatly improved as manufacturers work out the bugs and design their controllers to ASHRAE’s latest BACnet standard. . input #12 at www.SEE TRUE INTELLIGENCE AT WORK Visit AHR Expo Booth 4810 Trane® is putting 102 years of expertise on display at the world’s largest HVAC show.

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It is a fluid document.1 is under continuous maintenance.Codes & Standards How ASHRAE Standard 90. PE. comment. BEAP. the principles held within. Its signature design element is a bold southern facade with exterior louvers that reduce solar heat gain. DLR Group. DLR Group.S. and how human interaction can improve energy efficiency. it is not necessarily recognized as a code for all jurisdictions in the United States. HBDP. As of the 2001 version. this standard is published in its entirety every 3 years. Although Standard 90. OATHOUT. ASHRAE Standard 90. LEED AP. Chicago ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1 can be followed by the design professional. Kansas. the impact on energy and performance.1 provides the minimum benchmark for energy-efficient design practices for building envelope. HVAC systems. QCXP. This article focuses on the recent evolution of this standard. The period between publishing cycles allows for review. and approval of new content. It is also common for addenda to be issued between the formal updates.csemag. Overland Figure 1: The new Library and Student Resource Center at the Los Angeles Community College District’s Harbor College is designed to achieve U.1 contributes to integrated design ASHRAE Standard 90. The evolution from the 2010 to the 2013 edition helps engineers and designers understand how an integrated design process provides the most efficient means of planning for. Green Building Council LEED Platinum certification. All graphics courtesy: DLR Group Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 23 . the requirements of Standard 90. the design process. Therefore. but enforcement by the local authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) is generally limited to the applicable building or energy conservation code. This standard also provides one of the most recognized procedures for energy simulations of facilities. and lighting.1 is respected by many jurisdictions. designed to define the minimum level of energy efficiency while being mindful of the limits of technology and value proposition of lifecycle cost. and applying. power. water heating systems. and RUAIRÍ BARNWELL. CEM.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings has been the benchmark for defining energy-efficiency and simulation procedures in the built environment since its inception in 1975. www. BY RODNEY V.

in an announcement in the Federal Register on Sept.6 2013 18. Fan efficiency requirements room environments.Codes & Standards This standard does influence many other building codes.and 2013. Calif. 2010.csemag. There also are increasand provisions for optimizing natural ing capabilities with heat gain through ing coverage and strategies for systems required to be controlled by building daylighting and artificial lighting control. In the 2007 version. such as cooling towers. energy simulation procedures. requirement of lighting. The have been added to the standard for 2013 version include more clarifications point of this ratio is to balance daylight.7 Table 1: This provides a summary of the data taken from various versions of ASHRAE 90. 2007 1. a simplification of skylight decrease in the allowable power density used by and lighting. more provisions for dealing with computer room environments. Building envelope (sometimes called building enclosure) is a good example of how this works. fenestrations. These codes began to be adopted in 2010. The design combines exterior screens and a light shelf to conservation opportunities.2 The changes in the 2013 2010 0.. 26.2 3. requirements are stricter in the 2013 ple of the impact of these changes can be found in the stricter performance requirements for heat pumps. and natural daylight.5% source ASHRAE Standard 90. Table 1: Summary of changes in heat pump efficiencies ASHRAE Standard 90.5. fenestrations.8. This standard also gives more tional requirement of a minidetails and requirements for computer mum visible transmission (VT)/solar version. These requirements appear in the 2009 version of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). of Energy. elements.99 version that affect building envelope modify the requireChanges to note 2013 0.1 edition Minimum efficiency (cooling – EER) Minimum efficiency (heating – COP) 2010 16. These include Table 2: There continues to be a systematic HVAC. optimize views to outside. and additional information to improve the simulation Figure 2: The Elk Grove Center in Elk Grove. ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Allowable power energy savings and 7. and projects started hitting the streets in 2011.1-2010 and 2013. water to air heat pumps (see Table 1). An examThe Dept. The HVAC equipment performance automation systems (BAS). estimated that the ASHRAE Table 2: Summary of changes . The requirements for building simulation procedures continue to evolve in the 2013 version.2013 energy efficiency in allowable power density standard contains 8.1 Table 6.87 The significant changes in the 2013 ments for opaque elements and version include: building envelope. 2014. the modifications generally double pane glazing in most 9. There are numerous examples of other technical features and model building codes.1 as an acceptable compliance path for energy performance.1-2007.0 3. As the design professional requirements.1-2 shows performance improvements required for ground-source. Major changes in the heat gain coefficient (SHGC) ratio. and the addi. Data from ASHRAE Standard 90. heat rejection equipment. modifications to calculation procedures for assembly areas. solar gain. envelope infiltration calculations. Significant changes in simulation procedures include: new data tables for applying glazing areas. according to ASHRAE Standard 90. 24 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 www.1. is a satellite campus of the of natural daylighting to predict energy Cosumnes River College. impose stricter requirements on design climate zones.1.6% site edition density (W/sq ft) energy savings compared to the 2010 version. Data from ASHRAE Standard 90. Many jurisdictions recognize ASHRAE 90.1 Table might expect.the first time. the requirement for continuous insulation started to appear in many building types for most climate zones.1.

1: Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings takes building design to the next level for projects that are on the path to achieve the goals of Architecture 2030. changes in chiller efficiency largely impact the work of the mechanical engineer. Green Building Council LEED for Schools Silver Certification applying design techniques prescribed in ASHRAE Standard 90.Lighting One of the most notable changes to the lighting chapter of the 2013 version is the addition of control requirements for each of the space types.1.5. the prescriptive approach to compliance.1 Table 9. The team of designer. Solutions that optimize natural daylighting and artificial lighting control require a multidisciplinary approach. to document compliance. The theme of natural daylighting and artificial lighting control is woven through most of the significant changes in Standard 90. the prescriptive method is the most common path for achieving compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90. The role of the designer.1 reveals that the allowable power density for a school/university has decreased by 32% since the 2007 version of this standard. ASHRAE Standard Figure 3: Fayetteville (Ark. but a more efficient chiller also affects the design prepared by the electrical engineer. and energy performance that does not meet expectations. It also can be argued that building designs derived strictly through implementation of the prescriptive approach may not result in the most cost-efficient solutions on bid day. The performance approach to this standard applies rules to the desired uniqueness that provides some flexibility based on the climate of the project location. These examples create a cause-and-effect relationship between designers and contractors. For instance. Because it’s often deemed the easiest approach for the design phase of a project.) High School earned U. This is the foundation of an integrated design process.1-2013.S. and flexibility. and for general acceptance of the material throughout the design community. The contractor’s role is to evaluate cost and constructability. prescriptive or performance. ASHRAE Standard 189. The natural duration before Standard 90. for the building codes to be adopted. The performance approach generally requires the use of a computer-simulation tool to evaluate the impact of design strategies for the major building features that form the path of overall compliance. The data in ASHRAE Standard 90. allowable power densities largely impact the work of the electrical engineer. and engineer is to assess energy efficiency and balance performance. aesthetics. This is easily seen during a quick review of the current edition of the standard. contractor. When these parties operate in a vacuum. the matrix for the Architecture 2030 Challenge will be a building energy performance target 80% better than the 2003 benchmark for consumption. In 2020.1 can be used in two ways. The most efficient approach still requires some iteration to formulate a solution.1 has shown leadership in energy efficiency by defining the minimum criteria and processes for the built environment to be judged. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 25 . and functionality of the lighting system. The prescriptive method is largely an effort in applying the information provided in the tables and graphs of the main body of the document. Facilities that achieve lofty energy performance as prescribed by Architecture 2030 typically include passive features and provisions that rely on the natural environment in the strategy for energy reduction.1 is applied to actual design situation seems to be about 4 years.1. The difference is that the words used to describe the performance approach allow for trade-off. the design solution is optimized. but also affect the cooling design prepared by the mechanical engineer. compromise. there will be addendums to clarify important content and address comments from users. The performance approach to the 2013 version provides even more rules and implementation procedures than previous versions. understanding of requirements and desires. Documentation ASHRAE 90. uncoordinated design. Similarly. The owner’s role is to determine if the solution is useful and meets the needs of the end user. Many of the provisions of this standard tend to primarily affect one discipline and create a ripple through other disciplines on the way to optimizing the total energy efficiency of a facility. The pages defining the rules of engagement for the performance approach are much thicker than those for The future ASHRAE will publish the next version of Standard 90.csemag. and owner must collaborate during this process. Between now and then. An integrated design process when all stakeholders are involved from the beginning provides a platform for shared education. It takes that long for the data in 90. architect. and fluid testing of options until www. the final result is often frustration.1 to find its way into the building codes.1. There also continues to be a systematic decrease in the allowable power density used by lighting.1 in 2016. Table 2 provides a summary of the data taken from various versions of ASHRAE 90.

human impact on performance.1 is a fluid document that continues to evolve in response to changes in our industry and the desire for continuous optimization of energy performance. The ASHRAE Standard 90. He is a 2013 Consulting-Specifying Engineer 40 Under 40 award winner. Rather. office. A simple comparison of actual utility data to performance expectation using energy consumption data is the first step in determining if there are real issues. and operational feedback. Ensuring proper use and performance of lighting controls is an example of the importance of human impact on energy performance. As hard as we try to simplify things. This training is not on how to replace an air filter or perform other routine maintenance. and train them to be successful in the space that was designed for them. ASHRAE Standard 90. These automatic measures contribute to the high-performing buildings being constructed today. good design can be elevated into a highperformance building. including sharing the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.Codes & Standards The notion of human impact should be considered in any conversation regarding energy efficiency in the built environment. .1-2010 code. An integrated design process is a useful platform to interject the human impact into the design. This leads to frustration by facility managers and occupants. and results in poor energy performance. and post-occupancy evaluations provide the foundation for energy optimization in the built environment. it should train users on the ramifications of blocking the glazing intended for daylighting with cardboard. When everyone understands the design requirements and the user’s expectations. He is responsible for growing this market and contributing his expertise in high-performance building design to benefit clients in the firm’s core market sectors. energy efficiency. Involving the engineering and analysis team early in the design process can have many advantages. and human engagement in high-performance buildings. the design team’s role on a project ends when the building is built and all of the post-construction documentation is turned over to the owner. All too often this value is not realized. 26 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 The application of this standard through an integrated design process should result in a facility that provides excellent value to the owner. This topic is not directly related to ASHRAE Standard 90. ASHRAE Standard 90. Figure 4: The new Business Building on the Lisle. systems in modern-day buildings are complicated. He is a champion for integrated design.csemag. user surveys and system observations—as the means to understand how energy is consumed and how efficiency can be improved. Systems that are not understood by facility managers or users are often altered by occupants to the detriment of occupant comfort. The emphasis on high-performance buildings is allowing design teams to become more engaged in post-occupancy activities such as user training.1 with other design team members and users who may not be familiar with the standard. Rodney V. Ruairí Barnwell leads DLR Group’s building optimization team from Chicago.1. Traditionally. but is one of the characteristics that elevate good building performance to great building performance. While the reasons for this vary. The application of this standard or subsequent building codes that are influenced by this standard. Operational feedback studies use energy data—utility and submeters.1 offers designers the tools and compliance criteria to create energy-efficient facilities. The next big thing that design professionals can do to positively impact building energy performance is train both facility managers and occupants about how the systems work. www. campus of Benedictine University is one of the first buildings permitted in Illinois under the new IECC 2012/ ASHRAE 90. train them how to temporarily adjust the light level for a special program. especially for users with little or no training in architecture or engineering. offer value to building owners through lifecycle cost objectives that are embedded into the information. energy benchmarking. Oathout is regional engineering leader and principal at DLR Group’s Overland Park. Kansas.. An owner’s design and energy analysis team can play a key role in the optimizing the performance of the facilities they designed through post-occupancy services like energy benchmarking and operational feedback studies. the real problem is that a facility may operate incorrectly for years before the causes can be determined and remedied. The requirements of this standard continue to advocate for automatic measures to minimize the need for human intervention.1 and other industry trends such as integrated design.

while minimizing future maintenance costs. Visit Booth #1523 at the AHR Show in Chicago input #14 at www. Completely integrated boiler solutions can generate results for you.csemag. . Inc. Dole Packaged Foods in Atwater. or call 1-800-250-5883 to locate your local rep. Read about this case study and others at cleaverbrooks. California.How Dole lowered emissions to nearly unheard-of ©2014 Cleaver-Brooks. met stringent air quality standards of less than 5 ppm NOx emissions by installing our 700 HP CBEX Elite with fully condensing economizer.

Staco Energy Products Co.T he voice of the engineering community speaks loud and clear in the following pages featuring corporate profiles of those companies participating in this innaugural Executive Voice program presented by Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine. Our thanks to the following participants: BITZER Dynamic Air Quality Solutions Navien America Inc. Unison Comfort Technologies .

BITZER is able to outperform the “one-size fits all” model that is standard in our industry. We have designed Screw and Scroll compressors that are optimized based on whether they are applied to air-cooled condenser (SCT > 110°F) systems or water cooled (SCT < 110°F) systems. but our OEM customers now promote BITZER for its technological superiority and overall value. BITZER US. BITZER’s new CRII capacity control for its semi-hermetic ECOLINE compressors can unload down to 10%. Inc. Even these are optimized based on the application.” BITZER’s OEM customer base in the U. modular and process chillers. By optimizing its compressor efficiency based on the application. Inc. can operate from 25 – 87Hz. is a subsidiary of Germany based BITZER SE. Headquartered outside Atlanta and with three manufacturing plants in the U. BITZER became a pioneer in the manufacture of compressors using natural refrigerants like CO2 and ammonia.. condensing units. As the “green” movement evolved in Europe in the 90s. states “BITZER has met the challenge of providing the market both high efficiency compressors in addition to those that use natural refrigerants. GA. marine systems. commercial and industrial refrigerated warehouse systems. BITZER US. president of BITZER US. which includes an integrated VSD. high efficiency products and “green” solutions. includes manufacturers of liquid and air-cooled A/C chillers. ultra-low temp units.S. Peter Narreau. supermarket mechanical rooms (racks). or email us marketing@bitzerus. BITZER provides both subcritical and transcritical CO2 compressors to the industry as well as complete Ammonia Compressor . screw. BITZER has launched a line of Screw Compressors with integrated VSDs. Headquarters in Flowery Branch. the world’s largest independent manufacturer of A/C and Refrigeration compressors with sales companies and production sites for reciprocating. Ensuring best in-class performance in Screw Compressors. an OEM can now combine a 15-ton scroll (GSD6 frame size) with a 25-ton scroll (GSD8 frame) and can add a VSD on the smaller model to achieve the highest efficiency while precisely matching the cooling load. Please visit www.ADVERTISEMENT BITZER US. The resulting IPLV of systems using these optimized models is significantly enhanced.bitzerus. Both compressor types can accommodate a VSD if desired. Inc. For example. commercial rooftop units. and scroll compressors as well as pressure vessels all over the globe. BITZER has a patent pending on an Advanced Header Technology (BAHT) that enables OEMs to mix numerous combinations of Scroll Compressor sizes and frames to achieve optimum performance in their systems. and its Varispeed model. To further increase IPLVs. Inc. BITZER is able to outperform the “one-size fits all” model that is standard in our industry. Peter Narreau President. BITZER US is well positioned in 2015 to continue its extraordinary growth in an industry that demands quiet. The BITZER brand has always been synonymous with high quality and reliability. etc.

while improving overall air quality. makes both common and financial sense. And over half of that is fan energy. the ban on smoking indoors and the use of low-emitting building materials have improved indoor air quality significantly. “There is still low hanging fruit for energy efficiency. we see high-efficiency lighting baked into most new construction projects. With conventional passive filters. and the energy use. at this point. Duke Wiser President. and a service life measured in YEARS instead of months. filtration and indoor air quality both offer huge opportunities for energy efficiency. in most metropolitan areas. that’s some low hanging fruit. Ontario Fortunately. the air outside contains more contaminants than the air indoors. that operate with a much lower static pressure resistance than conventional high-efficiency filters.DynamicAQS. Clearly. They also enjoy a much greater dust-holding capacity. air cleaning can help implement the IAQ Procedure of ASHRAE Standard 62 to yield improved air quality and lower energy costs. Over the years. There’s still plenty of low hanging fruit for improved energy efficiency. increasing filter efficiency increases the static resistance to airflow. as well. these are areas where designers often defaulted to the methods they used in the past.ADVERTISEMENT I t’s no secret that the lowest hanging fruit for energy-saving initiatives has been lighting. which gives these air cleaners about 1/3 of the life cycle cost (including energy) of conventional passive filters. With ventilation. but rather the cost of the energy to push air through it. This leaves designers and owners looking for other places to find savings. Dynamic Air Quality Solutions In fact. The big cost is not in the cost of the filter itself. Over half of that is used to condition and clean the air. In . Energy represents over 90% of the cost of filtration. Today there are Ozone-free air cleaning technologies. rather than bringing in potentially contaminated (800) 578-7873 www.” The savings are there. Many of the larger retrofit projects have been done. electronic air cleaners. like polarized-media Dynamic Manufacturing Facility in Carleton Place. People today expect their indoor air to be free of contaminants. Using today’s Ozone-free polarized-media electronic air cleaners to remove odors and ultrafine particles. Until recently. Commercial buildings consume 40% of all energy in the United States. This has led to higher efficiency filters and in some cases more outdoor air for ventilation. info@DynamicAQS. Hundreds of millions of tons of CO2 emissions have been saved. As with lighting. both of these approaches would normally increase energy use.

