You are on page 1of 16

LIMITS | FITS | TOLERANCES

ASHWIN RAMANUJAM
13ME123

 explain various types of fits and their applications. a shaft of exact 10. when this Any attempt towards very closed dimensions of a difference is positive. But if you the shaft before assembly. The clearance may be product will increase cost of the production. the relation In the early days. this is the difference between the sizes of the that exact size components are difficult to produce. then such parts can be easily minimum. hole and the shaft.05 means a shaft may difference between the minimum size of the hole and be produced between 10.95. The maximum clearance and minimum clearance. majority of the components were resulting from the difference between their sizes actually matted together. as the degree of tightness and looseness between two But with the passage of time.00 mm diameter is It is the difference between the sizes of the hole and difficult to produce by machining process.10 is called tolerence. A dimension 10  0. Interference For example. maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of Objectives the shaft.  analyse the various types of tolerances and applications. It has also been realized In a fit. .The important terms related to the fit are realized that the variations in the sizes of the parts given below : had always present and that such variations could be Clearance restricted but not avoided. their dimensions being before assembly is called a fit. engineers and workers mating parts. figures represent limit and the difference. i. After studying this unit. The interference may be maximum or permitted in the size.2 FITS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATIONS 3. and  know the fundamental of the systems of fits. This reduces the unit cost of minimum size of the shaft. A fit may be defined adjusted until the required type of fit was obtained. the amount of variation negative. functional aspects of the component may be achieved Minimum clearance in the fit is the difference even without going for its exact dimensions using between the maximum size of the hole and the limits. before assembly. where the tolerence zones of the holes and shaft overlap. production and increases the rate of production.05 and 9.05 – Minimum interference is the difference between the 9.FIT AND TOLERANCES 3.95) = 0. So. Maximum interference is arithmetical produced.1 INTRODUCTION When two parts are to be assembled. (10.e. fit and tolerances. These two the maximum size of the shaft before assembly. Transition It is between clearance and interference. (ii) Interference Fit. you should be able to  understand the basic principles of fits and tolerances. when the difference is provide tolerence. you can see that fits depend upon the actual limits of the hole and or shaft and can be divided into three general classes : (i) Clearance Fit.

automobile parts. smaller enough to maintain a film of oil for 30 Metrology and Instrumentation lubrication.e. allowance exists between two mating parts (more Running Fit than wringing fit). there is minimum positive clearance Medium Force Fit between high limit of the shaft and low limit of the These fits have medium negative allowance. It is used between those mating parts where no Tight Fit or Press Fit precision is required. hole. An 3.3. interference exists between the high It refers to zero allowance and a light pressure (10 limit of hole and low limit of the shaft. diameter of the shaft is always larger than the hole Transition fit can be sub-classified as follows : diameter. In Figure 3. etc.2. It is used in car wheels. cating dowels. It is used in fitting of rims etc. The shaft is assembled by pressure or heat expansion. A clearance fit has positive position. the the hole and shaft. i. pins. Force Fit or Shrink Fit . It provides medium allowance and is used fits. agricultural machineries hammer or by light pressure. location is important but either a small amount of 3.1. It is also known as Figure 3. the dimension of shaft should be is used on a keyed pulley and shaft. A slight negative etc. The interference fit can be sub-classified as follows : Shrink Fit or Heavy Force Fit 3. Considerable pressure is required to assemble the Clearance fit can be sub-classified as follows : hole and the shaft. the hole is between the shaft and hole as shown in Figure 3. It provides minimum allowance One part can be assembled into the other with a hand and is used on loose pulleys. It gives a semi-permanent fit and For a running fit. slide valve. etc. As shown in A negative difference between diameter of the hole Figure 3. i. In such cases. In In clearance fit. They are used for applications where accurate in tool slides.2.2. In such a fit. It is used in bearing pair etc. The moving parts show least Hole vibration with this type of fit.025 mm per 25 mm of diameter of It may result in either clearance fit or interference fit boaring may be used. there is overlapping of tolerance zones of and the shaft is called interference. allowance.e. rocker arm. Interference fit has a negative Push Fit allowance.1 Clearance Fit It refers to maximum negative allowance. armature Loose Fit of dynamos etc. depending on the actual value of the individual Slide Fit or Medium Fit tolerances of the mating components.2. expanded by heating and then rapidly cooled in its Such fits give loose joint.2 : Interference Fit snug fit.2 Interference Fit clearance or interference is permissible. Transition fits It is used on those mating parts where great precision are a compromise between clearance and interference is required. the tolerance zone of the hole is always below that of the shaft. an air space or clearance exists assembly of the hole and the shaft.) is required in assembling Shaft the hole and the shaft.3 Transition Fit allowance 0. etc.(iii) Transition Fit.