” says Jeff Hoffman. “We look at it from the standpoint of complete savings for the data center from all aspects. a 6-kVA rack/universal mount and a 6. located in Dallas. For more than seventy years. online double-conversion UPS • Unistar VP.” Jeff Hoffman Just some of Staco’s broad range of electrical products The company’s end users are in the mid-range to large IT sector and various other market segments. “And we have positioned ourselves to keep that pace going in 2015.stacoenergy. 2-.5.ADVERTISEMENT W ith the launching of five new products. • Meeting industrial grade specs • FirstLine P 924. from the power factor correction and a more efficient UPS to minimize the utility costs the customer is paying. Staco Energy Products also manufactures power factor correction units to help facilities avoid penalties from . which include expanding to higher power ranges and modular UPS. • FirstLine PL 924. online double conversion UPS • UniStar SCLI924. and its President Jeff Hoffman. a 350 W to 21-kW online double-conversion single-phase UL 924 central lighting inverter Several projects that are already underway to support the UPS planned growth include: • Upgrade to 10 to 40kVA packaging • Mobile Apps to communicate with UPS • Security protection option Jeff Hoffman says his company has taken note of requests for UPS systems with higher operating efficiencies. averaging thirteen percent. Staco plans to continue their major efforts in engineering to get other products launched to complete their UPS product portfolio and to position themselves to be in a stronger competitive position. primarily focusing on the condition of the batteries. President of Staco Energy Products 36-kW online double-conversion three-phase UL 924 central lighting inverter In 2015.” says Hoffman. and 3-kVA rack universal mount single-phase. adds Hoffman. a • 937-253-1191 www. Staco’s UPS units are user-friendly. a 58. healthcare. Staco Energy Products is a wholly owned subsidiary of Components Corporation of America. Staco Energy Products has also made big plans for 2015. customers worldwide have relied on Staco as their dependable source for standard and tailored solutions to a wide range of electrical power problems. it’s fair to say that the past year has been a busy one for Staco Energy Products Co. 225-kW online double-conversion three phase UL 924 central lighting inverter “We have had substantial growth over the last two years. such as oil & gas. Ohio. and manufacturing. Texas. Staco’s new products include: • Unistar V. “The unit can be completely controlled and monitored right at the control panel on the unit or remotely from a desk. Headquartered in Miamisburg.” Maintenance is standard and includes an annual preventative maintenance check. a 9.and 10-kVA tower single-phase. President Staco Energy Products Co.

Our market legacy began in 1981. Valent and Precision Coils continuously strive to deliver products that reduce energy consumption and building operational costs. Innovent and Valent. desiccant dehumidification products. dehumidification units. industrial operations and commercial properties. MN. value-added packaged rooftop units. make-up air products. recreational. Valent® and Precision Coils. energy recovery units. Innovent. heat or cool air. industrial. Every product we manufacture is engineered specifically to meet the unique needs and requirements of the building in which it is installed. You’ll find Innovent products in a wide range of facilities including educational. and installing contractors. Innovent Air Handling Equipment is a custom manufacturer of commercial/industrial air handling systems. specifying engineers. provide the solutions that system designers demand.ADVERTISEMENT U nison Comfort Technologies was established in 2010 as the parent organization of Innovent®. Precision Coils offers a full range of HVAC replacement coils. Through a winning combination of energy-efficient products and “The Unison HVAC unit brands. a privatelyheld. today we design. We are a division of The Greenheck Group. Unison Comfort Technologies is headquartered in Minneapolis. maximize energy efficiency and minimize operational costs. dehumidify.” Precision Coils specializes in manufacturing competitively priced. Unison® includes three businesses which contribute to indoor environmental comfort by manufacturing distinctive products that ventilate. CA. Jay Althof President. Unison partners with representatives who are carefully selected for their ability to support system designers and building professionals.4800 Valent Sales: 612. This new Unison plant recently opened in Sacramento. with additional manufacturing plants near Sacramento. research and retail buildings. Unison has enjoyed rapid growth since its inception and now has annual revenue in excess of $125 million. CA and experienced people dedicated to satisfying customers. and pool dehumidification units. worldwide leader in air movement and control systems and architectural products.4850 . Unison Comfort Technologies Memphis.877. government. In addition to supplying coils to OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers). health care. and heating/cooling coils to help enhance indoor air quality and comfort.unsioncomfort. comfort and process applications in facilities ranging from educational buildings and lodging facilities to laboratories. The Unison management team includes respected leaders and experts with decades of experience in the HVAC industry. Valent units serve in dedicated outdoor air. filter. TN. precision-engineered HVAC heating and cooling coils. energy recovery options. manufacture and provide air handling equipment. hospitality. Valent Air Management Systems manufactures high-percentage outdoor air packaged rooftop units that address the needs of building owners.877. Innovent Sales: 612.

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functionality. functionality. The question is. and initial capital cost. The key is to recognize that this is all part of an ongoing progression and that efficiency requirements will only become more stringent. it is the direct evolution of federal legislation that was passed almost 40 years ago in response to the 1973-74 oil crisis. So while many building owners will be more than satisfied with minimal code-compliant designs.VFD. They typically www. low-cost solutions first. they usually end up as an afterthought. electric motor driven systems represent more than a third of the total electricity demand for the United States and between 43% and 46% globally per statistics from the International Energy Agency. Of total power used by motors worldwide. PE.. what uses the most electricity in our designs? Although we may not think of motors specifically when considering the energy use of any particular building system. A business concept known as “disruptive innovation” describes an innovation that redefines or replaces a market by offering improved simplicity. there may be technologi- Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 cal “dead ends” in the individual system components that may require emphasis on different solutions for energy efficiency. . Total motor energy usage for the industrial sector outstrips commercial usage by roughly 3:1. plumbing (MEP).  Examine common pitfalls in specifying motors and VFDs. the adoption of more stringent energy codes and standards has put greater emphasis on energy efficiency in our designs. approximately 68% is used by mediumsized motors from 1 to 500 hp. While this emphasis on energy efficiency may seem like a relatively recent development. as proactive engineers and designers. the electrical usage associated with motors is “hidden” in most commercial building energy use categories. From a broader perspective.  Introduce some emerging standards and technologies related to VFDs and motors. However.csemag. or any similar equipment with variable load profiles that may be found in a typical building. there is a need to understand how the components in the systems we design use power and how they can be optimized without compromising those traditional design values. fans. electrical. In some cases. you look for the “bang for the buck”—high-impact. Traditionally. LEED AP. compressors. which covers the vast majority of motors used in building systems. 34 M otors get no respect. and fire protection designs for buildings have been focused on system level considerations of health/ safety. Chicago Learning objectives  Review the evolution of efficiency standards and how they relate to the specification of VFDs and motors. and affordability. Here’s how to specify a VFD to meet load conditions while achieving efficiency. McGuire Engineers Inc. motor strategies for energy efficiency A variable frequency drive (VFD) often is specified to reduce operational cost for pumps. BY JOHN YOON. Motors are everywhere In most design methodologies.  Understand how a standard induction motor uses (and wastes) electricity. Although they’re present in many of the systems that we design and they often drive the overall energy usage profile of a building.

The commercial baseline model in ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The photo is looking up at a low-speed high-volume fan at the top of the tower.1-2004 (IECC2006). a national-level consideration. Energy savings resulting from implementation: Quantify the magnitude of energy savings if implemented. Economic impact on manufacturers and consumers: Will implementing the standard cause unusual hardship for manufacturers or consumers? Is the initial first cost of implementation affordable? www. has given the Dept.7% energy cost improvement. This picture shows a 20-hp totally enclosed. the process of adopting new standards does have a reasonable set of formal evaluation criteria. This concept could be applied to the emergence of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and permanent magnetic ac (PMAC) motors for use in building systems. have redefined design priorities by emphasizing energy-saving aspects of their use. such as ASHRAE Standard Figure 1: One emerging application for permanent magnet ac (PMAC) motors is in cooling towers. Need for national energy conservation: Again. Lessening of utility or performance of products: Given the function. Will the standard provide improvements to the security and reliability of the nation’s energy system? 4. VFDs have been used for a significant amount of time in situations where controllability was as much a driving factor as energy savings. a national-level consideration. Other factors that the Secretary of Energy considers relevant: General considerations include environmental and employment impact to the country. is this a misapplication of the technology? Am I attempting to tow a trailer with a Ferrari? 7. This emphasis only becomes more pronounced with improvements to the baseline energy model in each code revision cycle. 6.1-2010 (IECC-2012) represents a 30% improvement over ASHRAE 90. This particular tower is a two-cell cooling tower with 3. Elimination of the gearbox dramatically improves the efficiency and reduces maintenance requirements. The seven criteria based on EPCA legislation are: 1. Impact of any lessening of competition: Is this simply adopting typical “best in class” products or something proprietary that could cause a monopoly? 3. Lifetime operating cost savings compared to increased cost for the product: What is the payback period? What is the lifecycle cost analysis? 5. such as in variable air volume (VAV) air handling systems. they existed in niche markets prior to widespread acceptance. the view is from inside a cooling tower. The federal government has acted as the primary catalyst for this emphasis on energy. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA-1975). All graphics courtesy: McGuire Engineers 2. with subsequent major amendments by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct-1992) and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA-2007).csemag. Will emergence of Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 35 .000 gpm total capacity. The 2013/2015 code update is expected to produce an additional 8.are not breakthrough innovations—in fact. many of which are readily applicable to engineering design. While federally mandating energy efficiency may sound intrusive on the surface. energy codes. air over (TEAO) PMAC motor directly coupled to the fan instead of using a typical belt drive or gearbox. However. of Energy wide-ranging power in mandating energy efficiency standards.

So. repeatable test procedures to be effective. gearbox-motor combinations. any proposed standard that can demonstrate payback in 3 years is fair game for federal adoption under the authority of the EPCA legislation. Among the revisions being considered is inclusion of certain IEC 60034 test procedures. with today’s manufacturers emphasizing standardized products for global markets. last updated in 2004 prior to the release of the 2006 version of NEMA MG 1. Value of energy efficiency In most applications. It would seem that development of these standards is only a glimpse of things to . VFD efficiency requirements still remain conspicuously absent. still we are often caught off guard by the changes that show up in the energy codes.csemag. VFD efficiency requirements While motor efficiency requirements are fairly well documented within IECC2015.5 hp. it eventually may be possible to objectively evaluate any given manufacturer’s motor in combination with another manufacturer’s VFD. Additional standards that will define efficiency classes of variable speed ac motors will be published in 2015. While the development process for motor efficiency standards can seem glacial at times. they are the result of legislation passed nearly 8 years ago. Nevertheless. Development of these European VFD efficiency testing standards doesn’t guarantee that parallel standards will be developed and adopted in the United States. Systems where VFDs are more or less the de facto means of code compliance include VAV fan systems in complex multi-zone systems. how could a new set of seemingly obscure European testing standards possibly impact an engineer half a world away in the United States? Again. If we were to examine the progression from legislation to final adoption. VFDs dominate. still are not specifically mandated as the sole means for code compliance. With this standard. However. while minimum motor efficiency requirements are just beginning to appear in IECC 2015. Use of VFDs. in Europe the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) published testing standards for determining the efficiency of VFD controlled induction motors (IEC 600342-3) in 2013. motors for energy efficiency new technology foster job growth? What is the value of emissions reduction? Economically. Unfortunately. the development of new testing standards telegraphs the potential for future code changes. These standards. VFDs are mounted to stands just outside the picture’s field of view to the right of the pumps. and adjustable inlet guide vanes. and achieving stringent integrated part load value (IPLV) values for chillers. there are alternative to VFDs such as 2-speed motors. Note that the code describes only the basic functionality (mechanical or electrical variable speed drive) and not a particular technology defined by specific industry standard to achieve that functionality.000 MBH boiler plant installation. The specific omission of a VFD requirement is somewhat odd when you consider that in the typical variable speed applications. Standards require robust. 36 can’t quantify energy savings when you can’t measure something consistently. it may seem needlessly convoluted. For example. which are just beginning to show up in IECC-2015. This legislation drove the expansion of the motor industry’s minimum efficiency levels that are reflected in the NEMA MG 1-2011 motor standard for manufacturers. When trying to satisfy the code’s variable speed drive requirements. You Figure 2: This shows 10 hp secondary hot water circulation pumps for an 8. However. there have not been industrywide accepted test standards for inverter duty motors Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 and VFDs. but these are exceedingly rare in new construction due to their lower efficiency and greater complexity. For example. For example. there are already strong efforts to harmonize regional test standards. another standard that will define the energy efficiency of adjustable speed electric power drive systems will be published in 2016. The last standard is probably the most important of the three to building design because it addresses combined motor-VFD system efficiency rather than just the efficiency of individual components. while inferred as a potential compliance path in the IECC. This manufacturer’s standard parallels changes in 2012 to the federal mandated test standards defined in 10 CFR Part 431. is currently in the workgroup session phase for new revisions. the motor efficiency tables in IECC 2015 are the indirect result of the EISA-2007 legislation. remember that the effectiveness of the end product hinges on the creation of a universally accepted standard. variable speed control for fan motors greater than 7. in typical building systems we typically size motors to accommowww. operating cost dramatically outweighs the cost of the motor itself during its useful service life. IEEE Standard 112: Standard Test Procedures for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators. The omission of a VFD-only requirement in the energy code could be partially attributed to the fact that until recently. won’t be adopted by most states until 2016.VFDs.

52 weeks/yr) 7.7% efficiency operating at rated speed $763 $1904 7.16 hp. so by addressing these. These variables are generic. Can be improved by reducing the resistance of the stator windings and rotor squirrel cage. To illustrate this Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 37 . Can be improved by improved precision in manufacturing Of these losses. I2R losses dramatically outweigh the other categories. we can get a rough comparison of the cost of the equipment compared to the energy cost and the return on investment. 3. However. and your mileage may vary depending on the exact operational characteristics of your load and cost of electricity in your area.5 hp inverter duty motor and VFD (87% combined system efficiency) operating at 75% average rated speed $1800 First year cost of electricity: 75% average speed (motor at 42% power) Electricity cost.csemag. Because the affinity laws tell us that motor horsepower has a nonlinear relationship with speed. regardless of the load. the point of this example is to illustrate that energy costs are usually the determining factor when variable speed motor operation is anticipated. and defining a few variables including electrical cost per kWh and hours of operation. etc. All induction motors have a base speed (synchronous speed) that is directly proportional to the quantity of magnetic poles in the motor’s design (generally between 2 and 8) and the frequency of the electrical source (60 Hz in North America): ac motor synchronous speeds (60 Hz) Poles Speed (rpm) 2 3600 4 1800 6 1200 8 900 However. 4. the speed of the rotor always slightly lags the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator—it’s always trying Table 1: Four-year cost of ownership comparison Initial cost First year cost of electricity: 100% speed at $0. Using equipment costs from an online electrical distributor specializing in induction motors and VFDs. To make sense of motor efficiency. www. 1800 rpm induction motor. additional 3 years at 75% speed $5711 $843 Total cost of ownership $8378 $2528 $5171 Table 1: In this particular example. 2. parasitic loads like cooling fans in totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motors. the average power required would be 3.10/ kWh. However. Mechanical losses: Friction in bearing system. we know that power varies in relationship to speed by the following formula for centrifugal loads: hp2 = hp1 (rpm2/rpm1)3 Based on this formula. one must understand what efficiency losses are attributed the worst-case loads. which generally represent a very small percentage of total operating hours. Can be improved by improving the metallurgy of the steel. let’s apply this concept to a simplified load profile using a 7. if a load can be accommodated by a slower speed. the return on investment (ROI) would be less than a year. ac induction motor efficiency Multi-phase ac induction motors have traditionally dominated the electric motor industry. Motor losses can be assigned to four major categories: 1. an incredible amount of power would be wasted. 91. it is misleading to state that a calculation based on the average speed of your load profile will accurately reflect the overall energy usage (unless the load spends the vast majority of its time at that average speed). Magnetic losses: Hysteresis/eddy current in the steel laminations. Stray load losses: Flux leakage/ irregularities in the rotor/stator air gap. If the average speed required by our theoretical load was of 75% of full load speed. you can dramatically reduce the power that the motor needs to produce.5 hp. 1800 rpm motor (see Table 1). additional 3 years at 100% speed Electricity cost.5 hp NEMA Premium induction motor. 5 days/week. other losses such as cooling fan motor losses in TEFC designs can be indirectly affected. through the affinity laws. Electrical losses: I2R conduction losses in the stator and rotor that increase dramatically with increased current. 12 hr/day. If that motor were to run at full speed. I2R losses manifest themselves as increased heat. The industry has improved overall motor efficiency in each subsequent NEMA-MG 1 motor standard revision.

this will mean using a VFD with vector control.csemag. However. If you anticipate a significant percentage of your operating hours below that load level. 2. below about 20% load. The sweet spot for peak induction motor efficiency is about 75% load. But going back to an earlier discussion of standards in this article. Most general-duty induction motors can only accommodate a 10:1 turndown ratio without overheating their winding insulation.” Reductions in the resistance of the stator and rotor reduce I2R losses but also result in less slip. 5. heavy duty) insulation is preferred over Class B (80 C rise. we have little control over the applicable efficiency standards and codes that we are mandated to follow. which can offer roughly 20% relative reduction in overall switching losses compared to earlier IBGT designs—it’s difficult for specifying engineers to quantify exactly how these designs affect our overall system 200-hp. other motor technologies should be entertained. These diminishing returns would suggest that if major increases in system efficiency are . This will kill any overload capabilities that the motor may have and increase the risk of damage when operating under adverse operating conditions (i. with a fan rated for 10. spell out the operating conditions under which that service factor should apply. 1. While VFD designs continue to evolve—the introduction of sixth-generation insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). For example. As such. Unfortunately. However.e. 4.000 cfm on a design day. most manufacturers will quote mid-90% efficiency for their newer VFD designs.VFDs. if anything.01% versus 0.0 due to reduced cooling air. the improvements up to this point have been incremental and. Know what speed range is required by your load. Efficiency gently rolls off with progressively lower loads. general purpose) and Class F (105 C. many manufacturers state in the fine print for some of their motors that the service factor has to be reduced to 1. slip is directly related to the amount of torque that a motor of a given design can produce. 1. other elements of the system such as control by VFDs should be more greatly emphasized. these are several common motor/variable frequency drive (VFD) issues that can severely affect the functionality of the systems that you specify. industrial use). Not all “inverter duty” rated motors are created equal.. you probably already know everything in this article. this turndown ratio is more than reasonable. Direct manu- Common pitfalls in specifying motors and VFDs A s specifying engineers.15 service factor. Most common building loads will never need this additional level of precision in control. For example. 3. The evolution of VFD design has allowed relatively low-cost VFDs that are capable of both scalar V/Hz and open-loop (sensorless) vector control. Closed-loop affords additional precision Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 in speed control compared to open-loop (0. While even greater efficiencies are possible.15 to 1.0 when the motor is used in conjunction with a VFD. If you need super-high turndown ratios with high levels of low-speed torque. Specify closed-loop vector control only if you absolutely. does it really make sense to try to control that same fan below 500 cfm? If your load really requires it. The greatest recent jump in industry motor efficiency is attributed to EISA-2007 mandating NEMA Premium motor standards for all general-purpose.300 ft above sea level or higher) can also reduce service factor from 1. VFD manufacturers can address efficiency by optimizing these aspects of the VFD’s design. depending on the manufacturer. Class H (125 C rise. The overall efficiency improvements to this point in time have been limited to optimizations and not revolutionary changes in existing induction motor designs. In general. Theoretically. Losses in VFDs are generally attributed to conduction (electrical current flowing through the device) and switching losses (the power lost by switching the transistors on/off during operation of the VFD’s input rectifier and output inverter sections). high inertia loads with greater starting torque requirements generally necessitate NEMA motor designs with lower efficiency. This methodology is taking hold in numerous designs. the difference in efficiency between EPAct compliant and NEMA Premium motors is generally only 1% to 3% (see Table 3). positively know you need it. However. While not an exhaustive list. or more importantly. A typical motor is rated for a 1. The basic concept is that motors can be staged on only when needed to meet the load requirements. If you know you need it. 6. motors rated for use with vector VFD drives can often accommodate 1000:1 or 2000:1 turndown ratios. For many load types. you may want to consider designs that allow you to spread your load among multiple smaller motors. you can’t consistently quan- tify efficiency if there’s no industrywide standard to measure it. That difference between the synchronous speed and that actual speed of the rotor is known as “slip. How do you improve efficiency in VFDs? That’s a trick question. Basic inverter duty rated motors are generally rated for 20:1 turndown when combined with scalar (V/Hz) VFD control methodologies. most motors have a dramatic falloff in efficiency due to inconsistent air gap magnetic flux. The insulation class of the motor is often a general indication of its overload capability. The high carrier frequency characteristic of VFDs using pulse-width modulation (PWM) with fast switching insulated-gate bipolar www. the shaft encoder can easily add $1000 or more to the cost of a motor and additional wiring. we are still entrusted with designing appropriately sized and functional systems. high ambient operating temperatures). If you need a specific service 38 factor. Installing motors in high-altitude locations (typically 3. but requires adding a physical device on the motor to detect rotor shaft rotation (usually an optical shaft encoder or hall effect sensor). However. (See Table 2 for NEMA design designations.1%). will only start to level off without dramatic changes in the basic motor design. such as multiple compressor chillers and “fanwall” air handlers.) Stator designs with lower I2R losses also typically have higher locked rotor current. 3-phase motors rated to 600 V. motors for energy efficiency to catch up.

centrifugal pumps. Locked rotor current not defined by the standard. Inverter duty where across-the-line start is not needed. and each motor must still be specified with its own overload and short circuit protection per NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 430. Design B Low-slip. but also to drive it beyond its rated speed (overspeed) by increasing the VFD output frequency above 60 Hz. Depending on the specific model of motor and the VFD control methodology. there are some downsides. Also note that available motor torque can fall off quickly beyond 60 Hz because you cannot maintain a consistent V/Hz ratio. A typical VFD using an IBGT inverter on a 480 V distribution can easily exceed these thresholds. Part 31 inverter duty motors have an improved insulation system that can withstand 1600 V peak voltage and a 1 msec rise time along with improved bearing lubrication for higher temperature operation. thus increasing the chance of the “reflected wave” phenomenon. breakdown torque at 80% to 90% speed. higher carrier frequencies also exacerbate the “reflected wave” phenomenon. Multiple motors may be connected to a single VFD. Loads with relatively low starting torque requirements. Some HVAC equipment manufacturers overspeed a motor to allow for fan and motor combinations that really shouldn’t have been allowed in the first place. increasing system efficiency is best addressed by focusing on the fundamentals: Table 2: NEMA motor design type Pro Con Use Design A Low-slip. Reduced efficiency. inverter duty where across-the-line start is uncommon. recognize that consistent overspeeding of a motor will reduce its useful service life. highefficiency. Optional shaft ground rings can also help mitigate EDM bearing damage by providing a low-impedance path between the stator and rotor..csemag.  Understand the speed and torque characteristics of the load  Understand overall load profile/duty cycle  Specify right-sized equipment that can reliably meet those project parameters transistor (IGBT) inverters can cause a “reflected wave” phenomenon resulting in excessive voltage spikes and circulating currents in the stator windings.facturer-to-manufacturer comparisons are academic without a true testing standard. Low starting torque. but that does not mean that they are inverter duty rated. 9. low-efficiency. Ultimately. Very low starting torque. which can severely limit the operational speed range for a constant torque load.e. which generally results in improved dynamic response www. Although a VFD manufacturer’s quoted efficiency can allow for a ballpark efficiency estimate of motor-VFD system. significantly lower than breakdown torque. It may be a 2:1 compared to a 20:1 turndown ratio. This is because your drive output voltage cannot exceed your fixed input voltage. 10. an increase in carrier frequency from 3 to 12 kHz reduced insulation life from 100. Beware of high VFD output carrier frequencies. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 39 . specify that it should meet the MG 1 Part 31 specifications. until the appropriate standards are developed. positive displacement loads). Extremely low starting torque and high locked rotor current.000 to 25. Across-the-line start or load with high initial required torque (i.) can dramatically affect motor selection. While I have seen a letter from a motor manufacturer that grudgingly stated that it was probably OK to a certain extent with a particular piece of equipment. Variable torque loads have a speed-torque relationship that varies with the square of the speed and are much friendlier to motors than constant torque/positive displacement loads. similar torque-speed characteristics to Design A Table 2: High inertia loads with greater starting torque requirements generally necessitate NEMA motor designs with lower efficiency. These will eventually break down stator winding insulation through overheating and destroy bearing races through electrical discharge machining (EDM). When inverter duty motor is required. breakdown torque only slightly less than starting torque. In one manufacturer’s study. Common generalpurpose. Examples include variables such as the carrier frequency at which a motor is operated or the NEMA design type of the motor being used. As the design engineer. However. breakdown torque of 80% to 90%. the manufacturer allowed turndown ratio may be dramatically worse with constant torque loads. Design D Very high starting torque. Whether you have constant torque (positive displacement pumps/compressors) or a variable torque load (fans. High-slip.000 hours. MG 1 Part 30 limits peak voltage to 1000 V and dV/dt rise times to 2 msec. Design C High starting torque. and low-speed torque control. Design E Very low-slip and very high-efficiency. numerous variables can impact actual system efficiency. Consult with the manufacturer to determine the minimum acceptable carrier frequency given the control requirements. 7. NEMA MG 1 Part 30 provides performance standards for generalpurpose motors when used with VFDs. VFDs can be used not only to slow down a motor. However. All of the motor must be the same size to maintain consistent speed control. highefficiency. High inertia loads requiring very high torque at low speed. 8. you will need to evaluate the load profile with the amount of time expected at the high end of the speed range and determine if there is a cost benefit that offsets the potential reduced reliability. The chance for motor-drive impedance mismatch is greater. High VFD carrier frequencies provide improved PWM output waveform resolution/shaping. etc.

However.2 Table 3: Based on this data from the U.6 30. the stator for a PMAC motor is virtually identical to that for an induction motor.0 83.0 91. Instead of the squirrel cage and the stacked steel laminations in an ac induction motor’s rotor. other motor technologies should be entertained or other elements of the system. such as control by VFDs.1 95.2 94.0 88. The basic operational concepts are the same for induction motors and PMAC motors.0 93.7 82.4 93.8 200.0 80. The overall efficiency improvement can be 2% higher than a NEMA Premium induction motor.0 91.0 92.0 96.3 93.0 89. the functional benefits Table 3: 1800 rpm (4-pole) TEFC motor efficiency Motor size (hp) Pre-EPAct EPAct-1992 NEMA Premium (MG 1-2006) 1.0 92.0 94. In combination with the 1000:1 or 2000:1 speed turndown ratios typical for PMAC motors used in vector control methodologies. where the operational speed of the load is dramatically less than the standard base speed of an induction motor (1800 rpm. This type of application.3 94. 40 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 of PMAC motors have led at least one cooling tower manufacturer to use them for large-diameter.0 90. A rotating magnetic field in the stator interacts with the rotor. while not necessarily new. This substitution creates a permanent magnetic field of consistent strength in the rotor instead of the induced magnetic field characteristic of an induction www. The key difference lies in the rotor.7 94.5 95. PMAC motors were traditionally used only where precise low speed and torque control were required.0 75.5 89.) and belt drives or mechanical gearboxes end up being required. However.5 1. Induction motors may be approaching an evolutionary dead-end in this regard.4 40.5 85. This not only simplifies the mechanical design of the tower.4 100.4 150. In fact.0 93.0 86.5 79.1 84.1 50.5 91.6 95.2 93. and the speed of the rotor is dictated by the quantity of poles and frequency of the electrical source applied to the stator. the efficiency improvements inherent in the PMAC design offset its increased cost compared to induction motors.5 91. The manufacturer exploited the low-speed performance characteristics of PMAC motors and eliminated problematic fan belt drive/reduction gearboxes typical in such designs. However. MotorMaster software.5 89.6 92.4 125.0 76. Reinventing the wheel with PMAC motors While new efficiency standards have pushed the development of ever more efficient induction motors. draw-through cooling tower fans in its premium cooling tower model.6 91.S. similar to how VFDs acted as a “disruptive innovation” in the HVAC industry.0 86.5 89. 3600 rpm. Their higher cost compared to a typical induction motor/VFD combination has limited the penetration of PMAC motors into the building systems market. One of the more recent developments in motors are permanent magnetic alternating current (PMAC) motors.0 85.5 85. PMAC motor efficiency really shines at slower speeds where the difference in overall efficiency can be greater than 20%. These motors. thus functionally overlapping with the induction motors using vector control VFDs.0 95.5 3.5 2. etc. PMAC motors are also called synchronous ac or brushless dc motors.3 87. it is possible that other similar technologies could supersede induction motors.0 89.5 95. of Energy.0 95. were not used in the HVAC industry until very recently. should be more greatly emphasized.5 5.6 93. While additional efficiency improvements are still possible.4 87. The energy savings associated with properly addressing these load management concepts overshadow the few percentage points of efficiency that may exist between different manufacturers’ VFDs.0 94. In smaller sizes (10 hp and smaller).0 81. and NEMA 60 Hz database (2010).0 25.5 7.4 20.8 93. it makes them an excellent choice for applications where regular lowspeed operation is unavoidable.8 84.5 60.7 10.5 95.0 93.csemag. it’s inevitable that VFD standards will eventually be developed similar to those currently in place for induction motors. the elimination of the mechanical speed reduction mechanism also dramatically improves the overall efficiency of the design.7 15.7 89. motors for energy efficiency n Control it so it performs only the amount of work needed and no more. exemplifies where this type of motor shines. the PMAC rotor substitutes strong rare-earth magnets affixed to the steel laminations.VFDs. there have been diminishing returns with the release of every new . However.0 91.5 91.0 86. Dept. at some point it may not be economically justifiable per the EPCA 3-year payback criteria without some type of significant technological innovation.3 92.0 92.

an AFUE of 95% and turn down ratios up to 15:1. input #15 at www. The new NHB boiler series is the next in line of innovations from Navien.Navien innovation. Reinvent your thinking about boilers at BoilersMadeSmart.csemag. Now available in four sizes: NHB-55. NHB-110 and NHB-150. Now available in a T H E L E A D E R I N C O N D E N S I N G T E C H N O L O G Y .com or Navien. Navien has already reinvented the water heating industry with the award-winning NPE tankless water heaters and the NCB combi-boilers. All NHB boilers have Navien’s advanced burner system. Introducing the Navien NHB condensing boilers As the leader in condensing technology.