when assembled with its mating part and put of the hole and the two limits of size for the shaft are into actual service. If these standard allowances are selected properly and assigned in mating parts ensures specific classes of fit. lies wholly on one side of the basic size either above Shaft Basis System or below it (Figure 3. etc. These bars do not require further machining and fits Wringing Fit are obtained by varying the sizes of the hole. i. etc. It is used in fixing keys.7). since the standard drills. 3. etc. heating.e. Unilateral system is .1 Unilateral Tolerance are not adjustable. are available for producing holes and their sizes 3.6). and is called a Hole Basis System tolerance zone (Figure 3. can be very easily vary only on one side of the basic size. grinding. A slight negative allowance exists between two In this system. On the other hand. size of the shaft In this system. Shaft basis system is used when the shaft into the hole or the hole to be expanded by ground bars or drawn bars are readily available. the high limit of the force the shaft into the hole and gives a light shaft is same as basic size and the various fits are assembly. the dimension of a part is allowed to produced by turning. lower deviation of hole is zero. The high limit trouble. It is used in railway wheels. the upper deviation (fundamental mating parts in wringing fit. reamers and branches (b) Bilateral tolerance. It requires pressure to deviation) of shaft is zero.A force fit is used when the two mating parts are to In the shaft basis system. tolerance varied.4. the size of the shaft is kept be rigidly fixed so that one cannot move without the constant and different fits are obtained by varying the other.3 SYSTEMS OF FIT 3. then varied to give desired type of fit. In the hole basis system. There are two ways of writing tolerances The hole basis system is commonly used because it is (a) Unilateral tolerance more convenient to make correct holes of fixed sizes. 31 Fit and obtained by varying the low limit of shaft and both Tolerances the limits of the hole. Thus. pins.4 TOLERANCE AND ITS A fit system is the systems of standard allowance to CLASSIFICATION suit specific range of basic size. interference or transition fit. The difference between the upper limit (high limit) and the lower limit of a dimension represents the (ii) Shaft basis system (Figure 3. but definite a small size error is permitted.e. the word tolerance indicates that a worker is not expected to produce the part of the exact size. i. which the job is allowed to go away from accuracy In this system. These are : (i) Hole basis system (Figure 3. the size of the hole is kept constant and shaft sizes are varied to obtain various Tolerance can also be defined as the amount by types of fits.4) The permissible variation in size or dimension is tolerance.5) margin for variation to workmanship. There are two systems of fit for obtaining clearance.e. etc. i. the and perfectness without causing any functional low limit of hole is same as basic size. It either requires high pressure to force the size of the hole. taps.

because sides of the basic size. 25  In this system. The operator tolerance is varied and the basic size of machines to the upper limit of shaft (lower one or both of the mating parts are to be limit for hole) knowing fully well that he varied. i. the dimension . Examples of bilateral tolerance are : etc.4.01 25 .e.2 Bilateral done for the basic size. when tolerance lie on either side of the basic size. (b) another advantage of this system is that „Go‟ Gauge ends can be standardized as the holes of different tolerance grades have the same lower limit and all the shafts have same upper limit.8).3.02 0. especially of the part is allowed to vary on both the when precision fits are required. it is not possible to retain the same fit when machining of mating parts.preferred in interchangeable manufacture. the limits of (a) it is easy and simple to determine deviations. and(c) this form of tolerance greatly assists the operator. but may not be necessarily equally dispose about it (Figure 3.02 0. This system is used in mass still has some margin left for machining production when machine setting is before the parts are rejected. 0. Tolerance In this system.