However. mission critical data centers. you should be able to precisely govern motor speed and torque (i. So while the rotor is creating torque aligning with a particular stator winding. when the motor is started. Also.VFDs. Going back to the earlier discussion of the types of losses in an induction motor. Another caution is that as a motor spins down without input power. in this type of application it is common for multiple small fan motors to be connected to a single VFD. air over (TEAO) fan motors in a 6x12 array rated for 50.000 cfm. act as a generator that causes “back electromotive force (EMF). motors for energy efficiency Figure 3: Harmonic current mitigation is typically accomplished with line reactors or 12-pulse rectifiers.e. and it can be both a blessing and a curse. a PMAC motor requires a VFD to control the input current to the motor stator windings. the other windings will not contribute the 42 same magnitude of useful torque. as the rotating electromagnetic field in the stator builds. tenant build-outs. If you know rotor speed. it may be insufficient to overcome the permanent magnets’ attraction to the stator’s steel structure without jerking. His project experience covers a broad spectrum. However. In fact. One important consideration with PMAC motors is that because of the presence of the permanent magnets in the rotor. More or less eliminating the I 2R rotor losses by use of permanent magnets dramatically reduces the overall losses. and industrial . motor. including high-rise building infrastructure renewal programs. This is the internal view of a 12-pulse rectifier with the 30-deg phase shift transformer typical of this type of design clearly visible in the lower lefthand corner. this means that a PMAC motor is not self-staring—it is impossible to start it with a standard across-the-line starter.. it can give you an indication of rotor speed without the need for a shaft encoder. This concept is Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 Figure 4: This photo shows a “fanwall” air handler with 6 hp totally enclosed. the voltage that is generated will continue to increase and limit the maximum theoretical speed of the motor. the voltage generated will increase and oppose the external voltage being applied to the stator. each fan was provided with a dedicated VFD. magnets can also make it very hard to start the motor and. www. with faster speeds. known as back EMF. This is a doubled-edge sword in that the strength of the rotor’s magnetic field remains constant regardless of the speed of the motor. Controlling a PMAC motor can be tricky. The magnets in the rotor will readily align in one position and resist it in others. Because the back EMF is proportional to speed.” which we will discuss later. I2R losses are the greatest. the voltage generated will energize the motor terminal and potentially cause a shock hazard.csemag. Note the cooling fans in the side of the enclosure with generous room to allow for proper heat dissipation. By extension. While there are still I2R losses associated with the stator windings for a PMAC motor. if you can somehow measure it. the stator’s rotating magnetic field interacts directly with magnets in the rotor so there are negligible I2R (heat) losses associated with the induced current in the rotor. In this particular application. once moving. However. John Yoon is the senior staff electrical engineer for McGuire Engineers. As such. As the rotor turns faster. the motor will act as an electrical generator. GMP laboratories. The solution is to momentarily “turn off” that winding when the relative rotor position will create negative torque. the torque contributed by that winding can become negative and fight the forward rotation of the motor. sensorless vector control). depending on the location of the rotor rotation angle in relationship to a particular winding. He has 20 years of experience in the design of electrical distribution systems.

input #16 at

Seismic design

of fire suppression piping systems
Fire protection engineers should use the guidance of NFPA 13 when
designing fire suppression piping in nonresidential buildings.
BY JOSEPH H. TALBERT, PE, ARM, Aon Fire Protection Engineering, Lincolnshire, Ill.

Learn about NFPA 13 and
other relevant codes, which
discuss seismic design of fire
suppression systems. 
Understand the combination of flexibility and rigidity
to protect the fire suppression
Learn about the calculation
procedure using the “zone
of influence” concept to
determine the location and
strength of lateral, longitudinal, and four-way sway
braces for fire suppression
system piping.



he subject of seismic design
of fire suppression systems
has been incorporated in
NFPA Standard 13: Standard
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems since 1947. The design
guidance contained in NFPA 13 for seismic bracing of sprinkler piping has also
been adopted by NFPA 14: Standard for
the Installation of Standpipe and Hose;
NFPA 15: Standard for the Installation
of Water Spray Fixed Fire Protection
Systems; NFPA 20: Standard for the
Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire
Protection; and NFPA 2001: Standard
for the Installation of Clean Agent Fire
Suppression Systems.
The design guidance has evolved since
the earlier versions of the standard. The
most notable updates were made based
on lessons learned in the San Fernando,
Calif., earthquake in 1971; the Loma
Prieta, Calif., earthquake in 1989, and the
Northridge, Calif., earthquake in 1994. A
study performed by the Pacific Fire Rating Bureau (PFRB) of 973 sprinklered
buildings involved in the San Fernando
earthquake led the PFRB to conclude that
“if a sprinklered building fared well, so
did the sprinkler system.”
The knowledge gained from previous seismic events has led to continuous modifications to the NFPA 13 design
guidance for sprinkler systems. These
modifications have been aimed at avoiding significant damage to sprinkler systems and permitting sprinkler systems

Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015

to remain functional following an earthquake. The seismic design provisions
contained in the 2010 edition of NFPA
13 have been coordinated with the provisions of the National Earthquake Hazard
Reduction Program (NEHRP) and SEI/
ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures.
NFPA 13 Chapter 9.3, Protection of
Piping Against Damage Where Subject
to Earthquakes, sets out the requirements
for seismic bracing and restraints of
sprinkler systems. It is important to note
that although this chapter gives guidance
for how a system should be designed, it
does not specify the geographic locations
where seismic design must be incorporated into a sprinkler system design. This is
done by other documents, typically local
building codes.
In the past, only sprinkler systems
located in areas that were perceived to be
subject to high frequencies of damaging
earthquakes (typically in California) were
designed to resist damage due to seismic
events. However, the International Building Code (IBC) has now published maps
that give guidance regarding the maximum
predicted peak ground acceleration due to
earthquakes. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publishes maps of the
United States that show the areas with a
2% probability of exceedance of the peak
ground acceleration in a 50-year period
(see Figure 1). Such a map indicates that
there are areas in the central and eastern
United States in which the peak ground

Figure 1: The map shows the
2% probability that the peak
ground acceleration predicted
to occur due to earthquakes
in the area shown will exceed
the peak ground acceleration
indicated during a 50-year
period. Note that the area in
the vicinity of southeastern
Missouri and western Tennessee and an area in South
Carolina have predicted peak
ground accelerations of 0.8
g, which are similar to that
predicted in the vicinity of
San Francisco. Courtesy: U.S.
Geological Survey

acceleration expected is similar to areas
in California, which are considered to be
high earthquake hazard areas.
Design guidance

NFPA 13-2013 edition sets forth
design guidance. Section allows
the use of alternative methods of providing earthquake protection of sprinkler
systems based on a seismic analysis certified by a registered professional engineer such that system performance will
be at least equal to that of the building
structure under expected seismic forces.

To provide the necessary combination
of flexibility and rigidity to protect the
piping, NFPA 13 stipulates the following
design guidance: 

Install seismic separation assemblies
where the sprinkler system crosses
building seismic separation joints at
ground level and above. 

Provide clearance where needed. 

Install sway braces designed with
sufficient strength to withstand the
anticipated forces caused by the
horizontal movement. 

Install longitudinal and lateral
sway bracing at prescribed intervals on the piping system to provide support against horizontal
movement caused by ground

To provide the necessary combination of flexibility
and rigidity to protect the piping, NFPA 13
stipulates design a variety of guidance.
Appendix A Section A.9.3.1 states the
goal of the design guidance in NFPA 13:
“Sprinkler systems are protected against
earthquake damage by means of the following: (1) Stresses that would develop in the
piping due to differential building movement
are minimized through the use of flexible
joints or clearances. (2) Bracing is used to
keep the piping fairly rigid when supported
from a building component expected to
move as a unit, such as a ceiling.” 

Install flexible couplings at certain
locations to allow for movement
where it is expected to occur. 
Install four-way (combined longitudinal
and lateral) bracing at the top of risers
serving sprinkler systems. This requirement does not apply to riser nipples,
which supply branch lines or sprigs up
from branch lines to serve individual
sprinklers at a higher elevation. 

Restrain branch lines against vertical movement. It should be noted
that “restraint” is considered to be
required to resist a lesser degree of
loads than “bracing.” “Restraint” of
branch lines against vertical movement is a relatively recent addition
to the standard, and was added after
the performance of sprinkler systems
in the Loma Prieta and Northridge,
Calif., earthquakes was evaluated. 
Install restraints on C-type clamps so
that they will not slip off a building
structural member due to horizontal

Where passing through platforms,
foundations, walls, or floors, sprinkler
pipe from 1- to 3.5-in. in diameter is
required to have clearances provided by

Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015


Fire suppression piping design
holes that are 2 in. greater in diameter
than the pipes. Where passing through
platforms, foundations, walls, or floors,
sprinkler pipe from 4 in. and larger in
diameter is required to have clearances
provided by holes that are 4 in. greater
in diameter than the pipes.
This minimum clearance will also be
required where pipe sleeves are used
where the piping passes through these
Clearance is not required for piping
passing through frangible construction
such as gypsum board walls or ceilings if those walls or ceilings are not
required to have a fire resistance rating.
The rationale for the lack of clearance in
this case is that the frangible construction does not have sufficient strength to
interfere with the movement of the pipe,
and although the frangible construction
will be damaged, the piping will not. If
the frangible construction is part of a fire
resistant barrier, then the damage to the
fire barrier cannot be accepted because
it would compromise the fire protection
scheme for the building and clearance
must be provided. This is a common
issue where sprinklers from a piping

system above a ceiling penetrate a gypsum board ceiling to provide sprinkler
coverage below the ceiling.
Longitudinal and lateral sway bracing

The purpose of longitudinal sway
bracing is to counteract forces that are
parallel to the direction of piping; lateral sway bracing counteracts forces that
are perpendicular to the direction of the
piping. The sway bracing is intended to
prevent excessive movement of the system piping.
With some exceptions, bracing is
required at: 
The top of the system riser 
System feed mains and cross mains,
regardless of size 
On branch lines 2.5 in. in diameter
and larger (lateral bracing only).
Per NFPA 13, longitudinal sway braces
are required to be located on feed mains
and cross mains, spaced at a maximum
of 80 ft on center. They may be required
to be spaced closer together depending
on the sway bracing calculations.
Per NFPA 13, the

Figure 2: The graphic shows a simplified automatic sprinkler
system piping system for illustration purposes. Courtesy: Aon
Fire Protection Engineering


Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015

distance between the last brace and the
end of the pipe is not allowed to exceed
40 ft.
Per NFPA 13, lateral sway braces are
required to be located on feed mains,
cross mains, and branch lines 2.5 in.
in diameter or larger, spaced at a maximum of 40 ft on center. The last lateral
brace is required to be within 6 ft of the
end of the pipe.
Zone of influence load calculation

The design of sway bracing is typically performed using a technique
referred to as the “zone of influence.” This is the portion of the system that the brace is intended to protect against movement. This “zone
of influence” is the piping served by
the brace to the point at which the
next brace will take over resistance
to movement. In practice, the zone of
influence of each of the two braces
will generally extend to the midpoint
between the braces.
Figure 2 shows a simplified sprinkler
system piping configuration. Figure 3
shows a typical location of lateral, longitudinal, and four-way braces that meet
the requirements of NFPA 13. Figure 4
shows a simplified example of the “zone
of influence” concept.

Figure 3: This shows possible locations of lateral, longitudinal, and four-way braces. Courtesy: Aon Fire Protection

33 or less has a Cp coefficient of 0. longitudinal.15 to reflect fittings and valves 1.15 is the load in the “zone of influence. Courtesy: Aon Fire Protection Engineering map and the tool will indicate the SS factor that is applicable to that site. Fpw = CpWp The coefficient of acceleration (Cp) used in the calculation procedure is assumed to be C p = 0. additional braces would be required to reduce the “zone of influence” to a smaller size.900 lbs.3.3)] Diameter (in.5 Multiply by 1.3.csemag. The total weight of all segments of pipe filled with water added together and multiplied by 1.15 to account for valves and fittings on the pipe multiplied by the seismic coefficient.9.032 lbs. the design of the brace meets this requirement.35 322. This ground motion parameter has been developed by the USGS based on research of previous earthquake events and modeling techniques. and four-way braces.03 0.) Type Length (ft) Total (ft) Weight per ft Cp Total weight (lbs) 2 Schedule 40 40+40+40+40+ 40+40+40+40 320 5.” The horizontal force (Fpw) acting on the brace is calculated by multiplying the seismic coefficient (C p) by the weight (W p) calculated following the equation below.5. Each brace is sized by using a similar calculation procedure to verify that it is properly sized.5. Based on Table 9. therefore.9 in NFPA 13 (2013 edition).5.9. The load that must be counteracted by the brace is calculated by adding the weight of all piping filled with water. Table 9.5 unless specified to be a lower value by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) or a lower or higher value is derived from the ground motion parameter (SS) at the site. the bracing assembly is required to counteract a horizontal load of 1.5. the maximum load (Fpw). which may be taken from tables such as Table A.9.3. The sprinkler system load calculated above is within this limit. If the maximum load exceeded the Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 47 .3 in NFPA 13.2(a) from NFPA 13. a ground motion parameter value of 0.032 Table 1: This sample sprinkler system load calculation has been developed by Aon Fire Protection Engineering to demonstrate the “zone of influence” concept for determining the force required to be resisted by the lateral brace 2 in Figure 4. Aon Fire Protection Engineering’s office has an SS factor of 0.The load that sway bracing must counteract in a brace’s “zone of influence” is the total weight of pipe in the zone filled with water multiplied by 1.5 Subtotal 897.13 0. Using the example in Figure 4. Based on this example. Table 1: Sample sprinkler system load calculation Sprinkler system load calculation [Fpw = CpWp (Cp is 0. This website offers a tool that enables the user to select a site on an interactive Figure 4: The figure shows the zone of influence to be considered in the design of the lateral.3.35. is 1. Courtesy: Aon Fire Protection Engineering www.125 g. Based on Table 9. For example. schedule 10 steel pipe with lateral bracing spaced 40 ft on center. the horizontal load that is required to be counteracted by lateral brace 2 would be calculated as shown in Table 1.5.35 575 6 Schedule 10 5+10+10+10+5 40 23. The values of SS are available on the USGS website.35 per NFPA 13. which is allowed in the zone of influence for a 6-in.032 Total 1.

As an example.1 in NFPA 13 lists the maximum loads for various types of fasteners to structures.3. because the assembly is resisting the horizontal load. The entire assembly must be designed to resist the load anticipated. the assemblies are required to be listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for a maximum load rating.12. diameter unfinished steel bolt installed perpendicular to a steel mounting surface with the brace installed at an angle of 30 to 44 deg from the vertical can be used for a maximum load of 1. For example. with or without Figure 5: The shows the pipes above the fire pump at a Navy Bachelor Enlisted Quarters project in Coronado.25-in. Manufacturers of braces should be consulted to verify that the brace attachments have sufficient strength for the maximum load that will be encountered. the assembly can resist a maximum load of only 800 lbs. Courtesy: Aon Fire Protection Engineering 48 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 www. In addition. the ability of the brace to resist horizontal load is dependent on the angle at which the brace is installed. Figure 9. and city bypass pipe with longitudinal and lateral braces attached to the wall. and the strength of the assembly is no greater than the strength of the weakest portion of the assembly.7 (b).254 lbs. their size.5. The project contains: 4-in.000 lbs. and the fastener can resist a maximum load of 800 lbs. the brace attachments can resist a maximum load of 1. Tables 9. if the brace can resist a maximum load of 900 . the brace fittings (which attach the brace to the pipe and to the structural member).3. (b) and (c) contained in NFPA 13 give values for the loads that braces can withstand based upon their type.8(a). San Diego. and the fastener. per Table 9. The figure indicates that a 0.3. sprinkler system riser with four-way brace attached to the wall. C-type clamps.csemag. schedule 40 pipe up to 9 ft long installed at an angle of 30 to 44 deg from the vertical could be used as a sway brace for a maximum horizontal load of up to 1.Fire suppression piping design Design of the brace assembly The brace assembly consists of the sway brace.5-in. including the beam and large flange clamps. a 1.8. Where sway bracing assemblies are used.11.5. their length to radius of gyration (l/r) ratio.5.600 lbs. flowmeter pipe with longitudinal and lateral braces attached to the wall. and the brace angle.