MAXIMUM AND LEAST METAL LIMITS (MML & LML) The Maximum Metal Limit (MML) is the dimension for which the component has maximum amount of metal possible.INFERENCE INTRODUCTION Variations in dimensions of manufactured parts can be restricted but not avoided. This reduces the unit cost of production and increases the rate of production. The Least Metal Limit (MML) is the dimension for which the component has minimum amount of metal possible For a shaft:  MML is the upper limit  LML is the lower limit . its functional aspects will remain the same. Cost of the production increases if very close tolerances are required. The maximum size is called the upper limit and the minimum size is called the lower limit. LIMITS Limits are the maximum or minimum allowable dimensions of a component. If the component is manufactured with appropriate limits and tolerances. The difference between upper limit and lower limit is called the tolerance.

(iii) Transition Fit. . (ii) Interference Fit. Fits can be of three types : (i) Clearance Fit. A clearance fit has positive allowance. Such fits result in a loose joint.For a hole:   MML is the lower limit LML is the upper limit FITS The relation between the sizes of mating parts before assembly is called a fit. CLEARANCE FIT In clearance fit. a clearance exists between the shaft and hole. A fit may be defined as the degree of tightness and looseness between two mating parts.

Running Fit For a running fit. find the upper limit and lower limit of the shaft and the minimum clearance. 062  80 180   Solution . agricultural machineries etc. If the tolerances quoted are for the holes and for the shaft. It is used in bearings. the shaft should be smaller enough to contain a film of oil. The basic size of the fit is 50  10 – 3 mm. Clearance fit can be sub-classified as follows : Loose Fit It is used when no precision is required.As it can be seen from the figure. Example A spindle slides freely in a bush. It provides minimum allowance and is used on loose pulleys. even the largest shaft can fit in the smallest hole.

000 – 49. It is used in fitting of rims etc. In such cases.080)  10– 3 = 49. The shaft upper limit will be (50. The hole is first expanded by heating.92  10– 3 m The shaft lower limit will be (50.920)  10 – 3 = 8  10– 5 mm. .180)  10– 3 = 49. Interference fit can be subclassified as follows : Shrink Fit or Heavy Force Fit It refers to maximum negative allowance. INTERFERENCE FIT A negative allowance interference.000 mm. the shaft is inserted and then rapidly cooled in its position. the shaft is larger than the hole.000 – 0. The shaft does not fit in the hole.82  10– 3 m The minimum clearance or allowance is (50.062 mm and lower limit for the hole is the same as the basic size of 50.Tolerances are given in units of one thousandth of millimeter. so the upper limit of the hole will be 50.000 – 0.

025 26 42  Solution The upper limit for the hole will be (50.025  10– 3 m The lower limit for the hole will be (50.042)  10 – 3 = 50. TRANSITION FIT Transition fit is an intermediate fit.Tight Fit or Press Fit The negative allowance is very small.026)  10 – 3 = 50.000 + 0.042 – 50.025)  10 – 3 = 50. It may result in either clearance fit or interference dimensions of the mating parts.000 + 0. For this application H 7 fit for hole and a p 6 fit for the shaft are chosen. Example A dowel pin is required to be inserted in a base.000)  10– 3 = 0.042  10– 3 m The lower limit for dowel pin will be (50. Find the upper and lower limits of the hole and also dowel pin.000 + 0.000 + 0) 50. fit depending on the actual .026  10– 3 mm The maximum interference between dowel pin and the hole is (50. The basic size of the fit is 50  10– 3 m. The tolerance quoted are for the hole and for the shaft.042  10– 3 m = 42  10– 6 m. Light pressure is sufficient for assembly. and the maximum interference between dowel pin and the hole.000  10 – 3 = 50  10– 3 m The upper limit for dowel pin will be (50.

Wringing Fit The allowance is slightly negative. Find the upper limit and lower limit for the hole and also for bush. This fit results in minimum vibration. there is overlapping of tolerance zones of the hole and shaft. Pressure is required to assemble the parts. The tolerance quoted are for the hole and for the shaft. The basic size of fit is 50*10– 3 m. an H 7 fit has been selected for the hole and a K 6 fit for the shaft. 025  12 18  . Transition fit can be sub-classified as follows : Push Fit The diameter of the hole and the shaft are identical. It is also known as snug fit.As shown in the figure. Example For a particular application.