The best line of bypass/isolation switches offers a choice in bypass operation Most bypass switch manufacturers offer switches with no-load-break bypass operation.russelectric. Don’t let a switch manufacturer make your choice of bypass operation for you. however.csemag. offers a full line of switches in a choice of no-load-break bypass operation (for bypass without load interruption) or load-break bypass operation (for fast.. foolproof bypassing — regardless of the condition or position of the ATS). Insist on Russelectric. input #17 at Made in USA www. Only 1-800-225-5250 An Employee-Owned Company An Equal Oppor tunity Employer .

retail shops and mixed-use facilities. 12 440-lb wire installed at least 45 deg from the vertical plane and anchored Innovative Flow and Energy Measurement NEW from ONICON System-40 BTU Measurement System The System-40 BTU Measurement System provides highly accurate and reliable thermal energy measurement in heating and cooling systems. C-type clamps are required to be equipped with a restraining strap. Powder-driven fasteners are not permitted to be used to attach braces to the building structure unless they have been specifically listed for service in resisting lateral loads in areas subject to earthquakes. According to NFPA 13 Section 9. Future codes and requirements In previous years. This can be achieved by a listed sway brace assembly. the design of fire suppression systems to counteract seismic forces has been primarily confined to areas that have had serious earthquakes in the past. However.Fire suppression piping design restraining clamps.onicon.6. Because of this evolution. notably in California. design professionals who specify fire suppression systems in areas that have not traditionally been considered to be .com • USA • Tel +1 (727) 447-6140 on both sides of the pipe. Restraint of branch lines and hangers Branch lines are required to be restrained to resist vertical movement. or other approved means. Where seismic protection is provided. The System-40 also includes a BACnet MS/TP interface and ® ½” . ultrasonic flow sensor with excellent accuracy and turndown • Precision matched platinum RTDs for accurate temperature measurement • Native BACnet ® MS/TP • EN1434 compliant input #18 at www. additional restraint is not required for these branch lines. the 2-in. in length from the top of the pipe to the point of attachment to the building structure.6. steel branch lines have a maximum spacing of 53 ft between restraints. Sprigs up to supply sprinklers that are 4 ft or longer are required to be restrained against lateral movement. No.csemag. the seismic coefficient (Cp). based on NFPA 13 Table 9. Its compact. a hanger not less than 45 deg from vertical installed within 6 in. rods less than 6 in. C-type clamps are required to be equipped with a restraining strap or the strap is required to be through-bolted or secured by a self-tapping screw.3. For the example indicated • sales@onicon. the building codes have evolved to recognize that there are many areas in the United States outside of California that may also be subject to damaging earthquakes. This is to ensure that the C-type clamp does not slip off the beam due to horizontal movement of the pipe.2” sizes available 3 auxiliary pulse inputs that simplify network connectivity for utility metering in the tenant space. Features include: • No-moving-parts design. and the type of pipe. a wrap-around Contact ONICON or your local representative for more details. no-moving-parts design and low cost make it ideal for sub-metering heating and cooling costs in condominiums. where the branch lines are supported by Where seismic protection is provided.4(a). are not permitted to be used to attach braces to the building structure. The spacing of these restraints varies based on the pipe size.5. www. of the vertical hanger arranged for restraint against upward movement.

input #19 at .csemag.

including the design of sway bracing to resist seismic loads. This guidance includes: n Clearance where needed to ensure that the piping is not damaged by building movement n Longitudinal and lateral sway bracing at prescribed intervals on the piping system to provide support against horizontal movement ING TRODUC IN AVOID HIGH PRESSURE. The design guidance is subject to change as improved design methods are developed. Centrally-Located Cylinder Banks. www. 42’6”x 42’6” and highest nozzle placement. n Flexible couplings to allow for movement where it is expected to occur Kidde ADS ® ™ ADS ADVANCED DELIVERY Clean Agent Fire Suppression System with 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fluid Extra Nitrogen Gives You More Coverage with Reduced Installation Costs. This results in the best coverage. 52 Consulting-Specifying Engineer . and risk management. The design of sprinkler system piping in an area where seismic activity is such that a local building code or the AHJ requires that the system be designed to resist horizontal movement due to an earthquake can be achieved by following the design guidance contained in NFPA 13. There are a number of proposals currently under consideration that may affect the design of sway bracing if they are adopted. The drawings that are submitted may be required to provide sway bracing to resist seismic 3M™ and Novec™ are trademarks of 3M. building and fire code consulting. 18’ 6”.csemag. Cylinders can be stored more than 200 feet from the protected space. This gives you the flexibility to protect multiple hazards from a single cylinder bank location. His expertise includes fire suppression system design.3.kiddefiresystems. fire alarm and fire detection system design. It may then be the responsibility of the specifying engineer to ensure that the submitted plans meet the requirements of NFPA 13. Design guidance is contained in NFPA 13 Chapter 9. is a project manager at Aon Fire Protection Engineering. placement in or near the hazard area allows the smallest possible pipe diameter. Talbert. GO WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE. thereby lowering your piping costs. Smallest Pipe Diameter. input #20 at www.GO THE DISTANCE Piping design subject to earthquakes may now have to be aware of the seismic design requirements contained in NFPA n Four-way (combined longitudinal and lateral) bracing at the top of risers n Seismic separation assemblies where the sprinkler system crosses building seismic separation joints at ground level and above n Sway braces designed with sufficient strength to withstand the anticipated forces caused by horizontal movement n Branch lines restrained against vertical movement n Hangers designed with restraints to ensure that the hangers do not slip off the building structural member to which they are attached. Joseph H. If space is not a restriction. It is common for specifying engineers to specify that a sprinkler system meet the requirements of NFPA 13 and then to review the submitted drawings. ARM. NFPA 13 is currently in the public comment period for revisions to the standard that will be voted upon by the association for incorporation into the 2016 edition of the standard. PE.

Models are available to handle volumes from 24. hospitals and high-volume R&D facilities. VEKTOR ® SYSTEMS FEATURES • High-plume dispersal • AMCA certifications for Air.359.6171 greenheck. All Vektor system components are manufactured and tested by Greenheck.000 to 120.NEW! Vektor ®-MH Vektor ®-H High Plume Vektor ®-CD Vektor ®-HS Vektor ®-MS High Plume Variable Geometry Nozzle High Plume Dilution Vektor ®-MD with ERS Unit growing family Lab air exhaust systems for every application.csemag. wg). neighborhood and building make-up air systems. and energy recovery.000 cfm. or demand-based exhaust high plume dilution. high-plume and high-plume dilution rooftop laboratory exhaust systems remove fumes and expel them away from roof. Sound and Air or Induced Flow Fan Air and Sound • Self-contained design BENEFITS • Safety and comfort inside and outside the facility • Quiet operation and energy efficiency • Easy installation and maintenance APPLICATIONS © 2014 Greenheck • High schools and universities • Hospitals • Pharmaceutical/Biotech • Research facilities input #21 at Greenheck Vektor® self-enclosed. There are Vektor systems for virtually any need — small high school labs. Learn more from your Greenheck representative or at greenheck. with variable-volume operation (up to 38.500 cfm. constant volume and variable volume. universities. 8 in. ensuring the highest quality and Fans & Ventilators | Centrifugal & Vane Axial Fans | Energy Recovery Ventilators Packaged Ventilation Systems | Make-up Air Units | Kitchen Ventilation Systems Dampers | Louvers | Lab Exhaust Systems | Coils 715. The new Vektor-MS fills a costperformance Vektor-H Vektor-MS Vektor-MH Vektor-HS Vektor-MD Vektor-CD . allowing larger building turndowns for greater energy savings (up to 50% savings).

Emerson Network Power and the Emerson Network Power logo are trademarks and service marks of Emerson Electric Co. variable load matching and Emerson. ©2015 Emerson Electric Co. Consider it Solved.05 WITHOUT WATER OR OUTSIDE AIR THAT’S THE CRITICAL DIFFERENCE. There is no need for water or outside air and their required cost and maintenance. In addition.csemag. Emerson Network Power’s Thermal Management solutions help make your data center as dynamic as your business. Liebert® DSE™ Thermal Management system is up to 70% more efficient than alternative technologies The Liebert DSE uses pumped refrigerant technology to minimize mechanical cooling. Learn more about the Liebert DSE’s innovative design in our special video at EmersonNetworkPower.DESIGN A THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THAT ACHIEVES A PUE AS LOW AS 1. self-optimizing controls.. All rights reserved. As outdoor temperatures fall. and pumps refrigerant for highly efficient and reliable cooling. the system automatically turns off compressors. .com/LiebertDSEvideo input #22 at www. modular installation make the Liebert DSE one of the most efficient and reliable thermal management systems in the world.

com/digitaledition today www. DSc Go to www. GRAHAM ALLAN. PE DE-5 Where do ideas come from? Ask some basic questions to generate new Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 55 .com/digitaledition for exclusive content and for technical features from past issues.csemag. This discussion includes an overview of lighting control options along with best practices for lighting designers and electrical engineers in working with their clients. functional testing.csemag. and submittals in their lighting designs.1 requires lighting professionals to include power allowances. LIGHTING CONTROLS: DE-1 Best practices begins with a strategy ASHRAE Standard 90.Digital Edition Exclusive Content Visit www. ERIC KAMIN. daylighting controls.csemag.

or data center will have different functional requirements and goals than a general office building or an educational facility. correctional facility. and submittals in their lighting designs. allowing for less use when new lights are more intense. Omaha. DLR Group.1-2013 or IECC . What are the client’s energy goals? The facility owner’s energy goals and municipal code directives will mandate specific lighting control requirements www.  Identify how human factors impact lighting outcomes and energy strategies. with the primary code used being equivalent to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 or International Energy Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 Conservation Code (IECC) 2009. Many more states are moving toward adoption of ASHRAE Standard 90. levels of importance for lighting controls will vary between the type of facility as well as the individual spaces within each facility.Lighting controls: Best practices begins with a strategy ASHRAE Standard 90. How will the facility be used? The type of facility and how it will be used will determine a general direction for the lighting controls. a large cafeteria space requires different controls than a corridor or classroom.csemag. and increasing light output as lamps lose intensity toward the end of life. For example.  Identify best practices for lighting designers to work with clients in making smart lighting decisions. This automated approach contributes to a net zero or near net zero building design by adjusting the artificial lighting output to ensure the room is not overlit. So. BY ERIC KAMIN. daylighting controls. many options fit within those guidelines. Neb. Almost all states have adopted an energy code. Best lighting control practices begin with determining a lighting control strategy. PE. coupled with lamp technology.1 requires lighting professionals to include power allowances. A critical part of successful energysaving lighting control design is occupant education—making sure the occupants understand how their lights are controlled and how they can best use the designed system. 2. thus saving energy and money. DE-1 L ighting controls. functional testing. have evolved toward more automated design and away from reliance on human intervention with the goal of saving energy. Although there are specific codes and standards. Learning objectives  Learn how to create a lighting control strategy through client inquiry. a 24/7 mission critical facility such as a hospital. The following five questions can assist in the decision-making process for clients and engineers: 1. This also may include recommendations for users to schedule regular adjustments to the light output over the life of the lamp. This discussion includes an overview of lighting control options along with best practices for lighting designers and electrical engineers in working with their clients. For example.

CHALLENGE: Design of a light-filled. storage rooms. which is a 35% improvement. also reduced glare of direct lighting. Lighting to 50% is always on. Omaha. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 DE-2 . All graphics courtesy: DLR Group that.2. whether it is a new facility or an existing facility.csemag. If an end user does not have a tech-savvy facility management team. 250. in turn. What are the safety and emergency requirements? Lighting controls that consider maintaining safety during power outages while saving energy is www. daylighting not only dramatically impacts the need for lamp solutions..000-sq-ft rehabilitation hospital. energy rebates requirements. giving the space a softer light with heavy reliance on daylighting. 110-bed. compared to the code maximum of 1. What type of user will operate the facility? The level of complexity of a system.78 W/sq ft. will inform potential decisions with respect to a lighting control strategy. Such considerations may include meeting a net zero challenge. or if individual spaces will be controlled independent of one another. Neb. Manual daylight zone control. and cost of installation and maintenance. it might be in its best interests to keep the system as simple as possible with individual room controls.1-2007. Neb. Figure 2: Indirect lighting in this space at the Madonna Rehabilitation Hospital in Lincoln. Davis Middle School. which requires and is dependent on direct access to natural light to nurture a healing environment. can determine if a central lighting control system is affordable and preferred. but also offers expansive views for student enjoyment. 4. work rooms. facility owner standard or preference. although controlled by a relay if future adjustment of the control scheme is desired. in a manual on and auto off configuration. restrooms.Figure 1: In public gathering areas of Alfonza W. etc. such as standalone occupancy sensors and manual switches for daylight controls.  Rehabilitation gymnasiums: Relay control for automatic-off control of lighting after hours.  Occupancy sensors.. with manual control of the additional 50% output at the nurses’ stations.  Patient rooms: Individual room controller with combination of 0 to 10 V dimming and switched lighting loads.  The lighting controls were designed around ASHRAE Standard 90.  Corridors: Bi-level switching throughout all corridors. a Watt/sq ft requirement. and low-voltage switches with the room broken up into multiple zones to allow for some lights to remain off if the entire gym is not in use. as well as the sophistication level of the users. SOLUTIONS:  The lighting power density was 0. were used in Madonna Rehabilitation Hospital. Neb. 3. Lincoln.

which prevents required egress lighting from being shut off inadvertently. and all other non-emergency or non-security exterior lighting must be reduced by a minimum of 30% between midnight and 6 a. depending on the size and arrangement of the individual daylighting zone (sidelight or skylight). Exterior façade and landscape fixtures must be shut off at a certain time during the night. and a manual-on.000 sq ft. which also serves as a commons area. or if the space is larger than 10. With corridor lighting controlled by a relay panel. a time clock turns lights off at the end of the normal day. n Occupancy sensors should be used in a manual on/automatic off configuration.1-2007. Best practices Several strategies. and commons areas to deliver daylighting into the central parts of the building to minimize artificial lighting. SolutionS: n The lighting power density was 0. with a maximum delay of 30 minutes. Programming includes a programmed time off function with override to on at entry points to the building. occupants do not consider turning lights off when they leave the room because the occupancy sensor will accomplish that task for them. inherently incorporating nightlighting into the lighting control scheme. Occupancy sensors can aid in this aspect by turning lights on when someone is moving through the building. the more likely they are to turn lights off when they leave a room. compared to the code maximum of 1. music. This inherently incorporates emergency egress lighting into the lighting control scheme. which is a 20% improvement.500 sq ft.1-2010 Minimum compliant lighting controls consist of a combination of manual. n Either manual or automatic daylight harvesting controls are required (according to ASHRAE . with switches in strategic locations. n Most interior spaces in buildings greater than 5000 sq ft also require a means for turning the lights off automatically when the space is unoccupied. automatic-off lighting control scheme. Are safety and budget issues in balance? Sometimes. which would turn on the lights to an acceptable level for use during normal times and/or when daylight contribution is prevalent. or occupancy sensing devices: n All interior spaces require manual control to allow occupants the ability to turn the lights off as conditions allow. If the facility is used after-hours. For example. when possible.csemag. thus leaving the lights on in an empty room for the time setting of the occupancy sensor. n The building was designed with vertical windows high up in walls of the breakout spaces. 5. Iowa Challenge: Recoup a portion of construction cost through utility incentive rebates. Night-lighting is often used to deter vandalism or breaking into and entering a building. In these instances. n Lighting controls in the gym. n The lighting controls were designed around ASHRAE 90. Too often. Automatic off controls can be accomplished in several ways. fitness. the drive to save energy eliminates night-lighting strategies to illuminate the interior of buildings for security purposes. An individual control device can control a maximum of 2. Daylight dimming controls with occupancy sensor override were used for the cafeteria area.98 W/sq ft. with little additional cost. n The design team worked with an outside energy consulting firm as part of a local electrical utility incentives program to estimate the payback based on various energy measures and incentives. The more people are used to turning lights on with a switch. low-voltage switches can be locked out when the building is occupied. Mounted fixtures are designed to turn on at dusk and off at dawn. This level could be 33% or 66% if using a traditional design of 3-lamp troffers. with separate control for front of classroom versus general classroom lighting. a single switch could be located near the entry door.m.000 sq ft. allowing corridor lighting to be manually turned on and off as needed. n Classrooms include both occupancy sensor controls and bilevel switching in all fixtures. n Exterior site lighting consists of LED pole fixtures in the parking lot with integral dual drivers capable of reducing 50% lighting output for each fixture. time clock. Minimum controls for ASHRAE 90.1-2010 code minimum requirement. the area it can control increases to 10.2. which is now an ASHRAE Standard 90. www. corridors. Most spaces also must provide stepped control in the space to allow for multiple lighting levels. when an occupancy sensor is used as a means to automatically turn lights on. in a classroom.Lighting controls best practices another consideration. Carson. Riverside High School. and other larger occupancy rooms are based on bi-level manual lighting reduction and overall occupancy sensor override control. an emergency relay device is required to turn on controlled lighting during an outage to comply with codes and standards. or outside of business operating hours.1-2007 and IECC 2009). n Exterior lighting controls must prevent lighting from being on during daylight hours. Occupancy sensors turn lights off once the space is unoccupied. For example. can be explored to increase savings over minimum compliant controls: n Consider multi-level lighting. DE-3 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 n Central corridors and general occupancy rooms/areas are controlled via a series of networked programmable relay panels in various electrical rooms located throughout the facility. Design should accommodate the changing occupancy loads through the day. the switch could function normally.

and sports lighting design. However. which greatly lengthens their return on investment. In an office environment. Bi-level switching allows for multiple uniform light levels that can be selected according to task. However.. work together to create the most cost-effective use of lights for a high-performance outcome. These could be addressed individually or in groups. not all building owners can afford these control strategies. security systems. interior and exterior lighting design. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 DE-4 . Davis Middle School. in an automatic-on and automatic-off configuration. Providing owner training on what control schemes were provided. and how to maximize energy savings is of critical importance. SOLUTIONS:  The lighting power density was 0. with separate control for front of classroom versus general classroom lighting. which is a 24% improvement. Neb. Eric Kamin is a principal leader in DLR Group’s electrical engineering practice. the intent should be automation and task-based intervention when appropriate. Either way.  For spaces with audio-video systems. mechanical. low-voltage switches with the room broken up into multiple zones to allow for some lights to remain off if the entire gym is not in use. etc. When appropriate. Occupants tend to avoid manually raising and lowering the shades. The natural action for many people when entering a space is to turn all switches on at the bank of switches near the door. how occupants can adjust the lighting lev- els in their space.  Gymnasium: Relay control for automatic-off. compared to the code maximum of 1. Davis Middle School. Additional switches could be placed near the teacher’s desk for those times when more artificial light is required. recognizing there will be instances where both artificial lighting and human intervention are needed. voice and data cabling systems.  Corridors are controlled by relays with automatic-off via time of day. Under ideal conditions. He is skilled in developing specifications for primary and secondary power distribution. which could be as simple as a single projector and screen all the way to a sophisticated boardroom.Alfonza W. as well as movement toward meeting the Architecture 2030 challenge of net zero or near net zero buildings.  Occupancy sensors. Omaha. but the additional location requires the occupant to make a conscious decision to increase the amount of artificial light in the space. are used in Figure 3: The variety of lighting and daylighting options at Alfonza W. storage rooms. 185. standby power systems. CHALLENGE: Ensure maximum natural daylighting into a threelevel. However. and manual-on. maximum savings can be achieved because human intervention is not required.2. when lighting output is reduced automatically by properly commissioned lighting controls. Omaha. restrooms. use motorized shades as necessary to darken the room when the projector is used and to raise the shades when not in use. Neb. work rooms. educating building owners about the payback of more efficient lighting systems is difficult in some regions of the country due to low electricity rates. and instead leave them down.000-sq-ft. thus limiting the effectiveness of daylight contribution to the non-audiovideo lighting control schemes. carefully consider the task lighting at the desk and select fixtures that are flexible to accommodate varying ages of occupants with differing lighting needs. automatic-off lighting control scheme. Additionally.  Classrooms include both occupancy sensor controls and bi-level switching in all fixtures. The human factor Since the widespread adoption of ever more stringent energy codes. all spaces would contain ample natural daylight and automatic dimming controls to improve and reduce the lighting energy use in a facility. www. grade 6-8 middle school on an extremely sloped site.  Automatic daylight harvesting and bi-level switching controls were installed in the large cafeteria space and media center.csemag. the ultimate goal is to minimize artificial lighting and human intervention of controls. these strategies can provide additional savings:  Consider automatically dimmed fixtures for daylight zones and areas beyond (load shedding).  The lighting controls meet IECC 2009. an integrated design team can design systems that maximize energy savings by having a coordinated effort between architectural. and lighting control design.92 W/sq ft. lighting.  Attempt to reduce the amount of general illumination within a space and include task-based lighting as much as possible.

When GRAHAM ALLAN. ity. ative by making an effort to enhance our access to the creativity and idea production are being practiced. creativity locked up in every object encountered. But it By recognizing this. some of the mental connections in the brain ago and must have been misplaced millions of times. This can the box. music. be is why it is impossible to find a totally improved? noncreative person. There may be a box of of keys and defective ignition . some new cars can be started with a push-button activated by a transmitting device vate this process in the creative part of the mind. could the box be being more creative. By drawing upon and rearrangWhen will the design be changed? How ing such. science. A ll consulting and specifying stands for “Who What Why Where engineers know that the soluWhen and How” and is a very powertion to every problem starts ful tool. tion of many previous acts of creativity. Nonetheless. the existence of the box is the physical manifestaWhy have ignition keys? Who likes them? After all. even those engineers used as an educational tool? For kids or adults? For lanroutinely viewed as being less creative must have a guages. less. Currently. or the cereal within.2 More Minutes Where do ideas come from? Ask some basic questions to generate new ideas. It takes daily practice to enhance ingly easy to accomplish by the mental effort of imagfluency. By posing and answering these with an idea. there may be nothing apparently new in tating situation where that key has somehow been missuch encounters. or mathematics? large storage of bits and pieces of stuff accumulated It is not practical to spend the whole day analyzing the over the years. all the time. both good and Where is the cereal going marketwise? bad. some process must manufacture named the cereal in the box? What them in the mind. but now you will no longer ignore laid. So how can these great questions. Clearly. The appreciation of the accomplishments of othining that you are a fish swimming in a sea of creativers is also helpful. not all of these stored each perspective is considered sepaUNIVERSITY OF items are readily accessible. will be reinforced and expanded. For example. Nonethe. By recognizing ignition keys were invented more than half a century this fact. some engineers are able to retrieve from interaction with the collection of SEATTLE new combinations more fluently than past personal experiences stored in the others and are therefore regarded as mind. new concepts emerge. at the breakfast table. a host of new ideas will emerge WASHINGTON. But from what? For else could be on the box? Why is the each person the brain is a storehouse shape of the cereal so often flakes? of lifetime experiences. from six different viewpoints. each mind is Asking these six questions means already packed with previous observathat the box is now being looked at tions that can be used. with the advent Using the mnemonic W5H for questions will help actiof wireless technology. It is treasure trove already within our minds. vehicle. you normally of fatal automobile accidents caused by the interaction do not exhibit overt creativity. General Motors is involved with a series them. Most also have experienced the occasional irriOf course. W5H DE-5 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 www. As you swim along. What could replace them? Nowadays.have used the W5H approach in looking at ignition keys.csemag. you continuously Every engineer is aware of the use of a key to start a encounter items that can trigger your creativity. which you probably ignore. DSC However. all of us can become more creis vital to realize that by simple routine observations. rately. This is surprislike learning the piano. For example. the cereal box will become starting ideas be generated? Obvia totally new and different entity. GM might well cereal on the table. Who ously.

Product and Media Showcase. When and Where did a good joke you heard. the creativity you observed the classic low-cost Sign up for Fire & Life Safety. HVAC. It can be an old-fashioned paper notebook or a modern electronic file. Newswatch: . eNewsletters: The wide array of eNewsletters gives engineers a way to stay on top of the latest news in a convenient and easy-to-read electronic format. D.. or even involved. Offering High-Value Content In-Print and Online Webcasts: Need some continuing education? Look no further than www. He has written more effective way to stimulate your own the driver’s pocket. Codes & Standards. and thousands of archived articles. But it must be updated every day. a new name for the NFL team located and federal authorities. be mislaid. and Newswatch: Data Centers. www. the When you’ve recorded creexpensive transmitter can still ativity notes for a year. The than 300 technical articles and book chapters. This is a wonderfully University of Washington in Seattle. codes and standards. lighting. How could a smarthave at least 300 entries in phone perform the wireless the diary. ideas to merit serious professional attention in the folTo avoid this very real problem. the employment of a lowing year.C. data centers— give engineers a great opportunity to learn about the latest industry practice while getting FREE CEU credits. Topics covering every vertical—critical power. there will be two or three Unfortunately. creativity diary is strongly recommended. fire and life safety. Every each night to write a note on engineering meeting or presenthat idea originate? Notwithstanding the obsolescence of tation needs a good laugh. a top-notch search engine that segments results by category. you’ll during the day. Subscribe today at www. Electrical Solutions. ideas can vanish as fast as they CSEmag. Supporting Engineers In-Person. Pure is a highly rated industry website with industry news updated throughout the day. If only 1% have any function so that a transmitter key is no longer required? potential long-range value.csemag. HVAC.csemag. and consults for both industry a new TV series. has been creative ideas noted can be about anything: an idea for awarded about 70 patents. It only takes a Graham Allan is a professor in the chemical engineering minute or so each night to write a note on the creativdepartment and in the college of the environment of the ity you observed during the day. No key It only takes a minute or so in Washington.

 Realize the importance of control system commissioning. Stand-alone occupancy sensors and timer switches were connected to lighting fixtures. BY ROBERT J. 56 L ighting is typically one of the largest energy loads in any building. Next came network-based lighting controls. occupancy sensors. The hardware is pretty much www. When properly implemented. acting as a “big brother” and turning the lights off if no occupancy was sensed for a certain length of time.Y. lighting designers and engineers can achieve energy performance in a variety of building types. The first revision of the simple on-off switch on the wall was the replacement of the switch with a dial or slider incandescent dimming switch. and engineers often just haven’t taken the time to learn about it. they provide the ability to effectively manage all of a building’s lighting from a single centralized location. the advanced lighting control system. The term “advanced lighting control system” may sound complicated. which controlled lighting zones by layering a time schedule over stand-alone controls and manual switches. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 The latest iteration. PE.  Learn the steps to design and implement a smart lighting system. fire safety. or when the time on the timer switch ran out. and security systems. But technology has become more effective at combating this human weakness.. This integration of smart systems enables effective management of all the building’s energy consumers to realize energy reduction and cost savings. these systems are user-friendly and easy to maintain. People turn lights on and forget to turn them off. and other control devices—or you are using a special type of this equipment. overriding the switches and the stand-alone controls. the first occupancy sensors hit the market. and they streamline physical maintenance and . This may be because the comprehensive nature of the system can seem complex and overwhelming. Grand Island. leverages the power of digitization and granularity. lamps. turning off all the lights in the building at a certain time.Intelligent lighting control and energy performance By designing intelligent lighting systems. bringing massive reductions in lighting loads. CDT. N. This innovation represented a tremendous improvement over the manual switch. but what it really means is that you are merely layering communication interfaces over common hardware that engineers have traditionally used and are already quite familiar with—ballasts. Despite the benefits. CannonDesign. Learning objectives  Understand the codes and standards that dictate lighting design. GARRA JR. but also with mechanical. Then. in the thick of the energy crisis of the late 1970s. Often designers don’t realize that familiarizing themselves with advanced lighting control systems can save them time and energy in the long run. many engineers don’t really understand advanced lighting control systems. and historically it has been the hardest to control. No longer were humans the sole determinant of whether the lights were on or off—now the machines also had a say. Software-based lighting control also allows sharing of data not only between components of the lighting control system. which saved electricity by allowing the user to select intermediate levels of illumination.

even in open offices. the system sets maximum lighting levels for particular tasks and uses in specific rooms.2010: Required in all spaces  Light level reduction . the same as it has been.1-2007. Unlike a typical occupancy sensor scheme. In individual workspaces. Green Building Council LEED Gold certification. using both time scheduling and occupancy control. the system sets maximum lighting levels for particular tasks and uses in specific rooms. This project was designed to exceed the energy code requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90. To maximize daylight harvesting. One major factor in achieving this superior performance is the building’s highly sophisticated lighting control system. in addition to turning off the lighting by either dimming or switching  Daylight zones . One major factor in achieving this superior performance is the building’s highly sophisticated lighting control system. In most spaces. With each new version.2007: Not a requirement . In the lab spaces. these six strategies significantly reduce the building’s electricity consumption and maximize efficiency. plus four additional strategies: daylight harvesting. disallowing user override. even in open offices. International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).S. personal control. control is granulated to each lab module with adjustable light levels based on task or occupancy. Figure 1: The energy performance of Coppin State University’s Science and Technology Center is 20% below the baseline for an equivalent code-compliant lab building. the system automatically dims lighting when daylight is available. occupancy sensors signal the central lighting control system to switch lights off 30 minutes after a space is vacated. In individual workspaces. let’s look at ASHRAE 90. using both time scheduling and occupancy control. Combined. To prevent overlighting.2007: Not a requirement . disallowing user override. energy codes are trending toward the ultimate goal of net-zero energy consumption. The system also helps modulate building-wide electrical loads by turning off lights in certain areas at times of peak demand. users are able to tailor lighting to their personal preferences.Six strategies give university a ‘lighting’ edge T he energy performance of Baltimore-based Coppin State University’s Science and Technology Center. the system automatically dims lighting when daylight is available. the system does not turn lights on—only off. and advanced lighting controls simply make it much easier to comply. This option allows faculty and students the most ideal light level for tasks without impacting others sharing the same area. is 20% below the baseline for an equivalent code-compliant lab building.2007: Any new or retrofit projects encompassing 50% or greater alteration of the connected lighting load . these six strategies significantly reduce the building’s electricity consumption and maximize efficiency. and load shedding. and load shedding. To prevent overlighting.2010: Any new or retrofit projects encompassing 10% or greater alteration of the connected lighting load  Automatic shutoff of lighting . task tuning. Each of the codes is updated every 3 years.1-2007. Combined. and California Title 24 are becoming more stringent. the real change and advancement is the software systems. Occupants manually activate lighting in each lighting zone via a low-voltage switch. personal control.2010: Lighting must be wired to allow for a power reduction of 30% to 70%. users are able to tailor lighting to their personal preferences. plus four additional strategies: daylight harvesting.csemag.1.1-2007 versus 2010 for some highlights:  Threshold for compliance . www.000 sq ft . task tuning.2007: Required in buildings greater than 5. which is pending U. and the biggest changes are that the thresholds for triggering compliance are revised to encompass more As an example. The system also helps modulate building-wide electrical loads by reducing light levels in certain areas at times of peak demand. This project was designed to exceed the energy code requirements of ASRHRAE Standard 90. Updates to codes and standards Energy codes such as ASHRAE Standard 90.2010: Daylighting control must be Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 57 . All graphics courtesy: CannonDesign Figure 2: To maximize daylight harvesting at Coppin State University’s Science and Technology Center.

It is also important to note that you can’t harness the full potential of daylight haradvanced lighting control system imple. cally shut off. easy integra. Time/astronomical scheduling: . occupancy/ operators are empowered as never vacancy control. Without an manually turn lights on. rising ener. and demand for edented energy management power.programming changes to the sys. wall box space. or dims. emerging technologies tem. and computer classtrol: Lighting is turned on or off rooms must be automatiall six of these strategies based on detected occupancy.cific room to prevent overlighting.. archicontrol.eral manufacturers now use a graph. gy costs. and may satisfy the project’s basic functional and layered systems allow any device com.are set for a particular use or task in a speEnergy code requirements. lighting tenance alerts. Appropriate light levels are dimming) in a single building without any central control. usage reports. The first is the use of digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) equipment. DALI-based systems seem to be proprietary in nature becauseyou are restricted to specific equipment. are automatically turned off when ing control from a building level. but only use what rity systems. Occupancy/vacancy conoffices. relay control. the importance of historical and ical user interface (GUI) that allows 5. like easy-to-control LEDs. can be the day optimized around energy savings and visu.csemag. and must be installed in spaces with windows and skylights mentation methods. Lighting is turned off or dimmed The thinking now is to make lighting con. device and system allow you to employ all six of these stratecontrol systems are quickly moving into commissioning reports. customizable schedule. but lights Instead of looking at lightadvanced lighting control system. With the addition of and automatically generated mainAdvanced lighting control systems the plug load control requirement.their personal preferences. Personal control: Individuals can up-to-the-minute building data collection the user to point and click to make tailor the lighting in their workspace to and analysis. Task tuning: Maximum light levels of piecemeal systems together is really the But what really sets these systems harder way to go about things. System implementation There are essentially two types of before to optimize energy consump. trying to fit a set bination. in private offices. The address required for the system programming control is embedded in the ballast and control devices. users must simultaneously.tion in their facilities. Daylight harvesting: Eleceach energy code requirement inditric light levels are automatividually. amount of natural sunlight in a tectural dimming systems. and the finely the day. While this approach for proper operation.2010: 50% of receptacles or off. 6. They provide additional n Exterior lighting granularity of control to ensure that all . many engineers still try to address you are limited to the use of time a space 3. occupancy/vacancy cally adjusted to account for the systems (e. secu.Lighting controls automatic based on natural light contribution. research on the effective. is vacant. and even all luminaires. Without an advanced the realm of energy management. and lighting must be off or detailed control and optimized energy savat a reduced level at night ings. and device gies simultaneously. installing multiple types of scheduling. you absolutely need.2007: Not a requirement Lighting in a defined area turns on . and daylight harvesting. Load shedding (or demand “green” buildings have driven illumination is evenly maintained throughout the space.g. open systems allow you to employ 2. building to the use of time scheduling. maintained for functional purposes. via a GUI on ness of controls. enabling centralized management response): Lighting control can contribturers to develop systems that engineers (with remote access).building systems such as building in predetermined areas at times of peak trols as seamless as HVAC control—pro. With vacancy control.demand. 4. or fire alarm systems. 58 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 www. The second is the use of addressable input/output modules that are “layered” over standard ballast and control devices.2007: Lighting must be off during spaces. Armed with all of this lighting control system. On the other hand. energy code requirements. Software also provides unprec.ute to a building-wide effort to reduce can implement to meet these requirements.their computer. you are limited data and computing power.2010: Lighting must be off during al performance. can be achieved by implementing six basic lighting control strategies: n Plug load control 1. Some DALI-based system manufacturers require their devices be implemented Advantages of advanced lighting control systems Advanced lighting control systems offer significant cost savings over conventional lighting controls. and daylight harvesting. vide the user comfort. ti o n a n d d at a s h ar in g w i t h o t h er .automation systems (BAS). based on a predeAdvanced lighting control termined. apart is the software interface. The control.

when it comes to fire and life safety. ample secure data storage to make compliance reports a snap. Now in a smaller .csemag. input #23 at www.Flexibility. and easier maintenance. smaller can be better. Seamless integration with TrueAlert ES addressable notification mid-sized buildings. One look at the SIMPLEX 4007ES and you’ll understand why. Find out more about the SIMPLEX 4007ES. Your clients will enjoy remote diagnostics.TycoSimplexGrinnell. a flexible wiring infrastructure and compatibility with legacy conventional devices—even ones from other brands—gives you much more design freedom. Visit us at The SIMPLEX 4007ES from Tyco SimplexGrinnell combines big panel features with a small panel footprint perfect for small.