000 + 0.Solution The upper limit for the hole will be (50. The difference between the upper limit and the lower limit of a dimension is called the tolerance zone.025)*10 – 3 = 50.000 + 0. TOLERANCE AND ITS CLASSIFICATION Tolerance is the allowable variation in dimensions of parts. The lower limit for the bush will be (50. The lower limit for the hole will be (50.018*10– 3 m.000 + 0. .000 + 0)*10 – 3 = 50.025*10– 3 m.000*10– 3 m.002)*10 – 3 = 50. The upper limit for the bush will be (50.002*10– 3 m.018)*10 – 3 = 50.

02 mm. Solution The maximum permissible size (upper limit) = 25. .02 mm and the minimum permissible size (lower limit) = 24. UNILATERAL TOLERANCE In unilateral tolerance.02 – 24.04 mm = 4*10– 5 m There are two types of tolerances (a) Unilateral tolerance (b) Bilateral tolerance.98 mm Then.98 = 0. the variation can either be positive or negative but not both. Tolerance = Upper Limit – Lower Limit = 25. Find the tolerance.Example A shaft of 25 mm basic size is given as 25 ±0.

therefore low limit of hole = 50 mm.050 = 50.050 mm.5 A 50 mm diameter shaft is made to rotate in the bush.075 mm with the hole basis system. find shafttolerance.875 mm = 49. lower deviation of hole is zero.925 – 0.050 = 49. the dimension of the part can be greater than or lesser than the nominal value.075 Example 3. The tolerances for both shaft and bush are 0.050  10– 3 m High limit of shaft = Low limit of hole – Allowance = 50. Solution In the hole basis system. 0. In other words. hole tolerance and state whether the type of fit is .00 – 0. High limit of hole = Low limit + Tolerance = 50. Example 3.075 = 49.05 mm 0.00 + 0.BILATERAL TOLERANCE In this system.6 For each of the following hole and shaft assembly. tolerance can be negative and positive.925  10– 3 m Low limit of the shaft = High limit – Tolerance = 49.925 mm = 49.050 mm = 50.875  10– 3 m The dimension of the system is shown in Figure 3.05 mm 0. Determine the dimension of the shaft and bush to give a maximum clearance of 0.8.

05 = 29.04 Solution (a) Hole: High limit of hole = 50.02 = 29.00 +0.025 mm Low limit of hole = 50.050 : Shaft .98 – 29. and (c) Interference: (i) Hole: mm 005 . (b) Hole: High limit = 30.(a) Clearance.05 0.025 – 50.050   (ii) Hole: 0.005 .04 +0.025 mm = 25  10– 6 m Shaft: High limit of shaft = 50. Thus.05     (iii) Hole: +0.02 30 mm.00 0. mm00 .98 mm Low limit = 30 – 0. it is clear that there will be interference.0 3 mm = 3  10– 5 m If we select high limit of hole and high limit of shaft then .95 = 0. (b) Transition. Shaft : 25 mm +0.05 mm Low limit = 30.025 – 50. we conclude that the type of fit is Transition fit.045 mm 45  10– 6 m If we choose high limit of hole with high limit of shaft then Allowance = 50.00 mm Hole tolerance = 50.95 mm Tolerance = 29.05 – 50.025 (Interference) Similarly.05 mm Low limit of shaft = 50.005 = 0.025 . if we choose low limit of hole and either high limit or low limit of shaft.005 mm Shaft tolerance = 50. Shaft : 30 mm 0.00 mm Tolerance = 0.06 25 mm.00 = 0.05 = – 0.05 mm = 5  10– 5 m Shaft: High limit = 30 – 0.

00 = 0.04 = 0.04 mm Low limit = 25. we conclude that the type of fit is Interference fit.07 mm If we choose low limit of hole and high limit of shaft then Allowance = 30.06 mm Low limit = 25.04 mm = 4  10– 5 m Shaft : High limit = 5.98 = 0.02 mm = 2  10– 5 m If we select high limit of shaft and low limit of hole.02 mm Thus.04 – 25.04 mm Tolerance = 25.Allowance = 30.06 mm =  6  10– 5 m It is clear that for any combination of hole and shaft the allowance will be negative.05 – 29.00 – 25.98 = 0.06 = – 0. . Thus.00 – 29.00 mm Tolerance = 25. then Allowance = 25. we conclude that the type of fit is Clearance fit.06 – 25. (c) Hole : High limit = 25.