Best practices for design implementation Energy codes (ASHRAE 90. A ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor operating in vacancy mode turns the room lighting off if occupants forget to turn it off when they leave. lighting on emergency circuits was often “on” 24/7 as a safety measure. Easy-to-use control system software helps make required adjustments to keep up with dynamic changes. For . In each area of the building. Luminaires in these areas are adjusted to lower level output when a load shed signal is sent.csemag. they tend to be happier and more productive. Title 24) basically define guidelines of best practices for the design implementation of an advanced lighting control system within the requirements. the system is able to turn on all lights connected to the emergency circuit and maintain egress levels for occupant safety without wasting energy when no one is around. because they 60 only turn lighting off. IECC. When occupants have control over their space. If multiple lighting control zones are provided in a single mechani- Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 cal system zone. Perimeter areas are also equipped with photosensors to adjust the amount of electric light based on the amount of daylight in the space. Electricity savings are maximized if users turn the lights on manually when they enter and remember to turn them off when they exit. the advanced lighting control system automatically dims the lighting in areas that have Energy codes basically define guidelines of best practices for the design implementation of an advanced lighting control system within the requirements. n Corridors and lobby: These are the only building areas with two modes of operation: “during business hours” and “after business hours. As daylight levels change. If the user forgets to turn the lights off. Conventional controls require one daylight sensor to control a group of lights. n Perimeter offices or rooms with adequate daylight: Occupants turn lights on and off by pressing a low-voltage wall switch. after which point it only turns lights on when the building has occupancy. the lighting control system can accumulate the occupancy zones within the mechanical zone to help refine the efficiency of the HVAC system. In the past. n In addition to this simple lighting switching strategy. In a private office with large windows letting in ample daylight. an array of occupancy sensors turn lighting on and off according to occupancy and the current response mode. and load shedding (demand response). General requirements: n Start with a simple user-triggered lighting strategy. n During business hours: Upon detecting occupancy in a corridor. and therefore preferable to. for example. n The advanced lighting control system controls emergency egress lighting. per energy code requirements.1. and off by the same low-voltage switch. burning through the night long after occupants of a building had left. not on—users have to turn lights on manually. signaling the central lighting control system to switch the lighting off in an area that is unoccupied or vacant. Personal control of these luminaires is made available on occupants’ computers. adequate daylight penetration. and other lowwww. occupants turn lights on via a low-voltage switch. the vacancy sensor ensures that the lights will only be turned on when occupants truly want or need them. preventing the corridors from lighting up on holidays. Centralized software control is required to implement task tuning.Lighting controls vesting with conventional controls. typically on one circuit or switch leg. personal control. occupancy sensors. In addition to maximizing lighting efficiency. snow days. these systems increase occupant satisfaction and possibly even productivity. The following examples spell out best practices for implementing current energy code requirements. Personal control of these luminaires is made available on occupants’ computers. for automatic daylighting control. Vacancy sensors are generally considered more efficient than.1 states that electric lighting shall be reduced with at least one control step that is between 50% and 70% of design lighting power and another control step that is no greater than 35% of power design. the dimming levels of individual luminaires are adjusted so that the total illumination is evenly maintained throughout the space at the required level. and by equipping these devices with a UL 924 emergency transfer device that can override the digital lighting control system if normal power is lost. This switch turns the lights on to a level allowed by a photosensor that monitors the amount of daylight hitting the exterior of the window glass. which means that large groups of luminaires are controlled in the same manner. automatic sensor coverage picks up the slack. dictated by the advanced lighting control system’s time clock. n The advanced lighting control system is digitally connected to the BAS to use the detection signal of occupancy sensors at all hours to adjust mechanical setpoints. Specific space requirements: n Interior private offices or rooms: Occupants turn lights on and off by pressing a low-voltage wall switch.” In the corridors. the advanced lighting control system turns lights on and keeps them on until the system enters “after business hours” mode. ASHRAE 90. Advances in control devices now allow emergency lighting circuits to be controlled by time schedules or by automatic sensors. A ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor operating in vacancy mode turns off the room lighting if occupants forget to turn it off when they leave.

Calif. both vacancy and occupancy sensing. with additional setpoints to adjust the light level output when a load shed signal is sent.26 (D). Automatic control. with additional setpoints to adjust the light level output when a load shed signal is sent. lighting automatically turns off. creates state-of-the art learning spaces and transforms the campus environment by revitalizing the campus “main street. It is worth noting that NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 100. After 15 minutes of nondetection. Figure 3: An advanced lighting control system is implemented at Ohlone Community College District’s Academic Core Building to help the campus achieve its aggressive energy conservation goals. the switch can be activated again. Personal control is showcased in all office areas for user control and comfort. After 15 minutes of nondetection. occupancy days. Figure 4: Ohlone’s lighting control system design implements multiple strategies for optimized energy savings: Efficient daylight harvesting takes advantage of the abundant natural light from the exterior façade design. The earth-coupled system allows heat energy to be stored in the ground for later use. conference rooms. Waste heat is used to heat a large outdoor swimming pool. Personal control is showcased in all office areas for user control and comfort. conference rooms. and shared spaces. Maximum light levels are set during this time period. Waste heat is used to heat a large outdoor swimming pool. The lighting control system design implements multiple strategies for optimized energy savings: Efficient daylight harvesting takes advantage of the abundant natural light from the exterior façade design. Time-based control scheduling is found in most common spaces. and shared spaces. Luminaires in these areas are adjusted to lower level output when a load shed signal is sent.  Restrooms and stair towers: Lighting in these rooms is determined 24/7 by occupancy sensors. is used in most spaces. and improving wayfinding and accessibility. A blink warn occurs when five minutes remain in the 2-hour countdown. Task tuning is available in all classrooms. both vacancy and occupancy sensing. At the end of “during business hours. is used in most spaces. Luminaires in these areas are adjusted to lower level output when a load shed signal is sent. the lighting automatically turns off. The lighting control system complements the 2-MW photovoltaic (PV) array already installed on campus and the central utility plant’s earth-coupled bidirectional cascade chiller system with heat-recovery chillers to generate chilled water and heating hot water. This project was designed to exceed the energy code requirements of the California Title 24.  Utility and storage rooms: Occupants turn lights on and off by pressing a low-voltage switch on the wall. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 61 . The earth-coupled system allows heat energy to be stored in the ground for later use. Automatic control. A 2-hour timeout sequence starts when the switch is activated. If the user wants to remain in the room. Fremont. An advanced lighting control system is implemented to help the campus achieve its aggressive energy conservation goals.” opening scenic views. Time-based control scheduling is found in most common spaces. Minimum cycling of lighting is expected during these lowwww. requires a manual switch/ override for electrical rooms.csemag. preventing short on-off cycling of corridor lighting as occupants move from space to space. Task tuning is available in all classrooms. Lighting remains on in the corridor throughout the business day once occupancy hours. as it is anticipated that the full light level will not be needed. The lighting control system complements the 2-MW photovoltaic (PV) array already installed on campus and the central utility plant’s earth-coupled bidirectional cascade chiller system with heat-recovery chillers to generate chilled water and heating hot water.. and another 2-hour timeout sequence commences.” the system transfers to the “after business hours” lighting control mode.  After business hours: Occupancy sensors control corridor lighting via auto-on and auto-off functions. This project was designed to exceed the energy code requirements of the California Title 24.Advanced lighting controls on California campus T he Academic Core Buildings project at Ohlone College.

and programming all align with construction documents. and start-up request form. The manufacturer of the system builds in testing procedures for individual components such as onboard fixture controllers to allow them to be checked when they are being installed. allowing the commissioning agent to detect any unconnected or “orphaned” components. a detailed bill of material. Made in input #24 at | 800. Photosensor controls are inspected to ensure that their placement and sensitivity adjustments achieve the desired reduction in electric lighting based on available daylight. The advanced lighting control system itself is also commissioned. Commissioning of a daylight harvesting system often is required to occur at night so the true output of the electric system can be factored into the photosensor programming without any daylight contributions. closed cell pipe insulation with a unique lap seal for greater seam security and increased protection against condensation.Lighting controls n Conference rooms: Occupants turn the lights on and off by either pressing a low-voltage wall switch or utilizing a preset scene dimming control station. and load shedding sequences. schedules. Common concerns One concern often voiced about advanced lighting control systems is that they are expensive. TRUST IT. New angled cut and low profile lap seal deliver a superior bond that installs quicker than ever before. and the system’s programming. Commissioning of advanced lighting controls generally needs to be done outside of a space’s normal work hours. The system also takes stock of all components that are connected to it.866. and manufacturer instructions. © 2015 Armacell LLC. Sensors are inspected to ensure that they are correctly placed and that their sensitivity and time-out adjustments deliver performance. Ceiling-mounted occupancy sensors operating in vacancy mode turn the lighting off if occupants leave without turning off the lights.csemag. mold and energy loss.5638 | info. INSTALL IT. calibration. field conditions. Commissioning lighting controls Both ASHRAE 90. The commissioning agent ascertains that the controls’ . time switches. adjustment. The commissioning agent performs a number of procedures to test automatic sensors.armacell. each light fix- NEW AP ARMAFLEX BLACK LAPSEAL INSULATION ® Fast & Easy Wider release tab. Engineers and designers can aid the commissioning process by requesting the following items in the design specifications as part of the system submittal: programming intent narrative. contractor checklist. quick installation Unique Lap seal closure. and programmable schedule controls. photosensor and daylighting controls. The commissioning agent also checks zoning. fiber-free.1 and IECC require commissioning of all control hardware and software to ensure that these elements perform as intended. including control profiles. Maximum light levels are set for this space for certain tasks. aiming. greater seam security NEW New Sizes 3/8” to 6” ID 3/8” to 2” Wall The easy-to-install. or the grouping of lights. Programmable schedule controls and time switches are checked to make sure they are set to turn the lights off as intended. www. To operate an advanced lighting control system at the extreme of

He is a Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2013 40 Under 40 award winner. The points noted above give designers and engineers additional tools to both meet and exceed the expectations of current and future energy code regulations. etc. GavazziOnline. as we look forward to hearing about your application. etc For over 80 years. Another common concern is that advanced lighting control systems are difficult to manage.6100 • Info@CarloGavazzi. He effectively manages integrated projects by encouraging multidisciplinary. they have realized that significant savings in the system first cost could be achieved by thoughtfully grouping control of light fixtures into zoned areas. CARLO GAVAZZI has manufactured and marketed high quality automation components and systems. The innovative SBWEB BACnet Controller reduces labor and wiring costs A wide variety of device level input and output devices for switches. One advantage of LED lighting is that it is inherently dimmable: If you pair the LED’s dimmable driver with a compatible control. additional components are not required to tune the light. input #25 at www. Gain a competitive edge by reducing your wiring and labor costs with our industry proven Dupline® 2-wire bus system. But this is generally a matter of perception. Anyone comfortable with using software on a Robert J. the thought of individually controlling each of them can seem overwhelming. highperformance design teams among CannonDesign. Garra . Garra applies his project leadership and industry knowledge across the firm’s market segments. electromechanical and solid state • 847. as engineers have learned how to leverage advanced lighting controls to manage energy usage.csemag. and therefore equipped with a dimming ballast. Second. Rising energy costs and more regulation through energy codes are making energy management a top priority for building owners and managers. and clients. The 20% to 30% adder for a controllable fluorescent ballast has disappeared. and not relying on individual light fixture control. individual control isn’t necessary. is vice president at CannonDesign. opening up the possibilities of light modularity as the norm instead of a novelty. contractors. CARLO GAVAZZI also offers a wide range of products for HVAC OEMs. Please contact us today. Such a system would indeed be very expensive. First. An engineering leader who understands clients and their goals. so costs associated with a less rigorous installation method can often be reduced if a savvy contractor is brought on to implement the design.000 light fixtures. Definite Purpose Contactors. and careful planning can create a system that goes a long way to help facilities managers truly understand more about how their buildings really operate.ture would be able to be individually controlled. which is rarely really Relays.465. But. lighting. as noted above. while providing strategic direction to the engineering group. which communicates directly to any BACnet controller via our innovative SBWEB Controller. such as definite purpose contactors. or driver. When you are dealing with a building that has more than 1. But a few things have helped that type of system become competitive. Scroll Compressor Soft Starts and other products for HVAC OEMs necessary in typical building designs. and it is being used more frequently. LED technology is increasingly affordable. most advanced control systems use distributed low-voltage components instead of more traditional “pipe and wire” control strategies. Management of the entire building is done through web-based software. scroll compressor soft starts. PC will find this kind of system very straightforward to manage properly.

a reduction in the number of fire separations. designers can take several approaches. Manifolding laboratory exhaust has been the subject of debate for at least the past 10 years with a long-standing precedent within NFPA 45: Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using . commonly assumed to be an active exhaust system. BY JON EISENBERG. For chemical production facilities. thus many research institutions generally provide hazardous exhaust systems as defined in the code. PE. This presumes that the other control areas have a lower concentration of hazardous exhaust. Boston. Arup. LEED AP. shaft separations through firerated construction were required for each control zone. it is cumbersome to continuously monitor chemical quantities Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 to determine when LFL or LC50 levels are exceeded. risk mitigation. A hazardous exhaust system is required when the 25% LFL or the 1% median lethal concentration (LC50) will be exceeded in the absence of any mechanical intervention. and potential energy savings and system redundancy. is the main method by which this is achieved. therefore. The 2015 IMC contains a change to section 510. which may seem somewhat opposed but can provide some overlapping opportunities for innovative design. an additional layer of protection is mandated through the inclusion of fire protection within the ductwork system. Prior to the 2015 version of the IMC. Here are a few options to help engineers achieve these goals. and potential energy savings when designing laboratory ventilation systems. with secondary goals to increase the durability and reliability of the exhaust systems conveying hazardous materials. Separate duct risers within shafts were not permitted to share common shafts.  Understand the potential effects of the code changes on energy use.Designing lab ventilation systems Engineers should consider the codes and standards. PE. The result of the code change is a savings in shaft space. and JEFFREY HUANG. Fewer fans also have the potential to simplify energy recovery through system www. The design mandate is to maintain the concentration of contaminants in the exhaust airflow below 25% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). The main argument is the desire to add additional laboratory exhaust air from separate control areas to enhance the dilution effect within the exhaust ductwork. To find a balance between the goals of safety.  Discuss the changes in the 2015 International Mechanical Code (IMC) section on hazardous exhaust systems (section 510). New York City Learning objectives  Know the codes and standards that dictate the design of laboratory ventilation systems. hazardous exhaust from different control zones was required to be conveyed separately through independent ducts. Dilution. Arup. 64 L aboratory ventilation systems often are designed to meet the requirements for hazardous exhaust systems. and energy savings. the addition of noncontaminated air into the exhaust airstream. which is often true in a research environment with intermittent generation of airborne hazards. With the changing needs of research. risk mitigation. The overarching goal of section 510 of the 2015 International Mechanical Code (IMC) is to provide a safe working environment. safety.csemag.5 that permits hazardous exhaust ducts to be combined or manifolded inside a rated shaft by exception.

the riser duct size should be increased to maintain the desired vapor/ gas transport velocity in the free annular zone between the subduct and the riser duct to minimize deposition. The commentary given in NFPA 45 indicates that the continuous upward flow of exhaust under normal operating conditions is not meant to require the use of a generator. such as perchloric acid and unfiltered radioisotope hoods or Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 65 . Generally. jeopardizing the requirement to continually exhaust the space. as long as there is continuous upward flow to the exhaust outlet outside. While manifolded exhaust provides energy and space-saving benefits. The use of fire dampers also would put those people who inspect and maintain the system at a greater risk of exposure to the contaminants. Dampers in hazardous exhaust ductwork Fire and smoke dampers are prohibited in hazardous exhaust systems to eliminate the flow restriction when these devices close.) University Frick Laboratory is designed to support twice as much research as the facility it replaced while imposing minimal energy demands on campus systems. The Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA) recommends that the subduct be no more than 25% of the riser duct cross-sectional area as a rule of thumb. The minimum air change rates of the other connected control areas still allow for a high level of dilution to take full advantage of operational diversity and setback. With the use of the subduct extension. though it is silent on the use of a generator. Both the IMC and NFPA 45 have accepted the use of steel subduct extensions in lieu of fire dampers for duct penetrations through fire-resistance rated shaft enclosures. Instead of a large number of energy recovery devices in individual control zone exhaust systems. Courtesy: Warren Jagger Photography consolidation.J.csemag. a greater amount of turndown in a manifolded fan system can be achieved compared to the single control zone exhaust model. selection The combination of airflows into fewer shafts allows the connection of multiple control areas into fewer duct tion devices has the potential to obstruct airflow if it malfunctions. the IMC requires continuous airflow upward to the outside.Figure 1: The new chemistry laboratory at the Princeton (N. using variable air volume (VAV) fume hoods or other similar methods. the IMC still prohibits manifolding of incompatible materials. In combination with variable airflow systems within the labs. a fewer number of energy recovery devices can be used. The vertical upturn coupled with the negative duct pressure minimizes the migration of potential combustion products into ducts connected to the riser at other floors. Exhaust fan performance. This provision also recognizes that the inclusion of such active protecwww. Conserving energy was therefore a high priority.

or other such situations where a mixture of exhaust airstreams will produce contaminants that exceed the levels stipulated above. particularly for low rise buildings.csemag.58 Three fans 8. there is a 13% power reduction at full load between using a single fan Figure 2: The Washington State University (WSU) building in Pullman.000 3 7. which reports three backward inclined belt-driven utility fan selections: one fan to handle the entire manifolded exhaust system. and three fans assuming a modest 5% increase in static pressure representing the area savings of a common shaft compared to individual shaft partitions. wc/100 ft. Results will vary depending on the specific system and fan . By extension.000 3.000 3 20 15.33 Table 1: This shows three different fan selections. this allows a reduction in the number of fans even with the redundancy requirement.8 hp. In comparison. the two fans running in parallel need 3. a single duct with 24. the building contains highly efficient mechanical systems designed to perform almost 40% better than similar research buildings. Exhaust air energy recovery can take many forms.19 hp / Power2 = (24. it permits the designer the flexibility to choose whether to run the fans in a duty-standby or leadlag condition. and 17% reduction assuming the economy of space for a single shaft. allowing the accrual of energy saving for fans running in parallel.5 5. To achieve the full exhaust flow. Manifolded exhausts can also reduce the friction loss. Consider Table 1.19 15.032 in. Equation 1: Fan affinity law Power1 / Power2 = (Flowrate1 / Flowrate2)3 Equation 2: Example calculation 15. indicating system brake horsepower differences. The building provides properly equipped and environmentally controlled.90 hp Energy recovery The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and ASHRAE Standard 90.. the IMC requires that redundant fans be provided to allow full exhaust airflow should planned or unplanned maintenance necessitate an individual fan shutdown. located within the Research and Education Complex.016 in. WG) Motor horsepower (hp) Brake horsepower (bhp) Total system brake horsepower (bhp) One fan 24. wc/100 ft.9 hp (see Equation 2).5 6. 25% of the theoretical full power of the single fan motor. Courtesy: Arup compared to three individual fans at the same static pressure. Manifolding may not be appropriate where long horizontal distribution is required. An 8.15 7. To manifold the ductwork. Power2 = 1.19 Three fans 8.000 cfm)3.000 cfm / 12. Based on these selections.000 cfm at the same velocity generates a friction loss of 0. Wash.Lab ventilation biological safety cabinets.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings generally requires energy recovery for air handling systems delivering outside air greater than 70% of the design airflow rate. commonly: Table 1: Sample fan selections Airflow rate (cfm) Static pressure (in. The fan affinity laws in Equation 1 indicate that motor power is proportional to the cube of flow rate. there is potentially less cost and less maintenance.000 cfm duct with a velocity of 1000 fpm generates a friction loss of 0.86 17. and exposure to hazardous exhaust is reduced for the inspection and maintenance personnel. is a state-of-the-art research facility. half that of the individual exhaust ducts. three fans to handle three different control areas. Courtesy: Arup 66 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 www. state-of-the-art biomedical research and support space for the health science teaching and research programs. the energy reduction potential is substantial. For systems connecting more than two control areas. Operationally. The single fan at half the flow rate is 1. A fewer number of larger fans can increase fan efficiency and reduce energy consumption. While the 2015 International Building Code (IBC) requires redundant fans for hazardous exhaust.11 18. While actual fan selection and performance may erode the savings.

glazing mullions in extremely cold climates). previous versions of the IMC prohibited the use of energy recovery for hazardous exhaust systems in section 514. This is useful. Energy recovery wheels have some small amount of bypass between the airstreams. The use of membrane-type equipment such as enthalpy wheels comes with a chance of cross-contamination into the supply air side. which provides a completely closed loop and separation of supply and exhaust air. refrigerant heat pipes require adjacency of the two airstreams. Depending on the makeup of the exhaust. Recognizing the potential for energy savings due to heat recovery even when VAV exhaust systems are employed. and reduce the infrastructure cost of steam and steam condensate generation and distribution piping.) University Frick Laboratory to reduce hazardous exhaust airflow from the laboratory spaces. Increasing space humidity is a recognized method of ignition control. Humidification to produce indoor humidity levels at 50% RH compared to 30% RH occurs 50% more often in New York City for 100% outside air systems. This can be achieved by relegating an AHU with humidification to a specific wing or floor of the building. while contributing to environmental stability in which research and experimentation is conducted. reducing the heat transfer coefficient and increasing viscosity and pumping energy. for example. which pumps a fluid between a coil in the outside and exhaust airstreams to transfer the heat between them. While many plate heat exchangers have very durable construction. but specific lab processes may allow for a depression in the setpoint. When the air upstream www. Even when installed in an air handling unit (AHU).2. which is common in labs. low-sensitivity electronics work may only require up to 30% RH to control electrostatic discharge when coupled with appropriate flooring materials and grounding protocols. in-duct humidification can target specific zones or rooms. Reduction in the area and setpoint required for humidification will decrease the energy required to generate Figure 3: Conventional high efficiency (low-flow) hoods for teaching and autosash closing research hoods were part of an integrated design at Princeton (N. provided the equipment is coil-type heat exchanger. For example. there is leakage that correlates to a pressure differential imparted on the plates between the airstreams. the intent to require only coil-based solutions is to minimize contamination between the supply and exhaust airstreams. in hazard control for flammable liquid handling. Controlling humidity Control of relative humidity (RH) in labs. glycol must be added to the fluid. While there is a range of energy recovery methods. there is also casing leakage between the two airstreams given a differential pressure between the casing wall that separates the two. which is especially true for actively humidified labs.J. For extremely cold climates.csemag. Exhaust air heat recovery and turndown during unoccupied periods were two other key energy saving features of the air management system. especially in climates such as the northeastern United States (winter) and southern California (easterly winds). condensate may be generated in the exhaust airstream. limiting the configuration of the ductwork or air handling unit. Courtesy: Warren Jagger Photography of the coil can drop below freezing.n Direct air exchange with or without desiccants such as rotary enthalpy wheels (up to 85% effectiveness) n Air-to-air plate heat exchanger (up to 65% effectiveness) n Refrigerant heat pipe (up to 65% effectiveness) n Runaround loop (up to 65% effectiveness). NFPA 77: Recommended Practice on Static Electricity suggests a controlled RH range of 30% to 60% as a means to limit static discharge. also leads to increased energy consumption. both of which reduce the overall effectiveness of heat recovery. Alternatively. Like plate heat exchangers. The target is often 50% RH. However. A discussion with the end-users can also help to limit the humidification setpoint. Lower space humidity also reduces the chance for condensation generation on cold surfaces (e. The system that offers the greatest degree of separation between the airstreams is a runaround coil system. An alternative planning approach allows certain portions of the building to be humidified. the 2015 IMC includes an exception that no longer prohibits heat recovery. the fewer the incidents of condensation generation through heat recovery.. the condensate may need to be neutralized prior to Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 67 . The lower the exhaust air RH.g. Active laboratory humidification is sometimes designed without a particular end-user need and included building-wide to provide flexibility in allowing humidity-sensitive research to be executed anywhere in the building.

NFPA 77 offers humidification as a method of ignition control. or on AHU casings. and heat recovery for hazardous exhaust.csemag. specially trained and qualified staff for There is an ongoing challenge for designers to balance safety and low energy for which there are several conditions and design approaches to consider in every lab project. or otherwise captured and properly disposed. There is an ongoing challenge for designers to balance safety and low energy for which there are several conditions and design approaches to consider in every laboratory project. Humidification poses an increase in energy costs and maintenance. fan redundancy. including controlled startup and shutdown at the start and end of the humidification season. and is an expert in industrial and laboratory fire protection and hazard analysis. steam trap inspections. The presence of condensate on coils. within ductwork. can increase material deterioration. coupled with corrosive chemicals in the exhaust airstream. Compatibility of the airstream materials with corrosive chemicals in the airstream is an important aspect of the design process. and the potential added expense of providing reverse osmosis water for clean steam generation. which can be substantial if they are implemented in concert.Lab ventilation draining to the sanitary system. Jon Eisenberg is an associate principal in Arup’s Boston . Reduction or elimination of space relative humidity requirements also will save energy and infrastructure cost. which must be considered carefully to define a setpoint that recognizes safety and energy use. and applies the latest low-energy approaches to the design of laboratories for both commercial and university clients. input #26 at www. The 2015 IMC provides new and innovative language on manifolding. some of the first costs for humidification can include the pressure reducing valve station with all the attendant controls and safety devices. boiler chemical maintenance. In addition to the associated piping or local generators. Each of these three provisions may be used to achieve energy savings. piping expansion. requiring more frequent maintenance or replacement of components. higher pressure steam. and anchoring. Jeffrey Huang is an associate in Arup’s New York office.

com/information Input #102 at www. and get our digital edition. Earn continuing education credits by attending our 1-hour-long webcasts.csemag. u Unique configuration flexibility helps Update now at: www.433. and fire/life safety.indd 1 meltric. up to 1000V Specs: 1 to 37 contacts.MEDIA SHOWCASE FOR ENGINEERS Your place for new products. Register and view today at www. literature. lighting. Ratings: 20 to webcast Input #103 at www.csemag. u Advanced safety features protect workers from live Input #100 at cse_stayInformed_6th.csemag.indd 1 2/24/2014 11:37:44 AM improve operational efficiency. Safety Shutter (on receptacle) Rated up to Plugs & Receptacles Meltric contact technology maximizes durability and performance.csemag. 60hp 4 Connector + Switch in 1 device 4 Maximizes Arc Flash Protection 4 Simplifies Design & Startup To subscribe. in your email in-box. mechanical. Hazardous Location cse201311_onDemWebcast_6th.7642 Input #101 at www. stay informed MOTOR PLUGS QUICKLY CONNECT & DISCONNECT POWER OFF Button Stay current with technology and trends in electrical. Case Studies and White 2/24/2014 10:18:04 AM Want to receive your Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine as a u ATEX & CSA rated digital publication? Update your Input #104 at www. visit 11/13/2013 2:24:10 PM Consulting-Specifying Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY Engineer • MONTH 2015 69 . Input #105 at www.7642 meltric.433. Metal or poly casings 800.csemag. on a more interactive and user-friendly platform.csemag.indd 1 www. 1/3/2014 10:16:30 AM .com Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 201311_cfeGeneral_hlfHZ. t e k l e e n .Product & Literature Digest Why Should You Filter Your Water? Scale formation reduces the heat transfer rate and increases the water pressure drop through the heat exchanger and pipes.csemag. Autodesk® Seek will enable you to quickly Input #100 at www. In fact.194 2 ( 310 ) 8 3 9 .csemag.plantengineering. you need a trusted source of information: CFE Media – Content For Engineers. CFE Media delivers a world of knowledge to you. CFE Media is home to three of the most trusted names in the business: 70 provides the latest knowledge on commercial and institutional facility construction and management. Visit www. To do your job better each day. Engineering So is the way you Pantone 382cuse information. c o m info@tekleen.controleng. For more Input #101 at www.5" wide x 4. L o s A n g e l e s .com Visit www. one study has shown that . models.6 87 8 w w w. delivers a wide array of strategies and solutions to help control system designers create a more efficient process. safer and more efficiently. 100+ Mitsubishi Electric HVAC Revit Objects Available in Autodesk® Seek There are 100+ Mitsubishi Electric HVAC Revit objects available in Autodesk® Seek which facilitate easy integration into your Visit www. drawings and product specifications for your active design sessions.002" fouling will increase pumping needs by 20%.csemag. log on to seek. delivers plant-floor knowledge and expertise to help manufacturers operate smarter.indd 1 www.2 8 2 8 F a x : ( 310 ) 8 3 9 . C A 9 0 0 3 4 U S A ( 8 0 0 ) 3 3 6 . preview and download building information modeling files.5" highis 3. L a C i e n e g a B l v d . The Best Engineered Water Filtering Solution Always Costs Less 2 67 2 S .csemag.

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and act quickly. Specifying. Critical power management systems are a case in point.Future of Engineering Connecting buildings via the Internet of Things T he Internet of Things (IoT) is not aspirational technology. backup power. for example. That makes IIoT a low-hanging fruit. and if it signals manufacturers. of sible to effectively manage as a whole.csemag. For critical systems. Florham Park. and. speed. diagnose. and testing and measurement. if not all. The answer could be: “A lot. nate repetitive wrapping and unwraphigh-speed processing. For IIoT. specifying. and predictive maintenance all benefit. and building projects: building and industrial automation systems. can be accomplished with Figure 1: A critical power management system encompasses more data points and faster response times. N. Such insights empower clients to know what’s happening 24/7. and building IIoT capabilities into critical power management systems need to accommodate such requirements as power demand.J. data is streamed in real time clusters include compatibility across at speeds measured in milliseconds. cluster management is a IIoT is an opportunity for consulting group of sensing devices on related and specifying engineers to take the lead equipment. key is to partner with an organization Even with high-speed processing. reliability. lifecycle value. Operational efficiency. The ability to analyze. two-way communication ASCO Power Technologies. When presented as a business case. data center infrastructure management. The annunciated. lighting. The opportunities to enable clients to achieve higher efficiencies and reliability by better managing.” but of “how much” and “how fast. and building IIoT capabilities require skillsets already offered by engineering firms: deep understanding of facility spaces and the knowledge to connect legacy systems with new technology. remote displayed graphically and perhaps access and control. and security. The overall business case for consulting engineers lies in the compelling insights produced when big data are analyzed quickly. ideally. Improving efficiency and reliability. streamlined Consulting-Specifying Engineer • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2015 www. network out-of-parameter operating conditions. the devices in a . The Bhavesh Patel devices have local intelligence and Vice president. Courtesy: ASCO Power Technologies The volume of data generated could be network topology protocols that elimioverwhelming. designing. if not for cost-effective.” The reason is that IoT is taking by storm many of the technologies engineers include when designing. maintaining. a variety of power-related equipment and is separate from other building systems. improves asset management. A prime example is the in helping clients operate their facilicoexistence of devices for building management systems. compatible. Risk drops and costs fall. protocols and standards. robustness. stored. The industrial version of IoT (IIoT) makes a good business case for consulting engineering clients.ties more efficiently over the long term. trol and data acquisition. It’s not a question of “if. The solution is cluster management. from both an operator and a machine perspective. integration. and critical power management systems. diagnosing issues. designing. It also is good business for engineering firms to be their clients’ IIoT go-to source of expertise. 72 Specifying. the that has accomplished much of the leggrowing volume and variety of data gathwork in developing a cohesive solution ered for analysis would be nearly imposthat accommodates much. global marketing. asset management. controlling. It’s here. a wide range of products by multiple It’s monitored. and security considerations. while reducing operating costs. pathways. ping of data. supervisory con. such as backup Engineering considerations for IIoT power. and optimizing their facilities are ripe.” And what it means to consulting engineers day to day.

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